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An Investigation into the Wave Making Resistance of

a Submarine Travelling Below the Free Surface

Samual J. Wilson-Haffenden

October 2009

Supervisors: Martin Renilson & Dev Ranmuthugala

Thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree
of
Bachelor of Engineering (Naval Architecture)

National Centre for Maritime Engineering and Hydrodynamics

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Wilson-Haffenden October 2009 i . …………………………………………. I further declare that the work embodied in this project has not been accepted for the award of any other degree or diploma in any institution. college or university. Samual J.. and is not being concurrently submitted for any other degree or diploma award. to the best of my knowledge and belief. it contains no material previously published or written by another person. except where due reference is made in the text of the project.DECLARATION I hereby declare that the whole of this submission is my own work and the result of my own investigation and that.

........................................................ 11 Computational Fluid Dynamics ........... 24 2............................................................ 3 1............................... 1 1...................... 31 3...2.....................................................................3 2 Problem Definition ............................3...................................................................................................... 34 4..........................................2 Numerical Techniques ..2...................................................................................... 14 2.......................................................5 Grid independence.............................................................................................................................................................2..................................................................................................................................................1......................................................................................................................................... 13 2.....2 Computational Fluid Dynamics ......3........1 Background .....................................................1 2........................5 Gridding Techniques ......................................3. 28 2............. 13 2.................................... 39 4.................................................... 43 ii ............................................................................................ 33 Computational Fluid Dynamics Procedure .............. 10 2........................................ 34 4......................3 Turbulence Models ........................ 18 2............3 Free Surface Modelling ..........................................................................1 Software Selection .........................................................................................................................................................1 Fundamentals ................................................. 3 1..1 Boundary Conditions........... 31 3..........................................................3.........................................2.....................................................................................................................................................................................TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 Introduction ....................................................... 29 2...........................................................................................1 General Theory .................................................................................... 15 2.......................................................................................................................... 42 4......................................2 3 4 Drag Close to a Free Surface .....................................2..........1 Experimental ......2 Meshing .........................................................................................................................................................2................................................................................................................ 1 1..............................8 Time Steps ............................3 Modelling ............2............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 34 4.....................................................................2 Testing Range ...................4 Flow Visualization ..................................................2........1 Model Design ........................................................... 10 2.............3. 38 4................................................................................6 Numerical Solution of a Free Surface......7 Solution Procedure ............................................................. 38 4................... 5 1................ 9 Theory .....2.............................................................................2 Time Step Size ..................................................................................... 42 4.... 30 Approach .....................................................................................................4 Near Wall Modelling ....2 Literature Survey .....2..................................................

.. 66 7.................................6 Solution Time ..................................................................................................................................1 Results ...................... 47 5................................... 49 5.........................................3 Experimental Techniques ......................... 46 4................................................................. 59 6........ 47 5....2 Computational Fluid Dynamics Recommendations .....3 Equipment Calibration ...............................................................................................3............................ 54 5.............................. 53 5...................................................3..3............................................................................................................................................................3........................3....................................... 46 Experimental Fluid Dynamics Procedure ..................................................................................................................................................1 The HPMM and Sting ................................................................................................................................. 55 5................................................................................... 57 Discussion .............................................. 68 Annex A: Results .............. 56 5......................5 6 7 8 4...........................................................................................................................................................................................2 Model Design and Construction ......................1 HPMM Installation .............. 66 7.....2 Full Scale Relevance ..............................................................................7 Relaxation Factors ..................................................................................................................................... 63 Concluding Remarks and Recommendations ............................................................................................4 Recording of Data ............. 53 5...........3 Experimental Recommendations .........2 Model Installation ................... 67 References ................................... 66 7...........................................................................................................5 Uncertainty Analysis ........................... 59 6..................3................................................................................................... 73 iii ............................................................................................................................................................................................1 Concluding Remarks ..........................................................................................................3........

.......... 2007) ................. 34 iv ..................................................1: Required y+ for Various Turbulence Models (Ranmuthugala....... 2009) ................................... 1994) ..............................................................LIST OF TABLES Table 2.................................2: Structured Mesh Constructed in ANSYS ICEM .............. 2008)......... 2001) .....................1: Comparison of the Length to Diameter Ratio of Existing Submarines (Hazegray..7: Boundary Layer Profile (White........... 33 Figure 4......... 35 Table 4....................................16: 2D C Grid around a Cylinder (Widjaja....................................3: Relaxation Factors (Ackerman...... Unstructured Right (Wyman....... 2001) . 2007).. 32 Figure 3..1: Variation of CFD with respect to EFD ..11: Unstructured Grid (Wyman..................... 12 Figure 2. 2009) .14: 2D O Grid around a Cylinder (Widjaja..... 24 Figure 2.........................................10: Chimera Grid (Wyman................9: Block Structured Grid (Wyman............................... 2008).................3: Typical Surfaced Submarine Resistance Coefficient Curve (Burcher & Rydill.....1m Mullaya Model (Brady....................... 25 Figure 2.............. 28 Figure 3.............................. 26 Figure 2.................. 2001) ................................... 2008) ................... (b) Transition Flow.....2: Structured Mesh Advantages and Disadvantages (Quak..................................................... 4 Figure 1.................................1: Drag as a Function of Froude Number on the 1...........................2: Comparison of the Length to Diameter Ratio of Existing Submarines (Hazegray.... 25 Figure 2................ 55 Table 6.. 27 Figure 2...........1: Calibration Factors ...................................................................... 47 Table 5..................................................................... 5 Figure 2............... 27 Figure 2.............1: Drag Components for Constant Volume (Joubert................ 2007) .................................... 22 Figure 2............... 2006) ...................... 2007) .........................................4: (a) Laminar Flow...................... 16 Figure 2............15: O-Grid Inside a Cylinder (Widjaja............................... 2009) ...................4: Test Depths ............ 23 Table 3.... 2007).................... 20 Figure 2.....2: Kelvin Wave Pattern Patterns of a Point Disturbance................. 2009) ........................ 33 Table 4...........................13: 2D H Grid around a Cylinder (Widjaja 2009) ......... (c) Turbulent Flow (White............. 2004) ..........6: Velocity Distribution Near a Solid Boundary (White. 32 Figure 3....................3: SUBOFF (mm).... 15 Figure 2........................... 61 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.........................1: Unstructured Mesh Advantages and Disadvantages (Quak............................... 26 Figure 2......................... 10 Figure 2.1: Unstructured Mesh Constructed in ANSYS CFX Mesh .. 23 Figure 2...................... 12 Figure 2.................................................. 31 Figure 3...................... 2009) ................................. 2006) ...................... 2007) ............... 34 Figure 4........................................ 2001) .................................8: First Layer Height (ANSYS CFX........12: Hybrid Grid -Structured Left..........................................................................5: Laminar and Turbulent Flows Within a Pipe (White.........................................................1: Parameters of Scaled SUBOFF Model ................. 35 Table 4......................2: Mullaya Testing Rig (Brady...................

...2 Seconds...............................8: Removable Tail Section ....... 55 Figure 5........................................................................................... 48 Figure 5..................................36 .........................................12: Variation of CD as a function of Mesh Size ............................ 36 Figure 4...11: Bow of Model with Turbulence Inducers Attached ................................14: Cτ as a Function of x/L ....................................................13: AMC Towing Tank Carriage (Fitzgerald.....................1: CD as a Function of Fr for all Depths Tested ...... 39 Figure 4......................................... 37 Figure 4............................... 44 Figure 4........... 2009) .....................................28 ....14: In Water Calibration Set Up........ 56 Figure 5..............................7: Simulation Boundary Conditions ..........9: W-Momentum Residual Using a Time Step of 0..................7: Model Following Removal from the Female Mould ....................................................................................................................................................8: W-Momentum Residual Using a Time Step of 0................................ 44 Figure 4...........1: Conventional Strut Arrangement ......5: Solid Male Mould ..................9: Plastic Ring for Mounting Tail .........................................3: Modifications to Mounting System.................... 43 Figure 4.............................2: CD as a Function of D* at Fr=0......64 ..........1 Seconds....... 59 Figure 6...................................................................................10: Final Model .............................................................................................. 51 Figure 5......................................................................................................................13 ...................... 51 Figure 5.......................... 53 Figure 5............................................................................ 58 Figure 6. 2009) ...........................................................................2D* ...........................................................5: Computational Domain of Simulations.............................11: CD as a function of Mesh Size .................................................................................. 60 Figure 6......6: Fibre Glass Female Mould .................................................................................................................16: Repeatability Uncertainty as a Function of Speed ....................... 52 Figure 5.12: HPMM installed in the AMC CWC (Fitzgerald............ 57 Figure 5.............3: Demonstration of Angle Measurement .......1D* and a Fr of 0.....................2: Balance and Sting Arrangement .......17: Y Force as a Function of Run Number ..15: Typical Plot Generated by Labview..... 46 Figure 5......................................... 49 Figure 5.................................10: Pressure Due to Free Surface Elevations at 1.................................4: Element Aspect Ratio Determination...................... 47 Figure 5.......................................................................................................... 38 Figure 4..............4: Insertion Piece for Sting Arm ....................28 .............................................................. 37 Figure 4...................................... 41 Figure 4..................................5: CD as a Function of D* at Fr=0............................... 62 v ....... 61 Figure 6..................6: CD as a Function of Fr at 2.................................. 53 Figure 5..................... 61 Figure 6....................................... 48 Figure 5.......................... 60 Figure 6.Figure 4............................. 52 Figure 5.............. 45 Figure 4............ 49 Figure 5..................... 50 Figure 5..6: Free Surface Blocking ........................................................ 50 Figure 5.................................................................. 41 Figure 4...............................................................................................................................................13: CP as a Function of x/L ....4: CD as a Function of D* at Fr=0...........................15: Solution Time (wall clock) as a Function of Grid Size ........................................................................................................................ 45 Figure 4.................................................3: CD as a Function of D* at Fr=0..................................................

......................... 65 vi .....1D* ...........9: Drag Components as a Function of Speed at 1..7: (1+k) as a function of Fr ..1D* ............ 64 Figure 6............................................................................8: Cr as a Function of Fn at 1....................Figure 6...................................................... 64 Figure 6.................................................

ACRONYMS AIP Air Independent Propulsion AMC Australian Maritime College AUV Autonomous Underwater Vehicle CFD Computational Fluid Dynamics CFL Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy CWC Circulating Water Channel DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency DES Detached Eddy Simulation DSTO Defence Science and Technology Organisation DTRC David Taylor Research Centre EFD Experimental Fluid Dynamics HPMM Horizontal Planar Motion Mechanism ITTC International Towing Tank Conference KCS KRISO Container Ship KRISO Korea Research Institute for Ships and Ocean Engineering LES Large Eddy Simulation LMG Linear Motion Guide NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration PEM Polymer Electrolyte Membrane PIV Particle Image Velocimetry PMM Planar Motion Mechanism RANS Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes RMS Root-mean-square SHWG Submarine Hydrodynamics Workgroup SIMPLE Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure Linked Equations SMF Stationary Moments Fitting SSBN Nuclear Powered Ballistic Submarine SSK Conventional Powered Submarine SSN Nuclear Powered Submarine SST Shear Stress Transport STP Submarine Technology Program VOF Volume of Fluid vii .

 T Temperature t Time    . (taken as 9.81m/s) H Submergence Depth h Static Enthalpy k Kinetic Energy L Length of Submarine L* Non-Dimensional Length $  p Pressure )* Rate of Volumetric Heat Added per Unit Mass Re Reynolds Number +. !"  f Body Forces (fx fy fz) g Gravity. viii .    DF Frictional Drag DR Residual Drag DT Total Drag DV Viscous Drag Fr Froude Number.                  #  & % (' - .NOMENCLATURE Symbol Description (1+k) Form Factor C Courant Number CD Drag Coefficient   CF Frictional Coefficient    CP Pressure Coefficient   CR Residual Coefficient   CT Total resistance Coefficient (=CD) CV Viscous drag Coefficient   Cτ Wall Shear Coefficient   D Diameter of Submarine D* Non-Dimensional Submergence.

U Free Stream Velocity u Velocity in the x Direction /0 Velocity Fluctuation in u v Velocity in the y Direction 1 0 Velocity Fluctuation in v w Velocity in the w Direction 2 0 Velocity Fluctuation in u X Direction (see axis system) Y Direction (see axis system) y Distance from the Wall y+ Non-dimensional Distance from Wall to First Node 3 4  Z Direction (see axis system) ∆s Spacial Step ∆t Time Step ∆y First Node Height β Angle of Incidence δ Boundary Layer Thickness ε Rate of Turbulent Eddy Dissipation µ Dynamics Viscosity µt Frictional Velocity ν Kinematic Viscosity ρ Density τ Viscous Shear τw Wall Shear φ Scalar ω Frequency of Large Eddies ix ∆6 :&' 9 < √8 . . &.

AXIS SYSTEM Positive directions shown Free Surface L H D X Origin rigin Z H Y D Z x .

This reduces the achievable snorkeling speed of the boat.1D* to 5. the Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO). To fully understand the design and operation of conventional submarines. and thus wave making resistance.3. Conventional submarines. however. are required to travel close to the surface when snorkelling.4%. CFD holds the potential to predict the free surface effects. xi . it is therefore important to accurately predict the increased drag caused by a submarine travelling close to the surface. resulting in the generation of surface waves. a fully-appended hull form or the effects of surface waves on the submarine. This allows travel at high speeds without detection. This was done using Reynolds Averaged Naiver Stokes (RANS) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and then validated the result using experimental fluid dynamics (EFD). Wilson-Haffenden ABSTRACT It is widely understood that a deeply submerged submarine does not generate wave resistance. and increases the chance of detection. Findings indicate that CFX can be used as a powerful tool in the early stages of submarine design. Used effectively.5D* below the free surface at Froude Numbers ranging from 0. At moderate to high speeds wave making resistance forms a significant proportion of the total hydrodynamic resistance experienced by a vessel. however discrepancies of up to 13% were noted. The results show that CFX is able to accurately simulate the total drag on the hull across the range. lessens overall endurance.640. The average discrepancy of the drag coefficient between the (EFD) and the (CFD) is 5. Results show that the drag due to wavemaking can make up more than 50% of the total drag at a critical Froude Number of 0. Simulations were performed using a structured hexahedral mesh at depths ranging from 1.1280. and also allow further research to be conducted in more complicated areas such as.INVESTIGATION INTO THE WAVE MAKING RESISTANCE OF A SUBMARINE TRAVELLING BELOW A FREE SURFACE Samual J. BMT Design and Technology. the flow around the body in close proximity to the free surface. and the Australian Maritime College (AMC) have undertaken a joint project to model the DARPA SUBOFF submarine geometry.