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A Survey on Fast Food Consumption

Behaviour among University Students

By:
Tay Tun Khong (MEM120191)
Wan Muhamad Amir bin Wan Md Zin
(MEM120197)
Nor Shela binti Sayonor (MEM120125)
Nadhirah binti Abdul Aziz (MEM120113)
Len En Yean (MEM120071)
Muhamad Hanif bin Puteh Wahab (MEM120098)

Supervisor:
Dr. Rosie Pamela Shashikala David
Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine,
Universiti Malaya

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The members of elective group 21 want to use this opportunitywould like to express our
gratitude to everyone who have supported us throughout this period of elective project. We are
thankful for their aspiring guidance, invaluabley and constructive criticism and along with a friendy
advice during the project work. We are sincerely grateful to them for sharing their truthful and
illuminating views on a number of issues related to the project.
We would like to express our deepest appreciation to Dr. Rosie Pamela Shashikala David for
her unrelenting guidance and moral support throughout carrying out the project, ; she was willing to
supervise us in this elective, meet with us several times to discuss about the progress of our project
and direct us into successfully completing our report.
Furthermore, we are very thankful to Prof. Dr Wong Li Ping and Miss Tong Wen Ting for their
guidance and support in executing this research study.
Lastly, thank you to all the members of our team for their co-operation, teamwork spirit,
tolerance and perseverance in completing this research study.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
No.

Contents

Pages

1

Objective

1

2

Introduction

1-2

3

Materials and Methods

3-4

4

Results

5-20

5

Discussions and conclusions

21-22

6

References

23

OBJECTIVE

Today. by contrast. promote weight gain. (but 34% of energy intake how is this related to the earlier 27% eating occasion?? Should it be ‘comprising of’ instead of ‘but’??) . food choices. cardiovascular disease as well as and cancers. easy to get and while some have more money to spend. nevertheless. high fat and high sodium content. has been shown to increase caloric intake. or schooling extended hours. Most adolescents consume diets that are higher in fat and lower in fruit and vegetables than recommended. body weight as well as personal. In 1995. others find it as a way of socializing with friends. McDonald’s and Subway are available all over the world. Malaysia is ranked sixth in the Asia-Pacific region for obesity and tops the list in South-East Asia for both obesity and diabetes (WHO Press. which is associated with high sugar. Fast food. Today. In our country. fast food accounted for 27% of eating occasions. McDonald's is located in 126 countries on 6 continents and operates over 31.The purpose of this project was to examine the cross-sectional associations between fast food consumption with variables such as nutrient intake. INTRODUCTION Rapid development coupled with globalization has resulted in the emergence of fast food culture. 10 . the frequency of obesity has risen at an alarming rate in all ages and ethnic groups. While some fast food restaurant chains’ effort to reinvent them to be more “healthy”. in a community-based sample of university students. 2013). 2010). Fast food is has gaineding popularity due to a couple of reasons.Wwhile home cooked foods comprised of 31% fat. They have less time to cook and fast foods are quick. The clever marketing strategy by fast food restaurant chains has also contributed to their rapid expansion. fast food has become a prominent feature in the diet of both children and adults. on shifts. and elevate the risk for diabetes (Poti et al.fast foods comprised of 38% fat energy.000 restaurants worldwide (BBC World service). fast food is still regarded as the driving force behind the epidemic of diet-related health conditions. For instance. because pPeople these days are working longer hours. behavioral and environmental variables. many of the biggest American fast food brands such as KFC. hypercholesterolemia. . Highfat diets leads to a variety of negative health consequences including obesity. As a result.

and could provide useful descriptive information for potential interventions. fast food restaurants have brilliant marketing strategies such as providing 24 hours services and fast delivery to their customers. The 1995 National College Health Risk Behaviour Survey found that 74% of college students did not eat the recommended amounts of fruits and vegetables per day and 22% had eaten 3 or higher more fat foods daily12??. Most of the students in University of Malaya stay in the residential colleges located in the campus. The hectic life of university students together with the availability and affordability of fast food makes it a popular choice among students. . students opt to eat outside. behavioral and environmental variables. Fast food is a very renowned choice among university students as it offers variation in terms of menus as well as provides foods with affordable prices. The residential colleges do not provide any facilities to cook. as belief and behavior practiced during college may last topass on into adulthood and influence future their health status in the future. behavioral and psychosocial factors among adolescents and its association with the frequency of consumption at fast food restaurants could help identify whether this widespread sociocultural phenomenon is of concern. food choices.The subject of our interest is the students of University of Malaya. thus. Nutrition professionals are concerned of about these behaviours due to dietary knowledge. with respect to young adults’ nutrition. Hence. A better understanding of the nutritional. Tthe purpose of this project was to examine the cross-sectional associations between fast food consumption with variables such as nutrient intake. in a community-based sample of university students. and body weight as well as personal. Most dietary intake of college students does not meet daily requirements for most of the food groups11???. Moreover.

25 questions questionnaire consisted of 3 pages with 25 questionswas developed. The questions asked were related to are were self-perception on being overweight (yes or no). selfdescription on whether they are currently trying to lose weight/on a diet (yes or no). fair. environmental and consumption behaviour factors associated with dietary intake. Personal variables. The questionnaire assessed a variety of personal. 6 Indians.MATERIALS AND METHODS Subjects Thise study was conducted among the students of UniversitiUniversity Malaya which consists consisted of 138 students. Behavioural variables. 43 Chinese. There were 81 Malays. 1-2 days per week or more than 3 days per week) . . Frequency of students exercise wasis assessed per week ( 0 days per week. fairly concerned or very concerned). the extent of going for any medical check-up in the past 12 months (yes or no). if yes. age ranged from 18 to 23 years old. the students reportsed on their overall health self-description (poor. the extent to which they were concerned about their health (not at all concerned. slightly concerned. The respondents consisted of 56 males and 81 females. 5 Kadazandusun and 1 Bajau. whether students are engaged in any kind of sports ( yes or no. They were recruited from various faculties from July to August 2014. good or excellent).(Check the numbers!!!) Questionnaire development The A 3-page. behavioral..

23. awareness on association of fast food consumption with obesity and noncommunicable diseases ( yes or no ). yogurt drink. monitor on nutrient intake from consumption of fast food ( yes or no ) . place to socialize. FFCF was used as a 3-levels indepedent variables. Fast Food Consumption Frequency in the past week (FFCF) was examined in relation to demographic. chocolate drink. lunch. Statistical analyses All analyses were conducted using IBM SPSS Statistic 22. . fruit juice. 10The BMIs of the subjects were compared with the federals standards for BMI categorization 11 :less than 18. behavioral and fast food consumption variables.0 to 27. variety. type of meal usually ordered at a fast food restaurant (combo meals. no drink or others) . fried chicken.specify) . addiction.5- 22. sandwich. stress and anxiety or others) . personal. or snack in-between meals) . preferred meal time preferred to eat fast food (breakfast. Environmental variables. 1-2 times or more than 3 times) . carbonated diet soda. permissive. carbonated soda. Respondents provided self-reported anthropometric measurements.5 and greater =obese. Frequency of eating fast food is was assessed in a week (never. Body mass indices (BMIs) were calculated as the weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters. ice-cream. awareness of nutritional values and the ingredient contents of fast food meals (yes or no ) .9=normal. a la carte or others) . reasons for choosing to eat fast food ( taste. drink choices (mineral water. uninvolved or neutral). convenience. number of hours per week spent for television/video games / computer / tablet and reading / studying / doing homework. Parenting style was examined (authoritarian. 18. pizza. nutritional value. In a statistical model. food choices (burger. Consumption behavior variables. dinner. opinion on fast food healthiness ( yes or no) .4=overweight and 27.5 = underweight. milk shake. French fries or others) . cost. ice lemon tea.

correlation of normal variable are found using one way ANOVA and correlation of ordianal and interval variables are found using Kruskal-Wallis test.05 were regarded as statisticalylly significant. RESULTS Personal Variables • BMI • Self-perception of over-weight • Attempt to lose weight • Medical check-up • Concern of own health • Perceived Health • Parenting style .Correlation of categorical variables are found using Chi-square test. Only result with p<0.

χ²(2.5 – 34. Insert for all the graphs. P=0.9 State what the Y AND X axis stands for.5 Normal range 18. Y:Number of Students? X: Number of times fast food consumed.4 Obese I 27. pre-obese and obese.19. There is no significant relationship between fast food consumption frequency and BMI group. 5 persons are underweight.79 Why was 2 stats done? Any diff? For those who never eat ate fast food. the Rrespondents’ BMI is thenwas regrouped into 4 categories: underweight. (*Really found those who never ate???)For those with fast food .5 – 22. There is was no significant relationship between fast food consumption frequency and Body Mass Index (BMI) [F (2.9 Overweight ≥23 Pre-Obese 23. average. A Chi-squared test was then conducted. BMI Classification BMI (kg/m²) Underweight <18.51 For ease of understanding. p=0.1. Improve Graph title.69. Eg: Fast food consumption frequency relating to Body Mass Index (BMI) A one-way ANOVA was conducted. 4 persons are average.9 Obese II 35.134) =0. N=137)=3.0 – 27. 5 persons are pre-obese and 1 person is obese.0 – 39.

28 persons are pre-obese and 5 persons are obese. χ² (2. p=0. 2. 26.8% do not perceived themselves as over-weight. I am not very familiar here.96 For those who never eat fast food. For those with fast food consumption frequency 1-2 times. Pls have the stats lecturer see the way you have presented your stat analysis report. Self-perception of overweight Perceive not perceived Y axis? X axis? Number of times respondent perceived themselves as over-weight. A chi-square test was performed and no relationship was found between fast food consumption frequency and self-perception of over-weight. 18 persons are underweight. 16 persons are average . N=137) =0.consumption frequency 1-2 times. 8 persons are underweight.3% do not perceived themselves as over-weight. For those with fast food consumption frequency more or equal to 3 times.94. For those with fast food consumption frequency more or equal to 3 times. 7 persons are pre-obese and 2 persons are obese. 27% perceived themselves as over-weight while the other 73% do not perceived themselves as over-weight. 24. . 38 persons are average.7% perceived themselves as over-weight while the other 73.2% perceived them as over-weight while the other 75.

40% are currently in on diet while 60% are not in on the diet.3% is currently in on diet while 69.612.3. 30. p=0. Respondents’ attempt to lose weight A chi-square test was performed and no relationship was found between fast food consumption frequency and the attempt to lose weight.74 For those who never eat ate fast food. .7% are not in on diet. N=137) =0. 37% are currently in on diet while 63% are not in on diet. For those with fast food consumption frequency of 1-2 times. For those with fast food consumption frequency of more or equal to 3 times. χ² (2.

Shouldn’t it be whether they go for medical check up independently? You can just report your finding below without reporting the relationship? For those who never eat ate fast food.3% do not undergo any medical check-up. 26. while the other 50. 73.19 I don’t think you want to find about ‘relationship between fast food consumption frequency and medical checkup’.6 % don’t. Respondents’ Attendance to Medical Check-up Did not do A chi-square test was performed and no relationship was found between fast food consumption frequency and medical checkup.7 % undergo any medical check-up in the past 12 months.37. N=137)=3.4.4 % undergo any medical check-up in the past 12 months. For . χ²(2. For those with fast food consumption frequency 1-2 times. 49. p=0.

χ2(2) = 2.those with fast food consumption frequency more or equal to 3 times.14.34 .5 % undergo any medical check-up in the past 12 months while the other 45.5 % do not. 54. Perceived Health Score X axis A Kruskal-Wallis H test showed that there was no statistically significant difference in perceived health score between groups of fast food consumption frequency. p = 0. 5.

p = 0.40 Among the Malay races. 18% in excellent. Sometimes you can report as ‘number of respondent’ instead of % all the time. Why report only on Malay students? Was there no other races? .75) is significantly different than thegroup which who eatate 1-2 times (Mean rank score = 37. 64% in good health and 12% in excellent health. Concern of Own Health Are you concerned aboutof your own health? Fast Food Frequency (Malay) Mean Rank Never 1-2 times ≥ 3 times 56. 17% in fair health. 21% in fair health.3% in felt excellent healthwise. 6. However.06 47. 20% felt that they have a in fair health. For those with fast food consumption frequency of more or equal to 3 times. 0%none of the respondents perceived that they are in poor health. 65% in good health.29. For those with consumed fast food consumption at a frequency of 1-2 times.06). I don’t understand. the group which who eatate more than 2 times (Mean rank score = 47.03 Comparison between 2 groups indicated that thegroup who which never eat ate fast food (Mean rank score = 56.40) does not have had a significant difference with thewhen compared to other groups. 46. χ 2 (2) = 7. a Kruskal-Wallis H test showed that there was a statistically significant difference between self-perception of concern of health and fast food consumption frequency. 0% of the respondents perceived that they are in poor health.7% felt that they are in good health and 33.75 37.For those who never eat ate fast food. 3% of the respondents perceived that they are in poor health.

N=137)=3. Parenting style Y axis? X axis? Type of parents?A chi-square test was performed and no relationship was found between fast food consumption frequency and parenting style.69 .87.7. p=0. χ²(6.

4% are uninvolved. 7% are described their parents as uninvolved. 69% are neutral. For those with fast food consumption frequency of more than or equal to 3 times.For those who never eat ate fast food. 9% of the parenting style are authoritarian. 80% of the respondents felt that their parents were neutalparenting style are neutral. and 18% are permissive. Behavioural Variables • Exercise Frequency • Involvement in sports • Amount of time spent on electronic gadgets • Amount of time spent on studying • Amount of time spent of sedentary activities (electronic gadgets + studying) . 9% are uninvolved and 24% are permissive. and 13% are permissive. 58% are neutral. For those with fast food consumption frequency 1-2 times. 9% of their parentings style are authoritarian.

1.Exercise Frequency in one week .

48% do did exercise 1-2 times per week. p=0. . 33.X axis : Number of days respondent exercised A chi-square test was performed and no relationship was found between fast food consumption frequency and the number of days exercise frequencywas carried out. N=137)=1.3% exercised more than 3 days per week. 33% does did not exercise at all in a week. For those with fast food consumption frequency of 1-2 times. 39% does did not exercise at all in a week.90 For those who never eat ate fast food.3% do did exercise 1-2 days per week.3% does did not exercise at all in a week. while the other 18% exercised more than 3 days per week. while the other 19% exercised more than 3 days per week. while the other 13. For those with fast food consumption frequency of more or equal to 3 times. 42% do did exercise 1-2 days per week. χ²(4.09. 53.

For those with who consumed fast food consumption frequency more than or equal to 3 times. For those who consumed with fast food consumption frequencyfor about 1-2 times per week. χ²(2. while the other 30% are engaged in anydid some sports activity. p=0. 70% of them weredo not engaged in any kind of sports. while the other 47% are were engaged in any somekind of sports. . 53% of the respondents do were not engaged in any sports. while the other 30% are were engaged in any sports. N=137)=1.2.64. 70% do did not engaged with in any sports.44 For those who never eat ate fast food. Engagement in sports X axis? Y axis? A chi-square test was performed and no relationship was found between fast food consumption frequency and involvement in sport.

mean score of group who that never eat ate fast food [M=31. then can mention in the M&M itself). SD= 30.21 34. tablets) Fast Food Frequency (Malay) Mean (hours per week? Per day?) Never 1-2 times ≥ 3 times 31.013] I don’t understand.81.30 One way ANOVA: Among Malay races (if only one race.30. p=0.05 level [F (2. there is significant difference for three groups of different fast food consumption frequency at p < 0.00 18. SD= 15.768].3.590. However. 4. 79) =4.42 . computer.25 One way ANOVA: 1-2 times ≥ 3 times 12. Time spent on Studying Fast Food Frequency (Male) Never Mean (hours) 7.671] was significantly different than when compared to the group who which ateeat fast food for more than 3 times [M=34.734] was nothas no significantly differentce from with the other 2 groups.00. SD= 19. Post-hoc comparison using Turkey HSD Test indicated that the mean score for the group who that ateeat fast food for 1-2 times [M=18.90 30. Usage of electronic gadget (television.

05 level [F (2. SD= 8. Time Spent on Sedentary Activities Fast Food Frequency (Male) Never Mean (hours) 30. SD= 3. p=0. p=0. However.54) is was significantly different than from the group who that eat ate more than 3 times (M=63. SD=22.032).255] was significantly different than from the group who that eat ate fast food for more than 3 times [M=30.Among male.25. 52=3.00 Study also included the correlation between fast food consumption and the time spent on sedentary activities such as……… One way ANOVA: Among male. Post-hoc comparison using Turkey HSD Test indicated that the mean score for the group who that ateeat fast food for 1-2 times (M=32.01]. . However.668.79 63.42.00. 53) =5.90.79. SD= 33.05 level [F (2. tThere is was a significant difference for between the three groups of different fast food consumption frequency at p < 0.25 1-2 times ≥ 3 times 32. SD=23. Post-hoc comparison using Turkey HSD Test indicated that the mean score for the group who that eat ate fast food for 1-2 times [M=12.271].48).25. the mean score of for the group who which never eat ate fast food [M=7. the mean score of the group who which diddoes not eat fast food was ??? (M=30. for three groups of different fast food consumption frequency at p < 0.67.92).304] has had no significant difference when compared with the other 2 groups. 5. there is A significant difference was found present among the respondents from the 3 groups in terms of the time spent on studying . SD=60.

Fast Food Consumption Behaviour • Type of Food Ordered • Type of Beverages Ordered • Reason to Eat Fast Food • When Time whento Eat Fast Food was eaten • Type of Meal Ordered • Opinion on Healthiness (???Health concern regarding fast food?)) of Fast Food • Knowledge of the nutritional values and the ingredient contents of fast food meals • Monitoring of nutritional status of fast food by taking account to their own daily requirement • Awareness of Association of Fast Food and Non-communicable disease .

1. What do you usually order at the fast food restaurant? (You may select more than one of the following) Y axis: Type of food? X axis: Number of respondents? Burger 95 27% Fried Chicken 79 23% Pizza 46 13% Sandwich 18 5% Ice Cream 45 13% French Fries 66 19% Other 0 0% .

The most common type of food ordered at a fast food restaurant is was burger (27%). followed by fried chicken (23%). ice cream (13%) and least common is was sandwich (5%). 2. pizza (13%). French fries (19%). What drink do you usually order with your meal? Mineral water 39 15% Carbonated drink 63 25% Iced lemon tea 56 22% Fruit juice 37 15% Yogurt drink 22 9% Chocolate drink 19 7% Milk shake 12 5% No drink 3 1% Other 4 2% .

1%A small number of students (1%) did does not order any drink and while 2% ordered other drinks. iced lemon tea (22%). mineral water (15%). chocolate drink (7%) and least common is milk shake (5%). 3. fruit juice (15%).The most common type of drink ordered at a fast food restaurant is was carbonated drink (25%). When do you usually have your meals at the fast food restaurant? Breakfast 4 3% Lunch 49 32% Dinner 84 54% Snacks in-between meals 18 12% . yogurt drink (9%).

Reasons for choosing to eat fast food. 12% consumed as snacks in-between meals while the other 3% during breakfast. (You may select more than one from the following) . 4. 32% during lunch.Our study shows that tThe most common time respondents patronisedhaving fast food restaurants is during dinner with (54%).

Twenty-four percent24% said that felt that it is was convenientce to eat fast food. Seven percent7% choose because of the cost and to release stress and anxiety. . while 14% choose based on the variety of the fast food offered and.Taste 78 28% Cost 19 7% Variety 38 14% Convenience 68 24% Nutritional value 4 1% Addiction 16 6% Place to socialize 33 12% Stress and Anxiety 20 7% Other 3 1% Based on the graph. %. . while 6% due toreasoned addiction to fast food and 1% due to other reasonhad no particular reason. we can see that the most common reasons for choosing fast food is was because of the taste with(?) 28%.. 12% said thatfound it is a place where they can socialize with other people.

N=137)=0. while 28 respondents (20%) preferred to order a la carte. χ²(2. p=0.97. .5. 110 respondents (80%) preferred to order combo meals.62 Based on the survey. Type of meal ordered A chi-square test was performed and no relationship was found between fast food consumption frequency and type of meal ordered. The reason that may influence the respondents to order combo meals most could probably be due to the fact thatbecause of the price offered for combo meals are usually much cheaper compared to a la carte.

78. . Modify your pie chart A chi-square test was performed and no relationship was found between fast food consumption frequency and the opinion on the whetherhealthiness of fast food was healthy. Approximately 92% of the respondents think thought that fast food is was healthy while 8% of the respondents think thougth that fast food is was unhealthy. Perception on fast food whether it is healthy or not. p=0. N=137)=3. χ²(2.6.16.

while the other 32% are were not aware of it.7. p=0.13 Overall. 68% of the respondents were aware of the nutritional values and the ingredient contents of fast food meals. Awareness on the nutritional values and ingredient contents of fast food meals. A chi-square test was performed and no relationship was found between fast food consumption frequency and the awareness on the nutrients and ingredients in the fast food. N=137)=4. .05. χ²(2.

N=137) =10. had awill have higher tendency to monitor whether the nutrients intake is was appropriate to the daily requirement. For those with fast food consumption frequency of 1-2 times.7% There is a significant relationship between fast food consumption frequency and monitoring of nutritional status of fast food χ² (2.65. Monitoring of nutritional status in fast food Fast Food Frequency Never 1-2 times ≥ 3 times No 0% 40. p=0. 100% doall of them monitored the nutritional status in fast food.0% 59.3% Yes 100.2% 41. only 59% monitored the nutritional status in fast food while the other 41% do did not monitor the nutritional status. For those who never eat ate fast food.01 Respondents who have had a lower frequency of fast food consumption .8.8% 58. For those with fast food .

which was statistically higher than the group with FFCF 1-2 times (mean = 18.90 hours.45 hours on electronic gadgets. group with FFCF (if you use abbreviations. Among Malay races. are more concerned of their health (MR= 56. 42% of the respondents monitored the nutritional status in fast food while the other 58% do did not monitor the nutritional status. However. DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS Personal Variables There is a strong association between fast food consumption frequency and self-concern about health among Malay (?)races. fast food consumption frequency has shown no relationship with Body Mass Index (BMI). group with FFCF ≥ 3 times spent longer times on studying (M=30. Those who are more health concerned are more likely to monitor their diet and hence.05). Behavioural Variables: No association was found between fast food consumption frequency and time spent on physical activities as well as involvement in sport. This is maybecould be due to be both BMI and heatlh are both influenced by multifactorial variables and their association with fast food cannot be observed in short term.75) compared to the group who that ateeat fast food 1-2 times per week (MR=37. attendance on for medical check-up. Among male participants.42 hours) while the group with FFCF 1-2 times has had shorter studying time (M= 12.weight. must shown what it stands for for thr 1st time) ≥ 3 times spent an average of 30. perceived health score and parenting style.consumption frequency of more than or equals to 3 times.35 hours). self-perception of over-weight. Malay rRespondents who consumed more fast food has had stronger fixation to electronic gadgets. The Ggroup who which never consumed fast food. shun away from fast food. attempt to lose weight. .

However. the group who that ateeat more fast food will have higher tendency to spend most of their time on sedentary activities. Among those who have knowledged of the nutritional values and ingredients of fast food. those who eat ate lesser fast food are more health-conscious.7% of them will monitored whilst. and awareness on association of fast food with noncommunicable diseases. and therefore will monitor their diet status.7%) will take would make an effort to monitor. . All respondents who never eat ate fast food in the past week monitored the nutrient content of fast food???. opinion on healthiness whetherof fast food was healthy. Among male participants. it was found that those who consumed less fast food will were more prone to monitor whether the nutrient intake from fast food is was appropriate to with their own daily requirements.Comparison of time spent on sedentary activities (what activities?)) was made. and many thought thatthink than fast food isn’t not healthy.00 hours) while the group with FFCF 1-2 times has had shorter average time (M= 32. knowledge of nutritional values and ingredients contents of fast food. it was found that a vast majority of respondents prefered to order combo meals. Taken together.79 hours). the group with FFCF ≥ 3 times spent longer times on sedentary activities (M=63. In conclusion. ?How many? acknowledged the nutritional values and ingredients of in the fast food and some were aware of the association of between fast food with and non-communicable disease (????no data ???)Explain?. In the group who which ateeat 1-2 times. only less than half (41. Fast food consumption behavior: There is was no significant relationship between fast food consumption frequency between and type of meals ordered. in male thepopulation. . 59.

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