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Improvement of Soil Properties, Bratislava on June 4-5, 2007

Valeriy Eremin, Aleksey Eremin, Aleksey Budanov
Impulse-Discharge Technology (IDT) was applied in Moscow since 1992 for the stabilization of the constructive properties of soil thanks to its deep compaction, through the
manufacturing of IDT piles and IDT soil anchors with high bearing resistance.
Over 65 000 IDT piles and more than 10 000 IDT soil anchors have been manufactured in Moscow according to the impulse-discharge technology in the last 15 years and more
than 500 structures built with them. They include the: Old Gostiny Dvor (a shopping arcade,
more than 10 000 IDT piles), high-rise buildings: at Vernadsky prospect 37 (h = 120 m),
Davydkovskaya St. 19a (h = 78m), Semenovskaya St. 21 (h = 112 m), dozens of residential
houses, factories, hundreds of reconstructed buildings and tens of kilometers of reinforced pit
The experience gained from using pulse discharging technology proves the high reliability of structures built with the help of this technology.
The hydrodynamic effect, which originates from an electric discharge in fluids, is the
basis for the impulse-discharge technologies.
It is known that the first electric discharges were produced under water more than 240
years ago. Neither the discoverers of this effect nor their followers could see its usefulness in
practice for almost two hundred years. The discovered effect was forgotten. Because of the
creation of powerful high-voltage electric installations (transformers, break switches etc.)
people once again confronted the electric discharges in fluids, which were used as dielectric
materials. The destructive effect arising from the electric breakdown of the dielectric fluids
and explosions of oil transformers, for example, an electric power substation failure in
Chagino when Moscow and its surroundings were left without electricity, have resulted, a stable opinion about the hazards of electric discharges in fluids. This opinion has lasted for many
decades among scientists and electrical engineers.
In 1948, the German physicist F. Früngel [1], after his evaluation of the low mechanical efficiency of an electric discharge in fluid, came to the conclusion that its application was
Despite this fact, L.A. Yutkin proposed in 1950 to use the electric discharges in fluids
in some technological processes, particularly the hydrodynamic impulses that occurred. The
creative process of high and ultra-high pressures was invented in such a manner [2]. Many
proposals of L.A. Yutkin for the application of the “electrohydraulic effect”, as it was called
by the author of more than 170 inventions, were in great demand. Dozens of laboratories and
scientific centers were created in the USSR, over 100 dissertations were defended during the
research work and many inventions discovered. The licenses for a number of them were sold
to Great Britain, Hungary, Germany, Spain, USA, Japan and other countries.
The first experiments with the applying of the impulse-discharge technology were started in
the Moscow Construction Engineering Institute (the priority of the MECI, dated June 5th,
1962, is fixed in the State Registration Book under No. 30166). Under the guidance of Doctor of Technical Sciences Professor G.M. Lomize, the postgraduate students Ya.D.
Eremin Valeriy, Candidate of Science, Eng. Eremin Aleksey, Budanov Aleksey, RITA firm, Russia, Moscow
ul. Vereyskaya 8, tel./fax 443-18-84, E-mail:

the capacitor’s unit on a double-axle trailer. That is why the impulse-discharge technologies were not applied because of technical and technological causes in the construction. sovtol and trichlorbiphenil. with the accumulated energy of 45 kJ.5CU2. voltages of 30-100 kV were used. no superplasticizing agents were used. where the voltage is raised up . The modern CIGs with a mass under one ton and dimensions of 2100 x 750 x 1250(h) accumulate electric energy up to 60 kJ and work safely from 6 to 8 years.Khlupina (1966) and L. The CIG used in [5]. The equipment had great dimensions and weight. generating hundreds of thousands of impulse discharges. and less than 15 kJ were applied to the electrodes. present at the construction site.ME25. creating an blast wave.204 Gilman (1963). The main limiting factor was the prejudice of the builders against the use of high voltage (up to 100 kV) on building sites. The electrodes remind the ignition plugs of the combustion engines. This “plug” has to carry impulse currents from 3-104 to 105 A. the electric blasts were also unstable.5U. The compaction of the concrete mixture was irregular and the ground stabilization hardly noticeable. In the new generations of the electrodes. One of the first installations [3] which was used for the ground stabilization had a mass of 8-9 tons. materials are used which can withstand ten of thousands of electric blasts with hard properties. L. the channels of the steam-gas mixtures that appeared after the breakdown did not implode and the following discharges were effected often not in the concrete mixture.N. The alternating current energy. Let us review the process of the electric blast. at LECI.P. the plasma temperature in the discharge channel. was placed on three trailers (two of them with 4 tons and one with a capacity of 6 tons). the presence of people was forbidden in an area of 8-10 m. then the energy accumulated in the capacitors can be defined according to the formula E = 0. then the middle charger voltage will come to 0. In order to expand the power capacity of CIG (Current Impulse Generator). The depth of the blast wave front amounts to approx. 5x10-9 m [7]. with an industrial frequency and 380 V is converted into energy which is better for the accumulation. The electrodes failed at 2500 impulse discharges. their firing speed is 2 to 2. with an increase rate of 1018 to 1020 Pa·sec. The three-phase CIGs are produced in batches. During the fix-up of the first piles with IDT. which was connected with some difficulties of the end use of IDT. with the rate of increase 1012 A/sec. In the capacitors the following dielectric fluids were used: sovol. Semushkina (1968) conducted research on water-saturated sandy soil compaction [3. which expands with the speed of sound. reaching from 10 to 30 microseconds after breakdown a value of 104 to 3·104 º K and the pressure of 108 to 6·109 Pa. and the quantity of the accumulated electricity to It(a·c) = CU [1]. which were the most toxic among the organochlorine insecticides. Under the guidance of Doctor of Technical Sciences Professor Dalmatov B. this explains the attempts of the researchers to use very high voltages. one can see that the energy accumulated in the capacitors lies in direct proportion to the efficiency of the batteries and is square to the value of the charge voltage. 4. 5] (the dissertation defense year is shown in the parentheses). but in the gas-filled channels. ROSS RU. The theoretically accumulated electric energy was equal to 40 kJ. G.A.5 times higher than the firing speed of the one-phase CIGs. Special coaxial cables have been developed in order to transfer the current impulses with 60 kJ each from 2 to 3 s with acceptable energy losses. where the personnel had to stay knee-deep in mud and water. The transformer-rectifier unit was mounted on a sledge. which are magnified many times.I. Yassiyevich (1977) researched the manufacturing method of bored piles [6]. therefore it is transferred to CIG.C00753). If one assumes that a capacitor bank is charged from zero up to U voltage. According to the safety rules. The CIGs are checked for their magnetic compatibility and certified by the Russian Gosstandart (conformity certificate No. Where as.

6. which appears at the breakdown point. the 15 years of the application of impulse-discharge technology in geotechnical construction has proved its economic efficiency. If in the technology development stage. As was mentioned earlier.205 to 10 kV. Stem with electrodes. wind loads on very high buildings by reinforcing the pit walls. 3. in the new millennium through further development we began to manufacture IDT soil anchors and antideformational barriers. only the IDT piles were produced and it was not possible to use other types of piles. In Fig. Research. 2 and 3) and IDT anchors (Fig. In spite of big energy losses and very low efficiency which does not overcome 5 to 6% (less than by a steam engine). at the breakdown moment the earlier accumulated energy is converted during 20 to 80 mcsec as if by a blast into other types of energy. The high density energy of 1013-1014 J·m-3 is created in the interelectrode space. 4) provide a very high resistance against alternating loads. conducted by German specialists have proved that the dynamic loads by electric blasts do not rise over the values which are permissible according. etc. 1. After the condensing of the necessary energy (60 kJ) a commutator is actuated and the energy accumulated in CIG is transferred via a coaxial cable to the electrodes which are immersed in the concrete mixture. and the IDT-piles defy the competition not only with the Raymond regulated injection and jacked piles. Pile bore after treatment. The expanding space mainly provides only the mechanical replacement of the concrete mixture which transmits the pressure impulse into the earth and. 2. converted to D. the electric density of the concrete mixture cannot hold it any more and breaks down – an electric discharge appears. While controlling the electric blast parameters. 1. to DIN 4150-2 [8]. 5. we can see the basic diagram of the earth stabilization using the impulse-discharge technology. Figure 1. Cementation zone of the soil. In 250 to 350 mcsec. Compaction zone of the soil. creating a blast and a pressure wave of the expanding hollow space. . but also with the bored and cast-in-place piles of great diameters and driven piles.C. it is possible to apply the impulsedischarge technology by reinforcing the foundations of landmarks. and is transferred to the accumulators capacitor unit. eig. The essence of impulse-discharge technology for manufacturing IDT piles. The conversion of the energy appears in an adiabatic regime. thanks to the deformation of the latter an enlarged camouflet broadening is formed. 4. The camouflet broadenings which we find in the ground by IDT piles (see Figs. CIG. Concrete pump..

Up on testing the IDT piles according to GOST 5686-94. Figure 4. their settling does not exceed the allowable values. The first IDT pile. has a strongly pronounced “dumbbell” shape. Figure 3. made in Seoul and dug out according to the customer’s request for measuring and research. the residual deformations are measured . The first IDT pile made in Germany and dug out according to the customer’s request for measuring and research. Anchors roots after the impulse-discharge treatment.206 Figure 2. having at that a notable backup.

38 92 120 6..4 1. No clear changes in their parameters were discovered. c. 150 180 8. and despite the insignificant effect.the density raised 1. strength and the essential decrease of humidity upon nearing the source of the effect was recognized as the results of the test data.32 * Tests with press-in load of 180 tons in 15 days after concreting of the pile. temp. 23. mineral and other characteristics of these sediments. X-ray phase.17 times.the porosity factor was decreased 1.3 150 180* 15.34 5.8 1. load.47 1. . By comparison of the massive outside and inside of the IDT affected zone. clays etc. The influence of the technogenic factors on construction-engineering properties of the sands can theoretically be reflected in the granular.4 1 1.the adhesion raised 3.2 150 234** 18. Research of the adjoining soils [8. The researched sample collections are absolutely uniform in the mean square deviation and coefficient of the variation. Sand clays with L=8m peat.2 Arbat 1.5 times. The main tasks of the research were the following: . m.5 1.11 5. the loose sand was compacted to middle density. + 8 degrees C. . d = 300 mm Fill-in.73 1. . Object nd 1 2 Piles properties 5 tons Settling after Excess under unloading.39 3. Nos. 2.7 1. ** By control load of 180 tons the IDT-pile had a settlement of 10. 9] were made in order to find out the sources of the high bearing capacity of the IDT piles. The weak tendency of the increase of density. sand clays.02 times. high plasticity Technogenic soil. Znamenski per.42 3. The comparison of the physical and mechanical properties before and after the impulse-discharge treatment by manufacturing the IDT piles has shown that: .The study of the composition of the sands before and after the impulse-discharge treatment.21 1. mm mm times 8. sec. tons Settling metro station “Arbatskaya” B. The sand monoliths were taken according to the selection rules of the samples. 75 90 80 270 32.93 1.3 92 120 8.04 times (from 0.46 5. fill-ins Davydkovskaya St. it has been found that after the tests.2 Mitino. dens.2 sand clays. k. piled 4 NS. fill- piled base of 24 story house L = 20 m ins. . sands 70 240 17.Drawing the quantitative evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of the sands before and after the impulse-discharge treatment.27 1.2 m Pr-t Vernadskogo 37. concrete hardening in soil. d = 300 mm Sand m. peat. fill-in foundation of 10 story d = 250 mm block.the humidity decreased 1.56 150 198 14.. 19-19a.726 till 0. The soils became more homogenous in density and porosity. s-h.701).3 92 120 8. of NS.88 1. base of 19 story house d = 300 mm L = 18 m Sands. mcr 8B. . which proves the work of the IDT piles soil system at the stage of elastic deformations. only 5 discharges with a 300 to 350 mm height interval.3 1. microscopic and chemical analyses. 1.42 test area L = 19 m m. den.207 with the first millimeters. The bearing capacity and sand strength after the testing increased overall. 2 exit hall of d = 250 mm.79 2. clay 75 90 7. The samples were examined by means of grain-size. piled 3 Soil conditions Load. Calc. 1st house MO RF L = 15.71 mm. though insignificantly.3 6.64 3.04 12.

Früngel F. Methods for creating high and super high pressures. 1963. – L. Research of the physical and mechanical properties of sands after their melioration with the method of impulse-discharge treatment. . References 1. Conclusions: A new and very effective impulse-discharge technology of earth stabilization at the foundations of buildings and structures has been mastered.A. manufactured with the help of impulse-discharge technology. Physical processes in sandy water saturated soils by high voltage discharges. Goltsova A. i. the further compaction and changes of the initial strain-stress status of the soil becomes hardly perceptible. A. 1981 – 113 pp.. The density and strength of the loose sand and middle density sand increases by the multiple repetition of the electric blasts. priority from April 10th. Ter-Martirosyan Z. 1965. The doubling of the accumulated energy by the treatment of the loose sands results in an increase of the camouflet cavity by 20%. Novosibirsk. 2002. irrespective of the scale and number of electric blasts..s. Report.N. D. In the energy range and the number of electric blasts under study. Khlyupina L. 3.. No. Kuperstoch A. M. Experimental justification of the main technological process parameter during impulse achieved stabilization of water saturated soils by construction.A. Informational Science and Technology journal Building materials..: MPK StroyMarket. Generating and applying of capacitor discharges. dissertation of a Doctor tech. it was impossible to determine the basic strain-stress distribution in the massive under the conditions of the building site. Yassiyevich G.208 Unfortunately.. and when it is achieved. 2. was stated in accordance with the size of the presumptive camouflet cavity for each moment of time. Siberian filial. manufactured in a 2m diameter tray. their deformability around the pile broadening with a radius of 3. dissertation of a Doctor tech.3. technology of XXI century.: MISI. A detailed account about the tests and their results is given in [10]. – 2004. Stabilizing of water saturated soils with the help of electric discharges.M. 488 pp. Institute of Hydrodynamics named after I. 1950. – 184 pp. 8. 1966.. – 133 pp. –150-164. The deformability of sand soils by manufacturing of piles with the help of impulse-discharge technology (IDT). Research of fabrication method of GKN driven piles by means of electro hydraulic effect and of their work under vertical applied loads. USSR 105011. – 225 pp. 4. Eremin V. sciences doctor. Yutkin D. 6. the base zone of the pile. – 249 pp. Semushkina L. Lavrentyev. . M. About the raising of the bearing capacity of piles. Eremin V.: MISI. dissertation of a Doctor tech.. 7.: LISI. 10. 1.0. 1 (60). The fact has allowed the use by further testing of the theory of geometric similarity.L.A. – M. The materials of these tests allowed us to understand the physical nature of the effects in sand due to electric blasts and to determine the influence of the energy on the changes of the physical and mechanical properties of the soil.A. its changes by the impulse-discharge treatment during the manufacturing of IDT piles as well as to research the soil in the zone of intensive influence. 1977.e.: MISI. (“MPO RITA archive”) 9. where the stress state of the soil changes.Y.-L. 5. the ratio of the compaction zones. Impulse technique.5 of the presumptive camouflet cavity to be formed decreases by max (3. To answer the question we tried to determine the stain-stress conditions of the soil around the camouflet broadenings at the IDT piles. deformations and zones. Hydrodynamic researches of medium flow during electric discharges in water: dissertation of a ph & tech.0 to 3.: Energiya Publishing house.P.5)Rukp ⋅ The energy accumulated in the capacitors corresponds to the uttermost compaction grade to be achieved. – 2006.I.. dissertation of a Doctor tech. Translation from German. . – M. No. Gilman Ya. – 219 pp. equipment. Budanov A.A. Science and Technology journal “Vestnik MGSU”. Budanov A.Ya. –60-62.G.