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Brief APA Citation Guidelines

Based on:
American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association
(6th edition). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
For further details please consult the publication.

The APA format documents a paper’s sources by both citing them in the text and describing
them bibliographically in the paper’s References list.
1. Reference citations in text: the author-date method
1.1. Integral and non-integral citation:
Integral:
Farmer (2009) found that the chicken came first.
According to Farmer (2009), the chicken came first.
The chicken-and-egg problem was solved by Farmer (2009).
Farmer and Lay (2009) showed that …
The work of Farmer and Lay (2009) demonstrates that …
Rare:
In 2009, Farmer presented his chicken-and-egg theory and …
Non-integral:
It was the chicken that came first (Farmer, 2009).
Previous research showed that it was the chicken that came first (Farmer,
2009).
The findings were confirmed later (Farmer & Lay, 2009).

1.2. One work by one author:
Farmer (2009) pointed out that the chicken-and-egg question was considered
impossible to answer. Furthermore, Farmer stated that …
1.3. One work by multiple authors:
Two authors:
Framer and Hatch (2009) compared free-range eggs …

ELTE-DEAL-2010

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Updated: 06.12.2010

Secondary sources Lay’s observations (as cited in Farmer. use double quotation marks.Three or more authors: .As first citation in text: Framer.12. Barn (2005) points out that “in the hands of an experimental scientist.7. Farmer (2006) studied … 1. Hatch. 2005. ELTE-DEAL-2010 2 Updated: 06. Works with no author: The book Free-range eggs (2009) is … 1. and indicate exact location As Barn (2005) points out. the question is simple and straightforward” (p. 2006a. 24) and notes … or It has been pointed out that “in the hands of an experimental scientist. 2006b. Direct quotation (quotations of fewer than 40 words): incorporate into text. in press-b) discuss … 1. Lay. and Lay (2009) advocate that … . 2009) … 1.6.4. Two or more works published in the same year and in-press works: Several studies (Farmer. Authors with the same surname: A.9.2010 . Personal communication A. found … 1. 24). cite word by word. the question is simple and straightforward” (Barn. “in the hands of an experimental scientist. 2006c.As subsequent first citation per paragraph thereafter: Framer et al. in press-a. M.Subsequent citations after first citation within a paragraph (omit year): Framer et al. M. p. March 21. Farmer (2004) and P. 2009) 1. 2005.8. M. 24).5. or Commenting on earlier research results. (2009) furthermore explore … . Farmer (personal communication. the question is simple and straightforward” (p.

2009. use double spacing for the entire quotation. xx xxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxx-xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxx xx xxx xxxxxx. Farmer (2007) questioned the validity of the results: Xxx xxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxx xx xx x xxx xxx. Double space all reference entries and use hanging indent format (indent about seven spaces or 0. xx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx. ELTE-DEAL-2010 3 Updated: 06. List of references items References should be placed at the end of the paper on a new page. xx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx. pp.9. listing each source cited in the text alphabetically by the author's name (or by a work's title when no author is given).2010 . Xxxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxx xx x xxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xx xxxx xxxxx xxxx. in the References section. Xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xx xxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxx. (p. indent them about 1. xxx xxxxxxxxxxx. xx xxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxx-xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxx xx xxx xxxxxx. xxx xxxxxxxxxxx. Xx xx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx. Xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xx xxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxx. put source after final punctuation mark. (Farmer.27 cm from the left margin. Xxxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxx xx x xxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xx xxxx xxxxx xxxx. Long quotations (usually those of 40 words or more): start on a new line. 25-26) 2. 26) Several studies questioned the validity of the results: Xxx xxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxx xx xx x xxx xxx. do not use quotation marks.12.1. Xx xx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.7 cm).

Farmer (Eds. Cambridge. M.Entire book. (2009). & Farmer. (2009). A.com/books problems. Paper presented Lay. (2007. M. P. A. Book chapter. In A. The science of unsolvable England: Cambridge University Press. 1-47. 47-58. A. M. NY: Guilford Press. NY: Guilford Press.google. M. February).. & Farmer. Which came first? The chicken or the egg? Knowledge Management Research. M. (2007). print version. and-egg problem. The science of unsolvable problems (pp. 13. Farmer. Farmer & P. (2009). (2008). The chicken issue revisited.). 2(9). A. print version. The chicken-and-egg problem: Electronic version of print book Farmer. & Farmer. M. I. New York. A. http://books. The chicken-and-egg debate: Which came at a conference first? Paper presented at the Annual Conference of Philosophers. P. P. The conundrum. A. M.. & Winnipeg. The chicken-and-egg problem.. M. 25-47). (Eds. Starr.. & Farmer. New York. D.).12. 24-36. Journal article/multiple Authors Farmer. M.). 1(3). A. P. Theoretical bases of the chicken- Science. ELTE-DEAL-2010 4 Updated: 06. The chicken-and-egg problem. 8(1). (2009). Barn.2010 .. Entire book. Journal article/single author (Paginated by Volume) Barn. joint authors Farmer. Annual Review of Bird Journal article/single author (Paginated by Issue) Lay. DC: Buck. (2009). M. Denver. Retrieved from Edited book Farmer. M. Bird Research. M. The egg issue revisited. print version Mayhem. (2009). single author Farmer. 65-74.M. I. Colorado. M. Mystery solved (2nd ed. Applied Science. (2006). Washington.

May). B. ELTE-DEAL-2010 5 Updated: 06. M. Revisiting the ‘Which came first — The chicken or the egg?’ problem (Unpublished doctoral dissertation).12. Madrid. Spain. Új eredmények a tyúk vagy tojás kérdéskör genetikai hátteréről. (2008. (2004). Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Unpublished doctoral dissertation Farmer. Cambridge.Tollas. Paper presented at the Genetics Symposium. M. A. [New results concerning the genetic basis of the chicken or egg problem. Cambridge.]. The chicken or the egg: A new perspective (Unpublished master’s thesis). A. (2004). Unpublished thesis Farmer.2010 .

Sample APA formatted table with a note. The number of the table and the title go above the table (see Figure 1).12. Formatting tables and figures Use Arabic numerals to number tables (Table 1. Table 2) and figures (Figure 1.2010 . The number of the figure and the title go below the figure (see Figure 2). Figure 2). Figure 1.3. ELTE-DEAL-2010 6 Updated: 06.

5 cm is usually taken up when the thesis is bound Indentation: indent the first line of every paragraph (5-7 spaces or ½ inch). exceptions: the abstract.Sample APA formatted figure.Figure 2. single-spacing or one-and-a-half spacing in tables and figures Margins: uniform margins of 2.12. * for seminar papers and BA and MA theses you may choose to justify lines For sample APA formatted papers visit http://www. ELTE-DEAL-2010 7 Updated: 06.org/ or check the links on the APA section of the DEAL homepage. left align all remaining lines*. titles and headings. block quotations.apastyle.54 cm* * for BA and MA theses you should set the left margin at 3 cm because 0. figure captions. 4.2010 . 12-point font size Line spacing: double-space between all text lines. Formatting the text Typeface: Times New Roman. table titles and notes.