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HVAC & Psychrometric Charts SI Version

Energy University Course Transcript


Slide 1
Welcome to HVAC and Psychrometric Charts. Today, we will introduce the concept of Psychrometrics, while
discussing how Psychrometric Charts are utilized to drive HVAC sizing and evaluation. Please note: This
course uses the international system of units (SI units). There is a separate course for US customary units.
This course is one in a series of HVAC courses offered by Energy University. Before taking this course, it is
recommended that you first participate in HVAC and the Characteristics of Air.
Slide 2
For best viewing results, we recommend that you maximize your browser window now. The screen controls
allow you to navigate through the eLearning experience. Using your browser controls may disrupt the
normal play of the course. Click the paperclip icon to download supplemental information for this course.
This course contains practice examples, and you will need to use the paperclip icon to download the
psychrometric chart to complete these exercises. Click the Notes tab to read a transcript of the narration.
Slide 3
At the completion of the course, you will be able to:
Define psychrometrics
Read a Psychrometric Chart
State the benefits of using a Psychrometric Chart, and
Show various HVAC processes on a Psychrometric Chart
Slide 4
Psychrometrics is the study of the thermodynamic properties of moist air and its effect on materials and
human comfort. Psychrometrics applies the well understood relationships between humidity and
temperature in the air to practical problems. Commonly used psychrometric variables are temperature,
relative humidity and dew point. There are less common variables that we will also discuss.
HVAC system designers use these factors to model the HVAC requirements depending on the location of
the building and the needs of the occupants or processes within it. In the next section, well see in a simple
way how those factors are used to ensure an effective HVAC system.
Slide 5
A psychrometric chart is a graph of the physical properties of moist air at a constant pressure. It is often
equated to an elevation relative to sea level. The chart we will be using in this course is for sea level. The
chart graphically expresses how various properties relate to each other, and is thus a graphical equation of
state.
The thermophysical properties found on a psychrometric chart are:
Dry-Bulb Temperature
Humidity Ratio, also called Specific Humidity
Wet-Bulb Temperature
Dew Point
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Specific Volume
Relative Humidity
Enthalpy, and
Vapor Pressure
Lets take a look at our chart.
Slide 6
As you can see, the chart looks like a shoe.

The versatility of the psychrometric chart is that at a given pressure, by knowing two independent properties
of the air, the other properties can be determined. Changes in state, such as when two air streams mix, can
be modeled easily and somewhat graphically using the correct psychrometric chart for the location's air
pressure or elevation relative to sea level. For locations at or below 600 m, a common assumption is to use
the sea level psychrometric chart.
Lets take a look at all of the various thermophysical properties and how they are plotted on the chart.
Slide 7
Dry-bulb temperature (DBT) is the temperature of an air sample, as determined by an ordinary thermometer.
The thermometer's bulb is dry. It is typically the x-axis, or the horizontal axis, of the graph. The Metric Units
are Celsius.

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Dry-Bulb temperatures are graduated from left to right along the sole.
Slide 8
Dry-Bulb readings are plotted vertically.

Slide 9
Humidity ratio (also known as moisture content or mixing ratio) is the proportion of mass of water vapor per
unit mass of dry air at the given conditions (DBT, WBT, DPT, RH, etc.). It is typically the y-axis, the vertical
axis, of the graph. For a given DBT there will be a particular humidity ratio for which the air sample is at
100% relative humidity: the relationship reflects the physics of water and air and must be measured.
Humidity ratio is dimensionless, but is sometimes expressed as grams of water per kilogram of dry air.
Specific humidity is closely related to humidity ratio but always lower in value as it expresses the proportion
of the mass of water vapor per unit mass of the dry air and the water vapor.

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Humidity values are graduated, bottom to top, along the heel. This chart has grams of water per kilogram of
dry air.

The heel also shows vapor pressure. Vapor Pressure is the pressure exerted by the water vapor in air, and
it varies with temperature since the water "holding" capacity of air changes with temperature. It is given in
millimetres of mercury.
Slide 10
Humidity readings are plotted horizontally.

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Slide 11
The values are graduated from the toe to the top. These values represent Dew Point and Wet-Bulb. This is
also known as the saturation line.

Slide 12
Wet-Bulb readings are plotted from the inseam diagonally, down and right. They follow the roughly 45
degree angle lines.

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Slide 13
Dew Point readings are plotted horizontally. Its hard to read on the inseam so there is a handy easy to read
scale on the outside of the heel. Here, we see it shown as 16 degrees Celsius.

Slide 14
Specific Volume is in the body of the shoe. The lines are diagonal and steeper than the Wet-Bulb lines.

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Slide 15
Relative Humidity (RH) is in the body of the shoe. The lines are swooped and range from 10% to 100% at
the inseam. Notice that 100% is the inseam.

Slide 16
Enthalpy values are provided all around the outside of the shoe. Enthalpy readings are plotted diagonally,
almost exactly at the same angle as the Wet-Bulb lines.

Slide 17
A sample of air can be plotted if any two of the 7 variables are known. This is assuming the pressures are
the same.
A sling psychrometer is a measuring tool that can be used to determine Dry-Bulb and Wet-Bulb readings.
This device contains two thermometers, and one has a wet sock on the tip. The person taking the readings

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would just sling it around for a minute and take the two readings. Electronic ones are available at
reasonable prices.
Lets practice plotting points.
Slide 18
Lets pretend we have a Dry-Bulb reading of 25 degrees Celsius. Find 25 along the sole and draw a vertical
line from that value. Take the DB line all the way to the saturation line.

Slide 19
Lets pretend we have a Wet-Bulb reading of 18 degrees Celsius. Find 18 along the inseam and draw a
diagonal line along the Wet-Bulb line. Draw a point where the two lines intersect.

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Now that we have plotted two of our values, lets find the remaining variables.
Slide 20
Draw a horizontal line directly through the point.
What is the Dew Point?
14.2C
What is the Humidity Ratio?
10.1 grams moisture per kilogram dry air
What is the Vapor Pressure?
12.0 mmHg

Slide 21
Lets estimate the percentage of Relative Humidity (RH).
It looks like its roughly 50%.

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Theres another way to calculate RH as well:


Take the Dry-Bulb to the saturation line
Go right to determine the grams moisture per kilogram dry air at saturation
Slide 22
At saturation, Wet-Bulb and Dew Point are the same as the Dry-Bulb. At saturation, the humidity ratio of 25
degree air is 20 g/kg.

Remember our sample humidity ratio was 10.1 g/kg. Divide that by 20 g/kg.
Thats 10.1/20 = 50.5%
Slide 23
Draw a line directly through the point and parallel to the Enthalpy lines. You may have to line up the
readings through the point.

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What is the Enthalpy? Looks like it is approximately 51 kJ per kg of dry air.


Slide 24
Specific Volume (SV) can be estimated. It can be calculated, but it isnt really necessary. For this example,
we estimate this to be 0.85 m3/kg dry air.

Slide 25
Now take out a clean chart. You can download one right from this presentation by clicking on the paperclip
icon. Plot the following air sample with a Dry-Bulb reading of 30C and a Relative Humidity reading of 60%.
Find the remaining values:
What is the Humidity Ratio?
What is the Vapor Pressure?
What is the Wet-Bulb?
What is the Dew Point?
What is the Enthalpy?
What is the Specific Volume?

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Slide 26
When you are done, your chart should look something like this.

Slide 27
Here are your answers.
What is the Humidity Ratio?
16.0 g/kg
What is the Vapor Pressure?
18.8 mmHg
What is the Wet-Bulb?
23.7C
What is the Dew Point?
Just over 21C
What is the Enthalpy?
71 kJ/kg
What is the Specific Volume?
Approximately 0.87 m3/kg

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Slide 28
Lets apply all that to an example.
A factory process requires air at 38 degrees C (Dry-Bulb) and 40% relative humidity
The intake air is 10 degrees C (Dry-Bulb) and 60% relative humidity.
The process consumes 200 cubic meters of air per minute.
How many kW is required to supply this process with the air requirements?
Here we see our formula.
The amount of heat transferred can be expressed as
Q = 1.201 * v * h
where
Q = total heat transferred (kW)
1.201 = a constant for total heat equations
v = airflow (m3/s)
h = enthalpy difference (kJ / kg)
Using the psychrometric chart, please calculate the answer.
Slide 29
To solve the problem, first we need to determine the Enthalpy of the air samples. On the psychrometric
chart, find 38 degrees C (Dry-Bulb) and take it up to the 40% RH line. Find the 10 degrees C (Dry-Bulb) and
take that up to 60% RH line. From the point where your Dry-Bulb lines meet the RH line, draw a line parallel
to the Enthalpy lines.
For the 38 degrees C air sample, we find an Enthalpy of 83. For the 10 degrees C air sample, we find an
Enthalpy of 23.
Here we see the correct answer.
Q = 1.201 * v * h
Q = 1.201 * 200 m3/min * (83 -23)
Q = 1.201 * 3.33 m3/s * 60
Q = 240 kW

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Lets work through another exercise.


Slide 30
How many kW of air conditioning are required to cool 30 cubic meters per minute of air that is 32 degrees C
with a 60% relative humidity to 16 degrees C and a 60% relative humidity? To solve the problem, first we
need to determine the Enthalpy of the air samples. On the psychrometric chart, find 16 degrees (Dry-Bulb)
and take it up to the 60% RH line. Find the 32 degrees (Dry-Bulb) and take that up to 60% RH line. From the
point where your Dry-Bulb lines meet the RH line, draw a line parallel to the Enthalpy lines.

For the 16 degree air sample, we find an Enthalpy of 33 kJ/kg. For the 32 degree air sample, we find an
Enthalpy of 78.

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Slide 31
Next, we need to find kW required. Lets look at our formula.
Q = 1.201 * v * h
Here we see the required kW.
Q = 1.201 * v * h
Q= 1.201 * 30 m3/min * (78 33)
Q= 1.201 * 0.5 m3/s * 45
Q= 27 kW
Slide 32
Lets summarize what we have learned in this course.
Psychrometrics is the study of the thermodynamic properties of moist air and its effect on materials and
human comfort.
The thermophysical properties found on a psychrometric chart are:
Dry-bulb temperature
Humidity ratio
Vapor pressure
Wet-bulb temperature
Dew Point
Specific Volume
Relative Humidity
Enthalpy
The state of the air at a specified pressure is completely specified by two independent intensive properties.
The other properties can be determined from the chart.
HVAC system designers use these factors to model the HVAC requirements depending on the location of
the building and the needs of the occupants or processes within it.
Slide 33
Thank you for participating in this course.

2012 Schneider Electric. All rights reserved. All trademarks provided are the property of their respective owners.