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CHAPTER 1

Introduction
People know that the process of learning is a nonstop orgy of
wonderment. (Lev Grossman). It can be from different people around us. The
greatest factor that can contribute to our learning is our teachers. From our early
years up to now they teach us everything that we need. They teach us every
subject, topic, from basic to secondary.
Teaching quality is the most important school-related factor influencing
student achievement (Jenifer King Rice, 2003). Just as people have individual
learning styles; teachers have different teaching styles that work best for the
students. It is important to be aware of ones preferences when creating and
delivering instruction.
Learning for students depends a lot on how an instructor, professor or
teacher makes them learn through his/her teaching style, approach or strategy.
No matter how intelligent a student is, he/she will not truly minimize his learning
capacity if his/her educator cannot help him/her to do so. It is the teaching
strategies that influence learning most.

The Problem and Its Background


Essentially, the syllabus covers the various aspects of the theoretical and
practical phases of business. Two distinct and equally important processes are
therefore involved in teaching, that of acquiring knowledge and skills and that of
applying the knowledge and skills to the practices of business. The practical
application of business knowledge and skills will contribute to a clear
understanding of what have been learned and hence fortifies the first process.

More often than not, some educators tend to relax in teaching if they know
that their students are intelligent because they assume that these students do not
need that much spoon-feeding compared to those who have average or below
the average IQ. They will prefer easier or simpler way to teach so that it would
not take that much work or effort.
It is believed that an effective instructional strategy for the course might
begin with student-centered teaching and that the conduct of various pupil
activities will make learning interesting and meaningful. Opportunities for
personal involvement and practical application of knowledge and skills can also
be provided by these learning activities. Therefore, apart from presenting the
subject contents by teachers with the traditional didactic approach, it is
recommended that pupils should be more actively involved in the process of
learning.
Research also suggested that teachers should also focus on their own
self-regulated learning skills because it allows them to more deeply reflect on
their own teaching practices, which can also lead to increased student
performance (Let and Lin 2003; Xiaodong et al., 2005)
There are a variety of teaching strategies that instructors can use to
improve student learning. Teaching strategies come in the different forms:

1. Lecturing
A lecture involves a continuous formal exposition of or discourse on some topics
by the teacher. Though it is criticized on its autocratic style and the form of oneway communication, it is typically used to introduce subject knowledge and
specialized information. Its effectiveness depends very much on its planning,
structuring, brevity, the teachers style of presentation and the use of teaching
aids.
2. Group Discussions

Students are divided into groups to discuss a given topic in order to exchange
views, develop a concept or to solve a problem. The teacher is responsible for
supplying guidelines for the discussion, eliciting responses among pupils,
stimulating

them

to

interact

with

each

other

and

evaluating

their

performance. Each group should be required to present an oral or written report


summing up the conclusion and findings of the discussion.
3. Debates
Students are to be divided into two sides each presenting its arguments for and
against a topic or an issue of the business field. Business education provides
many opportunities for the expression of different philosophies of life. These
differences should be allowed to be aired freely and thoroughly so that pupils
may develop respect for the opinions of others, learn to think creatively and
critically and develop an ability to communicate with others convincingly.
4. Case Studies
A case is a description of an actual problem situation, or a situation which
attempts to simulate as far as possible the business environment, in which
decisions have to be made. Pupils are required to examine and analyze the
situation

in

order

to

identify

the

problems

and

recommend

feasible

solutions. This method attempts to show how business knowledge and principles
which have been learned can be applied to solve problems in the business world.
5. Simulation Games
A simulation is a representation of reality, modeling the critical features of the real
world. Simulations with the characteristics of a game, i.e. involving participants
to compete or co-operate for pay-offs according to prescribed rules, can be used
to motivate learning through the enjoyment of participation. Both simulations and
games provide opportunities for pupils to practice the skills and to apply the
principles that they have learned in an environment free from risk. It is desirable

that teachers should run the event before deciding to use it and plan carefully so
as to use the method effectively.
6. Role-playing
In role-playing, pupils are required to put themselves in the position of
participants in real life situations of the business world such as job interview,
buying and selling of goods, business meeting, etc. They have to act and react
spontaneously as they interact with other participants during the role-playing
sessions. Through acting and reacting, pupils are likely to visualize the depth of
the problems facing their own roles as well as those of the others in the whole
performance.

7. Projects and Surveys


Business Principles and concepts taught in the classroom are often meaningless
unless pupils have the opportunity to investigate the utilization of such in the
business world. A project is a planned learning activity that requires pupils to go
outside their classrooms and interact with the business community. Pupils can
work in groups or individually to observe and collect information for a given issue,
to analyze and evaluate the information obtained, and to draw conclusions. A
report on what have been found should also be presented.
8. Field Trips and Visits
There are many establishments which might provide appropriate field trips for
pupils of any field. Field trips to business and commercial institutions help
developing better understanding and give far better visual information of many
things that can be taught in class. A carefully devised and thoughtfully executed
plan is necessary for making the visit educational and successful. The plan
might include how to arrange with the organization to be visited, how to brief
pupils for the visit, how to organize them into groups, and how to conduct followup activities.

9. Press Cuttings
Newspapers, magazines and other publications provide up-to-date information of
the

business

world

which

is

useful

supplementary materials

for

the

textbooks. Students should be encouraged to read news and articles on


business issues and form a habit to collect these news and articles in files or
scrap books. An analysis and comment on the issue recorded should also be
made by the pupils themselves.
Source: http://intranet.skhcyss.edu.hk/it-school/homepage/bs/web/strategies.htm l
These teaching strategies are not just the only ways an educator can
improve his/her students learning. There are other ways but these are the most
familiar and basic ones.
In this research study, the researchers will conduct a survey on several
correspondents, specifically, the students of Colegio de Dagupan on which of the
mentioned teaching strategies maximizes their learning capacity and increases
the chances of having a high grade.

Conceptual Framework
The subject of the study is the teaching strategies Colegio de Dagupan
students consider most and least effective as perceived by the students. The
input frame is about teaching strategies and categorized into the following forms:
lecturing, group discussions, debates, case studies, stimulation games, roleplaying, projects and surveys, field trips and visits and press cuttings. The
process frame is about the instruments used to gather data and the output frame
is about how respondents indicate their preferred teaching strategies and the
benefits they get from these teaching strategies. The input-process-output
method can clearly show the processes undertaken in this research.

Input:
Teaching strategies
1. Lecturing
2. Group
Discussions
3. Debates

Process:
QuantitativeDescriptive Method
Survey
Questionnaires
Analysis of Data

Output:
Preferred
Teaching
Strategies of
Colegio de
Dagupan HRM
students.

4. Case studies
5. Stimulation
Games
6. Role-playing
7. Projects and
surveys
8. Field trips and
visits

9. Press Cuttings

INPUT:

Statement of the Problem


This study was organized to ascertain the teaching strategy preferences of
the Colegio de Dagupan students. It is sought to answer the following questions:

What are the preferred teaching strategies of the Colegio de Dagupan

Students?
Why do they prefer these teaching strategies?

Significance of the Study


This research is conducted to show or know what teaching strategy is the
best way to make learning more beneficial and enjoyable for most of the Colegio
de Dagupan students. If accurately translated, this could be a great help for the
students as well as the educators to innovate with their style of teaching to have
better opportunities here in our country or abroad. This study is favorable to the
following:
1. The students. The study would help them to know the kind of the teaching
strategy that would help them to easily learn.
2. The teachers. This study would provide them awareness of what useful
teaching strategies they can provide.
3. The parents. This study will make the parents know what teaching strategy
is effective for their children.
4.

Scope and Delimitation


The research used the descriptive method in determining the teaching
strategies preferred by random Colegio de Dagupan Students School Year 20142015. It was pinned down to the students preferred teaching strategies, the
reasons why they like these teaching strategies and the benefits they get from
these teaching strategies. The gathering of data will be done in Colegio de
Dagupan. This study will not need any special devices or facilities.

Definition of Terms
To promote better understanding of the study, the following terms are
operationally defined:
Ascertain - It is to find out or learn with certainty.
Autocratic - describes a way of ruling, but not in a nice way. An autocratic leader
is one who rules with an iron fist; in other words someone with the behavior of
a dictator.

Didactic - designed or intended to teach people something


- used to describe someone or something that tries to teach something (such as
proper or moral behavior) in a way that is annoying or unwanted
Feasible - capable of being used or dealt with successfully
Prevalently - accepted, done, or happening often or over a large area at a
particular time: common or widespread
Simulate - to give or assume the appearance or effect of often with the intent to
deceive
Teaching Strategies - refer to methods used to help students learn the desired
course contents and be able to develop achievable goals in the future. Teaching
strategies identify the different available learning methods to enable them to
develop the right strategy to deal with the target group identified.

Chapter 3
Methods of Research and Procedures
The purpose of this study is to examine the preferences of selected CdD
students regarding their perceptions about the different teaching strategies that
make them learn best.
The four purposes of this chapter are to (1) describe the research
methodology of this study, (2) explain the sample selection, (3) describe the
procedure used in designing the instrument and collecting the data, and (4)
provide an explanation of the statistical procedures used to analyze the data.

Research Design
A quantitative descriptive survey research methodology was used for this
study. A survey was administered to a selected sample from 50 HRM students of
Colegio de Dagupan to know their perception about the different types of
teaching strategies they would prefer.
The term survey is commonly applied to a research methodology
designed to collect data from a specific population, or a sample from that
population, and typically utilizes a questionnaire or an interview as the survey
instrument (Robson, 1993).
According to Leary (1995), there are distinct advantages in using a
questionnaire vs. an interview methodology: questionnaires are less expensive

and easier to administer than personal interviews; they lend themselves to group
administration; and, they allow confidentiality to be assured. Robson (1993)
indicates that mailed surveys are extremely efficient at providing information in a
relatively brief time period at low cost to the researcher.
For these reasons, the researcher chose a descriptive research
methodology and designed a questionnaire survey instrument to assess the
perceptions of 50 random CdD students to know their ideal type or types of
teaching strategies that would benefit their learning the best.

Respondents
The respondents are composed of sixty (60) HRM students of CdD. This
is to ensure the transparency of their answers and therefore, the result of this
study.
These students represent 10% of the total population of HRM students in
CdD. These students are picked randomly to assure transparency of the result.
Random sampling is the best single way to obtain a representative
sample. No technique, not even random sampling, guarantees a representative
sample, but the probability is higher for this procedure than for any other.

Research Instrument
The survey questionnaire was used to determine the data needed in this
study. The questions tested the differences in the preferences of the respondents

on the different teaching strategies.


The items are consists of questions and choices that will make the
respondents pick a teaching strategy they would prefer above other choices.
They will be urge to state a reason or reasons why they picked that instead of the
others.

Data Gathering Procedure


The data were drawn from 50 HRM students of CdD. Each student was
asked to respond to a survey questionnaire about the different teaching
strategies and which of these do they consider maximize their capacity to learn.

Statistical Treatment
The formula used to interpret the result is the Mean Weighted Scale of
determining the teaching strategy preference of the CDD HRM students.
The formula is:
5(Strongly Agree) 4(Agree) 3(Uncertain) 2(Disagree) 1(Strongly Disagree) =10
For example, the students preference is 3, 3, 2, 1, 1, therefore the computation
is:
(5x3)+ (4x3) + (3x2) + (2+1) + (1+1) =36/10 = 3.6
The Following are the values to interpret the preference:

Value:

Descriptive Equivalent:

1.0-1.8

Strongly Disagree

1.81-2.6

Disagree

2.61-3.4

Uncertain

3.41-4.2

Agree

4.21-5.0

Strongly Agree

This formula is based on how many students rate a certain teaching strategy
according on how much and least they prefer each. The results of the
questionnaire will be then tallied appropriately.

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Chapter 4
Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data
After an enthusiastic gathering of data by the researchers, with the help of the
respondents and the conducted survey, here is the list of data that were
obtained.

The table shows how much the HRM students prefer each teaching
strategy. As you can see, the total ratings of the following teaching strategies are:
1. Inductive Method- 4.0
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2. Deductive Method- 3.7


3. Metacognitive Method- 3.8
4. Inquiry Method- 3.9
5. Problem Solving Method-3.0
6. Constructivism Method- 3.9
7. Reflective Method- 3.58
8. Thematic Method- 3.8
9. Integrated Method- 2.6
10. Cooperative Learning Method- 4.12
The equivalent of each teaching strategies are:
1. Inductive Method-Agree
2. Deductive Method- Agree
3. Metacognitive Method- Agree
4. Inquiry Method- Agree
5. Problem Solving Method-Uncertain
6. Constructivism Method- Agree
7. Reflective Method- Agree
8. Thematic Method- Agree
9. Integrated Method- Disagree
10. Cooperative Learning Method- Strongly Agree

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This shows that the most preferred teaching strategy of the Colegio de
Dagupan (CdD) Hotel and Restaurant Management (HRM) students is the
Cooperative Learning teaching method and the least preferred is the integrated
teaching method.

Chapter 5
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
This research paper aims to show the Teaching Strategy Preference of
the Colegio de Dagupan Hotel and Restaurant Management students. This
chapter presents the summary, conclusions and recommendations of the
researchers to provide solutions to the problem discovered in this study.

Summary

Most of the Hotel and Restaurant Management students preferred the


Cooperative Learning teaching method. In this method both the teachers
and the students can share ideas and interests on a certain subject. They
rated it 4.12 and is equivalent to Strongly Agree as compared to the
others.

Almost all the other teaching strategies are rated 3.6 to 4.04 which means
that the students also agree on these teaching methods.

The Problem Solving Method is rated 3.0 which means the students are
Uncertain with this kind of teaching method and lastly, the least preferred
teaching strategy is the Integrated Method of teaching it is rated 2.6 and
the students Disagree with this method.

Conclusions
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The most effective teaching strategy for the Colegio de Dagupan HRM
students is the Cooperative Learning method of teaching.

Inductive, Deductive, Metacognitive, Inquiry, Constructivism, Reflective,


and Thematic Method of teaching are also effective for the students.

The Least effective for them is the integrated method of Teaching.

Recommendations
1. The teachers should apply the Cooperative Learning teaching strategy.
In this method, the students are able to participate to different activities
that will be conducted by the teachers.
2. Inductive, Deductive, Metacognitive, Inquiry, Constructivism,
Reflective, and Thematic Method of teaching are also ways to make
the students learn easily.

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