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An Investigation into the Wave Making Resistance of

a Submarine Travelling Below the Free Surface

Samual J. Wilson-Haffenden

October 2009

Supervisors: Martin Renilson & Dev Ranmuthugala

Thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree


of
Bachelor of Engineering (Naval Architecture)

National Centre for Maritime Engineering and Hydrodynamics

DECLARATION
I hereby declare that the whole of this submission is my own work and the result of my own
investigation and that, to the best of my knowledge and belief, it contains no material previously
published or written by another person, except where due reference is made in the text of the project.

I further declare that the work embodied in this project has not been accepted for the award of any
other degree or diploma in any institution, college or university, and is not being concurrently
submitted for any other degree or diploma award.

..
Samual J. Wilson-Haffenden
October 2009

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 1
1.1

Background ............................................................................................................................................... 1

1.2

Literature Survey ...................................................................................................................................... 3

1.2.1

Experimental ................................................................................................................................... 3

1.2.2

Computational Fluid Dynamics ....................................................................................................... 5

1.3
2

Problem Definition .................................................................................................................................... 9

Theory ................................................................................................................................................ 10
2.1

General Theory ....................................................................................................................................... 10

2.1.1
2.2

Drag Close to a Free Surface ......................................................................................................... 11

Computational Fluid Dynamics ............................................................................................................... 13

2.2.1

Fundamentals ............................................................................................................................... 13

2.2.2

Numerical Techniques .................................................................................................................. 14

2.2.3

Turbulence Models ....................................................................................................................... 15

2.2.4

Near Wall Modelling ..................................................................................................................... 18

2.2.5

Gridding Techniques ..................................................................................................................... 24

2.2.6

Numerical Solution of a Free Surface............................................................................................ 28

2.2.7

Solution Procedure ....................................................................................................................... 29

2.2.8

Time Steps ..................................................................................................................................... 30

Approach ............................................................................................................................................ 31
3.1

Model Design .......................................................................................................................................... 31

3.2

Testing Range ......................................................................................................................................... 33

Computational Fluid Dynamics Procedure ........................................................................................... 34


4.1

Software Selection .................................................................................................................................. 34

4.2

Meshing .................................................................................................................................................. 34

4.3

Modelling ................................................................................................................................................ 38

4.3.1

Boundary Conditions..................................................................................................................... 38

4.3.2

Time Step Size ............................................................................................................................... 39

4.3.3

Free Surface Modelling ................................................................................................................. 42

4.3.4

Flow Visualization ......................................................................................................................... 42

4.3.5

Grid independence........................................................................................................................ 43

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4.3.6

Solution Time ................................................................................................................................ 46

4.3.7

Relaxation Factors ......................................................................................................................... 46

Experimental Fluid Dynamics Procedure ............................................................................................. 47


5.1

The HPMM and Sting .............................................................................................................................. 47

5.2

Model Design and Construction ............................................................................................................. 49

5.3

Experimental Techniques ........................................................................................................................ 53

5.3.1

HPMM Installation ........................................................................................................................ 53

5.3.2

Model Installation ......................................................................................................................... 54

5.3.3

Equipment Calibration .................................................................................................................. 55

5.3.4

Recording of Data ......................................................................................................................... 56

5.3.5

Uncertainty Analysis ..................................................................................................................... 57

Discussion ........................................................................................................................................... 59
6.1

Results .................................................................................................................................................... 59

6.2

Full Scale Relevance ................................................................................................................................ 63

Concluding Remarks and Recommendations ....................................................................................... 66


7.1

Concluding Remarks ............................................................................................................................... 66

7.2

Computational Fluid Dynamics Recommendations ................................................................................ 66

7.3

Experimental Recommendations ............................................................................................................ 67

References .......................................................................................................................................... 68

Annex A: Results .......................................................................................................................................... 73

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LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.1: Required y+ for Various Turbulence Models (Ranmuthugala, 2008).................................. 23
Table 3.1: Parameters of Scaled SUBOFF Model ................................................................................ 33
Table 4.1: Unstructured Mesh Advantages and Disadvantages (Quak, 2006) ..................................... 35
Table 4.2: Structured Mesh Advantages and Disadvantages (Quak, 2006) ......................................... 35
Table 4.3: Relaxation Factors (Ackerman, 2008)................................................................................. 47
Table 5.1: Calibration Factors .............................................................................................................. 55
Table 6.1: Variation of CFD with respect to EFD ................................................................................ 61

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1: Drag as a Function of Froude Number on the 1.1m Mullaya Model (Brady, 2007) ............ 4
Figure 1.2: Mullaya Testing Rig (Brady, 2007) ..................................................................................... 5
Figure 2.1: Drag Components for Constant Volume (Joubert, 2004) .................................................. 10
Figure 2.2: Kelvin Wave Pattern Patterns of a Point Disturbance........................................................ 12
Figure 2.3: Typical Surfaced Submarine Resistance Coefficient Curve (Burcher & Rydill, 1994) ..... 12
Figure 2.4: (a) Laminar Flow; (b) Transition Flow; (c) Turbulent Flow (White, 2007) ...................... 15
Figure 2.5: Laminar and Turbulent Flows Within a Pipe (White, 2007)............................................. 16
Figure 2.6: Velocity Distribution Near a Solid Boundary (White, 2007)............................................. 20
Figure 2.7: Boundary Layer Profile (White, 2007) .............................................................................. 22
Figure 2.8: First Layer Height (ANSYS CFX, 2008) ........................................................................... 23
Figure 2.9: Block Structured Grid (Wyman, 2001) .............................................................................. 24
Figure 2.10: Chimera Grid (Wyman, 2001) ......................................................................................... 25
Figure 2.11: Unstructured Grid (Wyman, 2001) .................................................................................. 25
Figure 2.12: Hybrid Grid -Structured Left, Unstructured Right (Wyman, 2001) ................................ 26
Figure 2.13: 2D H Grid around a Cylinder (Widjaja 2009) ................................................................ 26
Figure 2.14: 2D O Grid around a Cylinder (Widjaja, 2009) ................................................................ 27
Figure 2.15: O-Grid Inside a Cylinder (Widjaja, 2009) ....................................................................... 27
Figure 2.16: 2D C Grid around a Cylinder (Widjaja, 2009) ................................................................. 28
Figure 3.1: Comparison of the Length to Diameter Ratio of Existing Submarines (Hazegray, 2009) . 31
Figure 3.2: Comparison of the Length to Diameter Ratio of Existing Submarines (Hazegray, 2009) . 32
Figure 3.3: SUBOFF (mm)................................................................................................................... 32
Figure 3.4: Test Depths ........................................................................................................................ 33
Figure 4.1: Unstructured Mesh Constructed in ANSYS CFX Mesh .................................................... 34
Figure 4.2: Structured Mesh Constructed in ANSYS ICEM ................................................................ 34
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Figure 4.3: Demonstration of Angle Measurement .............................................................................. 36


Figure 4.4: Element Aspect Ratio Determination................................................................................. 37
Figure 4.5: Computational Domain of Simulations.............................................................................. 37
Figure 4.6: Free Surface Blocking ........................................................................................................ 38
Figure 4.7: Simulation Boundary Conditions ....................................................................................... 39
Figure 4.8: W-Momentum Residual Using a Time Step of 0.2 Seconds.............................................. 41
Figure 4.9: W-Momentum Residual Using a Time Step of 0.1 Seconds.............................................. 41
Figure 4.10: Pressure Due to Free Surface Elevations at 1.1D* and a Fr of 0.28 ................................ 43
Figure 4.11: CD as a function of Mesh Size .......................................................................................... 44
Figure 4.12: Variation of CD as a function of Mesh Size ..................................................................... 44
Figure 4.13: CP as a Function of x/L ..................................................................................................... 45
Figure 4.14: C as a Function of x/L ..................................................................................................... 45
Figure 4.15: Solution Time (wall clock) as a Function of Grid Size .................................................... 46
Figure 5.1: Conventional Strut Arrangement ....................................................................................... 47
Figure 5.2: Balance and Sting Arrangement ........................................................................................ 48
Figure 5.3: Modifications to Mounting System.................................................................................... 48
Figure 5.4: Insertion Piece for Sting Arm ............................................................................................ 49
Figure 5.5: Solid Male Mould .............................................................................................................. 49
Figure 5.6: Fibre Glass Female Mould ................................................................................................. 50
Figure 5.7: Model Following Removal from the Female Mould ......................................................... 50
Figure 5.8: Removable Tail Section ..................................................................................................... 51
Figure 5.9: Plastic Ring for Mounting Tail .......................................................................................... 51
Figure 5.10: Final Model ...................................................................................................................... 52
Figure 5.11: Bow of Model with Turbulence Inducers Attached ......................................................... 52
Figure 5.12: HPMM installed in the AMC CWC (Fitzgerald, 2009) ................................................... 53
Figure 5.13: AMC Towing Tank Carriage (Fitzgerald, 2009) ............................................................. 53
Figure 5.14: In Water Calibration Set Up............................................................................................. 55
Figure 5.15: Typical Plot Generated by Labview................................................................................. 56
Figure 5.16: Repeatability Uncertainty as a Function of Speed ........................................................... 57
Figure 5.17: Y Force as a Function of Run Number ............................................................................ 58
Figure 6.1: CD as a Function of Fr for all Depths Tested ...................................................................... 59
Figure 6.2: CD as a Function of D* at Fr=0.13 ..................................................................................... 60
Figure 6.3: CD as a Function of D* at Fr=0.28 ..................................................................................... 60
Figure 6.4: CD as a Function of D* at Fr=0.36 ..................................................................................... 61
Figure 6.5: CD as a Function of D* at Fr=0.64 ..................................................................................... 61
Figure 6.6: CD as a Function of Fr at 2.2D* .......................................................................................... 62
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Figure 6.7: (1+k) as a function of Fr ..................................................................................................... 64


Figure 6.8: Cr as a Function of Fn at 1.1D* .......................................................................................... 64
Figure 6.9: Drag Components as a Function of Speed at 1.1D* ........................................................... 65

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ACRONYMS

AIP

Air Independent Propulsion

AMC

Australian Maritime College

AUV

Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

CFD

Computational Fluid Dynamics

CFL

Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy

CWC

Circulating Water Channel

DARPA

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

DES

Detached Eddy Simulation

DSTO

Defence Science and Technology Organisation

DTRC

David Taylor Research Centre

EFD

Experimental Fluid Dynamics

HPMM

Horizontal Planar Motion Mechanism

ITTC

International Towing Tank Conference

KCS

KRISO Container Ship

KRISO

Korea Research Institute for Ships and Ocean Engineering

LES

Large Eddy Simulation

LMG

Linear Motion Guide

NASA

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

PEM

Polymer Electrolyte Membrane

PIV

Particle Image Velocimetry

PMM

Planar Motion Mechanism

RANS

Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes

RMS

Root-mean-square

SHWG

Submarine Hydrodynamics Workgroup

SIMPLE

Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure Linked Equations

SMF

Stationary Moments Fitting

SSBN

Nuclear Powered Ballistic Submarine

SSK

Conventional Powered Submarine

SSN

Nuclear Powered Submarine

SST

Shear Stress Transport

STP

Submarine Technology Program

VOF

Volume of Fluid
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NOMENCLATURE
Symbol

Description

(1+k)

Form Factor

Courant Number

CD

Drag Coefficient  

CF

Frictional Coefficient 
 

CP

Pressure Coefficient  

CR

Residual Coefficient  

CT

Total resistance Coefficient (=CD)

CV

Viscous drag Coefficient  

Wall Shear Coefficient  

Diameter of Submarine

D*

Non-Dimensional Submergence,   

DF

Frictional Drag

DR

Residual Drag

DT

Total Drag

DV

Viscous Drag

Fr

Froude Number, !" 

Body Forces (fx fy fz)

Gravity, (taken as 9.81m/s)

Submergence Depth

Static Enthalpy

Kinetic Energy

Length of Submarine

L*

Non-Dimensional Length $ 

Pressure

)*

Rate of Volumetric Heat Added per Unit Mass

Re

Reynolds Number +, 

Temperature

Time


 

. 

 


 


 

 


 

#


&
% ('

-
.

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Free Stream Velocity

Velocity in the x Direction

/0

Velocity Fluctuation in u

Velocity in the y Direction

1 0

Velocity Fluctuation in v

Velocity in the w Direction

2 0

Velocity Fluctuation in u

Direction (see axis system)

Direction (see axis system)

Distance from the Wall

y+

Non-dimensional Distance from Wall to First Node 3 4 

Direction (see axis system)

Spacial Step

Time Step

First Node Height

Angle of Incidence

Boundary Layer Thickness

Rate of Turbulent Eddy Dissipation

Dynamics Viscosity

Frictional Velocity

Kinematic Viscosity

Density

Viscous Shear

Wall Shear

Scalar

Frequency of Large Eddies

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9
<
8 , &;

AXIS SYSTEM
Positive directions shown

Free Surface
L
H
D

Origin
rigin

INVESTIGATION INTO THE WAVE MAKING RESISTANCE OF A SUBMARINE TRAVELLING BELOW A


FREE SURFACE

Samual J. Wilson-Haffenden

ABSTRACT

It is widely understood that a deeply submerged submarine does not generate wave resistance. This
allows travel at high speeds without detection. Conventional submarines, however, are required to
travel close to the surface when snorkelling, resulting in the generation of surface waves, and thus
wave making resistance. At moderate to high speeds wave making resistance forms a significant
proportion of the total hydrodynamic resistance experienced by a vessel. This reduces the achievable
snorkeling speed of the boat, lessens overall endurance, and increases the chance of detection. To
fully understand the design and operation of conventional submarines, it is therefore important to
accurately predict the increased drag caused by a submarine travelling close to the surface.

BMT Design and Technology, the Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO), and the
Australian Maritime College (AMC) have undertaken a joint project to model the DARPA SUBOFF
submarine geometry. This was done using Reynolds Averaged Naiver Stokes (RANS) Computational
Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and then validated the result using experimental fluid dynamics (EFD).

Results show that the drag due to wavemaking can make up more than 50% of the total drag at a
critical Froude Number of 0.3. Simulations were performed using a structured hexahedral mesh at
depths ranging from 1.1D* to 5.5D* below the free surface at Froude Numbers ranging from 0.1280.640. The results show that CFX is able to accurately simulate the total drag on the hull across the
range. The average discrepancy of the drag coefficient between the (EFD) and the (CFD) is 5.4%,
however discrepancies of up to 13% were noted. Findings indicate that CFX can be used as a
powerful tool in the early stages of submarine design.

Used effectively, CFD holds the potential to predict the free surface effects, the flow around the body
in close proximity to the free surface, and also allow further research to be conducted in more
complicated areas such as; a fully-appended hull form or the effects of surface waves on the
submarine.

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