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• A game is a system in which players engage in an artificial conflict, defined by rules, that result
in a quantifiable outcome (Salen & Zimmerman).
• It has four characteristics.
• All games have a GOAL.
• The goal is not winning, but for the players to use their skills to end up at a particular end
• Example:
• Badminton
• Skill:
• Player to strike the shuttle over a net to apoint where the opponent cannot return it.
• End point:
• Shuttle to land on the court of the opponent.
• Soccer
• Skill:
• Player must kick the ball with their feet with their feet or strike it with their heads
away from the defenders and past the goalkeeper.

• Ball goes into the goal.
• All games have RULES
• Provide both descriptive and defining frameworks of how the goal is to be achieved. Both
serve to differentiate the difference between different games.
• Descriptive framework
• Describes the setup of the game and its equipment.
• Defining framework
• Stipulates what means of play are required and permitted.
• Example:
• Volleyball
• Descriptive framework:
• Refers to the measurement of the court, the net and its height, and the type of ball
• Defining framework:
• The ball is not allowed to touch the ground.
• You are allowed three hits to send the ball over the net.
• All games have RESTRICTIONS
• Rules about what is not allowed in the course of play.
• Games favor rules that are less effficient over more efficient ways to achieve the goal.
• Together with descriptive and defining frameworks, they make up a game’s constitutive
• Constitutive rules
• define all of the circumstances that must be satisfied when participating in a game
• delineate the means that must, can and cannot be emplyed in pursuit of the goal of the
• Games require the ACCEPTANCE OF RULES2 by the Players

This calls into question how playful their play really is. • Characteristics of Human Play • Self-chosen and self-directed • What wants to do. it’s not a freeform activity. • Attention is focused on the means more than the ends • Players don’t necessarily look for the easiest routes to achieving the ends • When people aren’t playing. he is not playing. Nonetheless.means over end • Play is done for its own sake over some reward outside of the activity itself.• Game cannot exists without its players operating from the same set of rules and agree to these • Fair play • Conduct that adheres to the rules and preceded by the acceptance of these rules in spirit so as to make the game possible. • Guided by mental rules . freely chosen. • When one engages at an activity for it long-term benefits rather than immediate enjoyment or attraction. not what one feels obliged to do. Adults also play. • Children's play • Typified by spontaneity joyfulness. • Self-directed • Players choose how to play • One may emerge a leader for a moment. they usually opt for the least effortful way of achieving their goal. Play • Imaginative. • Rigid movement within a more rigid structure (Salen & Zimmerman) • Not just a domain of children. nonserious. and actively engaging. intrinsically motivated. • Goals • part and parcel fo the activity • Not the primary reason for the activity • Subordinate to the means for achieving them. • freedom to quit • basic freedom in play • ensures that all of the players are doing what they want to do • prevents leaders from enforcing rules that are not at least tacitly agreed to by the other players • Intrinscially motivated . • Competitve play • Directed toward the goal of scoring points and winning • Truly play • Process of winning that matters to the player. • Anyone is free to suggest a rule. but at the will of the other people. • Adult’s play • Often more entwined with rules and regulations. and inhibition and is done not as a menas to an end but for its inherent pleasure.the rules leave room for creativity • Play is a freely chosen activity. not some subsequent consequence of having scored and won. . but everyone must agree to it before it becomes one.

in many psychological research studies. when the tension becomes no longer bearable that it gets the player stressed out • It’s no longer paly when it has become compulsive that a person continues at it despite the high degree of mental distress • Mihalyi Csikszentmihalyi • Flow • Attention is attuned to the activity itself. but relatively non-stressed fram of mind • Play requires an active and alert mind. The mind is wrapped up in the ideas. active. • Rituals • Activities precisely prescribed by rules • Imaginative • Some degree of mental removal of oneself from the immediately present real world. arts and crafts. that people enjoy. Recreation • An activity that people engage in during their free time. 2013). • Rules must be share or partially shared by all of the players • Vygotsky • Play is the means by which children learn to control their impluses and abide by socially agreed-upon rules. the players’actions must be goverened by rules that are in the minds of the players rather than by laws of nature or impulsive instincts. games. reading. which is the outcome. and dance • Specific activity performed is less imortant than the reason for performing the activity. do not precisely dicatate each action however. • Players to think actively about what they are doing. • Provide boundaries within which the actions must occur.• Has structure • derived from rules in the players’ minds. • Extension of the point made above about the prominence of means in play • Mental concepts unlike those of physics or biological instincts • require conscious effor to keep in mind and to follow. music. • Vygotsky • To the degree that play takes place in an imagined world. to be ideal for creativity and the learning of new skills (see Gray. but free from pressure and stress • Play not a response to to external demands • The activity takes place in a fantasy world rather than the real world • Ends do not have immediate consequences in the real world. and there is reduced consciousness of self and time. This state of mind has been shown. • Player is free to quit anytime. travel. • Conducted in an alert. • Mental tension is possible as the pllayers strive to perform well • Self-chosen like play itself. . rules. there’s always a room for creativity. and that peole recognize as having socially redeeming values • Has a connotation of being morally acceptable both to the individual and society • Sports. and actions of the game and relatively impervious to outside distractions.

wikipedia. and in some cases spectators (Wikipedia). aim to use. Sources links: http://en. maintain or improve physical activity and skills while providing entertainment to .• Participants hope to balance their lives and refresh themselves from their work as well as other mandated activities Sports • All forms of usually competitive physical activity which through casual or organised participation.