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NAME

: SALIL SALVI

GRADE

: XI-B

ROLL NO

: 27

SUBJECT

: CHEMISTRY

TOPIC

: TO STUDY THE
PRESENCE OF
OXALATE IONS IN
GUAVA FRUIT

but only signifies the acceptance of the project for the purpose it is submitted for. Mrs. This does not necessarily endorse or accept every statement made or opinion expressed or conclusion drawn. Pranalee Chemistry teacher Acknowledgement . I have examined the project and hereby accord my approval of it as a study carried out and presented in the manner required for its acceptance.T Certificate his is to certify that Salil Salvi of class 11th B has satisfactorily completed the project in chemistry on Presence of Oxalate ions prescribed by the AISSCE course in the academic year 2014 -15.

encouragement. enthusiasm and inspiration made this work a master art and a joint enterprise. . necessary suggestions.I hereby acknowledge my deep sense of gratitude and indebtedness to Mrs. genius guidance. Pranalee (Chemistry) whose immense help. initiations.

unchanged.INVESTIGATORY PROJECT TO STUDY PRESENCE OF OXALATE IONS IN GUAVA AIM To study the presence of oxalate ions in guava fruit at different stages of ripening. It is not an essential molecule and is excreted from our body. Guavas Are plants in the Myrtle family (My tracheae) genus Psidium (meaning "pomegranate" in Latin). Introduction Guava is a common sweet fruit found in India and many other places around the world. similar to lemon rind but less in strength. Guavas have a pronounced and typical fragrance. The oxalate present in the body is excreted in the form of urine as waste. Too much of oxalate in our urine results in amedical condition called hyper oxaluria. primarily found in plants and animals. It is a carboxylic acid. this fruit is a rich source of oxalate ions whose content varies during the different stages of ripening. Rich in vitamin C. External sources like food also contribute to the accumulation of oxalate in our body. Our body either produces oxalate on its own or converts other molecules like Vitamin C to oxalate. commonly referred to as kidney stones. On ripening it turns yellow in color. . which contains about 100 species of tropical shrub. Diet is looked upon as a preventive measure in addition to medication to retreat kidney stones.

as determined by an indicator.Theory Oxalate ions are extracted from the fruit by boiling pulp with dilute H2SO4. or some multiple thereof (asin polyprotic acids). by titrating the solution with KMnO4 solution. it is possible to determine the exact amount that has been consumed when the endpoint is reached. who second centration is not known. This is ideally the same volume as the equivalence point. PROCEDURE (1) Weighed 50 g of fresh guava and crushed it to a fine pulp using pestleand mortar. the endpoint of a titration is the point at which the pH of the reactant is just about equal to7. He volume of added titrant at which the number of moles of titrant is equal to the number of moles of analyte. In the classic strong acid-strong base titration. (A) Apparatus 100 ml measuring flask Pestle & Mortar Beaker Burette Funnel Weighing machine Filter Papers (B) Chemicals 1. H2SO4 2. Using a calibrated burette or chemistry pipetting syringe to add the titrant. (N/10) KMnO4 solution (C) Guava fruits at different stages of ripening. called the titrant. The oxalate ions are estimated volumetrically.dil. and often when the solution takes on a persisting solid colour as in the pink of phenolphthalein indicator. (2) Transferred the crushed pulp to a beaker and added about 50 ml dilute H2SO4 to it. . A reagent. of a known concentration (a standard solution) and volume is used to react with a solution of the analyte or titrand. The endpoint is the point at which the titration is complete.

In such a case. In order to get some idea about the temperature of the solution touch the flask with the back side of your hand. Observations 1. Avoid the use of burette having a rubber tap as KMnO4 attacks rubber. the required temperature is reached. throw away the solution and titrate again. H2SO4 to the guava extract to be titrated (say a full test tube) before adding KMnO4 . (5) Took 20 ml of the solution from the flask and added 20 ml of dilute sulphuric acid to it. on addition of KMnO4 a brown ppt. . In case. Normality of KMnO4 solution was (1/10). Precautions There should be no parallax while taking measurements. Read the upper meniscus while taking burette reading with KMnO4solution. Weight of the guava fruit for each time was 50 g. Volume of guava extract taken for each titration was 20 ml. (4) Made up the volume 100 ml by adding ample amount of distilled water. appears. When it becomes sun bearable to touch. Cooled and filtered the contents in a 100 ml measuring flask. (7) Repeated the above experiment with 50 g of 1day.(3) Boiled the content for about 10 minutes. 2 day and 3 day old guava fruits. this shows that either H2SO4 has not been added or has been added in sufficient amount. (6) Heated the mixture to about 600C and titrated it against (n/10) KMnO4 solution taken in a burette till the end point had an appearance of pink colour. Spillage of chemicals should be checked. Add about an equal volume of dil. 3. 2.

8 139.581 g L-1 2) For semi ripened guava (1 day old).2 136. Calculations 1) For raw guava N1V1 = N2V2 N1 x 10 = (1/10) x132 1/10 x Normality of oxalate = (x/100) = strength of oxalate in fresh guava extract = normality x Eq.Strength of oxalate in one day old guava extract= (1.4. END POINT: Colour Changes to pink GuavaSol ution Burettereading FinalRea Initial ding Raw 150 18 Volum ConcurrentRe e ading ofKMn O4 132 semiripened 150 13 137 Ripened 150 10. mass of oxalate ion= 1.37 /100) x 44g/ litre of diluted extract= 0.32/100 x 44g/litre of diluted extract= 0. which is close to the literature value of 60 percent. It was also noticed that the content of oxalic ions grows with ripening of guava.06 The content of oxalate ions in guava was found to be 59.612g L-1 .603 g L-1 3) For ripened guava Strength of oxalate in fresh guava extract= ( 1.39/100) x 44g/ litre of diluted extract=0.67 per cent.

58 ml (ii) Semi-ripened guava is = 0.39 ml (b) The strength of oxalate ions of.06 .67 per cent.37 ml (iii) Ripened guava solution is = 1. It was also noticed that the content of oxalic ions grows with ripening of guava. END POINT: Colour Changes to pink GuavaSol ution Burettereading FinalRea Initial ding Raw 150 18 Volum ConcurrentRe e ading ofKMn O4 132 semiripened 150 13 137 Ripened 150 10.RESULTS (a) The normality of oxalate ions of.60 ml (iii) Ripened guava is = 0.8 139. 4. (i) Fresh guava solution is = 1. (i) Fresh guava solution is = 0.2 136. which is close to the literature value of 60 percent.32 ml (ii) Semi-ripen guava solution is = 1.61 ml Conclusions The content of oxalate ions in guava was found to be 59.

67 per cent.39 ml (b) The strength of oxalate ions of.32/100 x 44g/litre of diluted extract= 0.37 ml (iii) Ripened guava solution is = 1. (i) Fresh guava solution is = 0. Calculations 1) For raw guava N1V1 = N2V2 N1 x 10 = (1/10) x132 1/10 x Normality of oxalate = (x/100) = strength of oxalate in fresh guava extract = normality x Eq. which is close to the literature value of 60 percent.61 ml Conclusions The content of oxalate ions in guava was found to be 59. .Strength of oxalate in one day old guava extract= (1.67 per cent.The content of oxalate ions in guava was found to be 59. which is close to the literature value of 60 percent.603 g L-1 3) For ripened guava Strength of oxalate in fresh guava extract = ( 1.32 ml (ii) Semi-ripen guava solution is = 1.612g L-1 RESULTS (a) The normality of oxalate ions of. (i) Fresh guava solution is = 1.39/100) x 44g/ litre of diluted extract=0. It was also noticed that the content of oxalic ions grows with ripening of guava. mass of oxalate ion= 1.581 g L-1 2) For semi ripened guava (1 day old). It was also noticed that the content of oxalic ions grows with ripening of guava.37 /100) x 44g/ litre of diluted extract= 0.60 ml (iii) Ripened guava is = 0.58 ml (ii) Semi-ripened guava is = 0.

Bibliography answers : Wikipedia. Google. wiki .