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NEW GENERATION OF CALCIUM CARBONATE

K.K.Mishra
20 Microns Ltd., Mumbai, India
GENERAL OUTLOOK
Paint, as an aesthetic and protective material, has undergone significant transformation over the years from
being just a colour to a performance specific composite material. With this change, the ingredients of paint
have evolved into more sophisticated functional raw materials. Extenders once considered as mere fillers are
today looked upon as functional input to the paint contributing to rheology, adhesion, gloss control, hiding and
PVC optimization. This situation necessitates up gradation of techniques and for the characterization of
extenders.
MANY paint makers still believe that fillers, (extenders, minerals) are of little importance, low cost and widely
available products. But extenders should no longer be viewed in such terms. They have a functional purpose
in the paint end product and their properties and qualities will substantially affect this product. Paint makers
must expand and modernize their production facilities to cope with increasing technological sophistication. In
trying to cut costs, raw materials will be a key consideration. Many paint makers have successfully decreased
the use of expensive titanium dioxide by partial replacement of white extenders which are properly ground to
the extent of sub-microns to 2microns average particle size.
FUNCTIONAL EXTENDERS
Extender pigment or simply extenders are also so called because such materials are used to Extend the
effect of expensive white and coloured pigments, so cheapening the paint formulation. However, it is now
recognized that extender pigments contribute much more to paint properties. Careful selection of the type and
quantity of extenders can affect such features in paints & coating as:
1. Opacity or hiding.
2. Gloss or sheen.
3. Flow, leveling and smoothness.
4. Durability and appearance of the paint film.
5. Pigment settlement on storage.

6. Barriers effect and water permeability etc.


Conventionally, extenders have been characterized employing simple techniques like visual colour
assessment, sieving, specific gravity, oil and water demand, pH and microscopic examination. These tests do
give very useful information to the paint formulator in deciding upon fundamental formulation parameters like
PVC, weight per liter, finish and the like. However, if one desires to establish the closer relationship between
characteristics of the extenders on one hand and various paint making, application and performance
parameters on the other, then the use of modern analytical techniques become unavoidable. These
techniques possess the capability to look at the micro structure of extenders in terms of size, shape, surface
chemistry and crystallography. Correlations established between different extender parameters and a paint

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performance property enables the technologist to diagnose the cause of the quality or performance problem.
More importantly, it provides predictive capability to envisage performance of a paint which incorporates
certain type of extenders.
While examining various modern techniques, it is important to take over view of various particle size analysis
techniques like, electron microscopy forms a very important tool for examination of particle shape which has
significant bearing on RHEOLOGY, GLOSS AND OPACITY AND SURFACE FINISH.
For the sake of simplicity the term Extenders will be retained in this article, but it is used in the widest sense.
The main difference between a pigment and an extender is that pigments impart colour and hiding power to
the paint where as extenders have little or no hiding power themselves. The manufacturers of mineral
extenders are generally required to give high technical service back up, and bear above average the R&D
costs. The efficient processing is important, as is the ability to upgrade and modify products term as a New
Generation Extenders by using ultrafine grinding technology without any oversized particles (nib
free), calcining or surface modifications.
FUNCTIONAL PERPORTIES OF EXTENDERS
Selection of extenders by the paint maker depends on a number of factors:
GENERAL
The colour should be bright, clear, intense and reproducible. It depends on the mineral, chemical composition,
the brightness, the cleanliness and the intensity on the difference between the refractive indices of pigment
extenders and medium, and on particle size and size distribution, particle shape and crystal habit. The opacity
or hiding power is a function of the difference between refractive indices of the pigment and dispersion
medium. Both pigments and extenders are opaque as dry powders, but when dispersed in media, pigments
are opaque in both organic and aqueous media, whereas the extenders are practically transparent in organic
media but opaque in aqueous media. This is because the refractive indices of extenders are very close to
those of oils and resins.
Extenders have a low refractive index, similar to that of binders and so are effectively transparent. They are
usually white or off-white and contribute either no color or an undesirable one to paint film. How, then, can
extenders increase the efficacy of pigments if they possess neither of the basic properties required. ? There
are five aspects to consider:
1. PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION.
The particle size is very important and it is one of the properties which can be altered substantially by the
processor. Hiding power and tinting strength are both related to the particle size. The particle size also
influences gross consistency and settlement. Particle sizes have directly co-relation with surface area of
the particle which effects viscosity, flow characteristics, dispersion stability and oil absorption. Particle
shape effects flow characteristics settlement and film durability.

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2. HIGH BRIGHTNESS.
They should be as bright as possible so that no pigment is, as it were, wasted covering the unwanted
colour of the extender. The brightness depends on the chemical composition of the deposit. Sometimes
the colour can be improved by washing or flotation.
3. HINDER RE-AGLOMERATION.
This is done by introducing sufficient physical barriers so that the likelihood of two pigment particles
colliding and re-agglomerating in the liquid paint system is reduced.
4. IMPROVED PIGMENT DISPERSION.
They help to break down the pigment agglomerates. It has been calculated that if all the titanium dioxide
used were perfectly dispersed, the world demand for titanium dioxide would fall to about 14% of the
present usage. It is evident that extender producers can help a lot here.
The extender must itself be easy to disperse. The individual particles collide with pigment agglomerates,
breaking them up. The extender must be fine since if it is too coarse it encourages crowding thus
defeating the objective. Ideally, the pigment particles should be half the wave length of light in diameter
and the distance between them should also be half the wave length of visible light. Please note that we no
longer speak of spacing extenders. This theory has been proved wrong by simple experiment. If the
pigment and extender are disperse separately in half of the binder and then subsequently mixed, there is
only a slight increase in opacity and much less than when the extender and pigment are mixed together in
the first place. The slight increase in opacity is caused by hindering re-agglomeration as mentioned
above.
5. DECREASE CRITICAL PVC.
They can decrease the critical PVC to below that of the paint so that there is insufficient binder to
completely coat each organic particle. Tiny pockets of air are trapped on the surface of some of the
particles, increasing the amount of light diffracted and hence the opacity or hiding power of the paint film.
Of course, this also lowers the scrub resistance and increases the tendency of the film to pick up
atmospheric dirt. The extender must have a high absorption. Suitable ones are calcined clay or synthetic
aluminium silicate. This usage is only practical for interior paints and even then it is limited due the poorer
scrub resistance.
A NEW GENERATION CALCIUM CARBONATES LEADING THE FIELD
In quantity terms calcite, dolomite and whiting are the most widely used carbonate extender minerals in
paints. Calcite is basically used as a pigment extender for the improvement of pigment efficiency because of
the spacing and refractive index. Paint makers may use any grade size from a coarser grade (400 Mesh) to a
micronized grade (20 Microns and 10 Microns). In general, the finer the particle size, the higher the gloss of
the paint.
Calcium carbonate does not contribute significantly to opacity in itself but a new generation calcium
carbonate is said to bring out the opacity of prime white pigments by spacing them correctly. High
brightness and proper micronisation is desirable to improve paint colour characteristics. Properly micronized

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carbonates may be used to improve film cohesion, higher gloss and higher loading (pigment volume
concentration).
In paints & coating, the endless opportunity for modifying the optical and mechanical properties with calcium
carbonate, make this mineral particularly popular main extenders which offer functional properties with
regards to high brightness low oil absorption, dispensability, weather resistance, low abrasiveness, low
electrolyte content, pH stabilizing effect, and improved anti-corrosion and rheological properties.
a. Decorative coating
Interior emulsion paint is the most important application of the calcium carbonate of the coating industry,
and calcium carbonate also provide economical advantages and optimize properties performance in
exterior emulsion paint and decorative enamel, where calcium carbonate filler loading is comparatively
lower.
b. Industrial Coating
Industrial coatings are generally formulated with lower filler content, primarily use for protection, where
durability is a main paint film property against environmental condition.
Application
Interior emulsion paints
Exterior emulsion paints
Brushing enamels
Powder coatings
Industrial coatings
Road marking paints
Primer
Inks

Extenders Content
Up to 65%
Up to 45%
Up to 10 -15%
Up to 5 -20%
Up to 5 -20%
Up to 30 -50%
Up to 5 -20%
Up to 15%

To meet the challenging demands of its customers, 20 Microns Limited now produces New Generation
Calcium Carbonates, mainly

1. O Carb
Purest, ultra white and closely controlled superfine narrow particle size calcium carbonate from world best
deposit.
O Carb is white, closely controlled, micronized purest, natural calcium carbonate selected from world best
deposit, specially developed for Paints-Coating, adhesives and sealants industry O Carb narrow particle
size distribution optimizes particle packing leaving less void space to be filled by expensive resin, which
leads to enhance opacity with gloss in all type of premium water base formulation.
2. Vaporlite 90T
Sub-micron calcium carbonate produced by new engineered wet milling techniques, which act as a
spacers between prime pigment and contribute to batter coating opacity and high gloss.
Vaporlite 90T is an ultra fine sub-micron natural calcium carbonate. The sub-micron particles of Vaporlite
90T can act as spacers between TiO 2 particles leading to increase the efficiency of TiO 2 in the paints and
coating application. The size and numbers of Vaporlite 90T particles enable efficient separation at TiO2
particles and inhibit re-agglomeration after dispersion whereas agglomerates are less efficient at
scattering light when compared to the fine primary particles. As light beams are refracted at the particle

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surface it follows that smaller and more numerous fine particles offer more opportunities for refraction and
thus lead to better coating OPACITY and HIGHGLOSS.
Fig 1. SPACING EFFECT OF VAPORLITE 90T WITH PRIME PIGMENT TiO2

Fig-1
3. Vaporcifier
Modified calcium carbonate for partial replacement of Titanium Dioxide (TiO 2)
Vaporcifier is a new and innovative product designed especially for emulsion paints. Vaporcifier is a
natural calcium carbonate where particle structures are modified by physical and chemical process which
creates particle with an amorphous structure to offer excellent opacity of the paint and lower overall cost
by extension of TiO2. Vaporcifier display a very amorphous structure which leads to the assumption that
in addition to the external surface an internal surface also exists which significantly increase a specific
area and oil absorption whereas micronized GCC shows a compact surface structure.
Fig 2. S.E.M. OF VAPORICIFIER LOW COST OPACIFIER CALCIUM CARBONATE

Fig 2.
TYPICAL PHYCICAL PROPERTY OF NEW GENERATION CALCIUM CARBONATE

Tests

M.

Carb O Carb

2
Micronized
fine GCC
Particle 2.6 0.2 m

Average
diameter

(d50%)

Marven
Top cut (d97%)

Vaporlite

Vaporcifier

90T
Superfine

Sub-micron

Modified CaCO3

CaCO3
1.8 0. 2 m

CaCO3
0.9 0.2 m

2.0 0.3 m

71 m

41 m

102 m

on
132m

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Bulk

Density

(gm/liter)
Brightness
Oil

loose 58050

942
absorption 203

(gm/100gm)
Specific surface

area 3-4

52030

35050

40050

942
275

922
355

902
755

5-6

12-15

22-25

(BET) m2/gm
EXPERIMENTAL OBJECTIVE
The most widely used pigment in the paint industry is titanium dioxide. The rising titanium dioxide price and
tight supply situation is causing more and more paint manufacturers to seek means of extending this pigment
without loss of opacity or change in colour tone. Based on the experience and global trend in the industry, we
introduce a New generation calcium carbonate, and our product application center had carried out some
experiment which is subsequently fallowed by our esteemed paints & coating customers.
EXPERIMENT NO. 1
PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF TITANIUM DIOXIDE IN EXTERIOR EMULSION PAINT BY VAPORCIFIER
AND O CARB NEW GENERATION CALCIUM CARBONATE
TECHNICAL DATA OF EXTENDERS:
Extender

Top Cut D(97)


m

Talc 10
Vaporcifier
O Carb

20

10 2
71

Average particle

Brightness

Oil

Absorption

size D(50) m
6-8
2.0 0.3
1.80.2

%
94
902
942

gm/100gm
55
755
275

OBJECTIVE:- This experiment, an exterior emulsion paint formulation was taken and reformulated by
replacing 20% titanium dioxide on weight basis,

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EXPERIMENTAL INTRODUCTION
The standard formulation content 60% by weight of TiO2 and calcium carbonate extender with average
particle size of 2 m. means O Carb in this experiment 20% TiO2were replaced by weight by Vaporlite 90T
as per Table no. 2
The paint was made using a high speed disperser.
Table no. 1
Raw Materials

Standard formulation

Reformulation

Binder

306.3

Vaporcifier & O Carb


312

TiO2

161.4

129.1

Talc 10

161.4

102.3

Vaporcifier

-----

72.1

O Carb

110.2

120.8

Dispersing agent

2.8

2.9

Preservative

1.9

1.9

Defoamer

2.8

2.8

Wetting and dispersing agent

10.4

10.5

Thickener

100.6

101.8

Caustic soda, 10% aq. Sol.

1.9

1.9

Mineral spirit

9.5

9.6

Butyl diglycol acetate

7.6

7.7

Water

123.2

124.6

Total

1000.0

1000.0

50.0
58.4
1.45

50.0
58.0
1.43

89.3%
1.6
94.3%

88.6%
2.4
94.5%

Technical Data
PVC %
Solid content %wt.
Density (Liquid paint) g/cm3

Results
Brightness
Yellowness Index
Contrast ratio

Cost reduction
Weight %
By volume %

-------

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4.6
5.7

with

CONCLUSION
The partial replacement of titanium dioxide by Vaporcifier and O Carb in exterior emulsion paint offers cost
savings without affecting the optical or weathering properties adversely.
EXPERIMENT NO. 2
REPLACEMENT OF SYNTHETIC ALUMINIUM SILICATE AND PRECIPITED CALCIUM CARBONATE BY
VAPORLITE 90T AND O CARB
Table no. 2
Raw Material

Standard Formulation

Reformulation

with

TiO2

123.5

Vaporlite 90T & O Carb


120

O Carb/Micron Carb 2

200.1

193

Ppt. Calcium Carbonate

96.6

------

Vaporlite 90T

------

169.1

Aluminium Silicate

24.1

------

Talc

100.8

93.3

Styrene acrylate (50% solids)

148.5

110

Water and additives

306.4

314.6

Total

1000.0

1000.0

72.54
40.22

79.54
40.22

Physical Properties
PVC %
Volume solids content %

Optical properties of Finished Paint Film


Covering power %
Brightness (green filter)
Gilsonite porosity

94.8
88.8
16.5

95.2
87.8
12.8

CONCLUSION
Aluminium silicate can be replaced by an ultrafine, white, natural calcium carbonate as O Carb and Vaporlite
90T. The lower binder absorption of the Vaporlite 90T allows the PVC to be increased so that the final paint
has the same optical properties as the original. This offers substantial financial savings.

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EXPERIMENT NO. 3
REPLACEMENT

OF

SYNTHETIC ALUMINIUM

SILICATE

BY CALCINED

CLAY, VAPORIFIER,

VAPORLITE 90T AND O CARB.


EXPERIMENTAL INTRODUCTION
It is evident from the technical data of extenders both calcined clay and synthetic aluminium silicate have
much higher oil and hence binder absorptions than Vaporlite 90T. This means that the PVC can be increased
somewhat when they are replaced by Vaporlite 90T without fear of mud-cracking.
The steps taken in such a reformulation are given below:.
1. Replacement of the extenders with higher binder absorptions e.g. synthetic aluminium silicate and
calcined clay by Vaporlite 90T.
2. Increasing the PVC by 10 percentage points whilst maintaining the volume solids content by increasing
the Vaporlite 90T content and reducing the binder volume.
3. Measurement of the brightness, opacity and porosity comparing these values with the standard
formulation.
4. Fine tuning by mixing the paints.
TECHNICAL DATA
Extender

Top
(m)

Cut

Average

Brightness

Oil

Specific

Particle size

(DIN

53

Absorption

Surface

(m)

163,

C/2)

(Gm/100gm)

Area

Ry
Synthetic

(Green

--

0.2

Filter)
95

160

100

71
41
10 2

1.80.2
0.90.2
2.0 0.3

942
922
902

275
355
755

5-6
12-15
22-25

agglomerated
aluminium
silicate
O Carb
Vaporlite 90T
Vaporcifier

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(BET)

(m /gm)
2

Table No. 3
Raw Material

Standard Formulation in kg

Reformulation

with

Copolymer vinyl acetate acrylate

244

Vaporlite 90T & O Carb


180

emulsion, 50%
Titanium dioxide rutile

135

108

Calcined clay- Glazex 90

53.8

53.8

Synthetic aluminium silicate

36

----

Vaporcifier

----

142.6

O Carb / Vaporlite 90T

79.3

58.2

Talc

72

68.3

Water and additives

379.9

389.1

Total

1000.0

1000.0

55
31.5
49.5
1.36

65
31.5
52
1.43

Physical Properties
PVC %
Solids content vol. %
Solids content wt. %
Density gm/ml

Optical properties of Finished Paint Film


Brightness %
Yellowness Index %
Opacity %
Sheen (85 angle)
Wet scrub resistance cycles

89.1
2.6
93.7
6
>5000

By Weight %
By volume %

-------

88.7
2.9
93.8
7
>5000

Cost reduction
30
8

CONCLUSION
Due to its special particle size distribution curve and low binder absorption, Vaporlite 90T can replace
extenders such as synthetic aluminium silicate and calcined clay.
The PVC of the paints containing Vaporlite 90T can be increased by 10 percentage points whilst maintaining
the volume solids content. The optical properties remain virtually unchanged. Substantial raw material savings
are possible. Using Indian price levels these are about 30% on weight basis and about 8% on a volume basis.

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EXPERIMENT NO. 4
REPLACEMENT OF REFINED CHINA CLAY BY VAPORCIFIER, VAPORLITE 90T AND O CARB.
EXPERIMENTAL INTRODUCTION
In our countries, water washed china clays are used in emulsion paints of medium PVC. The technical data of
a widely used china clay and Vaporlite 90T are compared. The lower binder absorption of Vaporlite 90T allows
the PVC to be increased by from 3-5 percentage points whilst maintaining the volume solids content. The
reformulation should take place in a number of steps:1. Replacement of the natural china clay by Vaporlite 90T
2. The PVC is increased by between 3 and 5 percentage points whilst maintain the volume solids content by
increasing the amount of Vaporlite 90T and reducing the volume of binder.
3. The brightness, opacity and wet scrub resistance are measured and compared with the standard
formulation.
4. Fine tuning by mixing the corresponding formulations.
TECHNICAL DATA
Extender

Top
(m)

Cut

Average

Brightness

Oil

Specific

Particle size

(DIN

53

Absorption

Surface

(m)

163,

C/2)

(Gm/100gm)

Area

Ry

(Green

(m2/gm)

Refined China

0.9

Filter)
85

35

11.2

clay
O Carb
Vaporlite 90T
Vaporcifier

71
41
10 2

1.80.2
0.90.2
2.0 0.3

942
922
902

275
355
755

5-6
12-15
22-25

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(BET)

Table No. 4
Raw Material

Standard Formulation in kg

Reformulation

197

Vaporlite 90T & O Carb


180

emulsion 55%
Titanium dioxide rutile

148

146.5

O Carb/ Vaporlite 90T

175

167.5

Pigment

55

54.3

Refined China clay

100

-----

Vaporcifier

-----

124.5

Water and additives

325

327.2

Total

1000.0

1000.0

63.1
38.0
58.5
1.51

66.1
38.0
59.1
1.53

Terpolymer

vynil

chloride

with

Physical Properties
PVC %
Solids content vol. %
Solids content wt. %
Density gm/ml

Optical properties of Finished Paint Film


Brightness %
Yellowness Index
Opacity %
Scrub resistance (DIN 53 778, 1

87.5
5.1
96.4
>5000

88.0
4.2
96.5
>5000

week) cycles
Sheen (85 angle) %

CONCLUSION
By increasing the PVC by 3 percentage points and replacing china clay by Vaporlite 90T, the brightness was
improved and also the yellowness index.
The opacity, scrub resistance and sheen remained unaltered.
Although the density of the finished paint increased by about 1%, savings in raw material costs (using
European prices) were more than 3% when calculated by volume and more than 5% when calculated by
weight.
EXPERIMENT NO. 5
REFORMULATION OF A HIGH GLOSS AIR-DRYING ENAMEL BY VAPORLITE 90T AND O CARB.
EXPERIMENTAL INTRODUCTION
The standard formulation contained 29% titanium dioxide and we found that we could replace 7.5% of this on
a volume basis by Vaporlite 90T and the resulting paint had the same optical and rheological properties as
the standard. The improved dispersion of the titanium dioxide by Vaporlite 90T resulted in a higher initial 20
gloss than in the standard formulation. The paints were made using a high speed disperser.
Table No. 5
Raw Material

Standard Formulation in kg

Reformulation

with

Vaporlite 90T & O Carb

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TiO2 %wt.
Vaporlite 90T %wt.
PVC %
Solid vol. %

28.07
--20.3
48.6

26.08
1.52
20.3
48.6

Wt.%
Density gm/ml

66.8
1.26

66.6
1.26

Optical Properties ( After 2 days drying at 23C)


Yellowness Index
Contrast ratio (45m film)
Gloss

2.9
97.9

2.9
97.4

20 (after 2 days) %

85

86

20 (after 28 days) %

81

82

60 (after 2 days) %

91

92

60 (after 28 days) %

90

90

EXPERIMENT NO. 6
PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF TITANIUM DIOXIDE IN A STOVING ENAMEL BY VAPORLITE 90T AND
O CARB.
EXPERIMENTAL INTRODUCTION
A further practical example involved high gloss short oil alkyd/melamine stoving enamel. The paint were made
using a high speed disperser. The initial formulation contained 29.5% titanium dioxide. We replaced 6% and
12% by volume. The paints were stoved at 120C for 30 min. details are given in Table 6. The results indicate
that Vaporlite 90T helps to disperse the titanium dioxide better, allowing 5-10% of it to be replaced whilst
scarcely effecting the optical properties.

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Table No. 6
Raw Material

Standard

Reformulation 1 with

Reformulation

TiO2 %wt.
Vaporlite 90T %wt.
PVC %
Solid vol. %

Formulation in kg
22.45
--20
41.0

Vaporlite 90T
21.08
1.21
20
41.0

with Vaporlite 90T


25.10
2.36
10
41.0

Wt%
Density gm/ml

55.4
1.26

55.1
1.25

54.9
1.24

2.4
98.8
99

2.3
98.7
97

2.2
98.4
97

Optical Properties
Yellowness Index
Contrast ratio %
Gloss at 25%

20 MICRONS LTD can set up on site WGCC (WET GROUND CALCIUM CARBONATE) manufacturing plant
in your premises of having any proposed capacity of 1000mt/month. WGCC will get supply in slurry form
having 70% - 75% Solid Content through pipe line to your plant.

Fig 3.WET PROCESS PLANT

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Fig 4.ON SITE SATELITE PLANT

20 Microns Scope: Providing Un-interrupted supply WGGCC in slurry form as per the specification attached.
Provide the slurry at the dosage point in the 75% Solids.
Installation of the requirement Plant/Machinery and testing instruments at the site.
Regular running and maintenance of plant.
Storage tank for slurry.

ADVANTAGES OF WET GRINDING PROCESS


Wet ground calcium carbonate is superior to dry ground calcium carbonate.

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In wet process-due to floatation method it improves:


Colour of the material
Reduces impurity level
It helps to produce ultrafine mineral where uniform particle size distribution takes place which helps to
dispersion in the end use.
Advantage of wet ground CaCO3 over dry ground CaCO3
this application particle size plays major role to achieve end products performance ,wet ground process
gives the particles of 50 to 98% below 2 microns and it act as a spacers between tio 2 particles leading to
increase the efficiency of tio2 in paint and coating application Due to controlled & uniform particle size
distribution, it Improves Following Properties:
* Excellent opacity with high gloss
* High brightness of end product
* Spacing TIO2 and color pigments
* Efficient extenders to white pigments
* Outstanding dispersion properties in water and solvent based paint
CONCLUSION
Suitably new generation fine calcium carbonate extenders help to disperse pigments better, thus increasing
the efficacy. This allows the quantity of pigment used to be reduced without affecting the optical and
rheological properties but allowing interesting raw material cost savings.
INOVATIVE PRODUCTS IN-TRANSIT
1. Low specific gravity Calcined Kaolin We are in process to lunch low specific gravity with value of
2.0 -2.1 calcined kaolin compare with exciting specific gravity of 2.6.
2. Inorganic co-thickener Hydrogel 90T a white inorganic co-thickener which having brightness of
85% against exciting trend of 65% brightness.
3. Low cost synthetic Red Oxide
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The authors wish to express their gratitude to Dr. Atul Joshi, Reader, Dept. of Geology, M.S.Univ. Baroda,
Gujarat, Dr.V.S.Patel, Director SICART, S.P.Univ.,V.V.Nagar, Anand, Gujarat, Mr.T.K.Dan,Scientist and Head,
Testing & Calibration Cell, CGCRI, Kolkata & Dr. Harendra Nath, IIT, Mumbai for providing valuable guidance
& necessary facilities.

REFERENCES
1. Paper published on FUNCTINAL EXTENDERS AND THEIR ROLE IN MODERN PAINTS by Shree C. S.
Parikh (Chairman 20 Microns Limited).

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2. Paper published on CHARCTERISATION OF EXTENDERS BY MODERN TECHNIQUES AND ITS


CORRELATION WITH PROPERTIES by V. M. Natu ( Paint Consultant).
3. Paper published on IMPORTANCE OF EXTENDERS IN PAINT AND COATING FORMULATION by Dr.
4.
5.
6.
7.

K. Srinivasan (Ex-ICI india Limited)


Experiment and formulations details provided by 20 Microns technical center.
Product performance details provided by Indian Major Paint Industry
Ciullo, P.A. (ed.), Industrial Minerals and Their Uses, Noyes Publications, Westwood, NJ, 1996
Adams Reg, Artikol Ltd., Journal on Alternative White Pigments and TiO 2 Extender for Coatings, Paper

and Plastic by Intertech, USA on November 8 10, 2000


8. Hocken Jorg, Sachtleben Chemie GmbH, Journal on Alternative White Pigments and TiO 2 Extender for
Coatings, Paper and Plastic by Intertech, USA on November 8 10, 2000, PP 1 10

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