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The system of systems (SoS)
All military technical systems might be
considered a complex system of systems. From
this point of view the system of systems requires
a simulation to represent the mapping of systems
measure of performances to single system
measure of effectiveness.
Optimization of each system does not
guarantee overall system of systems

The basic principle behind systems analysis is
that complex systems or problems can be
decomposed into simpler sub-systems (or subproblems), which themselves may be subdivided
into even simpler sub-sub-systems, until a level is
reached where the component parts may be
treated as elementary.
In this problem, three main ideas are important:
 the system of systems is considered as a
whole entity;
 the individual systems are unfunctional
when viewed from the system of systems

A non-material solution implies the solving of one of two problems: . These assumptions are used in order to achieve overall mission or objective. By treating each acquisition system as a subsystem of the larger entity doesn’t guarantee the increasing of the operational availability of whole system. Budgeting and Estimation Systems) has developed a new method for nonmaterial solution by using analysis of alternatives. . Programming. This procedure has risen a question: how best to upgrade on existing system of systems. the process of determination an optimal upgrade includes: . (Planning. .cost modeling.linear or nonlinear optimization.P.operational avalability analysis.modeling and simulation. The process of P.B.S. .E. The objective of this paper is to use modeling and simulation to estimate a mathematical model for upgrading system performances.

The model which will be proposed requires some steps:  define the overall mission or missions of the system.  to minimize the additional cost under performance constrains .a new type of system must be added to the original system of systems. 2. to maximize the system of systems performance subjected to a cost constraints. This is the basis from which most modeling decisions existing subsystem must be replaced to increase performances. The result of solving these two kinds of problems could be: 1. Steps to represent the mapping of systems measure of performances to single system measure of effectiveness The most important step in creating a model is defining a clear problem statement. .2. 3.4.

MOPs constraints. .  evaluate the solution and analyze alternatives.  represent the maps of system measure of performances (MOPs).  formulate a model that will capture the map from component system MOPs to system MOEs for overachieving moe.  specify the constraints: cost constraints for each component systems and the overall system of systems. These constraints depend on the type of problem we solve: to maximize performances under cost constraints or to minimize additional cost under performance constraints.  define the characteristic MOE for each system and show how it contributes to overachieve the MOE goal.  solve an optimization problem under the constraints imposed. define the overachieving measure of effectiveness (MOE) for the system of systems that represents the goal of the model.

7). n (1) S  S1  S 2  . 7 System of systems There are m systems of type number of systems are: i i and the total n m   mi (2) i 1 Each system type has a set of MOPs.3. complex systems are characterized by multiple non-linearities. pi : .. The performance model for system of systems Mathematically. that comprise a system of systems S (fig. these formal properties are associated with connections between subsystems and their environment.  S n System Subsystem Uni t Uni t Subuni t … Subsystem Uni t Subuni t Uni t Uni t Subun it Uni t Subsystem … Uni t Subuni t Subuni t Uni t Uni t Subun it Fig.3..4. Physically. Let consider n types of systems S .

. (9) .. . Each system S cost unit is a function of performance expressed in terms of MOPs: ci  fi  pi  (7) mlow  m  mhigh (8) The total cost is: n C   Ci i 1 Another constraint could be the number of component systems. j  1... pmi i where each  p ji .. pn  (4) which reflects how it contributes to the overachieving MOE for system S ... pi  p1i . p1 . p2i .. mi (3) has dimension ri Each system type has one overall measure of effectiveness (MOE): MOEi  f i  m. MOE1 .. MOEn  (5) Each system’s MOPs are constrained at lower or highest performances: Pi low ≤ Pi ≤ Pi high (6) The highest performances could be imposed... MOE2 . The whole system MOE is: MOE  f  m.

.  Sn system of systems cost subjected to individual cost and performance constraints: n min C   C i i 1 (12) .  S system of systems performance subjected to performance and cost constants: 1 2 n max MOE  f  m.first problem: Maximize S  S  S  . p1 . we can formulate the cases of interest: .. MOEn  MOEi  f i (m.Now. pn ) (10) subjected to: mlow  m  m high pilow  p  pihigh Ci  Cihigh (11) C  C high ... MOE2 ........ MOE1 . with this model..the second problem: Minimize S  S1  S2  .

p1 . MOEn   MOE MOEi  f i  m.  . p2  pn  m low  m  m high C i  C ihigh p ilow  p i  p ihigh .subjected to: MOE  f  m. MOE1 . MOE2 .