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- Code of Practice for Design and Operationof Boilers
- Boiler Types
- Single Drum Boiler
- 30751093
- Cadet Boiler Installation Manual
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- 132169515-GEK-63383d-Turbine-Generator-Foundation.pdf
- Steam Turbine
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- Coke Oven Power Plant Project File

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by boilers

Heat quired flow through the system from the turbine exhaust

Q= 3726.38075 kW

P= 40

T=297C

H1

S1

2949.939 kJ/KG

6.341 kJ/KG

Turbine/Steam inlet

condition:

bar

Therefore, turbine outlet condition considering isentropic expansion to 210C

using steam table is:

P=19.06 bar

S2= 6.341kj/Kg

The wetness fraction (X) can now be calculated using equation:

S2 = X* SL + (1 X)* Sv

6.341 = X*(2.425) + (1-X)*6.241

X = 0.106025934

The turbine outlet enthalpy for an isentropic expansion can now be

calculated from:

H2 = X*HL + (1 X)*HV

Where,

HL and HV are the saturated liquid and vapor enthalpies. Taking saturated

liquid and vapor

enthalpies from steam table sat 210C and 19.06 bars:

H2 = 0.1060 * 897.8 + (1-0.1060)*2798

= 2596.5 kJ/ kg

Now, if we consider a 10 stage expansion with isentropic efficiency of 78 %,

then

H2

= H1 IS (H1 H2)

= 2949.94 0.78* (2949.94 2596.5)

= 2674.3 kj/kg

Actual Wetness:

H2 = X*HL + (1 X)*HV

2674.3 = X*897.8 + (1 X) * 2798

X = 0.0651

Now, if we assume that the saturated steam and condensate are separated

after the turbine and

the only the saturated steam is used for processing heating.

Steam flow to process = 3726.38075/ (2798 897.8) = 1.961 kg/ s

Therefore, the stream flow through the turbine = 7.096/ (1 0.0651) = 2.098

kg/ s

No.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

Total

Equipment

Pump 03

Reactor

Pump 04

Stripping

Pump 05

pump 06

Oxidation

LT furnace(Elec

Heating)

HT furnace(Elec

Heating)

Graphitization(Elec

Heating)

Fan Cooler

Surface Treat

Epoxy pump

kW

1.08433

70

0.0725

45

0.07

0.5

78

201

191.9

302

8.3

40

0.4

938.3268

Stress in tubes and drums

Inside diameter of boiler: 2m/ 6.56 ft

Length: 6.5m/21.35 ft

Total pressure on head:

A= pi*D2/4: pi*6.56ft2/4X 144in2/ft2 = 4867 in2

P: 4867*100= 486,700 lb total pressure (times 100 because of 100 psi is

subjected on the plate)

Area of ring to support this: 6* 12in/ft*3.1416*1/2 = 113.098in 2

Pressure in each square inch of metal is: 486,700/113.1= 4303.36

Projected area: 6.56*21.35*144 = 20168.06

Since pressure is held by both sides of the shell so divide into 2 =

2016806.4 /2 = 1008403.2

Minimum thickness of the wall:

T = PR/(SE-0.6P)

P= 580.15 psig

S=17500

E=1

R= 78.74 inch

T= 2.6633192 in = 0.068meter.

Manholes, Handholes, and Fittings

In most of the cases, both manholes and handholes are elliptical in shape. This

makes it possible for the cover plate to be placed on the inside and removed

through the hole. A minimum size of a manhole opening is an elliptical manhole,

28cm by 38cm. A minimum size of an elliptical handhole opening is 7cm by

9cm. In actual practice, the holes must be large enough to provide the

necessary access for cleaning and for tube replacement, and the designer

sets these requirements. (Everett.B,2005)

Heating Surfaces of boilers

Diameter: 78.74 inch Length: 256.02 inch Inside diameter of tubes: 1.5

inch

Shell: 78.74*3.1416*256.02*0.66/144 = 290.14 ft2

Tubes: 1.5*3.1416*256.02*76= 636.36 ft2

Heads: 78.74*2 *0.7852*2*0.66-(4*4$0.7854*76*2)/144 = 42.39 ft2

Direct Heating Method (without Economizer)

Mass flow rate of steam of steam: ms= 7551.34 kg/hr

Enthalpy of steam leaving boiler: hs= 2949.939kj/kg @40bar, 297C

Enthalpy of water entering boiler: hfw= 334.9 kj/kg

Higher heating value of natural gas: HHV= 52225 kj/kg

Mass flow rate of flue flow required = ms*(hs-hfw)/(HHV*efficiency) =

437.1273096 kg/hr

Heating Method (with Economizer)

(in terms of btu/lb, psig, F)

Mass flow rate of steam: 16650.71624 lb/hr

Pressure: 580.15 psig

Temperature: 662F

1) Heat Transfer in combined boiler and furnace waterwall

areas:

hg at 40 bar/580.15 psig: 1205.19 btu/lb

hf at 123.7C(after passing through economizer): 467.638 btu/lb

h = 1204.19-467.638 = 737.552 btu/lb

Heat required for this step: 16650.71624*737.552 = 12280769.06 btu/hr

2) Heat-transfer in superheater

h at 40bar and 298C: 1269.09 btu/lb

h at 40 bar saturated: 1205.19 btu/lb

h= 63.9 btu/lb

Heat required for this step: 16650.71624*63.9 = 1063980.768 btu/hr

3) Heat-transfer in economizer

hf at 123.7C: 467.638 btu/lb

hf at 80 C: 144.077 btu/lb

h= 323.561 btu/lb

Heat required for this step: 16650.71624*323.561 = 5387522.397 btu/hr

Total heat required: 5387522.397+1063980.768+12280769.06 =

18732272.23 btu/hr

Total heat required in kJ: 18732272.23*1055.0559/1000 = 19763594.34

kj/hr

Higher heating value of natural gas: 52225 kj/kg

Efficiency of the boiler with economizer: 87.7%

Fuel required to heat: 19763594.34/52225/0.877 = 431.5070434 kg/hr

Select a nozzle angle equal to 20; then;

Power delivered at the

shaft coupling

Revolutions per

minute

605

kW

1100

rpm

Maximum blade

speed, Vb

Initial steam pressure

Initial steam

temperature

Condenser pressure

600

580

ft/s

psia

298

1

C

n Hg

Increase this value by about 10% (the example uses 11.86% to follow

Church) to account for disk friction and fanning.

V1= 1277.14*1.1 = 1404.85

Stationary part

V1 = V1 cos

1320 ft/s

Wdelta1 =

Vdelta1 - Vb

Wa1=Va1=V1si

nX

W1

Beta

720 ft/s

480.45

98 ft/s

865.58

74 ft/s

33.72

Kb

W2

0.9165

5

793.35

46

Assume beta =

gamma

Wa2=Va2

33.72

0.5551

34

0.8317

659.83

3

59.833

440.41

81

degre

82.255 e

sin 33.72

cos 33.72

Wdelta2

Vdelta2

Wb= -Vb ( Vdelta2 Vdelta1) = 33.048 btu/lb

Actual Energy Available to Blade

V1^2/2 = 39.39 btu/lb

Blade Efficiency

b = blade work/ actual energy available

= 0.839

Nozzle Velocity Coefficient

From the graph, the velocity coefficient = 0.965

Vs1 = 1404 / 0.965 = 1455.8

Nozzle Efficiency

n= (0.965)^2 = 0.9313

Combined Nozzle and Blade Efficiency

=0.9313*0.839 = 0.7813

Stage Efficiency

Assume an average loss from disk friction and fanning of 4% and from

leakage of 1.5 %. Correcting for these effects gives

0.778 1 0.04 0.015 0.735

0.73829

9

the design proceeds and more precise information becomes available.

Number of Stages

V2

hs s1

m

2 2 32.2 ft glb m 778 ft glb f

2

Use the enthalpy at the given inlet conditions to the turbine and that of

the inlet to the condenser to get the total isentropic drop in enthalpy:

Governor Design

So we take rpm = 1000

A turbine with 1000rpm rated speed and equipped with a NEMA A speed

governor system would have 1100rpm maximum no-load speed.

Shaft power input to the generator: 592.7

Shaft power input to generator: 592.7 kW/.92 = 604.8

Turbine connected to generator, drive loss negligible, turbine shaft power output, Wto = 604.8 kW

To find ISR, use/steam table/,

steam inlet condition: P= 40 bar, T, 297C

Steam outlet condition P =19.06bar T= 210C

hi = 1269.12 Btu/lb , ho = 1150 Btu/lb

ISR = 3413/(1269.12-1150) = 22.88 lb/kWh

ASR = flowrate/Wto = 15566.4/605 = 25.73 lb/kWh

Overall steam turbine efficiency = ISR/ASR = 22.88/25.73 x 100 = 88.9%

Power produced through the generator = 15566.4lb/hr /25.74 lb/kWh x 0.889 x 0.98 = 526.87kW

The brake steam rate corrects the ideal steam rate for the inefficiencies of

the engine turbine

Poin

t

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

State

Notes

Sub-cooled liquid solution

Sub-cooled liquid solution

Saturated liquid solution

Sub-cooled liquid solution

Vapor-liquid solution state

Superheated water vapor

Saturated liquid water

Vapor-liquid water state

Saturated water vapor

Vapor quality = 0

State calculated from pump model, enthalpy h2 h1

State calculated from solution heat exchanger model

Vapor quality = 0

State calculated from solution heat exchanger model

Vapor flashes as liquid passes through expansion valve, h6 h5

No salt content

At pressure Phigh

Vapor flashes as liquid passes through expansion valve, enthalpy h 9 h8

At pressure Plow

Absorber

T13=

30 T14=

35 T10=

12.77 T1=

The energy balances on the solution side and cooling water are:

Qa=m13 (h14 h13)

(cooling water)

m10 , kg /s

1.57E-02

m6, kg/ s

9.13E-02

m1 , kg /s

0.1826795

m13 kg /s

1.45

h10 , kj/kg

2524

h6 , kj/kg

181.3

h1 kj/kg

141.79

55 T6=

h14 kj/kg

146.7

h13 kj/kg

125.8

Qa=30.31 kW

Evaporator

T17=

12 T18=

7 T10=

12.77 T9=

24

The energy balances on the solution side and chilled water are:

Q e =m 9 (h10h9)

Qe =m17 (h17h 18)

(solution side)

(cooling water)

m9 ,kg /s

0.945437736

m17 , kg /s

5.97

h10 , kj/kg

2524

h9 , kj/kg

2444.5

h17 kj/ kg

50.4

h18 kj/kg

37.81

Qe =75.16 kW

Condenser

T16=

40 T15=

35 T8=

44 T7=

The energy balances on the solution side and cooling water are:

Q c =m 7 (h7 h8 )

Qc =m15 (h16h 15 )

(solution side)

(cooling water)

55.5

m7 ,kg /s

0.012479415

m15, kg/ s

1.45

h7 , kj/kg

2601

h8 , kj/kg

184.22

h16 kj/ kg

167.5

h15 kj/ kg

146.7

Qc =30 .16 kW

Generator/Desorber

T11

T12

=

191.5

=

128.7

T4=

T3=

The energy balances on the solution side and heat source are:

Qg =m 4 .h 4 +m7 .h 7m3 . h3

Q g =m 11 (h11 h12)

(solution side)

(heat source)

m11 , kg/ s

0.18173

m4 , kg /s

9.13E-02

m7 ,kg /s

0.012479415

m3 kg/s

0.1826795

h11 , kj/kg

2524

h12 , kj/kg

181.3

h4 kj/kg

239.417

h7 kj/kg

2601

h3 kj/kg

185.9556

T7=

Qg =20.34517 k W

The energy balances on the cold solution side and hot solution side are:

Q hx =m 1 (h3h 2)

m1 , kg /s

0.1826795

m4 , kg /s

9.13E-02

h3 , kj/kg

204.55

h2 , kj/kg

185.9556

h4 kj/ kg

239.417

h5 kj/kg

202.22

Qhx =3.3968 k W

System thermal Coefficient Of Performance, COP

COP=

Qe

Qg

= 3.69

The COP is the parameter to estimate the useful of thermal energy is been

applied to the system.

Economic Pathway

Financial Comparison of normal boilers and CHCP boilers

Financial comparison of normal boilers and CHP system

Natural gas

Natural gas

Impact of CHCP Increase /

boiler

CHP

(Decrease)

Average Steam production,

Kg/hr

7551.345233

7551.345233

Boiler Efficiency

86.5

86.5

Electric Generating Capacity,

MW

NA

0.52687

CHP electric efficiency

NA

76.40%

CHP total Efficiency

Na

81.30%

Steam production MT/Year

96704

96704

Fuel Use, MJ/year

Fuel Price, RM/MJ

NA

172,020,517

0.010786

4,172,810

180,283,643

0.010786

4,172,810

-8,263,125

Annual O&M cost, RM

Annual Electric Savings

1855442.122

338690

0

1944569.576

1017070.41

1180905.343

-89127.45433

-678380.4104

-1180905.343

Net Steam Costs $/1000Kg

Capital Costs

2194132.122

2194.132122

782365.18

1780734.644

1780.734644

1426210.742

413397.4785

413.3974785

-643845.5621

Payback, year

3.449974459

Mass flow rate of steam of steam: ms= 7551.34 kg/hr

Enthalpy of steam leaving boiler: hs= 2798 kj/kg @210C ( this is the

minimum that steam need to transfer the heat to the process)

Enthalpy of water entering boiler: hfw= 334.9 kj/kg

Assume efficiency of boiler: 86.5%

Higher heating value of natural gas: HHV= 52225 kj/kg

Mass flow rate of flue flow required = ms*(hs-hfw)/(HHV*efficiency) =

411.73 kg/hr

For the CHCP boilers

From the result of calculation mentioned earlier:

(Heating method with Economizer)

Fuel required to heat: 19763594.34/52225/0.877 = 431.5070434 kg/hr

Normal Boilers

Fuel Fired

yearly

MW

CHCP

Boilers

21502564

.68 Fuel Fired

1.72021E

+11 yearly

17202051

7.4 MW

22535455.34

1.80284E+11

180283642.7

Yearly: 21502564.68 * 8000( assume one year working hours) =

1.72021E+11

Financial Comparison of CHP(without cooling) and CHCP system

Financial comparison CHP of and CHCP system

CHP

CHCP

Impact of CHP Increase /

(Decrease)

Chilled water required,

kg/hr

Chilled water supply

MT/Year

Cooling water supply

MT/year

Cooling generation, MT/year

Annual cooling cost,

RM/year

Annual O&M cost, RM

Annual Savings

Net chilled water Costs

$/1000Kg

Capital Costs

28245.75786

223706.4022

9

NA

NA

17896.51218

NA

NA

17896.51218

17.89651218

NA

28245.7578

6

223706.402

29

41,342.4

170,216.6

18309.9361

8

7061.43946

6

13617.3312

11754.0444

5

11.7540444

5

41688.1416

6142.467734

6.142467734

Payback, year

6.78687189

No.

1

2

Equipment

Polymerization Reactor

Cooler (from the heat

pinch)

kW

56.14

108.47

Total

164.61

*The data shown is extracted from Superpro Designer simulation.

A CHP plant without absorption chiller for the cooling effect, the

consumption of chilled water will be the same as CHCP plant, but the

difference will be CHCP required more cooling water supply for the process

on absorption chiller plant.

According to the requirement of cooling water from chiller,

Cooling water with flowrate of 1.45 kg/s need to be supplied. Hence,

m= 1.45 kg/s * 36000* 8000/1000 = 41,342.4 MT

The extra cooling cost will be: 41,342.4 MT*1000* (0.00001) RM/kg(price

for cooling water) = RM 413.42

The annual cooling cost for CHP plant will be:

223706.40229 *1000*0.00008(price for chilled water) = RM 17896.51218

But the annual cost for CHCP will be:

RM 17896.51218+ = RM 413.42 = RM 18309.94

Annual O&M cost for the absorption chiller: RM 7061.44

170,216.6 MT *1000* 0.00008 = RM 13617.33

Annual operating cost : Annual cooling cost+ Annual O&M cost Annual

Saving

Extra capital cost for absorption chiller plant.

Absoprtion

1

chiller

5373

Installation,

setting,

2

rigging

859.68

Pumps

3

3350

Controls

4

1470

Electrical

5

967.14

Process

6

967.14

total

RM

12986.96

41688.14

41688.14/6142.467734 = 6.8 years

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