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A conditional statement, symbolized by p q, is an

if-then statement in which p is a hypothesis and q is


a conclusion. The logical connector in a conditional
statement is denoted by the symbol . The
conditional is defined to be true unless a true
hypothesis leads to a false conclusion. A truth table
for p q is shown below.

example:
If we turn of the water (p), then the water will stop pouring
(q). If the water stops pouring (q) then we don't get wet
any more (r).

if a population consists of 50% men then 50% of the


population must be women.
If the sun is made of gas, then 3 is a prime number.

If and Then Statements- these are statements


having the words if and then, if means the
hypothesis and then means the conclusion.

example:
If the sun is made of gas, then 3 is a prime
number.

if a population consists of 50% men then 50%


of the population must be women.

If we turn of the water, then the water will stop


pouring.

Converse Statements- are the


same as the If and Then
statements because it still has if
and then but the statement of
the hypothesis and the
conclusion is interchange.
example:
Statement-If two angles are congruent, then they
have the same measure.
Converse-If two angles have the same measure,
then they are congruent

Statement- If a quadrilateral is a rectangle, then it has two


pairs of parallel sides.

Statement- If a quadrilateral has two pairs of parallel sides,


then it is a rectangle.

The inverse

of a

conditional statement is formed by


negating the hypothesis and negating the
conclusion of the original statement.
In other words, the word "not" is added to
both parts of the sentence.

example:
Conditional: "If you grew up in Alaska, then
you have seen snow."
Inverse: "If you did not grow up in Alaska,
then you have not seen snow."
Conditional: "If you grew up in Alaska, then
you have seen snow."
Inverse: "If you did not grow up in Alaska,
then you have not seen snow."

The contrapositive of a
conditional statement is formed by negating both
the hypothesis and the conclusion, and
then interchanging the resulting negations.
In other words, the contrapositive negates and
switches the parts of the sentence. It does BOTH
the jobs of the INVERSE and the CONVERSE.

example:
Conditional: "If 9 is an odd number, then 9 is
divisible by 2."
Contrapositive: "If 9 is not divisible by 2,
then 9 is not an odd number."

Deductive reasoning is a logical process in which a conclusion


is based on the concordance of multiple premises that are
generally assumed to be true.

Examples:
In mathematics, If A = B and B = C, then A = C.

All apples are fruits, all fruits grow on trees;


therefore, all apples grow on trees.

William is a bachelor, all bachelors are single;


hence William is single.

Inductive reasoning (as opposed to deductive reasoning) is


reasoning in which the premises seek to supply strong
evidence for (not absolute proof of) the truth of the conclusion.
While the conclusion of a deductive argument is supposed to
be certain, the truth of the conclusion of an inductive argument
is supposed to be probable, based upon the evidence given.

examples:
Jill and Bob are friends. Jill likes to dance, cook
and write. Bob likes to dance and cook. Therefore
it can be assumed he also likes to write.

Jennifer leaves for school at 7:00 a.m. and is on


time. Jennifer assumes, then, that she will always
be on time if she leaves at 7:00 a.m.

Robert is a teacher. All teachers are nice.


Therefore, it can be assumed that Robert is nice.

Triangle Correspondence-To prove that


two triangles have the same shape, certain parts of one triangle must
coincide with certain parts of the other triangle. Specifically, the vertices of
each triangle must have a one-to-one correspondence. This phrase means
that the measure of each side and angle of each triangle corresponds to a
side or angle of the other triangle. As we will see, triangles don't necessarily
have to be congruent to have a one-to-one correspondence; but when they
are congruent, it is necessary to know the correspondence of the triangles
to know exactly which sides and which angles are congruent.

example:

Congruent triangles ABC and DEF


When two triangle are written this way, ABC and DEF, it means that vertex A
corresponds with vertex D, vertex B with vertex E, and so on. This means that
side CA, for example, corresponds to side FD; it also means that angle BC,
that angle included in sides B and C, corresponds to angle EF. These
relationships aren't especially important when triangles aren't congruent or

similar. But when they are congruent, the one-to-one correspondence of


triangles determines which angles and sides are congruent.

Triangle Congruence-Triangles whose


corresponding angles and sides are all congruent.

example:
B

F
ABC

DEF

A
F

C D

ABC

DEF

SAS (Side-Angle-Side)- Triangles are


congruent if two sides of one triangle are equal to two
sides of another triangle and the included angles are
equal.

example:

ASA (Angle-Side-Angle)-

A method for
proving congruence of triangles: if two angles and their included
side are congruent to their corresponding parts in another
triangle, then the triangles are congruent.

In the figure,
Therefore, by the ASA postulate,

SSS (Side-Side-Side)-

.
.

A method for proving the


congruence or similarity of triangles: if the three sides of a triangle are
congruent to their corresponding parts, then the triangles are congruent. If
the three sides of a triangle are proportional to their corresponding parts in
another triangle, then the triangles are similar.

Example:

In the figure,

Therefore, by the SSS postulate,

Reflection
I learned that this lesson is very

important in our daily lives


because we can use it in many
scenarios when proving
something or making statements
or reasoning you can simply use
what you learned from deductive
reasoning and inductive
reasoning if you put your mind to
it you can use this lessons in
many scenarios.

PROJECT