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Table of Contents
About the organization
Introduction of Project
Scope of study
Limitation of study
Introduction of Baby Diaper
Market Demand
India Market
World Market
Baby Diaper Market-2008
Main Market Players
Description of Manufacturing Process
Product Recipe

Page No.

Flow Chart of Manufacturing Process



Plant Description
Layout for the Baby Diaper Manufacturing Plant
Machines and Productivity
Raw Material
Quality Control & Standards
Packing Specifications



Manpower Requirement



Plant and Machinery Suppliers
Procedure for using the Baby Diaper Products



About the Organization
Kamtech Associates Private Limited is established in 1997, Kamtech has earned
professional repute in providing value added consulting services and solutions with the
enhanced customer's satisfaction.
With varied domain expertise, international experience with world leading companies and
wide network of international alliance partners, they offer clients cost effective high fidelity
total consulting solutions that are fined and tuned to each client’s specific requirement to face
the growing global business challenges.
Kamtech is the first Knowledge Processing Company (KPO) in the Rajasthan state, head
quartered in Jaipur. It has now spread its wings across the continents to offer world class
dedicated Knowledge Processing Services through its sprawling 24 x 7 operational most
modern development centre.
It is an ISO 9001:2000 certified leading total solution provider consultancy company. In
their development centre, there expert professionals provide round the clock services.

About CEO of the Company
Ajay Kumar Gupta, a meritorious Mechanical Engineer with
management qualifications, is the promoter of Kamtech Associates
Pvt. Ltd. Mr. Gupta has also joined in as consortium partner with
leading consultancy companies like Dastur Co, WSP International,
and Black & Veatch in the various infrastructure projects in
He is also the founder member and Honorable

Secretary of

Foundation of Information & Technology Transfer Society, first
NGO in Rajasthan in IT, knowledge and entrepreneurship development sector.


Services Offered by Kamtech Associates Pvt. Ltd.

Customized Software Module Developments,
IT Outsourcing & Consultancy Services,
Offshore Development,
ERP Software Development and Implementation,
Software Requirement Studies & Documentation,
Process Mapping,
Website / Portal Development,
Web Promotion,
e-Commerce Solutions,
Corporate Training in ERP and other knowledge areas,
Project Management,
Feasibility Studies,
Detailed Project Reports,
Policy Research,
Quality Checks,
Evaluations and Software Quality Testing,
CAD/CAM and Engineering Services,
Documentation & Implementations of best practices like ISO 9001,
CMMI and TQM etc.

Introduction of the Project:
This report has been made for a South African investor Mr. Somnath Poojary, who wants to
establish a Baby Diaper Plant. The project demands for a thorough study of


demand of baby diaper in India as well as in World and main market players of this particular
product. The project also includes manufacturing process, raw material required for
manufacturing of baby diaper, plant layout, manpower required. The quality control &
standards required and costing of the project.

Scope of Study:
 As more and more women starts working, so the market of Baby Diaper is huge
because of the lesser time they will give to their child.
 Also the living standards of people are growing on a rapid pace. They will spend
more money for baby care products.
 Increase in population will also reflect the increase of sale in baby diaper.

Similarly in other countries also except US where the 95. It predicts a huge scope of baby diaper.  Time Constraint: As the time limit for my project was fixed and lots of components were there to be analyzed.5% children wear baby diaper. So I was not able to access primary source and I had to rely on secondary sources. so I was not able to study and analyze each component to utmost depth possible. Limitations of Study:  Unavailability of Relevant Data: As this project report based on secondary data so the data available on internet was not in detail and this has been the main limitation of this report.  Selective study: There are lots of baby diaper companies in the baby care product industry each having too many products. So it was not possible for me to analyze all the data of each company. baby Diaper Company did not gave the information to unauthorized persons.  Rely On Secondary Sources: As per the policies. As time needed for this report was much more than available. 3 . . So I concentrated on few major players in the market. In India only 2% children of the total population are using baby diaper.

 Big baby diaper. They are placed and fastened around baby’s legs and bottom to form a leak proof seal. The history of diapers is a story of continuous design improvements and development of new materials. The main duty requirements of diapers are :  The device should be comfortable for the baby  It should be easy to place and remove on the baby  It should have the capacity to absorb urine and semisolid stool  It should be capable of being wrapped without spilling contents on removal  It should be disposable and affordable  It should be of such inert materials as will not affect baby’s delicate skin Types of Baby Diapers  Teen baby diaper.  Baby napkin.  Boy baby diaper. preventing contamination of baby’s clothes.2.  Newborn diaper.  Paper diaper.0 Introduction of Baby Diaper : Diapers are personal hygiene products engineered to absorb and contain urine and faeces of a baby.  Disposable baby diapers.  Girl baby diaper and cotton baby diaper etc. A quick review to diaper History before 1960 A quick review at modern diaper history Maria Allen Inventors of SAP Billy Gene Harper Carlyle Harmon 1870 First Mass Production Of cloth diapers 1966 Vic Mills 1961 Leg Cuffs 1986 Fluff replaced Tissue 1972 1978 “Hourglass Shape” 1949 First pin free diaper Marion Donovan 1946 George Shroder 1949 Figure 1 Stages of Development of Baby Diapers 4 Modern Diaper 2005 .

2. by adding 5 .1 General Baby Diaper specification and weight details are as follows: Series S M L Xl Min sap fluff sap fluff sap fluff sap fluff Max 10 13 16 19 Product 7 14 9 18 11 22 13 26 Length /Width Product weight 405mm 290mm 18-29g 450mm 315mm 22-36g 485mm 335mm 28-45g 500mm 350mm 32-52g Table 1: General Baby Diaper Specification and weight Details 2. The back-sheet can also be given a cloth-like look.2 Baby Diaper: Figure 2: Baby Diaper 2.3 Most baby diapers are made with the following basic components: 1) Polyethylene or cloth-like film: This is used as the back sheet that prevents the liquids from leaking out of the diaper.

3) Hot Melts: They are used to glue the different components of the diaper. synthetic rubber or Lycra (also known with the generic name Spandex). usually made of polyurethane or polyester foam. Velcro type materials have been used to provide mechanical grip. The hydrophobic nonwoven prevents leakage out of diaper. it is possible to make a roll of hydrophobic nonwoven only partially philic. 7) Lateral Tapes: In premium diapers. They are used in cuffs. In lower priced diapers. The hot melt adhesive is applied in molten form and when it cools down it provides the required bonding force to glue the materials. it is also known as the "hook tape". they can also be used as lateral side panels and in tape construction. 6) Elastics: Used to improve the fit of the diaper. the top surface that is in contact with the baby's skin. They are made of a mixture of resins and oils. The tissue essentially serves as a carrier for the pad (the pad is the absorbent core of the diaper) and helps reduce the pin holes created during the compression process carried out by continuous drum forming systems. The difference between the two non-wovens (philic and phobic) is the surfactant treatment used in the process. By applying a surfactant to a restricted area. for the waist and the legs.a thin polypropylene non-woven sheet to the film. 2) Tissue: A special tissue paper that is different from the regular bathroom tissue and has a higher elasticity and wet strength is another important component of a diaper. It allows the liquids to flow into the diaper core. it prevents water from passing through. such as the pad and the elastics. using either the hot melt process or the heat and pressure method. 4) Hydrophobic Non-woven: It is used as a top sheet for the leg cuffs. adhesive tapes 6 . 5) Hydrophilic Non-woven: It is the main top sheet. It is made of polypropylene resin without any added surface surfactants.

Its use has helped to reduce the thickness of the poly film without the risk of potential tears associated with the opening of the lateral tapes from the back-sheet. it is a sub layer used between the top sheet and the absorbent core.made of polypropylene are used. The capacity of normal cellulose pulp is around 10 cc of water per gram of pulp when the diaper is in "free swell". it is made of polypropylene film and attached to the front of the diaper with adhesive. 11) Sodium Poly-acrylate: Also known as super-absorbent or "SAP" (super absorbent polymer). It is typically used in fine granular form (like table salt). 12) Top Sheet surface add-on lotions: In order to create novelties for product differentiation. it gives integrity and absorbing capacity to the diaper. Kimberly Clark used to call it SAM (super absorbent material). 8) Frontal Tapes: This is used to facilitate multiple repositioning of the lateral tape without tearing the back-sheet. several topical lotions are added to the nonwoven top sheet. Sometimes used in full length but mostly preferred as a patch near the target zone where urine is most likely to be deposited. among others: 7 . Then there are new versions of elasticized Nonwoven Velcro Tapes. It helps improve capacity for better retention in a disposable diaper. allowing the product to be thinner with improved performance and less usage of pine fluff pulp. Figure 3: Polypropylene film in Baby Diaper 9) Cellulose: Used in the construction of the pad. 10) Acquisition and Distribution Layer: Also known with its Figure 4: Cellulose abbreviation ADL.

SAP is used in the diaper core to help hold urine away from the skin and faecal enzymes. many pediatricians are against its use for obvious reasons. as well as minor amounts of tapes. now dominate the disposable diaper market. The health benefits of modern diapers based on SAP and other advanced technologies provide advantages in skin care. some diapers use decorated films underneath the cloth-like back-sheet. Almond Oil. Kimberly-Clark.  Approximately 75% of the superabsorbent polymers used worldwide are sold in diaper products from five major companies.  The global market for disposable diapers is $20 billion annually. etc. 13) Decorated Films and wetness indicators: For even greater product differentiation. There is another trend to use antibacterial lotions (such as tertiary ammonia or silver salt compounds). elastics and adhesive materials. Jojoba. etc.  Nowadays. Oat Extract. Sesame Street.  In the diaper product development area. Some use as many as nine inks with all kinds of well known characters such as Disney. and most of these relate to the product's absorbency. 8 .  Superabsorbent polymers (SAPs). each major component is tested separately to assess safety under conditions that are appropriate to the potential exposures consumers. Vitamin D. dryness. This helps prevent the conditions that lead to diaper rash. super absorbent polymer (SAP). Soccer teams. polypropylene. polyethylene. These manufactures include Proctor & Gamble (P&G).  There are several methods used to control the quality of disposable diapers. However. 2. materials comprising long chains of intertwining molecules with the happy ability to soak up lots of liquid. Vitamin E. and other diaper manufacturers.Aloe Vera. and leakage protection.4 Facts & Figures:  An average diaper weighs between 45 and 50 g and is primarily made of pulp (fluff pulp). Petrolatum. This is typically used for adult products but some baby diapers also use it. Another gimmick they use is a wetness indicator.

In Europe. The superabsorbent polymer used in the Pampers diaper holds approximately thirty times its own weight in body fluid. Example of a mathematical correlation between % of leakage (Y) and total retentive capacity at 5 KPa (X) for a mid-market segment diaper. one need to understand the mathematical correlation between diaper performance and diaper cost. therefore not passing it back to the skin.  In the United States. Growth for baby diapers is considerably higher in other parts of the world. it requires the use of sophisticated statistical tools and plenty of field data on diaper use. 2. most of the times it is a polynomial equation(*). P&G diapers are now sold in more than 80 countries worldwide with $4 billion in sales. which produces the popular Pampers diaper.7006 3. Most diaper producers rely on simple trial and error for defining the right mix of absorbing materials. Proctor & Gamble is a well-known diaper manufacturer. particularly in Asia but also in Latin America and Africa. . approximately 25% of the market for baby diapers consists of retailers’ brands. For each diaper design there is a corresponding mathematical formula that can be optimized to improve diaper performance without increasing its cost. The transmission of fluid to the absorbent core allows the fluid to be engulfed.0 Market Scenario: 9 .  The P&G Corporation developed a unique three-piece construction diaper to absorb the moisture and distribute it evenly.0041(X)+0. The fact of the matter is that even small changes in the core mix can result in significant changes in leakage performance. In order to be able to optimize the cost of the diaper for a given market segment. The correlation between diaper leakage and diaper cost is not linear.5 Mathematical Models for Disposable Diaper Manufacturing To set up the most economical design for a given diaper market segment. The result is either a misuse of the materials or underperformance of the diaper. Using this equation in conjunction with variable cost. enables to maximize performance at a given cost level when use this very specific diaper design: Y=5E-09(X)3+8E-06(X)2-. some other companies try to copy the performance of a larger competitor without taking into account the individual diaper features.

without hesitation. we can see a significant increase in the buying power of the target market. the marketing of baby diapers should satisfy the requirements of these consumers for sanitation and convenience. Investors can earn lucrative profit with the small capital investment.per Packet Apart from the premium pricing. The Indian mother is a cost-conscious woman and would like to recycle most of the products used for her 10 . has an attitudinal barrier towards disposables.64 billion.000 newborn babies per year in the world. It is sincerely hoped that far-sighted entrepreneurs will seize. The Indian consumer. This industry will not only bring about a comfortable living for the small babies.According to the survey (2003) on both the domestic and overseas markets conducted by the Ministry of the Interior of Taiwan. cloth is perceived as Grandmother's gold standard for baby's skin despite diapers providing better protection and skincare.1 Indian Market In India.per Packet Pampers for one year Baby : 25 Pieces per Packet @ 275 /. as well as an emphasis on personal sanitation. of local consumers. In the wake of constant rise in the GNP and industrialization of developing countries. Each baby at the age ranging from 2. At the present time. and South-East Asia. the market for baby diapers has a considerably large potential for further development. Selling price of baby diaper in Indian Market :   Huggies for one year Baby : 25 Pieces per Packet @ 330/. the Indian mindset regarding the usage of the product also needs to be changed. the world averages some 360.5 years to 3 years uses 5 to 10 diapers per day. Europe. the Middle East. and then the annual consumption of diapers would come to a total of 1. but also can stimulate the development of related industries. in general. which is one of the main impediments towards their growth. Disposable diapers are considered expensive in India. The main target countries are in America. And such a demand will increase in proportion to the increase in the population of the various markets. this excellent opportunity for investment in this line of business. thus. 3.

Also disposable diapers' usage is mainly restricted to out-of-home occasions.household. Godrej Consumer Products decided to acquire the Snuggy brand from Shogun Industries late last year. With a five per cent share in the diaper market. Apart from the purpose of having more brands to ride its distribution chain. The high leg-cut design was fashioned keeping the Indian climatic conditions in mind. The Indian Baby diaper market had been growing at 15-20 per cent annually for 2-3 years until last year. The distribution was outsourced to Marico for a few years. product of Proctor & Gamble has been present in India since 1995-96. locking fluid in the core of the diaper. This means that one gram of SAM can absorb up to 100 grams of fluid." Besides. when it reported a decline of five per cent. which could lead it to becoming a complete baby care brand. Huggies diapers have been incorporated with an outer cover meant to provide cotton-like comfort and double leak guards. KCL were introduced in 1997. SAM can absorb fluid up to 100 times Figure 5 Huggies Kimberly Clark its weight. keeping the baby's skin absolutely dry. Godrej realised the importance of having a brand name such as Snuggy. This acts as a main barrier towards disposable diapers in India.2 World Market 11 Figure 7 Snuggy Goderj . 3. market leader Kimberly Clark Lever Pvt Ltd (KCL) is today offering its Dri-Fit diapers with 50 per cent more absorbent material using super absorbent material (SAM) for its Huggies brand. Pampers' USP is one of superior performance at an affordable price. Reducing prices and changing technology. The same applies to the products used for her baby too. Pampers. which are relatively few while the baby is in the diaper wearing age. SAM quickly absorbs fluid and converts it into dry gel-like material. Figure 6 Pampers P&G In spite of the barriers facing the category's growth.

600 diapers per second if every single baby in the world used disposable diapers.600 machines to satisfy the need for the world. There are many regions of the world that use less diapers than the USA. This means the world requires 15. They are able to achieve this goal before the age of 20 months. There are 321 Babies 0 to 30 months (Millions) Graph 1 Babies 0 to 30 Month .5 in year 2007. American babies are wearing diapers for a longer period than they used to do a decade ago.Growth in the baby diaper segment is high in the markets in Asia. A more reasoned estimate of the total number of baby diaper machines today is around 550 (not counting the hundreds of “home garage” micro machines). Babies use more diapers per day when they are small million babies in the world with ages in the range of 0 to 2. 12 2005 2025 In di a Ch in In a do ne si Pa a kis Un ta ite n d St at es Br az il Me xi Ph co ili pp in es Eg yp t Vi et na m and much less when they grow older. Also. In the US. Latin America and Africa. China and Russia are good examples as they are probably the very best at potty training. If a typical diaper 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 machine runs at 6 diapers per second then it will need 2. The rest of the world is somewhere in the middle. It is estimated that American babies use a total number of 3. Calculating the maximum size of the baby diaper market requires knowing the total birth rate in the target segment and multiplying the number of babies in this segment by the number of average diapers used per day (the representative average according to each stage used) and multiplying that with the number of years in that stage.200 diapers during their diaper wearing stage. instead of 33 or more required in the USA. more diapers are used per baby in comparison to Europe or even Japan.700 to 4. The reason for this is high birth rates and the increasing use of disposable diapers related to improving standards of living.

Therefore.9%.According to birth rate trends. which increased to $1 billion from $500 million four years ago. Assuming the consumption of diapers per day is further reduced by another 5% due to diaper performance improvements during this time (a very realistic number).8 billion in 2002. The most significant growth has occurred during that period in Western Europe. spokesperson for AHPMA. There is very little mark-up on them. Nappies are a known value item. which offset decreases in North American sales. so manufacturers are focusing on shifting the market share for growth.5 years of age. These supermarket price wars work well for consumers because prices stay down.K. “Last year was the first time we saw a minor rise in the birth rate in the U. and Eastern Europe.-based trade association for the disposable hygiene item industries. it is estimated that for year 2025 the whole world will have 328 million babies at the diaper wearing range of 0 to 2. Drop offs in North American sales have been largely caused by flat birth rates. In fact. individual company growth has come only at the expense of stolen market-share. up to $5. up from $18. An attractive price can draw in the shoppers so retailers are prepared to make little or no profit because they know they will do the rest of their shopping when they come in to buy diapers. very competitive market. “It’s a very.” According to statistics provided by market tracker Euromonitor. a U.” said Tracey Stewart. Most recently 13 . which has largely been achieved through price manipulation as well as marketing and promotional activity. Other key growth areas included Latin America. already high penetration levels and fewer diaper changes per child thanks to technological advances in diapers. the Middle East and Asia-Pacific.5 billion from under $4 billion in 2002. one diaper executive described the market as a commodity created by brands and their pricing strategies where everyone is competing against everybody.K. Australasia and Africa. then the total increase for baby diapers in year 2025 will be actually reduced by 2. the world baby diaper was valued at $21 billion in 2006.

In many countries of Central and Eastern Europe. seven other facilities will be expanded as some production capacity from affected facilities is transferred to them to further improve the scale. In addition. further improve operating efficiencies and reduce selling. driven by increasing pressure on parents’ time. In Latin America. the expansion of the European Union and many of these countries’ inclusion in it have created opportunities for smaller manufacturers located in the region. which has launched value-added products. driven by a rise in the number of women in the workforce and subsequent increased demand for convenient disposable items. or approximately 6000 employees. while approximately 20 manufacturing facilities. 14 . There is a particular focus on Europe aimed at improving business results in the region. However. The company intends to consolidate and streamline manufacturing facilities. and an additional four facilities will be streamlined. will be sold or closed. or 17% of the company’s worldwide total. these products continue to be viewed as expensive luxury items by consumers who continue to favor more economic cloth alternatives. leaving a great deal of room for future market growth. penetration levels for disposable baby diapers are as low as 30%. diapers have registered strong growth in most markets. general and administrative expenses while reinvesting in key growth opportunities there. K-C.Procter & Gamble announced it would increase prices of some of its diaper brands while lowering them for others. Furthermore. particularly on the part of the sector leader. While diapers and pants registered growth in some developing markets in Asia-Pacific. pricing in these countries must be significantly lower than in their Western European markets —hence the need for less sophisticated diapers. these markets have benefited from aggressive manufacturer activity. productivity and cost position of those operations. However. By the end of 2008. there will be a net workforce reduction of about 10%.

K. the study confirms: neither disposable nor cloth diaper systems can claim overall environmental superiority and the differences in the impacts between diaper systems are not significant enough to voice support for one diaper type over the other on the basis of environmental factors alone. Specifically.Disposable diaper advocates are refuting claims that disposable diapers are a threat to the environment. These claims have been reinforced by the results of a governmentcommissioned life cycle assessment (LCA). Almost all of the Latin American countries have passed the minimal threshold required for diaper sales to grow. that disposable diapers are still far away in their future. having the 4th and the 8th largest population of babies in the world at this moment. China will have the largest diaper growth in the next 5 years or so. Ethiopia and Congo. Quite a different story in the Northern part of Africa. Also Argentina has been 15 . Countries like Morocco. that shows through independent analysis that disposable nappies have no greater impact on the environment than cloth diapers. The other three countries with large population of babies are Nigeria. with growth rates in double digits every year. North African countries. especially those located near the Mediterranean Sea will experience large growth in baby diapers in the next several years as all of them have passed the required minimal threshold PPP. Environment Agency. but their PPP is so low. Indonesia and Brazil deserve their own mention. specially for the 80% middle range of the population (making less than $600 per year). coordinated by the U. in particular Colombia is growing very fast. Algeria and Libya are already experiencing double digit growth and they will continue for the next 5 years or so. Egypt will also have a good growing trend.

but this growth margin also includes the modification of the sample on which the measurement was carried out. the yearly average consumption of diapers for young children aged between 0 and 3 neared 625 units per baby.2% 4 India 2.recovering quickly from the past devaluation.5% 10 Vietnam 9. in México market share is already close to 60% with a poverty level of 40% there is no place to grow other than exports. taking the market to 60m euros.0% 8 Philippines 21.500 million units overall.0% 5 Indonesia 9. Bangladesh.6% 7 Pakistan 4. There is little cultural resistance to accept diapers in Latin America today.5% 2 China 5. 3. Ethiopia and Congo excluded ) The above data shows that India. Country Market Shrae 2006 1 Brazil 29. Pakistan & China use less than 6% of baby diaper and have more birth rate & baby population.5% 3 Egypt 22. but it requires proper marketing and lower price of these products . with only about 50% market share average. 16 .3 Baby diaper market -2008  In 2008. so in these nations the market has a huge potential for baby diaper usage.5% 9 United States 95.0% 6 Mexico 58. On the market of non-comestible consumer products single-use baby diapers boasted the biggest growth rate in 2007.  It boasted the biggest growth rate in 2008 among non-comestible consumer goods. baby diapers posted a 58. Baby Diapers % used by Countries -2006 S. Mexico and Brazil have not been growing as fast.1% increase against 2006.No. According to data from the ACNielsen market research company.0% Table 2 Baby Diapers % used by Countries (*Nigeria .

 The most important distribution channels for baby diapers are hypermarkets and supermarkets. which accounted for 15.4 billion units will be sold in Europe and 4.(022) 25188040 Concept Diapers Couches Panales Bapu Khote Steet.9% of the diaper volumes sold during the March 2007-January 2008 period.(022) 25188010. ( Huggies ) Gat Nos. Village Sanaswadi.4 Main Market Players : The following are the main market players in the baby diaper manufacturing: Kimberly Clark – Lever Ltd.400099 Maharashtra. Eastern Expresss Highway. Mumbai. 25188030 Fax . Mumbai . Phone . Maharashtra.Chakala. India. around 20. 934 to 937. Many new diaper machines are being installed there.6 billion units. followed by drugstores. Taluka Sherur. These stores accounted for 58. 3. It is reported that China has the largest incremental sales in comparison to last year. 25188020.400079.  The volume of diapers sold in the United States alone in year 2007 will be close to 18. according to MEMRB. Andheri (E).3%. India. Tel: (+91 22) 2826 6000 Fax: (+91 22) 6693 9696 Godrej Consumer Products ( Snuggy ) Pirojshanagar. Vikhroli. District Pune India P&G Plaza ( Pamper & Tampax Brand ) Cardinal Gracias Road. In 2007 generated a turnover worth around 60m euros accounting for more than a third of the paper consumer goods market. India Zip/Postal Code: 400003 Telephone: 0091-22-32453799 Fax: 0091-22-32453799 17 .9 billion units will be sold in Mexico in 2007. Mumbai ..

Hari Market. Khar West. G.. India Zip/Postal Code: 400052 Telephone: 91-22-26480097 Fax: 91-22-26480098 Mobile Phone: 00919890945235 Herbochem 73. Opp. Maharashtra.Khar Railway Station. Sherly Rajan Rd. India Zip/Postal Code: 400 050 Telephone: 91-22-26480730 Fax: 91-22-26480730 Jyoti India Pvt Ltd. Delhi. Mumbai. Ssi Industrial Area. Bandra(W).Mumbai Maharashtra. Ltd Office No. India Telephone: 91-11-55151709 Fax: 91-11-27377383 18 . Solomon. Karnal Road.. T. 20.20.Actifit India Pvt.

which holds the individual strip together. Thus.  The diapers.  The strip is then processed by hot sealing and embossed with favorite figures.0 Description of Manufacturing Process: The manufacturing process of the Diapers is simple and amenable to line production. The diaper is cut to the proper dimension. which crushes the supplied pulp into cotton-like fluff.4.  The entire strip is then wrapped by a non-woven fabric. which are still joined together by the train diaper are forwarded by a conveyer and thereafter cut into separate pieces. the process is:  Sheets of rolled wood pulp are continuously and automatically fed to the pulp crusher.  The fluffed pulp is then molded into strips. Next a non-woven fabric is placed and adhesive is applied to bond the materials.1 Product Recipe Below is a typical recipe for a baby diaper.   The entire strip is then cut into required lengths. 4. and the fastener and release tapes are attached at designated points. the best selling size worldwide: 19 . It consists of a continues operation in which the filler paper is ground by a hammer mill to produce a fluffed pulp which is then supported by a tissue paper.  Two absorbent layers of cotton are placed on two sides of the molded strip.  Each diaper is then placed into individual bags and arrayed in good order for packing. The Waterproof polyethylene film is laid on the sides of the absorbent layers.

000 4% Tissue 18gsm $/Tonne 1014.2 0.194 4% $/ m.600 4% $/1000m2 86.0 1.719 4% $/Tonne 1592. cm).850 4% LC Con Glue $/Tonne 0.420 4% Leg Elastic $/Tonne 84.5 3.024 4% L/Cuff N/w $/1000m2 490.728 4% Foam elastic $/1000m2 36.127 4% Elastic Glue $/Tonne 0. Weight 33+9 (Grams) Waste (Grams) Fluff $/Tonne 20.0 3.0 0.Product Specification: Raw Items Units Area/Lgth Maxi 28 (Sq.130 4% Constr.2 0. Glue $/Tonne 0.0 0. 5.465 4% SAP $/Tonne 9.0 1.200 4% Non-woven Backsheet Hook Tape Loop Frontal Bags $/unit 28 2% Boxes $/unit 168 2% Wrap $/roll 21504 2% Pallet $/unit 2688 2% Table3: Product Recipe Baby Diaper 20 .0 0.052 4% L/Cuff Elastic $/Tonne 39.758 4% ADL 40gsm $/1000m2 182. cm.300 4% LC El Glue $/Tonne 0.150 4% Lotion $/Tonne 0.0 0.876 4% $/1000m2 1617.

4.2 Flow Chart of Manufacturing Process: Raw Pulp Crushing Wrapping with PE Films and Non-Woven Fabric Cutting into Sections Hot Sealing & Embossing Cutting Sections of Diapers Packaging and Storage Conveyor Market and Up to Baby Flow Chart 1: Baby Diaper Manufacturing Process 21 Forming of FiberTissue Layers (Cotton-Like Fluff) Tissue on Two Sides Forwarding by Conveyer The Finished Products .

A fluff pulp mill positioned at the right hand end of the machine and normally counter/stacker at the left hand end to count the diapers and align them before they are pushed into the manually held bag or into the automatic packaging machine. The unit comprises a paper pulp crushing machine.5. the feeding is easily operated Pulp grinder: Grinding system with the reject fiber collecting device. control box. forming/ wrapping machine. 22 . Pulp feeding frame: The electrically controlled lifter. plus counter. Hot melt adhesive rolling system: The special applying adhesive device. Pad conveyor: Convey the pads in 2.5M row. glue spreading machine and the conveyer systems. and Figure 8: Baby Diaper Machine alignment machine. which is convenient for packing inspection Drive system: Solid spiral and helical gears of different specification to match with vari-speed gear shift allowing for reduction of the pulp mat to the proper thickness at the desired weight. Pad wrapping system: Pliable but strong wrapping and forming device made from the stainless steel with special specification and designs.0 Plant Description: The manufacturing process of baby diaper is a line production. which can reduce the production cost.

0 Layout for the Baby Diaper Manufacturing Plant: The required manufacturing lay out for a typical baby diaper manufacturing plant is as given in figure and required room & space details are as follows: A. Warehouse for raw material C. Washroom for employees (Locations have given in plant layout as per numbering) 23 .5 x 60 x 70% = 78.750 per day. Warehouse for products E. 6. Washroom H.4 sizes  Guideline 70% efficiency for working time  Daily production = 250 x 7.5 hours working. Guard house and restroom G.  Annual production = 240 x 78. Room for registry of incoming goods and outgoing goods.9 million diapers per year for one shift.750 = 18. Assuming 8 hour per shift with 30 minute break = 7.  Weeks holiday shut-down per year (Assuming 5 day working week and)  Economy diaper machine producing 250 diapers per minute . Office building B. Production machinery room (with a capacity for two units at least) D. F. Simple maintenance room I.

)×314”(W)×(728”(H) Embossing and conveyer 24 .)×433”(W)×728”(H) Forming/Wrapping set: 984”(L.) Main machinery specifications and required space of the baby diaper machines are as follows : Crusher: 787”(L. …. C. B.Figure 9 Plant lay out for Diaper Manufacturing Unit (The details related to the lactations are as per Alphabets numbering given above A.

for the glued finished products: 1407”(L.)×314”(W. (1) Unloading facilities: Plant layout for production of baby diaper is characterized by simplicity. use plastic sheeting or wooden damage (with a thickness over 4”) for separation of raw material and the products from floor. (3) Packing facilities: If wish to pack the product into a plastic bag.) Plant layout for production of baby diaper is characterized by simplicity. 25 .) Total length: 3464” (L) ×472” (W. requiring only environmental sanitation and cleanliness. requiring only environmental sanitation and cleanliness. or the continuous heat-sealing machine. use a pedal-controlled manual packing machine. In case of excessively high humidity. If one wishes to pack the product into a paper bag.)×728” (H. so as to prevent damage of the materials and products. use a box packing machine and carton packing machine for higher efficiency. (2) Ventilation: Production plant must be designed with efficient ventilation.)×728” (H.

0 Machines and Productivity: 7.000.000. Sanitary napkin machines range from US $100. The lowest priced European machine would be around US $400.000 to US $3. Asia and Europe that offer different levels of machinery and after sales support. Second-hand Machines 26 .000. 1.400k US $2.7. They vary greatly in price based on the following main parameters:  Machine speed  Product features  Product quality  Machine reliability/efficiency The following tables give costs of typical baby diaper and sanitary napkin machines. 2.000 to US$1.200. These should be treated only as guidelines since there are many different manufacturers in Americas. The lower priced being slow and inflexible machines for a simple product. Baby Diaper Machines Machine speed Slow speed -100dpm Product type Economy Minimum Cost US $200k Medium Speed -250dpm High speed -400dpm Top speed -800dpm Medium /Premium Premium Premium US $400k US $1.1 Machines: All high speed disposables machines are custom built to suit exact requirements.000.000k Table 4 Baby Diaper Machines The common range of prices for diaper machines would be from US $500.

ANEX. 8. The last Asian exhibition. However. The efficiency is normally assumed to be circa 70% of available production.000 to US $1. with Raw Materials gathered from all over the world. and next year in May European exhibition.Second hand machineries are also available in the market. A good place to meet the suppliers is at the Nonwoven Exhibitions.2 Productivity Approximately 4% waste for the diaper raw materials and 2% for the packaging. Index. was held in Tokyo in May 2006.000. The cycle of Europe. One shift Production. (the weight is adjustable) For this product range the raw material requirement is as follows : 27 . which are held annually in three different parts of the world. At the start of manufacture with untrained staff or with more basic machines an approximate efficiency of 60% should be assumed. there is more risk involved in the purchase of such a machine directly from the vendor. Second hand machines are often available.000. (Machines Prices are based on FOB at Factory Gate) 7. will be held. in April 2007 the US exhibition IDEA held in the Miami Beach Convention Centre in Florida. Asia and USA then repeats. width 110mm. Assuming: Baby diaper size: long 320mm. This can be exceeded if size changeovers are minimized and operators are well trained. and would range from US $300.0 Raw Material This is international industry. thickness: 8-10mm.

good stickiness. Film: the thickness 0. This test is required for several factors  Fibre length  Fibre entanglement  Pad compression  Pad embossing  Adhesion to roll materials  Superabsorbent distribution  Core shape  Core structure  Drum forming consistency 28 . width 380410mm(500gmm2 up)  Tissue: 18gm/square meter standard width 180mm  P.  Release paper: good release.thickness 1-2mm. width 19-50mm(standard) 9. standard  Hot melt gum: Pressure sensitive and endurance.0015mm. white adhesive.1 Pad Integrity tests A pad integrity test is required for consistency checks and as a development parameter. Pulp : fluff pulp . width 85-105mm  Non-woven fabric: good thermo-bonding 16-18gm/square meter.0 Quality Control & Standards 9.E.

2 Consistency test for  Drum forming 29 .1.1 Vertical Light box Integrity Display tester: In Integrity Test we used a Vertical Light box for regular product inspection. Improvement in the pad integrity: A rise in the average line (red line above) indicates general improvement of the pad integrity of the product. Improved consistency of pad formation will be reflected by a narrowing of the range of results. Even spray glues can be seen due to excellent light level The product can be quickly and easily turned to view from other side without unfastening the clamps. Consistency of the pad formation. The product can be tensioned laterally as well as vertically Figure 10 Vertical Light box Integrity due to the friction grip between clamps and cross bar.1. The details of the internal materials can be seen without difficulty. Display tester: 9. 2. Any cassette defects can be quickly Graph 2 Daily Integrity test result identified.9.2 Result & Analysis: As in Graph 1 the daily or weekly drop height graph will give indications of two quality parameters: 1. 9.

)×105mm(W. 160 pieces/min 30 .4 Comparison test  Comparison with other brands in dry and wet states  Comparison with other pad structures 9. packed into a wooden case and put into a 20’ container.3 Development test  Removal or reduction of tissue layer  Improvement of adhesive bond  Change of embossing or compression  Change of absorbent core structure  Changes in fluff and SAP content 9.5 Quality Standards Quality Management System ISO 9001:2000 is the main quality standard required for this type of Industries with hygiene conditions & clean environment. SAP and fluff homogeneity  Glue application  Compression / embossing  Bi-folding damage  Package compaction 9.0 Packing Specifications: The standard packing system for shipment is to dismantle the units into 3 sections each. Size measurements:  Standard: 360mm(L. 10.)× 16mm(Thickness)Max.

0 Costing: Product: Baby diaper Size: long 320mm.0015mm. One (1) operator (for operation of the machine and handling of materials) and 3 to 4 packing workers.5 hours working.750 per day. width 110mm.thickness 1-2mm.E. Training is essential for each operator for smooth and efficient operation of plant and usually provides by the machines supplier. 150 pieces/min 11. width 85-105mm 31 .5 x 60 x 70% = 78.)× 15mm(Thickness) Max. For this product range the raw material requirement is as follows:  Pulp : fluff pulp . (the weight is adjustable)  Assuming 8 hour per shift with 30 minute break = 7.  Weeks holiday shut-down per year (Assuming 5 day working week and)  Economy diaper machine producing 250 diapers per minute .9 million diapers per year for one shift. Newborn baby: 320mm(L. Film: the thickness 0. width 380410mm(500gmm2 up)  Tissue: 18gm/square meter standard width 180mm  P.0 Manpower Requirement: For One shift Production. 12.4 sizes  Guideline 70% efficiency for working time  Daily production = 250 x 7.)×105mm(W. thickness: 8-10mm.750 = 18.  Annual production = 240 x 78.

1 Power consumption and the Related Facilities: Voltage: 200V-400V.000/120 months) Overhead Plastic bands for packing (2 meters per carton) Grand total Average unit cost per piece Table 6 Indirect Cost Calculation 13. inventory of raw material is essential: Description Interest expenses (at the monthly rate of 1%: US$31.906 2.3 Indirect cost: Two months.70 500 3.685×2×1%) Machinery depreciation: 10-year life span (US$60. standard  Hot melt gum: Pressure sensitive and endurance.000 200 46.375 3. Non-woven fabric: good thermo-bonding 16-18gm/square meter. white adhesive. width 19-50mm(standard) 12.2 Direct cost: Description Raw material 10 sheets of plastic bags for packing Paper box (for 4 dozens diapers) Director labor (5 persons at US$400/month) Electricity bill (3.95 US$0.0 Plant Machinery and Raw Material Suppliers: 32 Amount US $ 633.01858 .000 300 100 Table 5 Direct Cost Calculation 12.449. 50/60Hz Horse Power Requirement for: Crusher Blower Air compressor Conveyer system Electric heating tube 4 poles 10 HP 2 poles 1/2 HP 4 poles 1/2 HP 4 poles 5 HP 640 W 1 set 1 set 1 set 1 set 4 pieces Table 4 Horse Power Requirement 12.685 4. good stickiness.000KW) Monthly maintenance Amount US $ 31.  Release paper: good release.

Chile Telephone: (56-2) 441 2030 Fax: (56-2) 698 2179 E Mail: sales@celulosa. W4 5DX United Kingdom Telephone: (44-20) 8996 9960 Fax: (44-20) 8996 9967 APP Indonesia Products. GA 30303 .co. 0-800-1-368-368 (Toll Free) Email : Email : Chile P. Chiswick. CMPC Europe Limited Contact: Claudio Ojeda.O.(404) 652-4000 Cmpc Headquarters Building Agustinas 1343. 5 Dukes Gate. maintenance provision and also on sharing basis.(404) 652-4000 Corporate Headquarters . N.claudio. with all other facilities like training of operators.ojeda@cmpc.. The machines are purchased on the turnkey basis from one company with technology tie up.Europe.The technology and plant machineries are easily available worldwide. Sales & Marketing Customer Service Department (CSD) for Indonesia region : Jabotabek Email : PaperAge Magazine David Cooper VP Sales & Marketing Europe Telephone: (49) 30 3064 71 0 Facsimile: (49) 30 3064 71 99 33 . Some plant and machinery manufactures and raw material suppliers are as follows: 13.1 Pulp Georgia-Pacific Corporation 133 Peachtree St. 3rd floor. Box 307 V. Sales Director . Acton Lane. Correo 21. Atlanta.

Jenwu Plant 100. Sanyo Chemical Industries Head Office & Research Laboratory 11-1. Shwei Gwan Road.2 SAP Degussa Krefeld Geschäftsbereich Superabsorber Stockhausen GmbH Bäkerpfad 25 47805 Krefeld Deutschland T: +49-2151-38-3462 F: +49-2151-38-1292 superabsorber@degussa. Ikkyo Nomoto-cho. FQN General Contact 80 Cuttermill Road 34 .Chung San Third Road.O.3 NONWOVENS Fibertex A/S · Svendborgvej 2 · 9220 Aalborg Denmark · Tel. Japan Tel: +81-75-541-4311 Fax: +81-75-551-2557 Formosa Plastics Corporation Kaohsiung Plant .com Advanced Fabrics (SAAF) P.Box 1065 Al-Ahsa 31982 Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Tel:+966 3 532 4000 Fax: +966 3 532 4004 Toll Free: 800 306 9999 13. +45 96 35 35 35 · Fax +45 98 15 85 55 · E Mail : fibertex@fibertex. Jenwu First Quality Nonwovens. Higashiyama-ku. Kaohsiung (07)3331101 . Kyoto 605-0995.39. Kaohsiung-Hsien (07)3711411 E Mail : mcairlaids@mcairlaids.eheine@mercerint.

com Email: fqntw@fqnonwovens. Plaza 66. Tower 1 1266 Nanjing West Road 13.Gziantep/turkey Phone nr:+90 (342) 337-1499 / 337-1598 Fax nr :+90 (342) 337-1413 Email : mogul@mogulsb. China 200040 Phone: (86) 21 61038526 Fax: (86) 21 61038527 Helkel International Ernst Primosch Corporate Vice President Corporate Communications Location: Headquarters. Commerciale+39 0464 436981 Fax uff.a. Via Fornaci 15/17 38068 Rovereto (TN) Tel. Düsseldorf / Germany Phone: 0049-211-797-3533 Fax: 0049-211-798-2484 13. organize Snayi Blgesi 27120 Bspinar . Spedizioni+39 0464 481800 E-mailinfo@texbondspa. centralino+39 0464 481811 Fax centralino+39 0464 433366 Fax Mogul Tekstil Sanayi Ve Ticaret Limited Sirketi Mr Srkan Ggus 2. NY 11021 Texbond s.4 HOT MELTS Adhesive Research Adhesives Research Pte Ltd Maxwell Road #12-08B Maxwell House Singapore 069113 Phone: (65) 6774 9580 Fax: (65) 6777 7261 Adhesives Research Shanghai Representative Office Suite 3908.5 Bags 35 .Suite 500 Great Neck.

MI 49544 Phone: 616-791-7222 Fax: 800-272-2331 Moreau ZI 235 rue des Frères Lumière . Taiwan.1. Hubin South No. Alley 5.BP 502 39001 LONS-LE-SAUNIER . Grand Import-Export Corporation Tortola . Xiamen 361004. 54469 Fax: 2168-4900 con 20 líneas E-mail: ventas@multibolsasplasticas. Republic of China Tel: 886-35-254197-8.British Virgin Islands Fax: +1 206 337-0754 E-mail office8@ch-non-food.V. Multibolsas Plásticas.diytrade. S. Jinyuan Bldg.FRANCE Tél: (+33) 3 84 85 81 00 Fax: (+33) 3 84 24 20 87 Flexico 1.A. Benito Juárez Barrón Nicolás Romero Edo.W. de C. Sec..6 Plant & Machine Manufactures: Astute Machine Industry Co. 41.Hénonville 60544 Méru Cedex Tel: +33 (0)3 44 49 49 49 Fax : +33 (0)3 44 49 88 51 E-mail : CH Non. Ltd. Camino Principal A Barrón yuxiang@manufacturer. Address: No. China Tel: (86)592 2207316 Fax: (86)592 2226816(manual) Email:diapers@manufacturer. de México Cp. 2719 Courier N. Add:B et 36 . Col. route de Méru BP 70429 . Lane 317 Yen Ping Rd.A-Pac Manufacturing. Inc. Hsinchu 30024. 252665 Tel: 34529 ASTUTE Fax: 886-35-253846 Yuxiang Sanitary Industries Company Ltd.

552927 / 551523 / 573996 Fax. Georgia 30642. ++39.nonwovens-industry. Villa Chipinque Garza Garcia.mail: Curt www. www. 11 66013 Chieti Scalo (CH) .www. USA Phone: (913) 492-9880 Fax: (913) 492-0691 Diaper Industry Consultant Mailing Address: Villa Chipinque 101 Col. Frasca. Via P. USA 37 .0871. Public fax: 06-453-4909 Cellular: 706-817-867 E-mail: atm@negia.r.L. Kansas American Diaper Machinery. Inc./fax: 706-467-2104 (please call before sending fax). W+D Machinery Company 9101 Quivira Road Overland Park. Kappa Tecnologies S. Inc.Italy Tel.l. PMB 175 6326 Lake Oconee Pkwy Greensboro. México 66297 Telephones:+52 81 83030945+52 81 83030688 Mobile Phone(International): +52 1 81 12773173 Mobile Phone (local):044 81 12773173 Email: cricher@richernet.552928 e.nonwovens.U. 100 CROCKER AVE SHEBOYGAN FALLS WI 53085-1141 920-467-6136 ph 920-467-2924 fax email: info@joa.marketingtechnologyservice.

Then place baby. It is very convenient and practicable to use these products baby napkin. 38 Figure 11 The Market . disposable baby diapers. apply diaper rash cream to the area. public room or other places in demand. Pat the area and dry with a towel. newborn diaper. on top of the fresh diaper. Bring the tabs around from the back of the diaper and fasten them to the front. raising the baby's bottom. baby diaper covers. cotton baby diaper and so on in home. Hold baby’s feet together and very gently lift them up. teen baby diaper. big baby diaper. It is ok. fold over the soiled section of the old teen baby diaper and set the old diaper aside.14. paper diaper. Subsequently. lay on back. girl baby diaper.0 Procedure to use the baby Diaper Products: First. If necessary. Clean baby’s buttocks gently from the front to back with baby wipe and lower baby’s bottom onto the clean boy baby diaper. lay a new teen baby diaper on a changing table or on a dry towel. boy baby diaper. Position the front of the boy baby diaper just under the baby's abdomen.