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A STUDY OF CHOPIN'S PIANO SONATA

NO. 3 IN B MINOR, OP. 58, WITH
SUGGESTIONS FOR PERFORMANCE
D.M.A. Document
Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Degree Doctor of Musical Arts in the
Graduate School of The Ohio State University
By
Janida Dhuvabhark, B.A., M.M.

******
The Ohio State University
1992
Document Committee:

Approved by

Rosemary Platt, D.M.A., Adviser
Jerry Lowder, D.M.E., Co-Adviser
Donald Gren, D.M.A.

Adviser

n[-~
Co-Adviser
School of Music

To My Parents

I I

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I express appreciation to Dr. Jerry E. Lowder for his helpful
advice, patience, and encouragement throughout the preparation of this document. His time and valuable recommendations are
greatly appreciated. I also wish to express my gratitude to Dr.
Rosemary Platt, for her guidance and support during my study in
the United States. I am grateful to my present piano teacher, Dr.
Donald Gren, for his helpful contributions to my piano playing.
Deep gratitude is also expressed to my former piano teacher,
Andre Laplante, for his outstanding teaching and inspiration. To
Dr. Lora Gingerich is extended my thanks for her music theory
classes during my first year at the Ohio State University.
Finally, I would like to thank my grandparents, my parents,
my sister, and my brother for their love, understanding, and
encouragement. Without them, I would not have come this far.

I II

................... B...Bangkok.M......... M.....................VITA July 13.... Columbus.............. Thailand 1984......................... Bangkok... Ohio IV ............ in Music Education......A................. in Piano Performance The Ohio State University... 1962 .... Born...... Thailand 1988..... Chulalongkorn University....

Donald Gren Studies in Piano Pedagogy Dr. Rosemary Platt. Jerry Lowder Studies in Music Theory Dr.FIELDS OF STUDY Major Field: Music Studies in Piano Performance Dr. Donald Gren Studies in Piano Literature Dr. Lora Gingerich v . Andre Laplante. Prof. Dr.

Longo l4 Sonata ln F. 2 L. FEBRUARY 26. Longo 463 Sonata ln G. WElGEL HALL AUDlIORlUM J A N I D A D H U V A B H A R K. Dliuvab11ark. Longo 99 D. Book I La fiHe au:c c11eveux de tin.H. 1989 8100 P. No. Scarlatt l Sonata ln D. Schumann I N T E RHI S S l 0 N Fantasle-lmpromptu ln C-sharp mlnor. Ai iegro AHegretto Presto "t\begg" Varlatlon. Book II VI Debussy .se•1ted i•1 part iai fulfillment fo1• the de. Opus 66 Three Preludes F.gree Doctor of Mus ica i Arts for Ms. V. La Cathedrale engloutie. Book I Feux d'artifice.T H · E OHIO 5IATE UNIVERSITY College of the Arts School of Music GRADUATE STUDENT RECITAL SERIES SUNDAY. Longo 103 Sonata ln D. Chopln c. Beethoven . Opus l R.citat is pre. PROGRAM Sonata ln B-flat. Opus 10. P I A N0 This re.

3 In B minor. Dl1uvabhark. t1011 lanlo. Op. 1990 4:00P. 488 W. PROGRAM Concerto In A major. March 8.M. K. Weigel Hall Auditorium JANIDA DHUVABHARK. Piauo This recital is presented ill partial fulfillment fur Ille degree Doctor of Musical Aris for Ms.~ UNIVERSITY College of llie Arts School of Music GRADUATE STUDENT RECITAL SERIES Thursday. Agilato VII . Piano MING SHAN KONG.A. Mozart Allegro A11da11le Presto INTERMISSION Sonata No. 58 F.Chopin Allegro maesloso Sc11erzo: Mollo vivace Largo Finale: Presto.

. Dhuvabhark PROGRAM Sonata No.. Weigel Hall Auditorium JANIDA DHUV ADHARK................... Op...........24 ("Spring") .. l ....m....... Op...5 in F.......... cello This recital is i11 partial fuljillmem for the degree Doctor of Musical Arts/or Ms....... Ludwig van Beethoven Allegro Adagio molto espressivo Scherzo-Allegro molto Ro11do-Allegro ma 11011 iroppo (1770-1827) Sonata in D. Serge Prokofieff Moderato Presto A11da11te Allegro co11 brio (1891-1953) Dorimme ra.College of the Arts School of Music GRADUATE STUDENT RECITAL SERIES Thursday..senger.. Op.......... Ludwig van Beethoven Allegro Adagio Scherzo-Allegro assai Fillllle-Presto (I 770-1827) viii .jlute lnten11lssiu11 Trio No. violin John Eitzen.....94 . 199 l 4:00 p..... No..........piano Guest Artists Wei-Ming Hwang..... May 23. l in Eb... l........

..... op.11.......XVJ/49 .9... 6 (1872-1915) Suite... Alexander Scriabin Preludes.... Tempo di Minuet (1732-1809) Sonata in F minor....... 2. op... piano This recital is in partial fufji/lment of tire degree Doctor of Musical Arts for Ms... Dhuvabliark Program Sonata No......5. no. Ludwig van Beethoven Allegro Adagio Me11uetto.........1 ..... op... 12..... May 20...... I ...............59 in Eb..........•... no. Franz Joseph Haydn Allegro Adagio cantabile Finale.. Frederic Chopin (1810-1849) Etude...2.... no..... 9. 1992 3:00p......... Weigel Hall Auditorium Janida Dltuvabltark.~ College of the Arts School of Music GRADUATE STUDENT RECITAL SERIES UNIVERSITY Wednesday... op..................m....... Allegretto Prestissimo (1770-1827) bttermission Nocturne No.........l in Bb minor.....2.... op.. Bela Bart6k Allegretto Scl1erzo Allegro mo/to Soste1mto (1881-1945) ix ...I ....•.....14 ........... No............. Hob.

...... xiii CHAPTER I.............................................................................................................. 1 3 BACKGROUND....... \I RECITAL PROGRAMS..................................................................................................................................... 1 3 11 • RELATED LITERATURE............................ I \I FIELDS OF STUDY...................................................................................... ANALYSIS .TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................... 3 THE COMPC>SER................................................................................... xii LIST OF EXAMPLES ............... 3 5 Second Movement Scherzo and Trio......................... 2 0 111.................................... 30 First Movement: Allegro ma estoso................................................................................................................................................................................. 5 4 x ............ INTRODUCTION.............................. PURPOSE... "' LIST OF TABLES ...................................... 49 Third Movement Largo................................................................................................ 9 CHOPIN'S COMPOSITIONAL STYLES ............. i i i \llTA..........................

....... ......................... ........... 5 9 IV.......... .................. ... CONCLUSION.......... .....................................79 MUSIC sc..... .... .......8 0 XI .... 78 UNPUBLISHED WORKS...................... .................. ...................... .........................Finale: Presto......................................................... .................................... .................. 7 5 BOOKS.............................QRES...................... non Tanto................................................... 7 2 BIBLIOGRAPHY..................................................................... ................... 7 5 PERIODICALS AND JOURNALS..............................7 9 DISCcx:iRAPl--IY........... ...............................................

..................................... Form of Fourth Movement... ..................................................................... ................................. 60 X 11 ............... .................................... Form of Third Movement.LIST OF TABLES PAGE TABLE 1.............. 57 4........................................... Form of First Movement.37 2..................... .........50 3. Form of Second Movement.....

.. mm... Mvt......... 32 4...................... mm...... mm..... .......... 9-1 2.................. 23-24................ Mvt 1...... 44 13........ Mvt......... ....... ..................................1...... 1... 39 8... mm................ 43-44.............. 45 15............... mm....mm............................... 29................................. .......... 1......................... rnm.......... Mvt 4.. .. ............................................... Mvt 1.............. Motive A..... 9-12.. ... B...... .. 1-4. 35-37.................... 42 10...... ..................... 1 .................... Mvt 1........... ....... 31 3.......... ................ ......... 41-44...................... 76-84......... ..... 52-56........................ 2nd theme.. mm. Mvt..146-147 ....................... Mvt 1.......... mm........................... 84-89............ 47 x 111 ............ m............. .............. 38 7.. mm.... mm...................... Mvt 1......................... ......................... ............ 41 9..... .......1........................ Mvt.... 1.... 42 11....... 2nd theme...... ........... Mvt 1........................... 66-71 ........... 43 12. mm. 57-58 .............. Mvt...... Mvt 1........... Mvt 4.... 33 6........... 46 16... mm..... mm............ 33 5.............. Mvt.......................... ........... 31 2...... ....................... 72-75 Bridge passage.......4 1-4 6.......... mm...................... 45 14..LIST OF EXAMPLES EXAMPLE PAGE 1.. Mvt 1 ............... ......... Motive(........

.......... First theme..................................... .... Introduction ........ mm.............. Mvt 4........... :...... 4.. 52-58............. 4.... ................ 64 33................ 65 35...... 4. Mvt..................... Mvt........... Mvt. 47 18....... mm... .. 61 30............. 63 32...... mm.......... mm............ 4.... 66 36... Mvt......................... 4................................................. Mvt.......... 66 XIV .. 76-80.... Transition............ 3..mm......... Mvt. 3....................................... mm...... 48.... 56 27... ..... mrn............ Mvt.......... 52 23.................. 3...... mm..... 56 26................ 96-99............. Section B.. mm...................... .................... 29-32........ 61-80.......... ..... 51 21. Mvt 2............. Mvt............ ............... Mvt....... ..... mm......................... mm.............................3.. 9-1 3. ..... 57 28..... mm................. 56 25.......... . ........... ......... 4..................................... 62 31........... 1-8.. ............. mm.. 1............. 51 22.............. Mvt... Mvt.... mm............... rnm... Mvt.................. 100-104..... 61 29... ....... 1-4... Section A... Mvt..................... 15-16.......... 2......... Mvt........99-102 ...................... mm... 2.......... ................................. 48 19.... 65 34........... Trio section.......................... 119-122.......... Introduction ..... 4.............. Mvt.... Mvt..... ..... 1.. 1-5.... ..............................17................. Scherzo section......................... mm. 61 -70..... 143-146... 4.... 5-8......... mm.......... .... 131 ..................... Mvt....... 1 5 1-1 5 4.............. ............ mm....... Mvt 2............ mm................. 50 20.. 3... 55 24...........60...... 28-35...

... .... mm. 4. ..3 7............ 69 xv . 67 40........... Mvt.... 4.. ..... . ...... .... .......... Mvt.... 4....... ............................... .. .......... Coda ... mm.. 68 41........................... 226-229............ mm.. ................. Mvt................................... 279-286 ... 254-255.... 207 -21 0............. 4....... ............... mm.. Mvt........ Mvt... 183-191. 66 38. 1 67 -1 7 0...... ........ ........................ 67 39............. ... mm... 4. mm.......... 68 42............. 4......... Mvt...... .............................

and at times inspiring. The word. and mazurkas almost overshadowed that of the larger works. he seems limitless. After playing Chopin's sonata no. The undefined human voice is an undefined sound. nocturnes. undefined speech is music. Sounds are used to create music. Chopin has always been one of my favorites. unusual. in a sense. In the nineteenth century. 1 . just as words are used to create language. etudes. the sound had existed before the word. Chopin (1810-1849) was strict. is a variation on the sound. As he says at the beginning of his treatise: Music is the expression of thoughts through sounds. As an inventor of musical shapes and technical design. the popularity of his smaller works such as preludes. 3 for my recital in Winter.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION As a teacher. I was inspired to research the piece. the revelation of emotions by means of these sounds. encouraging. 1990. Chopin's mastery of miniature forms is generally acknowledged by music scholars. The word was born of the sound. He realized that the pianoforte was capable of beautiful sounds. 1 Among composers of the Romantic period.

is the intense compression of his recapitulations . with no exception. the failures of a genius that has altogether overstepped its bounds. and one which has been widely misunderstood. 3 Today the popularity of performing Chopin's large works seems to be increasing." and in the forms cognate to the sonata. It takes a tremendous degree of hard work in order to perform not only .2 Hadow criticizes Chopin's abilities to write m large forms: His limitations are plain and unmistakable. is that they often reserve their most extreme. tension-raising contrast until the end . His works in "Sonata form.. he exhibited an almost total disregard.. and one which is likewise misunderstood. for the broad architectonic laws of structure on which they are based.. Walker discusses some features of Chopin's form which were formerly considered weaknesses: One of Chopin's chief contributions to the history of sonata form.2 It has been in the past few decades that Chopin's compositions in large form have begun to be appreciated.. are. Another notable feature of Chopin's large scale structures... For the larger types of the art. The sonata in B minor is long and difficult.

I will provide my own analysis and discussion of the sonata. then frisky. including a structural analysis and elements of the music as well as a discussion of performance problems. Men and women do. or striking pianistic effects often used by Chopin. not feel happy for ten minutes as in the opening allegro of a sonata. Purpose of the Study The purpose of this document is to provide a general study of the B minor sonata. as in the following adagio. fiery and impetuous for ten .3 with virtuosity but also to project aspects of musical style such as colorful harmonic progressions. Because there is limited information on this work. Background In Chopin's solo piano compositions the traditional sonata form does not occupy a prominent position. and finally. It is hoped that this study will provide recommendations and insights for other pianists and pedagogues. Finck defends Chopin's use of sonata form: The psychology of the sonata form is false. touching melodies. then melancholy for another ten minutes. as 1n the scherzo.

The first. It contains the "Marche funebre" (third movement) that is one of the most familiar of all musical selections throughout the world.4 minutes as in the finale.14 (1828). as they do in the compositions of Chopin. which. 2 (1828). Op. Op. was written in 1828 when he was 18. It was written in the same period as the Fantasy on a Polish Air. And thus it is. 13 (1828). Sad and happy thoughts and moods chase one another incessantly and irregularly. that Chopin's habitual neglect of the sonata form. It is dedicated to Elsner and is rarely played." Op. Josef Elsner. Op. the Variations on "La ci darem la mano. Chopin wrote to a friend at the time " I am .s The second sonata in B flat minor. The movements of our minds are seldom so systematic as this. Chopin admitted that it was an immature early work and was furious when it was published in 1839 by a Viennese publisher.4 He wrote three piano sonatas which span almost his entire career.35. reveals his rare artistic subtlety and grandeur. instead of being a defect. was written in 1839 when Chopin was 29. Sonata in C minor. are much truer echoes of our modern romantic feelings than the stiff and formal classical sonatas. Op. 4. under the supervision of his teacher. and Krakowiak. therefore.

52. Robert Schumann. Op. 44 and Op. the Preludes. the Polonaises. in which you will find the funeral march that you already know.5 writing a sonata in B-flat minor. B-flat minor. for he has simply bound together four of his most reckless children. Op. 31 ( 183 7) and C-sharp minor." 7 Other works of this mature period (1831-1840) include the Ballades in G minor. 23 (1836) and F. Op. 38 (1838). Op." 6 It was a clear indication that the famous movement had been written sometime before the rest of the work. the Fantasie-lmpromptu. 20. Op. if not a jest. and the F minor Ballade. Op. The sonata was published in 1840 by Breitkopf & Hartel. 47. and it is the most distinctive of the three sonatas. music critic as well as composer. thus under his name smuggling them into a place into which they could not else have penetrated. 39 ( 1838-39). considered the title of sonata inappropriate: "The idea of calling it a sonata is a caprice. It was the only work he produced during the same year of his father's death and was one of the compositions of his last and greatest period ( 1841 1849). Op. 49. was composed during the summer of 1844 at Nohant five years before his death. Op. the Etudes. including the F minor Fantasie. the A-flat Ballade. 53 . 8 The third sonata in B minor. Op. 25 and Trois Nouvelles Etudes (1835-40). Op. 66 ( 1834). Op. Op. 28 ( 1838-39) and Scherzos in B minor. Op. 58.

" 1 3 . As he told Liszt. Chopin's physique and temperament were not designed for a virtuoso career. " 11 Musicologists and critics who compared the B minor sonata. no. by Breitkopf & Hartel and somewhat earlier by J. 9 Although it was published in June.. Preludes. the man to whom he had dedicated the Mazurkas. I feel asphyxiated by its breath. Nocturnes Op. 55. Meissonier (Paris) and Wessel (London) the year after it was written. and the Mazurkas.. 3. 50. 10 it was not played often in public probably owing to its immense technical difficulties. with classical examples of the sonata form took very small views of its unusual structure. 62.. 1845. paralyzed by its curious looks. no. the Countess E. 61. and Op. "I am not fitted to give concerts. Op. The crowd intimidates me. Chopin limited himself to Mazurkas.6 and the Polonaise Fantasie. who was the wife of an aide-de camp to King Louise-Philippe. Chopin dedicated the B minor sonata to one of his pupils and friends. 56. de Perthuis. as well as to his intimate manner of playing. 24. dumb before the strange faces . Op. and similar pieces due to his failing strength. Op. the Barcarolle. Op. Op. 3. 12 Karasowski wrote that "the composer seems to have found it difficult to keep the profusion of thought within due proportions. In his own public performances. 48.

Chopin placed the . The form is unconventional in that the recapitulation omits the first subject completely. and Presto.Slow." 15 Huneker suggests that the ending is not that of a sonata but a love lyric. the movements show few breaks with traditional arrangement of Fast. according to d'lndy's analysis in his Cours de Composition Musicale " . a unity which Walker calls " all the more remarkable at this stage in musical history. 16 In the second movement." 14 The first movement. Largo..Fast. The revolution effected by Beethoven and the early Romantics had pushed back the frontiers of musical language so far that major problems of structural integration arose. Unlike others. Allegro maestoso. Both the B-flat minor sonata and B minor sonata were revolutionary in their application of classical concepts of structure. as in the B-flat minor sonata. Scherzo and Trio (marked Scherzo molto vivace). Scherzo. motivic development.. 35: Allegro. contains thematic and harmonic invention. has the stamp of true nobility. The opening theme. and counterpoint to the unique Romantic idiom. There is structural unity in the work.7 The sonata contains four movements which are arranged in the same manner as op.

" 18 The Finale.8 scherzo in the second movement rather than the third. non tanto. Weinstock writes: " Nothing else in the corpus of Chopin's work. Perahia believes that the rhythm is the main unifying idea between the scherzo and trio sections. waxingly and unmistakably great music as the finale. the F minor Fantasie alone excepted. creating greater contrast and structural tension. is in ABA form. 17 The third movement. It relates to nocturnes in style and is somewhat Italian in character. Many commentators say that this is one of the most effective works among large-scale masterpieces. marked Largo. marked Presto. " 1 9 . and "the central section has all the caressing grace of the author's best works. is a rondo-like movement and is difficult to play. It contains one of Chopin's most beautiful melodies. is so uninterruptedly.

lyric. heroic. dramatic. or he wrote upon it. we should dissect his magnificent pages. Liszt states that: "If it were our intention to discuss the development of piano music in the language of the schools. sweet. Whether the spirit of this instrument breathed upon him." 21 Anton Rubinstein. Liszt was among the first biographers who wrote about the position Chopin deserved to take among the world's great composers. wrote The pianoforte Bard. and exploited in many ways. the pianoforte mind. simple. fantastic.9 The Composer According to Heine. romantic. admired. but only an entire going over of one into the other could call such composition into life. one of the greatest pianists at that time. brilliant. dreamy. 22 . adored.how he wrote for it. all possible expressions are found in his compositions. the pianoforte soul is Chopin. Beethoven and Rossini. grand. Tragic. which afford so rich a field for scientific observation. and are sung by him upon this instrument in perfect beauty. the pianoforte rhapsodist." 2 0 Chopin the composer has been discussed. soulful. I do not know. "Chopin is the great inspired tone-poet who properly should be named only with Mozart.

Delacroix and Mickiewicz. an image of his homeland.10 Fryderyk Franciszek Chopin (Frederic Francois) was born m Zelazowa Wola. and died in Paris on October 17. However. He enjoyed the friendship of some of Europe's leading composers such as Kalkbrenner. and passion. . Schumann. Rossini. Teklajustyna Krzyzanowska (b. were always reflected in his music. on March 1. 1810. Cherubini. Nicolas Chopin (1771-1844) and a Polish mother. Berlioz. 1849. dances. At the Warsaw Conservatory he studied with Jozef Elsner (17691854) who became his master in harmony and counterpoint. Liszt. Poland. He continued his reputation when he moved to Paris in 1831. Chopin made a comfortable living from teaching and from selling his music to publishers. Heine. He spent his early life in Warsaw where he studied with Adalbert Zywny (1756-1842) who imposed upon Chopin the discipline of Bach and the works of Viennese Classical composers. From an early age Chopin's talents were popular in the leading Polish aristocracy. He made successful public appearances not only in Warsaw but also in Vienna. Bellini.2 3 He was the son of a French father. Mendelssohn.1 782). and Hiller. its national rhythm. He was also acquainted with Musset.

11

Among the brilliant society women with whom he shared friendships
were Princess Belgiojoso and the Countess Delfina Potocka. The
success of his concerts in Paris firmly established his outstanding
position. Even in England Chopin's reputation was recognized. A
review from the Musical World pays tribute to his position:

It is impossible to deny that he occupies a foremost
place among the piano-forte composers of the present
day... ln Paris... his admirers regard him as a species of
musical wordworth, in as much as he scorns popularity
and writes entirely up to his own standard of
excellence ... The Parisians regard him as a demigod. 24

After the break in 1837 with Maria Wodzinska, a Polish girl of
an important family, Chopin found himself increasingly involved
with the novelist, George Sand (Aurore Dudevant). Their ten-year
relationship created productive years for Chopin. The sonata in B
minor was composed in this period ( 1 844 ). After ending the
relationship in 1847, partly due to family intrigues involving George
Sand's children, he composed little more. His health declined rapidly
and he lost his interest in composition. The last year he accepted an
invitation to England from his wealthy Scottish pupil, Jane Stirling.
He died later in Paris on October 17, 1849.

12
Chopin's legendary reputation as a performer and improviser
was based on his appearances in fashionable society drawing-rooms.
Unlike most composer pianists of the time, he disliked public
concerts. As a composer, he always found difficulty in transcribing
his thoughts. As his contemporary, Karl Filtsch writes in a letter of
1842:

The other day I heard Chopin inprovise at George Sand's
house. It is marvellous to hear Chopin compose in this
way: his inspiration is so immediate and complete that
he plays without hesitation as if it could not be
otherwise. But when it comes to writing it down, and
recapturing the original thought in all its detail, he
spends days of nervous strain and almost terrible
despair. 25
His compositions were written primarily for the piano. He
drew much of his inspiration directly from its sonorities,
translating them into idiomatic languages culled from symphonic
and operatic literature. In the early nineteenth century, Italian opera
played a part in Chopin's musical ideas. He also admired Bach and
Mozart, but lacked appreciation for Beethoven. John Field, the Irish
musician, speaks of Chopin's ability as "a sick-room talent ." 26 It is
assumed that Field's compositions influenced Chopin,

but Chopin's

lyrical gift is noticeable in his compositions before he had knew of

13
Field.
Although Chopin has frequently been criticized for a weak
sense of form, he made a strong contribution to pianistic style
through his lyrical, flowing melodies, the delicacy of his touch,
dynamic shading, and pedalling. Chopin's influence was immense on
several different levels. Liszt and Wagner owe much to Chopin's
chromatic harmonies. He also influenced Brahms and other late
Romantic composers. In the early twentieth century,

Rachmaninov,

Scriabin, Faure, and Debussy are also indebted to Chopin's keyboard
inventiveness.

Chopin's

Compositional

Styles

Gerald Abraham divides Chopin's development as a composer
into three main periods:
First period: The evolution of musical personality (1822-1831)
Second period: The mature style (1831-1840)
Third period: The last phase (1841-1849)
The first period consists of immature works written between
1822 and before his arrival in Paris in September, 1831, including
the Variation on " La ci darem la mano," the Krakowiak, and the
Sonata in C minor. The two piano concerti (F minor and E minor), the

According to Schonberg. and Grand Polonaise. Chopin's career as a concert pianist began in 1828 and was firmly established by the time he settled in Paris (1831 ). it is important to keep in mind the various purposes for the compositions Chopin wrote in his roles as pianist. . easier pieces such as Nocturnes. and all. the piquancy of his rubato.. Up to his arrival in Paris he had been exposed to very few of the new concepts sweeping Europe. After 1835 there were very few concerts... The smaller. his use of functional ornamentation (unlike so much of the music of Liszt and other virtuoso... It was for these concerts that he wrote two concerti and other music for piano and orchestra.. 22. From John Field he had absorbed a few things. and composer. and also from Hummel. all these he had developed on his own by the time he was twenty-one. nearly all of Chopin's bravura passages . have a melodic rather than a purely bravura function. his way of treating the instrument. his use of folk elements in the mazurkas and polonaises . 27 In tracing the development of Chopin's style. in his maturity .. are considered to be the most significant "border-line" works written during the transition period from 1829 to 1831. teacher. He was one of the fantastic geniuses in history.14 Opus 10 Etudes. He spent most of his time in teaching.. Chopin's genius evidently appeared even in the early period: . Op. Waltzes.) his amazing harmonies and modulations. But his style and his harmonic structure.

28 These pieces were composed throughout his lifetime and provide an interesting study of Chopin's development in miniature form. while many of the third period compositions are hardly distinguishable from those of the second period . in his last nine years Chopin produced a number of works more powerfully conceived. 25 Etudes. His income was sufficient to allow him to devote his time to playing and composing for his own satisfaction and for a few intimate friends. Op. the first three Scherzi. 28.. the dividing line between the second and the third period is much less clearly defined and less easy to justify: Nevertheless. According to Abraham... the Preludes.. 2 9 . the Op.15 Mazurkas. Op. and the Sonata in B flat minor. The mature period (1831-1840) includes two Ballades. I am tempted to say 'more symphonic') than any he had written before . 3 5. more organically constructed (at the risk of being misunderstood. and Preludes. were frequently written for his pupils and often dedicated to them. These are generally moderately difficult. but make the most of an amateur's technical capacity both in the brilliance of rapid finger passages and in the sentimental expression.

53.16 The third period (1841-1849) includes the Sonata in B minor. 49. Op.a perfect embodiment of all the outstanding features of the new style of piano writing: percussive-singing. Berceuse. use of the pedal. 44 and Op. 57. According to Abraham. and contrast of registers. Barcarolle. and the art of keyboard facture. chromatic filigree work over a diatonic foundation. Polonaises. Op. G flat Impromptu. contrapuntal writing. this period is the most distinguished output in terms of harmony. Fantasie in F minor. melodic line. 51. Op. a number of Mazurkas. 60. and other short pieces. 30 . Op. melody. Op.

Weinstock. 9. op. Maurice J. 1972).1. p. 5.. p. E. (London: Oxford University Press. p. cit. Jan Holeman. p. W. cit. p. 169. translated by Martin Sokolinsky (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. (New York: Alfred A. 8.. 4. 17 . Henry T. Second Series. Bernard Gavoty. (London: Barrie and Rockliff. Frederic Chopin. 242-243. (New York: Books for Libraries Press. 1 966). p. cited in The Legacy of Chopin. Herbert Weinstock. 19 54). Chopin's Musical Style. Knopf. p. 43. Frederic Chopin: Profiles of the Man and the Musician. J. (London: Macmillan Press. 3. Chopin: An Index of His Works. Kleczynski.. 42. 19 72). 232. op. H. (New York: Philosophical Library. cit. p. 1941 ). Abraham. Brown. 1949). 2. op.160. Finck. 10. pp. 238. Chopin's Greater Works. 7. editor. cited in Chopin: The Man and His Music. 27 4. Chopin and Other Musical Essays. Hadow. 5. p. 1977). Gerald Abraham. Studies in Modern Music. Weinstock. 6..REFERENCES 1. Alan Walker.

. (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. . Murray Perahia. Nicholas Temperley. cit. Chopin Sonatas. 1952. U. editor. 2 52. 292. (New York: Cooper Square Publishers. 276. Ashton Jonson. (New York: Dodd. Chopin: The Man and His Music. 16. 20. (Westminster 18882. U. Chopin Sonatas. Chopin Sonatas. 300. Jonson. Brown. p. Murray Perahia." by Arthur Hedley. 1901 ). 6th ed. and Kornel Michalowski. Stanley Sadie. 250.S. Robison. Vox 7360. J.. 23.S. op. Weinstock. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians.v. p. Stanley and Werner. 15. 5.S. p. 12.. 18. G. p." by William Murdoch.A. 1980 ).. s. Wladyslaw Kedra. op.A. op. p. 1974. op. p. 14.A. 11th ed. The International Cyclopedia of Music and Musicians. 1908). J. U. 21.. Guiomar Novaes. Chopin The Composer: His Structural Art and its Influence on Contemporaneous Music. Charles Stanley and Ernest Werner. p. "Fryderyk Chopin. A Handbook to Chopin's Works. Inc. Ibid 22. (London: William Reeves. p. Walker. cit. 17. C. Columbia 32780. Mead & Company.) 13. Edgar Stillman Kelley. 412. James Huneker. Program notes.. E. Oscar Thompson. 17. cit. Program notes. (London: Macmillan Publishers Ltd. Program notes. 1969). "Frederic Francois Chopin. 19. 1985). cit.18 11. editor.

The Great Pianists from Mozart to the Present. p. 1963). 28.. 30.. p. 26. 296. Harold C. p.. 25. editor. Five Centuries of Keyboard Music.102. John Gillespie. op. op.19 24.. cit. p. p. 1965). 299. . Ibid. 27. xii. (New York: Simon and Schuster. Ibid. cit. 138. Abraham. 29. Schonberg. Inc. 220.. Sadie. (New York: Dover Publications. p. Ibid.

I decided to provide my own analysis and discussion of the work. Music Indexes. The second source was Dissertation Abstracts. Due to the lack of information regarding Chopin's Sonata in B minor. the Library Control System (LCS) is the computerized catalog and circulation system that links all libraries on the OSU campus and also incorporates the catalog of the State Library of Ohio.CHAPTER II RELATED LITERATURE REVIEW To begin research of the literature. music journals. discography. It is hoped that this study will be helpful to other pianists and pedagogues in gaining a better understanding of the sonata. 20 . Other sources included the music library card catalogs. two principal data bases were explored. Op. The first. 58. My search of the sources yielded very little information on my research topic. and RILM Abstracts (Repertoire Internationale Literature Musique).

. includes a biography.21 General Literature: Huneker's Chopin: The Man and His Music is a good introduction and discussion of Chopin's output. James Huneker. although the writing style is a little out of date. Bidou cites an opinion of Chopin's music expressed by Vincent d' Indy. for the Use of Concert Goers. translated by Catherine Alison Phillips (Alfred A. is a collection of remarks selected from the writings of various pianists. A 1905 book by Jonson. critics. Knopf." 3 Edith J.1 An early work by Dunn attempts to establish the appropriate pianistic treatment of the rich ornamentation to be found throughout Chopin's works. Jean Kleczynski. but most of the actual ideas are truly brilliant in wealth of melodic invention. Hipkins wrote How Chopin Played from Contemporary Impressions Collected from the Diaries and Note- . who describes the B minor sonata: "It is unfortunately quite lacking in constructive power and coordination of ideas.. 1927). and musical analysis in every chapter. Pianists.. Franz Liszt. and Piano/a-Players. and Anton Rubinstein. Moritz Karasowski. . and authors such as Frederick Niecks. 2 In Chopin by Henri Bidou. A Handbook to Chopin's Works.

.energy without coarseness. and composer. Abraham discusses Chopin's use of form: Chopin's form is generally considered to be his weakest point. It was also the weakest point of all his contemporaries. compared with Beethoven's -a fantastically unfair comparison. and an index is included. 6 Hedley's 194 7 book is one of the most important contributions to understanding Chopin literature. Chopin's Musical Style. of course. being limited almost exclusively to the possibilities of more or less modified ternary form. Chopin never played his own compositions twice in the same manner. especially in 'cantabile passages.' was immense . And. but. his sense of form is primitive. teacher. on the other hand. a manly energy gave to appropriate passages an overpowering effect.J. describes the unfolding and maturing of Chopin's musical mind.22 books of the Late A.without affectation. he knew how to enchant the listener by delicacy. but varied each according to the mood of the moment.Hipkins in 193 7. Hedley also includes chapters on Chopin as a pianist. s Most of the piano works are carefully analyzed by Abraham. 4 Abraham's work. Hedley describes Chopin's use of melody The tone which Chopin drew from the instrument..... According to Hipkins.

indeed. for Chopin's music. Notes on Chopin translated from the French edition by Bernard Frechtman. 7 Weinstock (1949) provides a useful biographical section in his work which is longer and more detailed than Hedley's. The performer who. for the first time. that is. Above all through tradition.23 as well as a discussion of some major works. Gide offers performance suggestions for Chopin's piano music: In general. will interest the general music lover. Allegro maestoso. the performer 'adopts' too rapid movement. the way all the virtuosi play him. as if it were much more difficult. opens with a theme sufficiently broad and ample in . the first movement of the sonata in B minor. would dare to play Chopin's music in the proper Tempo. and in a way capable of playing his audience into a deep ecstasy: which is Chopin's due. Gide's 1949 work. when one attains a certain mastery. It includes a discussion of problems of performers who misunderstood Chopin's music. Why? Perhaps because Chopin's music is not in itself difficult enough and the pianist is bent on showing off. According to Weinstock. to play quickly than to play slowly. The way he is usually played. hardly anything remains but the effect. much more slowly than is customary. This is followed by a complete listing of Chopin's works and explained in detail in the author's introductory section on form. would really be bringing out its meaning for the first time.

' 9 Brown's Chopin. and he made this significant remark. collections. An Index of His Works in Chronological Order. and sufficient in rhythmic and harmonic implications to serve as the opening of a long composition. and other related details. Many critics. dedication. 10 Harasowski provides interesting essays on Chopin's life and music in his 1967 work. location of manuscript. poorly constructed to support them. Frederic Chopin: Profiles of the Man and Musician. however. Information for each composition includes full particulars of publication. 11 Among the most valuable sources of Chopin's music in English is Alan Walker's collection of essays by noted Chopin scholars. is a thorough and exhaustive thematic catalogue which lists the complete works of Chopin. 8 Cortot discusses Chopin's pedagogy in his book. 'Music that has no underlying meaning is false. . but this is due in part to the old insistence that Chopin never learned how to use sonata form. have felt that this section is overburdened with ideas. The biographies. He writes that For Chopin it was essential that his pupils should put the whole of their souls into their playing. correspondence. which also includes a bibliography and discography section. and documents are written by distinguished scholars.24 character.

The remaining six chapters are divided by nationality of Chopin's playing to the present day. 14 Methuen-Campbell provides an excellent source for Chopin music lovers in his book which includes an index. The second chapter is devoted to the pupils of Liszt. The essays include a brief biography by Arthur Hedley. J. and Scherzi. such as Liszt and Clara Schumann.E. historic background by Arthur Hutchings. It also provides some revealing analyses of Chopin's compositions. Op. Op. Brown. Nearly all of Chopin's compositions are discussed and many of them received detailed analysis. and chapters on various groups of pieces by other noted authors. 15 The first chapter summarizes Chopin's playing and teaching as well as that of his contemporaries. and Kornel Michalowski. 4 7. 28. Leschetizky. 54. 31 and Op. discography.25 published in 1967.. and Chopin. and bibliography . by Alan Walker himself. Ballades. The article also provides a comparison of tempos of autographs and printed editions. Op. a section on 'jChopin's Influence" by Paul BaduraSkoda. . 2nd ed. 13 The recent 1980 edition of Grove's Dictionary is an excellent source by current scholars: Arthur Hedley. 38 and Op. Nicholas Temperley. in 1979. The author's dissertation suggests performance practices for Preludes. 1 2 Higgins provides a very helpful source for the pianist to interpret Chopin's works. "Chopin and Musical Structure: An Analytical Approach".

for anyone who remembers them they will always be treasured as one of the greatest of musical joys. l 6 A special Chopin Edition in the Spring. as well as from Poland and France. Methuen-Campbell quotes Rachmaninov's statement about Rubinstein's use of pedal during a performance of the B minor sonata: The pedal has been called the soul of the piano. "Chopin's Practices" by Thomas Higgins. 17 It includes "an overview of Chopin's piano music" by Adam Harasowski. and there have been many great Chopin players from Russia. it appears that the Russians have a special affinity for Chopin's works. 1 981 issue of The Piano Quarterly generally provides many studies of Chopin's music. Kiorpes. A 1985 work by Samson is a useful source of information . I never realized what this meant until I heard Anton Rubinstein. "Arpeggiation in Chopin-Interpreting the Ornament Notations" by George A. "Ballads and Ballades" by David Witten.26 According to the author. and a Bibliography by Maurice Hinson and Frank E. His mastery of the pedal was nothing short of phenomenal. In the last movement of the B-flat minor sonata of Chopin he produced pedal effects that can never be described. "Chopin's Tempo Rubato in Theory and Practice" by Walter Robert. "How did Chopin Want his Ornament Signs Played" by Thomas Fritz. Kirby. whose playing seemed so marvellous to me that it beggars description.

which contains 10 essays representing the leading scholars in the field. Op. and the final three essays are case studies of individual works such as the Preludes. lists of works. and the Fantasy. the Barcarolle. melodic and structural style. It also includes a biographical sketch. and composition index. illustrations. 19 The first three essays are concerned with Chopin's intentions as revealed in autograph sources. Op. extensive bibliography. The next four discuss different analytical aspects of Chopin's musical language.27 regarding the complexities of Chopin's piano music. 28. . 49. 1 8 Perhaps the most recent enlightening sources in detailed documentary and analytical studies of the music of Chopin is Samson's 1988 book. musical examples. The author also suggests works and composers that influenced Chopin's harmonic.

. Henri Bidou. (New York: Philosophical Library. Alfred Cortot. (New York: Abelard Press 1952). p. 9. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf. 2. G. 44-45. Edith J. (London: Novello and Company. 7. 1947). M. Dunn. 75 pp. Dent & Sons Ltd. 6. 5. 1949). Chopin's Musical Style. A Handbook to Chopin's Works. (New York Al'fred A. 1941 ). Notes on Chopin. 4. p. translated from the French by Bernard Frechtman.REFERENCES 1. 1921). 287 pp. (London: Oxford University Press. Chopin: The Man and His Music. Chopin.. 1949). pp. Ashton Jonson. 208-209. (London: William Reeves. p. Dent & Sons Ltd. Ornamentation in the Works of Frederick Chopin. 19 27). Chopin. John P. 27. (London: J. 8. Andre Gide. 3. Gerald Abraham. 29. p. 36-37. In Search of Chopin. (London: J. C. 120. Ltd. Hipkins. 7. How Chopin Played. Arthur Hedley. Herbert Weinstock. 28 . 1908). pp. Knopf. M.. translated from the French by Catherine Alison Phillips. pp. 1937).

Adam Harasowski. Chopin Studies. The Music of Chopin.10. Silverman.. The Piano Quarterly. 289 pp. 11 3 Spring 1981. Alan Walker." Ph. (London: Barrie and Rockliff. 12.. Jim Samson. James Methuen. °Fryderyk Chopin. pp.Campbell. p. (London: Macmillan Press. 18. Frederic Chopin: Profiles of the Man and Musician. E. 1966. (London: Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 1985). (Glasgow: William Maclellan." by Arthur Hedley. The Skein of Legends Around Chopin. J. 1988). 243 pp. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Nicholas Temperley. 16. 334 pp. 1967). editor. 13. 11. E. Brown. (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. 29 Maurice J. "Chopin Interpretation: A Study of Perform ance Directions in Selected Autographs and Other Sources. editor. 14. 15. . Brown. and Kornel Michalowski. 1 967). 1 29 17. 1980). The University of Iowa. 6th ed. Ibid. Robert J. Dissertation. Chopin Playing: From the Composer to the Present Day. 1972). (London: Victor Gollancz Ltd.. 292-312. 1981 ). 258 pp.D. Thomas Higgins. 159-160. Stanley Sadie. 19.. 383 pp. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Jim Samson. editor. Chopin: An Index of His Works. pp.

CHAPTER

Ill

ANALYSIS

Analysis is an important tool for the performer in any
music, especially in a complex, problematic, large-scale work
such as the Sonata in B minor. Walker defines the role of analysis
as explaining
... what, on an intuitive level, we already know to be
true. It rationalises musical experience. It succeeds
the 'leap in the dark.' It helps one to understand one's
musical understanding. 1
He discusses structure and performance problems, stating that
... there are no aspects of structure that are not, at
the same time, aspects of interpretation. Tempo,
dynamics, note-duration, agogic accents, rubato, etc.all these things are functions of musical structure.
That is the great lesson of musical analysis. A
musical structure contains the answer to the problem
of its own interpretation. A great interpretation is
never "applied" from without; it always emerges from
within. 2
Walker also emphasizes the importance of the performer, stating
that

30

31

Musical analysis becomes a dead letter once the
performance is forgotten. It is the player who makes
music live; the more he knows about the way it hangs
together, the more successful he will be in this task. 3
In general, the B minor sonata has motivic unity, a unity
which is "all the more remarkable at this stage in musical
history." 4 The opening notes of the first movement have much in
common with the theme in the last movement. In fact, the same
pitches and intervals are present in both themes (Example 1 and

2):

Example 1: Mvt. 1, mm. 1-4.

Example 2 : Mvt. 4, mm. 9-12.

32
Emphasizing the idea of unity makes an appropriate start
for analyzing this sonata. While the themes are contrasting, there
are many underlying structure links. As pointed out earlier, the
theme of the last movement is closely related to the opening.
There is another close connection between these two themes via
the second theme of the first movement. Labeling the opening
motive A and its answer B, we find both in the second theme
(Example 3 ):

Example 3: Mvt. 1, mm. 41-46. Second Theme, Motives A and B

*

T..&i.

The character and mood of the second theme are different from
the first theme even though they are structurally related.
Labeling part of B as C (see example 4)

l.. Motive C !. 41-44.. Second Theme.. 4. ····T-:jj:···· * --- * . mm.. 9-12. mm.).33 Example 4: Mvt.). * ·f. * a strong link is created to the last movement (see example 5): Example 5: Mvt.-. * !.

5 The score used for this analysis was the Polish edition. which deserve as careful enunciation as those in a Bach fugue. for. Paderewski. edited by I. apparently non-essential. including an additional six volumes of instrumental parts. they will disclose new beauties otherwise overlooked. for even in his episodes and passagework many a measure. which is the complete edition of Chopin's works in 20 volumes. 6 . Pianists should bear this in mind. J. proves on inspection to be constructed with surprising ingenuity.34 Kelly recommends caution in the analysis of Chopin's music: One can never be too careful in analyzing Chopin's compositions. by bringing out the inner voices.

The movement unfolds such an astonishing prodigality of themes.. Harasowski suggests that .. It is a ticklish problem to get those themes into the right primary and subordinate relationships to one another. but the second theme is in D major in the Exposition and appears in B major in the Recapitulation. the composer seems to have found it difficult to keep the profusion of the thought within due proportions. . .. 7 The first theme of the Exposition is in B minor... the 'pulse behind the pulse' which continues to assert itself even where it is not currently in use. 8 Walker emphasizes the difficulty of performing this movement: . The interesting and characteristic point to be noted in this movement is that the first theme is developed to such a large extent that the recapitulation virtually begins with the second subject.. a tempo which . is far more elusive than that of the first movement of the B flat minor sonata. In the development of the first theme there is a want of repose which is only made up for by the wonderful cantilene in D major. structurally the movement is very treacherous. each with its own highly individual propensities.' superficially so simple. . Its 'geometry.35 First Movement: Allegro maestoso The design of the first movement is suggestive of sonata form but lacks the first theme in the recapitulation (See Table 1). basic tempo.. that it can easily degenerate into a shapeless muddle even under experienced hands. The movement only takes shape when you have set in motion its long-range.to see the structure in toto.

spontaneous needs. a tempo against which the performance may brake and accelerate according to immediate.36 may be discarded or resumed at will in order to 'point' the structure.9 .

37 TABLE 1 Form of the First Movement Section Tempo Exposition Allegro maestoso Measures 1-93 1-40 -First theme -long transition 41-56 -Second theme sostenuto 57-60 groups (e molto espressivo)* 61-65 -bridge passage -Closing theme 66-71 72-7 5 76-93 Development -summary of exposition's long transition 94-1 50 Re ca pi tu la ti on -Second theme sostenuto -Closing theme -Codetta 1 51-204 151-185 186-197 1 98-204 *Henle Edition Keys B minor D major D major B major B major B major .

There is a clear statement. 1. The challenge begins at measure 1 7. with the arrival of the second theme 24 measures later. The very first statement and the orchestral textures of the first page (rnm. m. . Huneker comments that "the first page.1-10) prepare for a work of large proportion. promises much. and then the edifice goes up in smoke. the crisp march of chord progressions. to the chromatic chords of the sixth. a sound theme for developing purposes. often m the intervallic relationship of the third rather than the fifth m the music of the nineteenth century composer.38 A falling ninth from G to F sharp is a powerful opening. the only mark given by Chopin 1s for the left hand in measure 29 (see example 6) Example 6: Mvt." 10 In marking the fingering. The long and agitated transition follows a stormy opening which prepares a beautiful melody in a new key. 29.

23-24. It is more a climax point of the arrival than of relaxation. 1. but hardly considered to be a point of relaxation after the preceding structure. ~ r= ~~ {~ -_ ~ J 3 "' •. when it bursts. mm. (Example 7): Example 7: Mvt. " 11 There is a canonic foreshadowing of the second theme in measures 23-24. ...-: 'I 2~ Most of the passage is virtuosic forte passage work which needs careful pacing of tempo and dynamics all the way through the arrival of the second theme. a parterre of roses . .. and. As Huneker describes " . After the heroic opening and the virtuosic transition... setting the proper mood of the sustained second theme may be difficult for the performer. It is lyrical in character. there is morning freshness in its hue and scent.39 The second theme arrives at measure 41 in D major.

Chopin has not helped the performer with any dynamic indication. An interesting tenor counter-theme which some performers emphasize appears in the third and fourth measure (mm. or acoustics of the room. tempo. The use of pedal. involving a number of subsidiary themes along the way. such as instrument. The only marking is "sostenuto" above the melody. is very delicate.40 It grows continuously to the development section. In order to achieve proper balance between melody and accompaniment. it reappears one-half step higher. see example 8: . one should play the first low D very strongly and use half pedal until the second low D. 45). and affected by many factors. 43-44). If the beginning of the theme is to be played loudly. According to the score. touch. in any of Chopin's works. In the fifth measure after the second theme appears. allowing the second phrase to enter at either a slightly louder or softer dynamic level (m. what is to be done five measures later? Performing double fortissimo on a lyrical theme is uncommon. One solution is to consider the importance of the harmonic structure for the left hand and the slow rhythm. 41-43). which is in D major for three measures (mm.

..- 5 3 * t 3 fl.fbi. * 5 • * '. 1. sostenu-_:l:.. The note A is both an end and a beginning. 43-44..fbi.fbi. and Chopin has marked a long slur over the second and third phrases (mm. The Paderewski Edition has the double-stems. mm. 48).• '. unlike the Henle Edition. 4 7-50).o. '.41 Example 8: Mvt. also begins a new phrase. The resolution in the middle of the eighth measure of the theme (m. This overlapping point .

* (legato) . :. He also recommended that I think harmonically in order to have a sense of continuity in rhythm. mm.52-56)(see example 9). 52-56. ~~~ •-:t •-:t / .+:". my teacher suggested that the A in measure 48 be played softer than the G sharp in order to resolve the G sharp and the preceding phrase. This is followed by a second section of the second theme group which opens with the intervals of the opening theme of the piece (example 1 O) Example 9: Mvt. mm.42 requires attention during performance. 57-58. Example 10: Mvt. During my preparation of this movement. 1 2 The first section of the second theme group comes to an end with a flourishing sweep (mm. !~ Tail. 1. 1.

66-71 ). with an interesting descending stepwise sequence (mm.43 The third section of the second theme group arrives four measures later. but may lose the idea of the section as a whole. mm." and indicates a soft dynamic level. The score is marked "leggiero. It is one of the interesting spots where the performer pays attention to the beauty of the notes in detail. 61-65) leads into a chromatic section (mm. 66-71 . 1 . The natural heroic theme (mm.66-75). . Example 11 : Mvt.

The theme contains a complete second voice. mm. the performer should conserve energy and try to relax the tension for the next closing theme. creating another point of mood relaxation in the movement. see example 12. The theme is supported by 16th-note arpeggios for the left hand. 72-7 5 bridge passage. Example 12: Mvt. In order to avoid such a tempo change. appearing as sixteenth notes contrasted to quarter notes and eigth notes for the uppermost theme.44 These elements (mm. 1. 66-71) combined with the chromaticism and the succeeding bridge passage (mm. 72-7 5) may tempt the performer to slow the tempo. . The closing theme begins at measure 7 6 (example 13). The performer must avoid exercising excessive rubato in the embellishing triplets which might interrupt the flow of the melodic line.

Example 1 3: Mvt. 7 6-84.84-89) seems to be a continuing point to the next section.45 The end of the exposition (mm. 1 . 84-89. 1. mm. Example 14: Mvt. A ritard makes continuity to the development section less successful (see example 14). . mm.

but here are only two measures. and tempo. Expositio~n_. 146-14 7. 57-60) which is presented in measure 118. and also in m.11 7). Generally. In the figuration of mm. In the Exposition.-----~------------- I 2 . as well as the fingering. the development emphasizes the difference between the first and second theme groups by the sharp contrast at m. 35-37).__. mm. 35-37. this passage consists of three measures (mm. the problem of notation is found.46 The development section begins at measure 94. The performer may find difficulties in the sudden changes of dynamics.123 and 124. leads into the second melody of the second theme group (mm. 1. 117. Division of notes and octaves between the hands frees a hand to prepare a wide leap or direction change of both hands. A big climax "forte" (m. Many versions of the first theme are heard. followed by an extreme contrast of "piano" in the same measure. (see example 15 and 16) Example 15: Mvt.

Development I '.47 Example 1 6: Mvt." Some of the agitated transition material of the exposition (mm. but the major tonic is not heard until the restatement of the second theme (m.l':ul. 151-154. The recapitulation starts in m. reaching the real goal of the development (example 17). 146-14 7. 1. mm. 151 in B major. there is no first theme in the recapitulation. 1. sostenufo 3 * . 17-40) from the first theme to the second theme is recapitulated.151 ). mm. with the tempo indication of "sostenuto. * As in the 8-flat minor sonata. Example 17: Mvt.

1. ~- * The recapitulation of the second theme and closing theme groups is similar to the exposition. Example 1 8: Mvt. Some performers choose to emphasize the second theme's arrival of the recapitulation section by playing it in a somewhat grander style than in the exposition. and has the same performance problems as discussed earlier. 1 31. The recapitulation is similar to the Exposition. . characterized by adding /subtracting dotted rhythms and shortening /lengthening note values. mm. with an additional six-measure codetta. There are many changes in the rhythm of the actual themes. with the exception of the codetta mentioned earlier.48 The transition from the development section to the recapitulation of the second theme is reminiscent of the opening motive A from measure 131 on (see example 18).

inserting it as the second movement. The overall form of the Scherzo and trio movement can be seen as follows: . Huneker speaks of this movement as "vivacious. light as a harebell in the soft breeze." is a plant with bell-shaped blue flower). 13 It is in E-flat major instead of the expected key of D major. It has a clear ring of the scherzo. perhaps another way of asserting the B major ending of the first movement. Chopin ignores the tradition of placing the Scherzo as the third movement. amiable hurry. also called "bluebell. suggesting the major third of the B major triad." 15 (The harebell. thereby creating greater contrast and structural tension as well. and harks back to Weber in its impersonal. charming.49 Second Movement: Scherzo and Trio As in the B-flat minor sonata. 14 This is due to the enharmonic effect of Eb= D#.

-. • I '.. 61 -64._. L 1 /"""" ''3 ~ 3 - ..50 TABLE 2 Form of the Second Movement Section Tempo Scherzo Keys Molto vivace Measures E-flat major 1-60 via E-flat=D-sha rp to Trio B major Scherzo 61-156 E-flat major 157-216 There is a close structural link between the scherzo and trio section found in example 19. SCHERZO ~ f .j!: •+= t:. and 20.. 2. . . Scherzo section. c. 1:JtiiS4 :- . .. Example1 9: Mvt.. leggier~ ..~ Mollo vi~ 12 - - ~) ~-·•1 ' t-1 l ...--.. ...::: -- . 1-5. (see example 20) . ' t7 • ' • A motivic structure is found at the soprano part m. mm..·~· ' Tm...til. ' • 1 --.. 1 2 • ~ ~ -' .

the left hand plays along with the right hand in parallel motion. 1 :>5 315315 > . 49. The movement starts with a senes of figures for the right hand that move up and down on the keyboard. 48-60. mm.51 Example 20: Mvt. mm. 61-70. supported by a few accents by the left hand. 2. At m. The continuing accents (mm. 2. it is the first time of the movement indicated "forte". 53-60) create the perfect ending of the Scherzo section with "fortissimo" marking (see example 21 ): Example 21: Mvt. Trio section.

The example below represents the solution in the movement. The movement is usually treated as a standard Scherzo and Trio. with the Trio taken at the slower tempo. The trio section in B major (mm. and his performance reflects this. attempt to follow the Molto Vivace indication and play the Scherzo as fast as possible. It would make the Trio absurd if it is played at the same tempo as the Scherzo. This section concerns lyric possibilities of simple chords and long melodic line. 16 He plays the Scherzo slower than the standard range of tempos and the Trio faster than standard to retain the same pulse throughout the movement. It is full of tied notes. including myself. Example 22: Mvt. mrn. Most pianists.52 Perahia believes that the rhythm is the main unifying element between the scherzo and trio section. One can take a little time between phrases. 61-156) presents few problems for the pianist. The melody should be projected. 2. 71-80. r~r-~r~r· - - . and the fingers have to be ready before playing the notes.

Presently. This Scherzo is very different from Chopin's four independent Scherzos." 1 7 . with its brilliance and drive. in a different way from the first. the replacement of this brilliant and flamboyant movement between the first and third movements is a stroke of genius. The character of this second movement. The first movement contains very rich thematic material. and the third movement is also extremely rich. the Scherzo movement is like "a flexible movement. like a candle flame vacillating under a breath. the Scherzo and Trio are both somewhat light in character. According to one writer.53 Despite the contrasting textures. makes this sonata less intense. yet at the same time abrupt and languid.

" 18 The slow movement is a long poetic monologue that also retains the atmosphere of Chopin's keyboard improvisation. is an echoing of some very simple harmonies. The trio is reserved and hypnotic. 20 . is. Huneker writes that "The Largo is tranquilly beautiful. but with successful effects. to miss the tragic essence of its simplicity. The long middle section focuses on a winding melodic line.54 Third Movement: Largo Liszt describes this slow movement as "accentuated. To call this simplicity banal. It is a long musical structure made of simple materials. The rhythms of this movement constantly change between regular and irregular. Chopin always gave the impression that he was improvising when he played the piano. measured swaying and balancing. as some commentators have done. The middle section. predictable and unpredictable. sounding much like an improvisation. in the subdominant key of E major. Its theme is almost exclusively built on just the notes of the triad. 19 Perahia writes in the notes of his own recording: This movement tries forcefully to dispel any trace of anxiety. lovely in its tune. rich m its reverie. I think. even at a public recital.

2 1 Four dramatic introductory measures precede the expressive melodic line. this movement is a rather long and difficult for the performer to maintain the proper mood throughout. 15-16 . ~ -~.. I concentrated on the balance between hands. and sustained the melody by allowing the body to move along the musical lines. .--. During my preparation of this movement.3. Example 23: Mvt. 1 5-1 6. PWM HI The tonic key of the second movement enharrnonically transforms E-flat into D-sharp at the opening of the third movement (Largo). . mm. shown in example 24: . The following example is representative of the type of note distribution solution useful m these measures..55 Compared to slow concerto movements by other composers. There might be a few problems for the pianist with small hands at mm. ts 1 :I • • . revealing Chopin's sense of modulation and his prodigious resources of invention.

3. (See example 25 and 26) Example 2 5: Mvt. 1-4. 5-8. Section A --~:1~ ~~~~i5~3§~~~~~~~ ~ {1.) • Example 26: Mvt. The B section requires more color under the arpeggiated figuration for the right hand._ * T.&. * • \... '-~T... 29-32... This part can be played a little faster in order to project the sense of continuity... It has a beautiful melody. 3.... mm. The first A section is in B major..i..__+ * 'f. .). and is not very problematic to perform successfully... cantabile 2 2 4 1 fr 2 . '.56 Example 24: Mvt. ~- 5S * - += .-.: . mm. .3. The movement is in A-B-A form.i)... mm.

mm. Second A section Tr.). * Tr. 3. The performer might play this section more freely to maintain a good balance and beautiful melody of the slow movement. 99-102.).57 The second A section starts at measure 99 accompanied with triplets of the left hand. * * TABLE 3 Form of Third Movement Section Measures Keys A 1-28 B major B 29-98 E major A 99-120 B major . (Example 27) Example 27: Mvt.

avoiding excessive ritards. suspending for a while the stimulation of the listener's intellect.. Much careful use of rubato. through such works as Faure's nocturnes and Barcarolles.. The music seems to go into a daze. or it repeats.58 The new Grove's (Chopin) discusses some general nineteenth century trends which may be apply in this particular movement: Another innovation of great importance for the future was the 'harmonic daydream'.. With them Chopin had shown a way to appeal directly to sensation. voicing. In terms of the Classical conceptions of form and development such passages could be regarded as flaws or weaknesses. from the business of continuing the harmonic. but they exercised important influence on the impressionists. and pedalling needs to be accomplished by the performer. cut off from the world of reality in musical terms. . 2 2 In performance. The Berceuse may be thought of as a continuous daydream. thematic and structural development of the piece. this movement can be played by balancing the overall shape of small details. in order to suggest a mood of improvisation. with hypnotic monotony. Usually the harmony is completely static in these passages.. a series of two or three chords .. as it might be called.

"2 4 . As Walker states: " the finale is one of the few sonata.rondos in musical history where the main theme returns out of the tonic key. According to Weinstock: "In subject matter. in scope. and in sheer sonorous beauty. It is in rondo form with the main theme appearing three times.59 Finale: Presto."23 Virtuosic notation exists in the background of every measure from the beginning to the end. It entitles Chopin to a place with all masters of imagination and form. in handling. it is one of the major musical achievements after Beethoven. Many commentators rank it as one of the most important achievements in this genre to be considered anywhere in large-scale masterpieces. non Tanto. The last movement is one of the most effective pieces of pure bravura Chopin ever composed.

non tanto A Agitato Keys Measures 1-8 B minor 9-27 A (Bve higher) B mm or 28-51 Ba B major 52-7 5 F sharp major 76-95 Transition B mm or 96-99 A E minor 1 00-1 1 8 A (8ve higher) E minor 119-142 E flat major 143-1 66 E flat major 167-182 Bb Leggiero Ba Bb Longer Leggiero transition 1 83-206 A B minor 207-225 A (8ve higher) B minor 226-253 Coda B major 254-286 .60 TABLE 4 Form of the Finale Tempo Section Introduction Presto.

The second A enters an octave higher with the dynamic marking "forte.4. indicating "agitato" at m. (see example 28) The first theme begins in B minor. Example 28: Mvt. mm. The first two are in the tonic Key of B minor (mm.61 The opening of an ascending melody in octaves (mm. mm. Introduction. 9-13. non tanto Example 29: Mvt." The best best way to practice the part is to use more . 1-8) functions as a short introduction. Presto. 9. 9 and 28). The six versions of the theme are arranged in pairs. 1-8. example 29.4.

and the rest must be carefully observed (example 31 ): . The treatment sometimes involves less legato. 28-35. or slight use of the damper pedal to sustain the tone. 52) (see example 31 ).62 motion. The suggestion in this particular section is that the performer should feel the beat of both hands. This is followed by a fortissimo B section in B major (m.4. The melody of the uppermost part has to be precise. The running passages of the B section combine the different figuration of descending 16th-notes and ascending eight-notes of the right hand while the left hand plays the chords written as dotted quarter notes. and leggiero F sharp major at m. leaving a note before its full duration. 76 ( example 32). (example 30) Example 30: Mvt. Most of the B section is passage work. and also think of the long line. and follow the thumb. mm. Tai). serving as the bridge between the section.

except for the accompaniment of the left hand. '.63 Example 31: Mvt 4. Chopin uses crecendo. The performer has to listen to the counter-melody of the long value notes appearing in the bass. and when the melody descends. he uses decrescendo. mm. • ~2 • The "leggiero" second B section shows a similar idea mentioned earlier.c. (example 32) .i. When the melody ascends.r. 52-58. The dynamic marking used by Chopin is almost always identical with the melodic shapes.

76-80. The sixteenth note accompaniment of the right hand switches to the left hand two measures later.... •"-. mm. (see example 33) ~ . /egg~ 2.64 Example 32: Mvt..- . making a smooth connection of the theme. ~ The first transition is at measure 96 with dynamic marking of "forte". 4.

--~--~--~--~~---- The main theme returns in E minor in three agJ1:1::.t lvur (mm. mm. 96-99.100.65 Example 33: Mvt. followed by the B section in E flat major (m. 4.100-104.. mm. 119) (see example 34.4. 35).143)(example 36).167) (see example 37) Example 34: Mvt. * . and leggiero in E-flat (m.

mm. 4. 167-170.119-122. 143-146. * . Example 37: Mvt.66 Example 35: Mvt. 4. Example 36: Mvt. mm. mm. 4.

183-191. (See example 39 and 40) Example 39: Mvt.f. mm. .. 207. . 4. . ::::f . 4. 207-210.67 An extended bridge (mm.i). The last pair of the main theme presents a furthur agitated three over six in measures 207 and 226. 1 83-206) makes a dramatic transition into the main theme in B minor at m. . Ilf '. mm. (see example 38) Example 38: Mvt.

4.68 Example 40: Mvt. T I =="" i . 4. 226-229. (example 41 ). The coda begins at measure 2 54 with the dynamic marking of "ff". mm. It is extremely virtuosic and in the tonic key of B major. The intensity of the coda creates a triumphal conclusion. (See example 42) Example 41: Mvt. 254-255. mm.I ! ~· .

mm. but it seems to demonstrate Chopin's effort to unify the piece into an organic whole. It hardly appears accidental. . 3 5 2 • The main theme of the finale movement has much in common with the opening theme of the first movement as discussed earlier.69 Example 42: Mvt. 279-286. Both of these movements begin in B minor and end in B major. 4.

Chopin: Profiles of the Man and the Musician (London: Barrie and Rockliff. Author's notes during piano study with Professor Andre Laplante. Walker.70 REFERENCES 1.. pp. p. p. cit. 227. 12. p. 11. 6. Ibid. Ibid. editor. 4 (Winter. 1969). Nicholas Temperley. C. Ibid. 1989.. op. op. 13. 300. p. 42-43. 2. 3. Ashton Jonson. 10." Musical Newsletter. p. Chopin: The Man and His Music (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.. A Handbook to Chopin's Works (London: William Reeves. 1966). Edgar S. F. 254. 255. p. G.. p. Alan Walker. 256. op. Kelley. Walker.. cit. 4. 5. cit. "Scorography: The Music of Chopin. 13. The Ohio State University School of Music. . p. 1974). Walker. 1908).. p. 230.. Inc. 9. 2 52. James Huneker. 8. Ibid. p. 7. 1 61. 1901). 2 50. Winter Quarter. Chopin the Composer: His Structural Art and Its Influence on Contemporaneous Music (New York: Cooper Square Publishers.

20. p. Walker. editor. op. 19.. 303. p. Witold Mulcuzynski. "Fryderyk Chopin. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. 1980). Knopf..(London: Macmillan Publishers Ltd. Murray Perahia. Reuling. U. p. Perahia. 21. Nicholas Temperley. 300-301. cit. . 16. 1949). cit. Columbia 327 80. Perahia.S. 256. 19 7 4. U. cit. Ibid. Stanley Sadie. J." by Arthur Hedley. 17.S. 276. op. 23. Time Life Records. p. 162. "Chopin Sonata No... Program notes. 3. Program notes.A. Chopin: The Man and His Music (New York: A11=red A. 24. 6th Ed. Brown. p. cit..A." Perahia. Walker. 18. op. cit. Herbert Weinstock. E. Murray 15." Concerts of Great Music. 22. Huneker. op. 301 . op. cit. op. Karl F. and Kornel Michalowskl.. "Chopin Sonatas. pp.71 14. Huneker.

58. miraculous. a sensitivity. while trying to achieve the composer's intentions. In Chopin's music.3 in B minor. the performer needs more time to prepare the piece. and even a freedom that cannot easily be taught. the pianist should follow an instinctive excitement of the movement. He found it without seeking. 2 72 . In order to perform such a work with numerous themes and keys convincingly. It came suddenly-complete and sublime. general literature...CHAPTER IV CONCLUSION This document provides a general study of Chopin's Sonata no. In performance. According to Sand: Chopin's creation was spontaneous. as it sang itself in his head during a walk. there is a delicate balance. and a structural analysis of all four movements. and he hurried to hear it himself by giving it to the piano . but must be felt with intuition. without forethought. including performance suggestions and a background of the piece and the composer. 1 George Sand's description of what Chopin went through 1n his compositions provides valuable insights for performers in playing Chopin's music. Op.

It must come naturally.73 For instance. the rubato style in Chopin's music cannot be forced. With this large work. as a matter of feeling rather than thought. It is an extremely helpful tool in understanding more of the piece. it is impossible to perform it well without having a basic knowledge of the formal structure. .

REFERENCES 1. Chopin The Composer: His Structural Art and Its Influence on Contemporaneous (New York: Cooper Square Publishers. 1969). Kelley. Inc.. Chopin and His Circle: An Anthology of Music by Chopin and His Contemporaries (New York: Amsco Music Publishing Company. 2. p. 74 . Ernest Lubin. 118. p. 13. 1975). Edgar S.

Frederic Chopin.BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS Abraham.E. Chopin: Pianist and Teacher. Jean-Jacques. 75 . In Search of Chopin. New York: Abelard Press. Eigeldinger. 1972. Henry. Henri. Finck. Notes on Chopin.. Translated from the French by Bernard Frechtman. London: Macmillan Press. Chopin's Musical Style. London: Cambridge University Press. Chopin and Other Musical Essays. Cortot. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1977. 1921. Translated by Catherine Alison Phillips. Dunn. Ltd. Gide. 1 9 41 . Gerald. Ornamentation in the Works of Frederick Chopin. Andre. Alfred. New York: Books for Libraries Press. Chopin: An Index of His Works. Maurice J. John Petrie. 1 9 7 2. New York: Alfred A. Brown. New York: Philosophical Library. Bidou. Bernard. 1986. London: Novello and Company. 1927. Edited by Roy Howat. 1952. Chopin. London: Oxford University Press. 1949. Gavoty. Translated from the French by Martin Sokolinsky. Knopf.

Ashton. Waters. Hedley. Inc. M. 1969..Campbell. Melville. editions. 197 5. Chopin: A Biography. 1901. The Legacy of Chopin. Hipkins.M. Edgar Stillman.. Ernest.76 Gillespie. Franz.. Inc. Frederic Chopin. London: William Reeves. Chopin. 1963. Jan. Huneker. James. . Chopin the Composer: His Structural Art and Its Influence on Contemporaneous Music. Five Centuries of Keyboard Music. C. New York: Amsco Music Publishing Company. Chopin. Kelley. London: J. with a Survey of Books. 1977. New York: Cooper Square Publishers. New York: Dover Publication. John. Dent & Sons Ltd. 1921. Holeman. Hadden James C.. How Chopin Played. 1965. 19 7 4. 1937. Edith J. Chopin and His Circle: An Anthology of Music by Chopin and His Contemporaries. A Handbook to Chopin's Works. Translated by Edward N. London: Clive Bingley Ltd. London: J. Chopin: The Man and His Music. 1908. Glasgow: William Maclellan. New York: Vienna House.. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Lubin. and Recording. The Skein of Legends Around Chopin. 1981. Dent & Sons Ltd. Adam. 1954. Dent & Sons Ltd. 1967.M. Harasowski. New York: Philosophical Library... Derek. Arthur. G. Jonson. Chopin Playing: From the Composer to the Present Day. London: Victor Gollancz Ltd. James. Methuen. Liszt. London: J.

Nicholas Temperley. editor. Adam. Brown. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians." by William Murdoch. New York: Alfred A. 1988. "Frederic Francois Chopin. 1966. 1935. Alan. Wolff. 1980. Inc. Walker. Mead & Company. William. Chopin: A New Biography.. Indiana: Indiana University Press.77 Murdoch. Frederic Chopin: Profiles of the Man and the Musician." by Arthur Hedley. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Oscar. Alan. 1 963. London: Barrie and Rockliff.. 1985. Harold C. 6th ed. Knopf. J. 11th ed. The International Cyclopedia of Music and Musicians. 1980. Sadie. Edited by Alan Walker. editor. New York: Dodd. Schonberg. Weinstock. Konrad. Jim. Chopin Studies. Samson. Herbert. Stanley. Masters of the Keyboard. Zamoyski. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Jim. Samson. 1949. 19 66. Frederic Chopin. 1 990. Walker. E. Chopin: His Ute. New York: Doubleday & Company. The Music of Chopin.. . London: Macmillan Publishers Ltd. Chopin and Musical Structure: An Analytical Approach.. New York: The Macmillan Company. editor. New York: Simon and Schuster. and Kornel Michalowski. "Fryderyk Chopin. The Great Pianist. London: Barrie and Rockliff. editor. 1985. Chopin: The Man and His Music. Thompson.

"Scorography: the Music of Chopin.78 PERIODICAL AND JOURNALS Harasowski.142-155." Jahrbuch Chopin. Higgins. Higgins.11-14. "An Overview of Chopin's Piano Music. "Chopin's Practices." Musical Newsletter4 (Winter. 1974): pp.38-41. Temperly. Adam." Musical Quarterly 59 (January 1973): pp. "Chopin's Tempo Rubato in Theory and Practice. Oswald.18-32. ." Piano Quarterly 11 3 (Spring 1981 ): pp. Thomas.42-44. Thomas." Piano Quarterly 11 3 (Spring 1981 ): pp. pp. Nicholas. "On the Study of Chopin's Manuscripts.106-120." Piano Quarterly 11 3 (Spring 1981 ): pp. Walter. Jonas. 1956. "Tempo and Character in Chopin. Robert.

Indiana University." Ph. Frederic. 1961. Dissertation."Ph. Chopin. "Chopin: Aspects of MelodicStyle. Sonata Op. MUSIC SCORES Chopin. Dissertation. Edited by I. Paris: Edition Nationale.79 UNPUBLISHED WORKS Higgins.D. Kiorpes. George A. The University of Iowa.A. 1968. 1975. 58. "The Performance of Ornaments in the Works of Chopin. Paderewski. J. Boston University. Mcginnis. Fryderyk." D.D. 1966. Warsaw: Polish Music Publications. Sonatas. "Chopin Interpretation: A Study of Performance Directions in Selected Autographs and Other Sources. Edited by Alfred Cortot. Dissertation. Francis Frederick. .M. Thomas. 19 30.

1987. Westminster 18882. U.A. Program Notes. Witold Malcuzynski. U. 1974. William Kapell. Time-Life Records. Petazzi Paolo. Robison. 1968." Concerts of Great Music: The Romantic Era. Chopin Sonatas. RCA 5998. Karl. Vox 7360. Wright A. U.A.A. Program Notes. Murray. Chopin Sonatas. .80 DISCOGRAPHY Perahia. Guiomar Novaes. Program Notes. Wladyslaw Kedra. J. U. Program Notes. 1952.A.S.S. 1985. "Chopin Sonata No. Murray Perahia Columbia 32780. Program Notes. Maurizio Pollini.S. Chopin Sonatas. Reuling F. Chopin: The Sonatas and Mazurkas. translated by Martin Cooper. Elizabeth. Deutsche Grammophon 41 5346-2.3.A. Program Notes. U. Chopin Sonatas.S. Stanley Charles and Werner Ernest. Germany.S.