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School. Sec. Mr Lokesh Singh [PGT PHYSICS ] Dr. ANKIT RATURI This is to certify that the above statement made by the candidate is correct and true to the best of my knowledge. Sec. is an authentic record of my own work carried out under the supervision of Mr. Mahima Malik [PRINCIPAL] INVIGILATOR School The Baptist ConventSr. Delhi .Certificate I hereby certify that the work which is being presented in the Investigatory Project is in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the practical exam of class XII submitted in C+ + of The Baptist Convent Sr. Patparganj. Lokesh Singh.

support and guidance of all those people who have been instrumental in making this project a success. At this juncture I feel deeply honored in expressing my sincere thanks to my Physics teacher Mr Lokesh Singh for making the resources available at right time and providing valuable insights leading to the successful completion of my project. I sincerely appreciate the inspiration. I hope that this project will prove to be a breeding ground for the next .Acknowledgemen t Every project big or small is successful largely due to the effort of a number of wonderful people who have always given their valuable advice or lent a helping hand.

.generation of students and will guide them in every possible way.



. instrument which detects the presence of metal nearby. If the sensor comes near a piece of metal this is indicated by a changing tone in earphones. and this produces a magnetic field of its own. If a piece of electrical. They often consist of a handheld unit with a sensor probe which can be swept over the ground or other objects. and airports to detect concealed metal weapons on a person body. eddy current will be induced in metal. . or metal objects buried underground. the higher the tone in the earphone or the higher the needle go. or a needle moving on an indicator. conductive metal is close to coil.. the closer the metal is. Another common type are stationary 'walk through' metal detectors used for security screening at access points in prisons. The simplest form of a metal detector consists of an oscillator producing an alternating current that passes through a coil producing an alternating magnetic field.INTRODUCTION A metal detector is a portable electron. Metal detectors are useful for finding metal inclusions hidden within objects. courthous. Usually the device gives some indication of distance.

Garfield was lying on. galleys at t. Herr assisted Italian leader Benito Mussolini in recovering items remaining from the Emperor Caligula. degree. Although Gerhard Fisher was the first person gran. His application for a hand-held Hidden-Metal Detector was filed in February 1924. a lot of battery power.HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT Toward the end of the 19th century. the metal detector worked correctly but the attempt was unsuccessful because the metal coil spring b. In 1925 he applied for. in . for accurate navigation. a businessman from Crawfordsville. which was to be us. bottom of Lake Nemi. the first patent for a metal detector. in the chest of American President James Garfield in 1881. The system worked extremely well. but Fisher noticed that there were anomalies in areas where the terrain contain. Indiana. many scientists and engineers used their growing knowl. . confused the detector Modern developments The modern development of the metal detector began in the 1920s. Alexander Graham Bell used such a device to attempt to locate a bullet lodg. a machine which would pinpoint metal. until July 1928. but not patent.. He reasoned that if a radio beam could be distort. Gerhard Fisher had develop. and was gran. and work. by metal. the first to apply was Shirl Herr. it Early machines were crude. a patent for a metal detector. then it should be possible to design a machine which would detect metalusing a search coil resonating at a radio frequency.1y. The use of such a device to find ore-bearing rocks would give a huge advantage to any miner who of electrical theory in an attempt to devi. a system of radio direction-finding. only to a very limi. ore-bearing rocks. us.

the design a practical Polish mine detector. It work.[3] They were heavy. Scotland. Fife. invention was us. which constantly checked and balanced the background mineralization. Herr. the user to switch between the discriminate mode and the non-discriminate mode. The original induction balance coil system consist. before. in the 1970s. but was a non-discriminate mode. New coil designs Coil designers also tri. Another development was the invention of detectors which could cancel out the effect of mineralization in the ground. who refin. of two identical coils plac. best at lower frequencies than those us. a Polish officer attach. This gave greater depth. to a unit station. back-to-back to form a circle. during the early years of World War II. This system was widely us. on top of one another. it was one Lieutenant Reef Stanislaw Kosacki. Many detectors in the 1970s had a switch which enabl.August 1929. in St Andrews. mount. The development of the induction balance detector would ultimately result in the motion detector.n both modes. Compass Electronics produc. and both concentric and D type (or widescan as they became known) had their fans. Later developments switched electronically betw. out innovative designs. and needed separate battery packs. a new design: two coils in a D shape. when it was us. . to locate objects left behind by earlier explorers. ran on vacuum tubes. by Admiral Richard Byrd's Second Antarctic Expecition in 1933. It was effective up to a depth of eight feet[2] However. and frequencies of 3 to 20 kHz were found to produce the best results.

Very Low Frequency (VLF)  Uses two coils:  1.Types of Metal detectors 1. Receiver Coil  There is a delay in received signal compared to the transmitted signal called phaseshift  The signal is sent to the control box where it is analyzed by sensors 2. amplified and sent to audio circuit to notify user 3. Pulse Induction (Pl)  Simple when compared to vlf detectors  Generates “Pulses ” of Currrent through Search Coil  Pulse reaches its peak and reverses direction. collapsing very suddenly. thus creating a sharp electrical skipe. • When passed over metal object. BEAT FREQUENCY OSCILLATOR (BFO) Uses two coils and sends a current through each • Coils use slightly different frequencies.  Pulses continues to be generated from a mere dozen to about a few thousand pulse per second  Reflected portion of signal becomes delayed which is sampled.antenna)  2. induces a current in object .Transmitter coil(search head. which produces audible °beats.

which interferes with field produced by detector • Interference changes frequency of current in large coil.• Current causes a magnetic field. Uses ✓ Archaeology ✓ As a hobby • Coin shooting • Prospecting • General metal detecting • Beach combing ✓Security screening . and thus an audible change in “BEATS” • BFO Metal Detectors are cheap to make. but aren't as accurate or dependable as more expensive types.

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