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Appendix

Calculation on the flowrate that required to produced


by boilers
Heat quired flow through the system from the turbine exhaust
Q= 3726.38075 kW

P= 40
T=297C

H1
S1

2949.939 kJ/KG
6.341 kJ/KG

Turbine/Steam inlet
condition:
bar

Turbine Outlet condtion:


Therefore, turbine outlet condition considering isentropic expansion to 210C
using steam table is:
P=19.06 bar
S2= 6.341kj/Kg
The wetness fraction (X) can now be calculated using equation:
S2 = X* SL + (1 X)* Sv
6.341 = X*(2.425) + (1-X)*6.241
X = 0.106025934
The turbine outlet enthalpy for an isentropic expansion can now be
calculated from:
H2 = X*HL + (1 X)*HV
Where,
HL and HV are the saturated liquid and vapor enthalpies. Taking saturated
liquid and vapor
enthalpies from steam table sat 210C and 19.06 bars:
H2 = 0.1060 * 897.8 + (1-0.1060)*2798
= 2596.5 kJ/ kg
Now, if we consider a 10 stage expansion with isentropic efficiency of 78 %,
then
H2
= H1 IS (H1 H2)
= 2949.94 0.78* (2949.94 2596.5)
= 2674.3 kj/kg
Actual Wetness:
H2 = X*HL + (1 X)*HV
2674.3 = X*897.8 + (1 X) * 2798
X = 0.0651
Now, if we assume that the saturated steam and condensate are separated
after the turbine and
the only the saturated steam is used for processing heating.
Steam flow to process = 3726.38075/ (2798 897.8) = 1.961 kg/ s
Therefore, the stream flow through the turbine = 7.096/ (1 0.0651) = 2.098
kg/ s

Table of Site Electricity Demand


No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
Total

Site Electricity Demand


Equipment
Pump 03
Reactor
Pump 04
Stripping
Pump 05
pump 06
Oxidation
LT furnace(Elec
Heating)
HT furnace(Elec
Heating)
Graphitization(Elec
Heating)
Fan Cooler
Surface Treat
Epoxy pump

kW
1.08433
70
0.0725
45
0.07
0.5
78
201
191.9
302
8.3
40
0.4
938.3268

*The data shown is extracted from Superpro Designer simulation.

Boiler Design Calculation


Stress in tubes and drums
Inside diameter of boiler: 2m/ 6.56 ft
Length: 6.5m/21.35 ft
Total pressure on head:
A= pi*D2/4: pi*6.56ft2/4X 144in2/ft2 = 4867 in2
P: 4867*100= 486,700 lb total pressure (times 100 because of 100 psi is
subjected on the plate)
Area of ring to support this: 6* 12in/ft*3.1416*1/2 = 113.098in 2
Pressure in each square inch of metal is: 486,700/113.1= 4303.36
Projected area: 6.56*21.35*144 = 20168.06

Total pressure exerted on this area: P= 20168.06*100 = 2016806.4 in 2


Since pressure is held by both sides of the shell so divide into 2 =
2016806.4 /2 = 1008403.2
Minimum thickness of the wall:
T = PR/(SE-0.6P)

P= 580.15 psig
S=17500
E=1
R= 78.74 inch
T= 2.6633192 in = 0.068meter.
Manholes, Handholes, and Fittings
In most of the cases, both manholes and handholes are elliptical in shape. This
makes it possible for the cover plate to be placed on the inside and removed
through the hole. A minimum size of a manhole opening is an elliptical manhole,
28cm by 38cm. A minimum size of an elliptical handhole opening is 7cm by

9cm. In actual practice, the holes must be large enough to provide the
necessary access for cleaning and for tube replacement, and the designer
sets these requirements. (Everett.B,2005)
Heating Surfaces of boilers
Diameter: 78.74 inch Length: 256.02 inch Inside diameter of tubes: 1.5
inch
Shell: 78.74*3.1416*256.02*0.66/144 = 290.14 ft2
Tubes: 1.5*3.1416*256.02*76= 636.36 ft2
Heads: 78.74*2 *0.7852*2*0.66-(4*4$0.7854*76*2)/144 = 42.39 ft2
Direct Heating Method (without Economizer)
Mass flow rate of steam of steam: ms= 7551.34 kg/hr
Enthalpy of steam leaving boiler: hs= 2949.939kj/kg @40bar, 297C
Enthalpy of water entering boiler: hfw= 334.9 kj/kg

Assume efficiency of boiler: 86.5%


Higher heating value of natural gas: HHV= 52225 kj/kg
Mass flow rate of flue flow required = ms*(hs-hfw)/(HHV*efficiency) =
437.1273096 kg/hr
Heating Method (with Economizer)
(in terms of btu/lb, psig, F)
Mass flow rate of steam: 16650.71624 lb/hr
Pressure: 580.15 psig
Temperature: 662F
1) Heat Transfer in combined boiler and furnace waterwall
areas:
hg at 40 bar/580.15 psig: 1205.19 btu/lb
hf at 123.7C(after passing through economizer): 467.638 btu/lb
h = 1204.19-467.638 = 737.552 btu/lb
Heat required for this step: 16650.71624*737.552 = 12280769.06 btu/hr
2) Heat-transfer in superheater
h at 40bar and 298C: 1269.09 btu/lb
h at 40 bar saturated: 1205.19 btu/lb
h= 63.9 btu/lb
Heat required for this step: 16650.71624*63.9 = 1063980.768 btu/hr
3) Heat-transfer in economizer
hf at 123.7C: 467.638 btu/lb
hf at 80 C: 144.077 btu/lb
h= 323.561 btu/lb
Heat required for this step: 16650.71624*323.561 = 5387522.397 btu/hr
Total heat required: 5387522.397+1063980.768+12280769.06 =
18732272.23 btu/hr
Total heat required in kJ: 18732272.23*1055.0559/1000 = 19763594.34
kj/hr
Higher heating value of natural gas: 52225 kj/kg
Efficiency of the boiler with economizer: 87.7%
Fuel required to heat: 19763594.34/52225/0.877 = 431.5070434 kg/hr

Steam Turbine Efficiency


Select a nozzle angle equal to 20; then;
Power delivered at the
shaft coupling
Revolutions per
minute

605

kW

1100

rpm

Maximum blade
speed, Vb
Initial steam pressure
Initial steam
temperature
Condenser pressure

600
580

ft/s
psia

298
1

C
n Hg

V1(ideal) = 2Vb/Cos20 = 1277.14


Increase this value by about 10% (the example uses 11.86% to follow
Church) to account for disk friction and fanning.
V1= 1277.14*1.1 = 1404.85

Stationary part

V1 = V1 cos

1320 ft/s

Wdelta1 =
Vdelta1 - Vb
Wa1=Va1=V1si
nX
W1
Beta

720 ft/s
480.45
98 ft/s
865.58
74 ft/s
33.72

The Exit Triangle

Kb
W2

0.9165
5
793.35

46
Assume beta =
gamma

Wa2=Va2

33.72
0.5551
34
0.8317
659.83
3
59.833
440.41
81

degre
82.255 e

sin 33.72
cos 33.72
Wdelta2
Vdelta2

Blade Work Per Unit Mass


Wb= -Vb ( Vdelta2 Vdelta1) = 33.048 btu/lb
Actual Energy Available to Blade
V1^2/2 = 39.39 btu/lb
Blade Efficiency
b = blade work/ actual energy available
= 0.839
Nozzle Velocity Coefficient
From the graph, the velocity coefficient = 0.965

Ideal (Isentropic) Nozzle Exit/Blade Entrance Velocity

Vs1 = V1/ velocity coefficient


Vs1 = 1404 / 0.965 = 1455.8
Nozzle Efficiency
n= (0.965)^2 = 0.9313
Combined Nozzle and Blade Efficiency
=0.9313*0.839 = 0.7813
Stage Efficiency
Assume an average loss from disk friction and fanning of 4% and from
leakage of 1.5 %. Correcting for these effects gives

st b 1 Friction / Fanning Leakage 0.78


0.778 1 0.04 0.015 0.735
0.73829
9

Let st.= 0.7383 This is a provisional value. It will be modified as


the design proceeds and more precise information becomes available.

Number of Stages

Ideal Available Energy to Blade

1406 ft / s glb f s 2gBtu 39.5Btu / lb


V2
hs s1
m
2 2 32.2 ft glb m 778 ft glb f
2

Use the enthalpy at the given inlet conditions to the turbine and that of
the inlet to the condenser to get the total isentropic drop in enthalpy:

hs total 1293.7 902.9 390.8Btu / lbm

Governor Design

Rpm calculation = 2.9(steam speed) * 2*pi*55.88( wheel size) = 1013.323


So we take rpm = 1000

A turbine with 1000rpm rated speed and equipped with a NEMA A speed
governor system would have 1100rpm maximum no-load speed.

The Performances of Steam Turbines


Shaft power input to the generator: 592.7
Shaft power input to generator: 592.7 kW/.92 = 604.8
Turbine connected to generator, drive loss negligible, turbine shaft power output, Wto = 604.8 kW
To find ISR, use/steam table/,
steam inlet condition: P= 40 bar, T, 297C
Steam outlet condition P =19.06bar T= 210C
hi = 1269.12 Btu/lb , ho = 1150 Btu/lb
ISR = 3413/(1269.12-1150) = 22.88 lb/kWh
ASR = flowrate/Wto = 15566.4/605 = 25.73 lb/kWh
Overall steam turbine efficiency = ISR/ASR = 22.88/25.73 x 100 = 88.9%

Brake Steam Rate (BSR) = 22.88 lb/kWh/ 88.9% = 25.74 lb/kWh


Power produced through the generator = 15566.4lb/hr /25.74 lb/kWh x 0.889 x 0.98 = 526.87kW

The brake steam rate corrects the ideal steam rate for the inefficiencies of
the engine turbine

Absorption chiller energy balance

Poin
t
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

State

Notes

Saturated liquid solution


Sub-cooled liquid solution
Sub-cooled liquid solution
Saturated liquid solution
Sub-cooled liquid solution
Vapor-liquid solution state
Superheated water vapor
Saturated liquid water
Vapor-liquid water state
Saturated water vapor

Vapor quality = 0
State calculated from pump model, enthalpy h2 h1
State calculated from solution heat exchanger model
Vapor quality = 0
State calculated from solution heat exchanger model
Vapor flashes as liquid passes through expansion valve, h6 h5
No salt content
At pressure Phigh
Vapor flashes as liquid passes through expansion valve, enthalpy h 9 h8
At pressure Plow

Absorber
T13=
30 T14=
35 T10=
12.77 T1=
The energy balances on the solution side and cooling water are:

Qa=m10 .h 10+ m6 . h6m1 . h1 (solution side)


Qa=m13 (h14 h13)

(cooling water)

m10 , kg /s

1.57E-02

m6, kg/ s

9.13E-02

m1 , kg /s

0.1826795

m13 kg /s

1.45

h10 , kj/kg

2524

h6 , kj/kg

181.3

h1 kj/kg

141.79

55 T6=

h14 kj/kg

146.7

h13 kj/kg

125.8

Qa=30.31 kW

Evaporator
T17=

12 T18=

7 T10=

12.77 T9=

24

The energy balances on the solution side and chilled water are:

Q e =m 9 (h10h9)
Qe =m17 (h17h 18)

(solution side)
(cooling water)

m9 ,kg /s

0.945437736

m17 , kg /s

5.97

h10 , kj/kg

2524

h9 , kj/kg

2444.5

h17 kj/ kg

50.4

h18 kj/kg

37.81

Qe =75.16 kW

Condenser
T16=

40 T15=

35 T8=

44 T7=

The energy balances on the solution side and cooling water are:

Q c =m 7 (h7 h8 )
Qc =m15 (h16h 15 )

(solution side)
(cooling water)

55.5

m7 ,kg /s

0.012479415

m15, kg/ s

1.45

h7 , kj/kg

2601

h8 , kj/kg

184.22

h16 kj/ kg

167.5

h15 kj/ kg

146.7

Qc =30 .16 kW

Generator/Desorber
T11
T12
=
191.5
=
128.7

T4=

T3=

The energy balances on the solution side and heat source are:

Qg =m 4 .h 4 +m7 .h 7m3 . h3
Q g =m 11 (h11 h12)

(solution side)

(heat source)

m11 , kg/ s

0.18173

m4 , kg /s

9.13E-02

m7 ,kg /s

0.012479415

m3 kg/s

0.1826795

h11 , kj/kg

2524

h12 , kj/kg

181.3

h4 kj/kg

239.417

h7 kj/kg

2601

h3 kj/kg

185.9556

T7=

Qg =20.34517 k W

Solution Heat Exchanger


The energy balances on the cold solution side and hot solution side are:

Q hx =m 1 (h3h 2)

(cold solution side)

Qhx =m4 (h 4h5)

(hot solution side)

m1 , kg /s

0.1826795

m4 , kg /s

9.13E-02

h3 , kj/kg

204.55

h2 , kj/kg

185.9556

h4 kj/ kg

239.417

h5 kj/kg

202.22

Qhx =3.3968 k W
System thermal Coefficient Of Performance, COP

COP=

Qe
Qg

= 3.69

The COP is the parameter to estimate the useful of thermal energy is been
applied to the system.
Economic Pathway
Financial Comparison of normal boilers and CHCP boilers
Financial comparison of normal boilers and CHP system
Natural gas
Natural gas
Impact of CHCP Increase /
boiler
CHP
(Decrease)
Average Steam production,
Kg/hr
7551.345233
7551.345233
Boiler Efficiency
86.5
86.5
Electric Generating Capacity,
MW
NA
0.52687
CHP electric efficiency
NA
76.40%
CHP total Efficiency
Na
81.30%
Steam production MT/Year
96704
96704

Power Generation kWh/year


Fuel Use, MJ/year
Fuel Price, RM/MJ

NA
172,020,517
0.010786

4,172,810
180,283,643
0.010786

4,172,810
-8,263,125

Annual fuel cost, RM


Annual O&M cost, RM
Annual Electric Savings

1855442.122
338690
0

1944569.576
1017070.41
1180905.343

-89127.45433
-678380.4104
-1180905.343

Net Annual Operating Cost


Net Steam Costs $/1000Kg
Capital Costs

2194132.122
2194.132122
782365.18

1780734.644
1780.734644
1426210.742

413397.4785
413.3974785
-643845.5621

Payback, year

3.449974459

Normal boilers (without Economizer)


Mass flow rate of steam of steam: ms= 7551.34 kg/hr
Enthalpy of steam leaving boiler: hs= 2798 kj/kg @210C ( this is the
minimum that steam need to transfer the heat to the process)
Enthalpy of water entering boiler: hfw= 334.9 kj/kg
Assume efficiency of boiler: 86.5%
Higher heating value of natural gas: HHV= 52225 kj/kg
Mass flow rate of flue flow required = ms*(hs-hfw)/(HHV*efficiency) =
411.73 kg/hr
For the CHCP boilers
From the result of calculation mentioned earlier:
(Heating method with Economizer)
Fuel required to heat: 19763594.34/52225/0.877 = 431.5070434 kg/hr

Normal Boilers
Fuel Fired
yearly
MW

CHCP
Boilers
21502564
.68 Fuel Fired
1.72021E
+11 yearly
17202051
7.4 MW

22535455.34
1.80284E+11
180283642.7

Sample of calculation: Fuel fired : 411.73* HHV = 21502564.68


Yearly: 21502564.68 * 8000( assume one year working hours) =
1.72021E+11
Financial Comparison of CHP(without cooling) and CHCP system
Financial comparison CHP of and CHCP system
CHP
CHCP
Impact of CHP Increase /

(Decrease)
Chilled water required,
kg/hr
Chilled water supply
MT/Year
Cooling water supply
MT/year
Cooling generation, MT/year
Annual cooling cost,
RM/year
Annual O&M cost, RM
Annual Savings

Net Annual Operating Cost


Net chilled water Costs
$/1000Kg
Capital Costs

28245.75786
223706.4022
9
NA
NA
17896.51218
NA
NA

17896.51218
17.89651218
NA

28245.7578
6
223706.402
29
41,342.4
170,216.6
18309.9361
8
7061.43946
6
13617.3312
11754.0444
5
11.7540444
5
41688.1416

6142.467734
6.142467734

Payback, year

6.78687189

No.
1
2

Site Cooling Demand


Equipment
Polymerization Reactor
Cooler (from the heat
pinch)

kW
56.14

108.47
Total
164.61
*The data shown is extracted from Superpro Designer simulation.
A CHP plant without absorption chiller for the cooling effect, the
consumption of chilled water will be the same as CHCP plant, but the
difference will be CHCP required more cooling water supply for the process
on absorption chiller plant.
According to the requirement of cooling water from chiller,
Cooling water with flowrate of 1.45 kg/s need to be supplied. Hence,
m= 1.45 kg/s * 36000* 8000/1000 = 41,342.4 MT
The extra cooling cost will be: 41,342.4 MT*1000* (0.00001) RM/kg(price
for cooling water) = RM 413.42
The annual cooling cost for CHP plant will be:
223706.40229 *1000*0.00008(price for chilled water) = RM 17896.51218
But the annual cost for CHCP will be:
RM 17896.51218+ = RM 413.42 = RM 18309.94
Annual O&M cost for the absorption chiller: RM 7061.44

Annual savings for CHCP plant will be:


170,216.6 MT *1000* 0.00008 = RM 13617.33
Annual operating cost : Annual cooling cost+ Annual O&M cost Annual
Saving
Extra capital cost for absorption chiller plant.
Absoprtion
1
chiller
5373
Installation,
setting,
2
rigging
859.68
Pumps
3
3350
Controls
4
1470
Electrical
5
967.14
Process
6
967.14
total
RM

12986.96
41688.14

Simple payback period for installation for absorption chiller =


41688.14/6142.467734 = 6.8 years