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New topologically ordered phases

of condensed matter
26 October 2009
Joel Moore

University of California, Berkeley,
and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Berkeley students:
Andrew Essin
Roger Mong
Vasudha Shivamoggi
Cenke Xu (UCB→Harvard→UCSB)

Berkeley postdocs:
Pouyan Ghaemi
Ying Ran (UCB→Boston College)
Ari Turner

Leon Balents, Marcel Franz, Babak Seradjeh, David Vanderbilt, Xiao-Gang Wen


Dung-Hai Lee, Joe Orenstein, Shinsei Ryu, R. Ramesh, Ivo Souza, Ashvin Vishwanath
Special thanks also to
Duncan Haldane, Zahid Hasan, Charles Kane, Laurens Molenkamp, Shou-Cheng Zhang

C. Xu and J. E. Moore, PRB 73, 045322 (2006)
J. E. Moore and L. Balents, PRB RC 75, 121306 (2007)
A. M. Essin and J. E. Moore, PRB 76, 165307 (2007)
J. E. Moore, Y. Ran, and X.-G. Wen, PRL 101, 186805 (2008)
A. M. Essin, J. E. Moore, and D. Vanderbilt, PRL 102, 146805 (2009)
B. Seradjeh, J. E. Moore, M. Franz, PRL 103, 066402

J. E. Moore, Nature Physics 4, 270 (2008)
J. E. Moore, Nature Physics 5, 378 (2009)
J. E. Moore, Nature 460, 1090 (2009)
“An insulator’s metallic side”
J. E. Moore, Physics 2, 82 (2009)
“Quasiparticles do the twist”

1. What is a topological phase?
How does topological order different from conventional order?

2. Are there topological phases in 3D materials and no applied field?
Yes — “topological insulators”
(experimental confirmation 2007 for 2D, 2008 for 3D)
What makes an insulator topological?
3. What is the physical response that characterizes a topological insulator?
“Axion electrodynamics” and magnetoelectric coupling in solids
4. Are these useful for anything?
Topological quantum computing and “Wen-type” topological order
Solving the energy crisis

Types of order
Much of condensed matter is about how different kinds of order emerge from
interactions between many simple constituents.

Until 1980, all ordered phases could be understood as “symmetry breaking”:
an ordered state appears at low temperature when the system spontaneously
loses one of the symmetries present at high temperature.
Crystals break the translational and rotational symmetries of free space.
The “liquid crystal” in an LCD breaks rotational but not translational symmetry.
Magnets break time-reversal symmetry and the rotational symmetry of spin space.
Superfluids break an internal symmetry of quantum mechanics.

Kadanoff. energy dominates and leads to an ordered state.Types of order At high temperature.325 ± 0. . there are testable results that come out of the “Landau theory” of symmetry-breaking: “Fluid” Liquid “Ising” (uniaxial) ferromagnet C Gas Temperature  TC − T  ρ L − ρG ~    TC  € C H (Field) Pressure β Temperature  TC − T  β M↑ − M↓ ~    TC  Experiment : β = 0. entropy dominates and leads to a disordered state.) .002 “Universality” at continuous phase transitions (Wilson.005 Theory : β =€ 0.322 ± 0. At low temperature. Fisher. In case this sounds too philosophical...

What type of order causes this precise quantization? Note I: the AC Josephson effect between superconductors similarly allows determination of e/h. Electrons confined to a plane and in a strong magnetic field show. the first ordered phase beyond symmetry breaking was discovered. . about which more later.Types of order In 1980. get σxy e2 =n h at least within 1 in 109 or so. plateaus in the “Hall conductance”: force I along x and measure V along y on a plateau. Note II: there are also fractional plateaus. at low enough temperature.

some physical response function is given by a “topological invariant”. What is a topological invariant? How does this explain the observation? Definition II: A topological phase is insulating but always has metallic edges/surfaces when put next to vacuum or an ordinary phase.Topological order What type of order causes the precise quantization in the Integer Quantum Hall Effect (IQHE)? Definition I: In a topologically ordered phase. What does this have to do with Definition I? “Topological invariant” = quantity that does not change under continuous deformation .

there are two radii of curvature. 0. from left to right. 1 for torus. positive Gaussian curvature The area integral of the curvature over the whole surface is “quantized”. ! M κ dA = 2πχ = 2π(2 − 2g) where the “genus” g = 0 for sphere.Topological invariants Most topological invariants in physics arise as integrals of some geometric quantity. At any point on the surface. Consider a two-dimensional surface. We define the signed “Gaussian curvature” κ = (r1 r2 )−1 Now consider closed surfaces. and is a topological invariant (Gauss-Bonnet theorem). . equators have negative. n for “n-holed torus”.

. . Set of all bands = “band structure”. periodic potential) can be written ψ(r) = eik·r uk (r) where k is “crystal momentum” and u is periodic (the same in every unit cell). we map out an “energy band”. and one property of quantum mechanics. we need one fact about solids Bloch’s theorem: One-electron wavefunctions in a crystal (i. a region of k-space with periodic boundaries. the Berry phase which will give us the “curvature”. Crystal momentum k can be restricted to the Brillouin zone. The Brillouin zone will play the role of the “surface” as in the previous example.e.Topological invariants Good news: for the invariants in the IQHE and topological insulators. As k changes.

Why do we write the phase in this form? Does it depend on the choice of reference wavefunctions? Michael Berry . ! there can be an irreducible phase φ= A · dk. The adiabatic theorem in quantum mechanics implies that. When the Hamiltonian goes around a closed loop k(t) in parameter space. the system remains in its time-dependent ground state. A = !ψk | − i∇k |ψk $ relative to the initial state.Berry phase What kind of “curvature” can exist for electrons in a solid? Consider a quantum-mechanical system in its (nondegenerate) ground state. But this is actually very incomplete (Berry). if the Hamiltonian is now changed slowly.

F =∇×A . So loop integrals of A will be gauge-invariant. which we call the “Berry curvature”. as will the curl of A.Berry phase Why do we write the phase in this form? Does it depend on the choice of reference wavefunctions? φ= ! A = !ψk | − i∇k |ψk $ A · dk. A → A + ∇k χ Michael Berry just like the vector potential in electrodynamics. the “Berry connection” A changes by a gradient. then the only freedom in the choice of reference functions is a local phase: iχ(k) ψk → e ψk Under this change. If the ground state is non-degenerate.

The first was that the integer quantum Hall effect in a 2D crystal follows from the integral of F (like Gauss-Bonnet!). the natural parameter space is electron momentum. Chern F =∇×A .Berry phase in solids In a solid. 1982 “first Chern number” S. #$ & $ &' % % ! i " ∂u % ∂u ∂u % ∂u 2 n= d k − % % 2π ∂k1 ∂k2 ∂k2 ∂k1 bands σxy e2 =n h TKNN. S. Explicitly. The change in the electron wavefunction within the unit cell leads to a Berry connection and Berry curvature: ik·r ψ(r) = e uk (r) A = !uk | − i∇k |uk $ F =∇×A We keep finding more physical properties that are determined by these quantum geometric quantities.

Each wire gives one conductance quantum (e2/h). This invariant exists if we have energy bands that are either full or empty. e n=1 IQHE How does an insulator conduct charge? Answer: (Laughlin.e. How does the bulk topological invariant “force” an edge mode? σxy e2 =n h . i. The topological invariant of the bulk 2D material just tells how many wires there have to be at the boundaries of the system.. a “band insulator”.. where the conduction occurs.. Ordinary insulator These metallic edges are “chiral” quantum wires (one-way streets).The importance of the edge But wait a moment. Halperin) There are metallic edges at the boundaries of our 2D electronic system.

the invariant cannot change. Ordinary insulator But the definition of our “topological invariant” means that. if the system remains insulating so that every band is either full or empty. e n=1 IQHE How does the bulk topological invariant “force” an edge mode? Answer: Imagine a “smooth” edge where the system gradually evolves from IQHE to ordinary insulator.The importance of the edge The topological invariant of the bulk 2D material just tells how many wires there have to be at the boundaries of the system. ∴ the system must not remain insulating. The topological invariant must change. IQHE Ordinary insulator (or vacuum) (What is “knotted” are the electron wavefunctions) .

based on the Berry phase. However. This is not very natural for a magnetic field.2005-present and “topological insulators” The same idea will apply in the new topological phases discovered recently: a “topological invariant”. The magnetic field entered only through its effect on the Bloch wavefunctions (no Landau levels!). e n=1 IQHE Ordinary insulator We discussed the IQHE so far in an unusual way. dimensionality. leads to a nontrivial edge or surface state at any boundary to an ordinary insulator or vacuum. It is ideal for spin-orbit coupling in a crystal. . and experiments are all different. the physical origin.

Nagaosa. Mele 05) e n=1 IQHE Ordinary insulator 2D topological insulator spin-up and spin-down electrons are in IQHE states. Ordinary insulator . It is possible to design lattice models where spin-orbit coupling has a remarkable effect: (Murakami. Consider the standard atomic expression HSO = λL · S For a given spin. Zhang 04.The “quantum spin Hall effect” Spin-orbit coupling appears in nearly every atom and solid. The spin-dependence means that the time-reversal symmetry of SO coupling (even) is different from a real magnetic field (odd). Kane. with opposite “effective magnetic fields”. somewhat like a magnetic field. this term leads to a momentumdependent force on the electron.

2. and there can be a “spin current”. . In real solids there is no conserved direction of spin.. 1. The theory of the above model state is just two copies of the IQHE. 2D topological insulator An applied electrical field causes oppositely directed Hall currents of up and down spins.. The charge current is zero. So in real solids.The “quantum spin Hall effect” In this type of model. electron spin is conserved. and even quantized! Ordinary insulator i Jj = s σH "ijk Ek However. it was expected that “up” and “down” would always mix and the edge to disappear. 3. but the “spin current” is nonzero.

How can this edge be seen? . 2D topological insulator Ordinary insulator But it isn’t an integer! It is a Chern parity (“odd” or “even”).The 2D topological insulator It was shown in 2005 (Kane and Mele) that. In a material with only spin-orbit. something of this physics does survive. in real solids with all spins mixed and no “spin current”. Systems in the “odd” class are “2D topological insulators” 1. Where does this “odd-even” effect come from? 2. the “Chern number” mentioned before always vanishes. Kane and Mele found a new topological invariant in time-reversal-invariant systems of fermions. or a “Z2 invariant”. What is the Berry phase expression of the invariant? 3.

Wu et al. Where does this “odd-even” effect come from? In a time-reversal-invariant system of electrons.. all energy eigenstates come in degenerate pairs. (disorder) So an edge with a single Kramers pair of modes is perturbatively stable (C. Xu-JEM. 2006).The 2D topological insulator 1. C. . The two states in a pair cannot be mixed by any Tinvariant perturbation.

What is the Berry phase expression of the invariant? It is an integral over half the Brillouin zone. 2006).The 2D topological insulator 1.. Wu et al. The two states in a pair cannot be mixed by any Tinvariant perturbation. How can this edge be seen? # EBZ $ C C Q0 (1) d2 k F mod 2 B Q0 ! Q C ! C A A Q (b) Q0 f1 f2 Q0 = Q Q A A Q . 1 D= 2π !" dk · A − ∂(EBZ) 3. (disorder) So an edge with a single Kramers pair of modes is perturbatively stable (C. B (a) 2. C. all energy eigenstates come in degenerate pairs. Xu-JEM. Where does this “odd-even” effect come from? In a time-reversal-invariant system of electrons.

. they still contribute to the ordinary (two-terminal) conductance. While the wires are not one-way. There should be a low-temperature edge conductance from one spin channel at each edge: 2e2 G= h König et al. so the Hall conductance is zero. Science (2007) Laurens Molenkamp This appears in (Hg. .Cd)Te quantum wells as a quantum Hall-like plateau in zero magnetic field.The 2D topological insulator Key: the topological invariant predicts the “number of quantum wires”.

) Trying to find Kane-Mele-like invariants in 3D leads to a surprise: (JEM and Balents.What about 3D? There is no truly 3D quantum Hall effect. There are still 3 layered Z2 invariants. 2. 2007) 1. . There is a (technical) procedure to compute the fourth invariant for any band structure. from xy. 3.. and xz planes. yz. There should be some type of metallic surface resulting from this fourth invariant. (There are 3 “topological invariants”.. The nontrivial case of the fourth invariant is fully 3D and cannot be realized in any model that doesn’t mix up and down spin. but there is a fourth Z2 invariant as well. and this is easier to picture. In 2D. Hence there are 24 =16 different classes of band insulators in 3D. There are only layered versions of 2D. we could use up-spin and down-spin copies to make the topological case.

2007) (a) (b) E EF kx kx ky ky 2. 2007) Claim: Certain insulators will always have metallic surfaces with strongly spin-dependent structure How can we look at the metallic surface state of a 3D material to test this prediction? . Some fairly common 3D materials might be topological insulators! (Fu-Kane. This fourth invariant gives a robust 3D “strong topological insulator” whose metallic surface state in the simplest case is a single “Dirac fermion” (Fu-Kane-Mele.Topological insulators in 3D 1.

and spin it had while still in the solid.ARPES of topological insulators Imagine carrying out a “photoelectric effect” experiment very carefully. Measure as many properties as possible of the outgoing electron to deduce the momentum. . energy. or ARPES. This is “angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy”.

(Z. Hsieh et al. and especially not the Dirac-conical shape.ARPES of topological insulators First observation by D. 2008. Princeton/LBL. . Hasan group). This is later data on Bi2Se3 from the same group in 2009: The states shown are in the “energy gap” of the bulk material--in general no states would be expected.

Lee and S. Scanning tunneling microscopy image (Roushan et al.-H. 2009) (a) (b) E EF kx kx ky ky STM can see the absence of scattering within a Kramers pair (cf.STM of topological insulators The surface of a simple topological insulator like Bi2Se3 is “1/4 of graphene”: it has the Dirac cone but no valley or spin degeneracies. .. Yazdani group. Davis). analysis of superconductors using quasiparticle interference. D.

There are now at least 3 strong topological insulators that have been seen experimentally (BixSb1-x. 4. Their metallic surfaces exist in zero field and have the predicted form. 3.Summary so far 1. Bi2Te3). The temperature over which topological behavior is observed can extend up to room temperature or so. Bi2Se3. What’s left What is the physical effect or response that defines a topological insulator beyond single electrons? What are they good for? . 2. These are fairly common bulk 3D materials (and also 3He B).

A T-invariant insulator can have two possible values: 0 or π. . Wilczek 1987) ∆LEM θe2 θe2 αβγδ = E·B= # Fαβ Fγδ . unlike other magnetoelectric couplings.Electrodynamics in insulators We know that the constants ε and μ in Maxwell’s equations can be modified inside an ordinary insulator. The angle θ is periodic and odd under T. Particle physicists in the 1980s considered what happens if a 3D insulator creates a new term (“axion electrodynamics”. 2πh 16πh This term is a total derivative.

Hughes. then and now ∆LEM θe2 θe2 αβγδ = E·B= # Fαβ Fγδ . (Qi. 2008) . 2πh 16πh 1987 2007 A T-invariant insulator can have two possible values: 0 or π.Axion E&M. These two values correspond to ordinary and topological 3D insulators. and Zhang.

Axion E&M. then and now ∆LEM θe2 θe2 αβγδ = E·B= # Fαβ Fγδ . 2πh 16πh This explains a number of properties of the 3D topological insulator when its surfaces become gapped by breaking T-invariance: Magnetoelectric effect: applying B generates polarization P. applying E generates magnetization M) E σxy θ e2 = (n + ) 2π h j Topological insulator slab E σxy θ e2 = (m − ) 2π h j B .

Hughes. but contributes in all insulators. Zhang. JEM. Essin. 2008.Topological response Idea of “axion electrodynamics in insulators” there is a “topological” part of the magnetoelectric term 2 2 θe θe αβγδ ∆LEM = E·B= # Fαβ Fγδ . . Vanderbilt 2009) This integral is quantized only in T-invariant insulators. 2πh 16πh that is measured by the orbital magnetoelectric polarizability e2 ∂M ∂ ∂ ∂P θ = = H= 2πh ∂E ∂E ∂B ∂B and computed by integrating the “Chern-Simons form” of the Berry phase 1 θ= 2π ! 2 d k #ijk Tr[Ai ∂j Ak − i Ai Aj Ak ] 3 BZ 3 (2) (Qi.

Ran. Wen 08) S3 z† σ i z |z|2 → S2 = ni = 1 → n2 = 1 The “real” T-invariant topological insulator has ≥2 occupied bands. (JEM. harder to draw.Picturing a topological insulator A question: why don’t you just draw a topological band structure? 1 θ= 2π ! 2 d k #ijk Tr[Ai ∂j Ak − i Ai Aj Ak ] 3 BZ 3 The “simplest” topological insulator where this Chern-Simons type of integral is nonzero breaks time-reversal and has only one occupied band. It comes from making a band structure based on the “Hopf map” from the unit sphere in 4d to the unit sphere in 3d. .

many-body test for a topological insulator.Vanderbilt 2009) 2 e h = contact resistance in 0D or 1D = Hall conductance quantum in 2D = magnetoelectric polarizability in 3D . B0 h/eΩ So dP/dB gives a bulk. However. ∆P e/Ω 2 = = e /h. the quantity dP/dB does generalize: a clue is that the “polarization quantum” combines nicely with the flux quantum.Topological response Many-body definition: the Chern-Simons or second Chern formula does not directly generalize. (Essin. JEM.

Theorists find profound explanation why integers will always be seen. Fractional plateaus are seen experimentally (1983). Integer plateaus are seen experimentally (1980). Eventually many fractions are seen. Their picture involves nearly free electrons with ordinary fermionic statistics. 2. Theorists find profound explanation: an interacting electron liquid that hosts “quasiparticles” with non-Abelian statistics. Theorists find profound explanation why odd denominators will always be seen. The picture (Laughlin) involves an interacting electron liquid that hosts “quasiparticles” with fractional charge and fractional “anyonic” statistics. all with odd denominators.Application I: “Advanced” topological order and quantum computing A history of theoretical efforts to understand quantum Hall physics: 1. A plateau is seen when 5/2 Landau levels are filled (1989). 3. What does fractional or non-Abelian statistics mean? Why is 2D special? .

1976) Imagine looping one particle around another to detect their statistics.Statistics in 2D What makes 2D special for statistics? (Leinaas and Myrheim. the result can depend on the “sense” of the looping (clockwise or counterclockwise). In 2D. but by the “braid group”. . The effect of the exchange on the ground state need not square to 1. “Anyon” statistics: the effect of an exchange is neither +1 (bosons) or -1 (fermions). In 3D. iθ e Most fractional quantum Hall states. but a phase. such as the Laughlin state. all loops are equivalent. but not in 3D. host “quasiparticles” with anyonic statistics. Exchanges are not described by the permutation group.

(Greg) Moore and Read. Braiding quasiparticles can act as a matrix on the space of ground states. The 5/2 state becomes degenerate when quasiparticles are added. The non-Abelian statistics at 5/2 may have been seen experimentally earlier this year. (Willett et al. 1990.. the braid group with more than 3 particles is “non-Abelian”: different exchanges can be described by non-commuting matrices.Degenerate ground states A beautiful wavefunction is likely to describe the ground state at filling 5/2. Mathematically. 2009) .

Topological quantum computing A classical computer carries out logical operations on classical “bits”. A remarkable degree of protection from errors can be obtained by implementing these via braiding of non-Abelian quasiparticles. The relevant quasiparticle in the Moore-Read state is a “Majorana fermion”: it is its own quasiparticle and is “half” of a normal fermion. A quantum computer carries out unitary transformations on “qubits” (quantum bits). .

SC TI Majorana states (Recent theoretical work by Sau et al. 2007).) However.Topological quantum computing It turns out that the core of a magnetic vortex in a two-dimensional “p+ip” superconductor can have a Majorana fermion.) . Another piece of breaking news: FQHE observed in graphene. (Das Sarma) suggests that one doesn’t even need a topological insulator. a superconducting layer with this property exists at the boundary between a 3D topological insulator and an ordinary 3D superconductor (Fu and Kane. (But we haven’t found one yet.

The 3D topological insulators discovered so far are all useful thermoelectric materials! .Application II: Energy Thermoelectric materials can convert waste heat to electrical energy.

a topological insulator. This elegant countertop cellar chills wines using thermoelectric cooling technology. Cuisinart CWC-600 6-Bottle Private Reserve Wine Cellar 6 Bottle Wine Cooler: FRYS.Topological insulators and energy Thermoelectric cooling: refrigeration with no moving parts. with a stainless steel door and interior light. Eight temperature presets for a variety of reds and whites keep up to 6 bottles of wine at the perfect serving temperature. Most consumer thermoelectrics use #: 5049475 Protect the integrity of your favorite wines with the Cuisinart Private Reserve Wine Cellar. the Cuisinart Private Reserve is a beautiful way to display wines and champagnes. Designed in the style of full-size cellars. which eliminates noise and vibration. .

Topological insulators and energy What makes a material a good thermoelectric? The “thermoelectric figure of merit” ZT determines Carnot efficiency: 2 S σT ZT = k T2 T1 a b V S = V / ∆T “Seebeck coefficent” a Bi2Te3 .

Phys. PRB (1993) . Science (1999) Mahan et al.Topological insulators and energy So why aren’t thermoelectrics everywhere? Will they be soon? “(Gordon) Moore’s Law”: (1965-present) The number of transistors on an IC doubles every 2 years “Moore’s Law” of thermoelectrics has an even longer history: the figure of merit doubles every 50 years Majumdar. 777 (2004) DiSalvo. Science 303. Today (1997) Hicks & Dresselhaus.

JEM. 2009) . We hope to double ZT. and a controllable thicknessdependent gap opens.Topological insulators and energy Big question: Does knowing that Bi2Te3 has these unusual surface states help with thermoelectric applications? Yes. at least for low temperature (10K . Mong.77K).. (P. in preparation) Thermoelectrics work best when the band gap is about 5 times kT. Idea: in a thin film. R. the top and bottom surfaces of a topological insulator “talk” to each other. Key: good thickness and Fermi-level control Similar to bandgap engineering by gating in bilayer graphene (Y. Gap of Bi2Te3 = 1800 K = 0.15 eV.. where ZT=1 is not currently possible. Zhang et al. 2009) Fermi-level control in crystals (Hsieh et al. Ghaemi.

“Topological insulators” exist in two and three dimensions in zero magnetic field. 2. The 3D topological insulator generates a quantized magnetoelectric coupling ∆LEM θe2 θe2 αβγδ = E·B= # Fαβ Fγδ .Conclusions 1. 2πh 16πh 3. . These insulators might be useful for either quantum computing (a big leap) or improved thermoelectrics (not so big a leap).

82 (2009) “Quasiparticles do the twist” . Moore.-G. Ran. 270 (2008) J. E. Balents. Moore. E. Physics 2. Moore. Moore. Babak Seradjeh. E. Franz. M. PRB 73. Shinsei Ryu. Shou-Cheng Zhang References C. Nature 460. Nature Physics 5. 066402 J. J. M. PRL 102. 1090 (2009) “An insulator’s metallic side” J. R. Essin. Joe Orenstein. PRL 101. Zahid Hasan. Vanderbilt. E. E. E. M. Moore and L. and X. Ramesh. Moore. 186805 (2008) A. Xu and J. Seradjeh. Ashvin Vishwanath Special thanks also to Duncan Haldane. Charles Kane. Moore. 045322 (2006) J. Xiao-Gang Wen Discussions Berkeley: Dung-Hai Lee. PRB RC 75. Essin and J. Moore. and D. 146805 (2009) B. Ivo Souza. Nature Physics 4. David Vanderbilt. PRL 103. J.Thanks Collaborations Berkeley students: Andrew Essin Roger Mong Vasudha Shivamoggi Cenke Xu (UCB→Harvard→UCSB) Berkeley postdocs: Pouyan Ghaemi Ying Ran (UCB→Boston College) Ari Turner Leon Balents. Moore. Wen. 378 (2009) J. E. E. Laurens Molenkamp. PRB 76. Y. 165307 (2007) J. Marcel Franz. 121306 (2007) A. E. Moore. E.

This state is loosely similar to that proposed for graphene bilayers (Bistritzer.Correlated phases from TI surfaces An “exciton condensate” can be made between holes on one surface of a 3D TI film and electrons on the other surface. but with different topological features. a) "! !! b) surface states gates STI (In graphene. MacDonald). inter-valley mixing moves this mode away from E=0. Su. A vortex in the exciton order parameter traps an exact zero-energy mode (not a Majorana) with an offset fractional charge ±e/2 relative to the zero-vortex state. a possible advantage is that one can use the two surfaces of a single TI. rather than having to insert a dielectric of constant thickness through two layers of graphene. arxiv) Experimentally.) monopole . (Seradjeh. Franz. JEM.

.Correlated phases from TI surfaces Idea of exciton condensation: (Conventional) Superconductivity occurs when we have identical spinup and spin-down electron Fermi surfaces and a weak attractive interaction.) . Exciton condensation occurs when we have identical electron and hole Fermi surfaces and an attractive interaction between electrons and holes.e. gates STI monopole Alternately can study nonequilibrium condensation before electrons & holes recombine (Butov. i. Chemla et al. a) "! !! b) surface states Why is this difficult? Need an applied field or some other mechanism to keep electrons and holes from recombining. Coulomb repulsion.

with chemical potentials symmetric around Dirac point. New materials (e. Ca doping) allow the Dirac point to be moved out of the bulk bandgap.g. Goal: first stable exciton condensate outside quantum Hall regime. Generated gap in weak-coupling limit: √ a) "! !! b) −Λ2 /U V m ≈ 2 V Λe Need large voltage V and coupling U.. with no tunneling.) + Tr(M M ). U Key: unscreened interlayer Coulomb repulsion.Correlated phases from TI surfaces Formally. HMF = H0 + † (ψ1 M ψ2 1 † + h.c. monopole . surface states gates STI Transition temperature is of same order or higher than in graphene. exciton condensation is like BCS in the “particle-hole” channel: continuously connected to BEC of excitons.