You are on page 1of 11

Selection of Initial Mold–Metal Interface Heat Transfer

Coefficient Values in Casting Simulations—a Sensitivity
Analysis
RAMESH K. NAYAK and SURESH SUNDARRAJ
Mold–metal interface heat transfer coefficient values need to be determined precisely to accurately predict thermal histories at different locations in automotive castings. Thermomechanical
simulations were carried out for Al-Si alloy casting processes using a commercial code. The
cooling curve results were validated with experimental data from the literature for a cylindricalshaped casting. Our analysis indicates that the interface heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) initial
value choice between chill–metal and the sand mold–metal interfaces has a marked effect on the
cooling curves. In addition, after choosing an IHTC initial value, the solidification rates of the
alloy near the chill–metal interfaces varied during subsequent cooling when the gap began to
form. However, the gap formation, which results in an IHTC change from the initial value, does
not affect the cooling curves within the vicinity of the sand–metal interface. Optimized initial
IHTC values of 3000 and 7000 W m2-K1 were determined for a sand–metal interface and a
chill (steel or copper)–metal interfaces, respectively. The initial IHTC had a significant effect on
the prediction of secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) (varying between approximately
15 microns and 70 microns) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) (varying between approximately
250 MPa and 370 MPa) for initial IHTC values that were less than the optimized value of
7000 W m2 K1 for the chill–metal interfaces.
DOI: 10.1007/s11663-009-9317-0
Ó The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2009

I.

INTRODUCTION

CASTINGS for automotive applications are manufactured through precision sand, gravity, or pressure die
casting processes. Several models have been developed to
study the solidification phenomena that occur in these
casting processes. Such models have been used successfully
to design castings that are free from gross solidification
defects such as macroshrinkage cavities for conventional
automotive Al casting alloys. However, with the increasing
use of advanced casting alloys, it is necessary to improve
the predictive capability of these models.
One key input needed to accurately model solidification
in these casting processes is the interface heat transfer
coefficient (IHTC) between the metal and the mold. IHTC
controls the heat transfer through the air gap that forms
between the metal and the mold because of shrinkage that
occurs during solidification. Several studies have
attempted to quantify the IHTC, which highlight the
different factors that affect heat flow across the interface during solidification. These factors include the
RAMESH K. NAYAK, formerly Engineer CAE, Powertrain,
General Motors India Pvt Ltd, is now Deputy Manager, Development,
with Foundry and Forge Division, Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd,
Bangalore Complex, Bangalore 560 017, India. SURESH SUNDARRAJ,
Staff Researcher, is with the Materials Characterization and Modeling,
R&D, General Motors India Pvt Ltd, 2nd/3rd Floor, Creator Building,
International Tech Park, Whitefield Road, Bangalore 560 066, India.
Contact e-mail: suresh.sundarraj@gm.com
Manuscript submitted March 18, 2009.
Article published online November 17, 2009.
METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS B

thermophysical properties of the contacting materials,
the casting geometry, the orientation of the casting–mold
interface that affects the contact pressure, mold temperature, liquid alloy surface tension, pouring temperature,
the roughness of the mold contacting surface, and the
mold coating.[1,2] Initial work by Ho and Pehlke[3] was
directed toward understanding the mechanisms of air gap
formation at the chill–metal interface. They suggested
that a thin skin of solidified metal first forms when molten
metal comes into contact with the chill surface. During
this stage, heat transfer occurs by conduction through the
peaks of the rough surfaces of the casting and chill that are
in contact and also by conduction through air or other
gases trapped in the voids between these contact areas
(Figure 1). As solidification progresses, relative expansion and contraction of the chill and the casting alters the
amount of contact and the size of the interfacial gap
between the two surfaces. Eventually, this process leads to
a complete separation and a drastic reduction of the heat
transfer coefficient as the heat is extracted from the casting
through a relatively insulating ‘‘air gap.’’
Griffiths[4] has studied the effect of direction orientation
of solidification on IHTC. For the three different orientations of the chill–metal geometry, which were cast and
cooled separately from the bottom, top, and sides of the
mold walls, the IHTC values were calculated to be 7100,
3400, and 5000 Wm2 K1, respectively. Stavros et al.[5]
observed that an increase in mold surface roughness resulted
in a decrease in the heat transfer coefficient and that an
increase in metal temperature resulted in an increase in
the heat transfer coefficient. Hallam and Griffiths[6]
VOLUME 41B, FEBRUARY 2010—151

where H denotes enthalpy that is expressed as follows: H ¼ cp T þ ð1  gs ÞDHf ½2 where q. and Xgap is the average interface width. and the superheat. copper chills. and latent heat. which is expressed as follows: fDrg ¼ ½DfDeg ½7 where [D] is the elastic tensor.  th ¼ faðTÞDTg ½8 De In the above expression. and Ci and n are constants that depend on alloy composition. specific heat. thermal conductivity.. The total strain increment vector {De} is related to the stress increment vector {Dr} by Hooke’s law. For the mold–air interface.15. and the mold–metal interface was hs = Ci t–n. i. A. respectively.e. which assumes perfect mixing in the liquid and no solid diffusion at the local microscopic scale. CA). and the partition coefficient of the alloy. 1—Schematic view of heat flow across the mold–casting interface. the IHTC increases.[8] to perform coupled thermal-stress analysis calculations on different geometries as well as sensitivity analyses to determine the effect of the initial IHTC choice on the cooling curves.. We also have optimized the initial IHTC value for different types of mold materials. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION [12] Griffiths carried out experiments to determine the heat-transfer coefficient for the case of unidirectional METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS B . the effect of the initial value of IHTC on the cooling curve behavior has not been studied comprehensively. The application of these optimized IHTC values in the thermal analysis of the chill–metal interface for a section of an engine block casting also has been discussed. chill material. i. they provided an expression for the IHTC in a general form. Highland. The objective of the present work is to use a commercial code. The incremental thermal strain vector {Deth} is the result of volume changes that accompany the temperature change DT that is calculated from the thermal model. In these expressions. respectively. showed that with an increase in the initial temperature of a coated steel chill from 20 °C to 300 °C. Inc. i. The mold–casting IHTC are expressed as follows: h¼ Kgap Xgap ½5 where h is the IHTC. Thermal Model @ ðqHÞ ¼ r  ðKrTÞ @t where Tm. FEBRUARY 2010 q ¼ gs qs þ ð1  gs Þql cp ¼ gs cps þ ð1  gs Þcpl ½4 K ¼ gs Ks þ ð1  gs ÞKl where the subscripts s and l denote solid and liquid phases. The analysis by Hines[7] indicates that a greater difference exists between the IHTC for concave and convex surfaces of the mold and that different IHTC values for different surface configurations should be used in the solidification modeling analysis to obtain accurate cooling curve predictions.e. steel chills. The fraction of solid gs in the mushy zone is estimated by the Scheil equation. Santos et al. t denotes time in seconds. ProCAST (ProCAST Products. and k0 are the melting temperature of pure metal. and DHf represent density. MATHEMATICAL MODEL The heat transfer equation that governs the conduction-driven solidification can be expressed as follows: 152—VOLUME 41B. Cm is a constant that depends on the thickness of the chill.10] Assuming that the liquidus and solidus curves of the phase diagram have constant slopes. cp.[2] showed that the transient IHTC between mold–air and metal–mold interfaces can be expressed as a time-dependent power law function.. gs can be expressed as follows:   Tm  T 1=ðk0 1Þ ½3 gs ¼ 1  Tm  Tliq Fig. K. Stress Model In the stress analysis using ProCAST. Tliq. ha = Cm t0. and sand. respectively. B. the total strain vector {De} is calculated as follows:   ½6 fDeg ¼ Deel þ Deth where {Deel} is the elastic strain increment and {Deth} is the thermal strain increment vector. II.e. The volume averaged[11] properties are expressed as follows: ½1 III. Kgap is the thermal conductivity of the air in the interface gap. a represents the thermal expansion coefficient. liquidus temperature of the alloy.[9. whereas an increase in the die coating thickness (from 100 to 300 microns) reduces the IHTC by a factor of two. Although previous studies have identified various factors that affect IHTC..

5248 of the primary phase Partition coefficient 0.71754 T2 Fig.00383T Latent heat (J kg1) 397.13 Effective specific heat capacity 3415 + 8. 2—Schematic view of unidirectional solidification of Al-7 pct Si alloys.[12] Fig. The expansion–contraction of the copper chill that occurred during the casting process was taken into account while performing the thermal-stress calculations. the chill was assumed to be rigid. Properties of Cu Chill and Al-7 wt pct Si alloy[12] Property (Units) Value Properties of Copper Thermal conductivity 416.33 Properties of Al-7wt pct Si Alloy (Liquid Phase) Thermal conductivity 88. Sensitivity Studies For the sensitivity studies. refer to the experimental setup shown in Figure 2. In this simulation. In Griffith’s experiments. which was water-cooled.11 – 0.795 + 121. sand–steel–copper chill (1 9 1 9 1 cm3) to induce unidirectional solidification was chosen (see Figure 4).7 9 106 expansion (K1) Young modulus (Pa) 115 9 109 Poisson’s ratio 0. The physical properties of the alloy and the mold materials are provided in Table I.11069 T Specific heat capacity (J kg1 K1) Density (kg m3) 9095. Figure 3 shows a comparison of cooling curves between the experimental and simulation results chosen at two equidistant locations of 75 mm above and below the chill–metal interface.51 – 0. A copper chill was located at the bottom of the casting. a cubical shape (1 9 1 9 1 cm3) casting of Al-13 pct Si alloy with a bottom METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS B Fig. 4—Schematic view of a cube casting model.Table I.6 (W m1 K1) Specific heat capacity 1080 (J kg1 K1) 2394 Density (kg m3) Properties of Al-7wt pct Si Alloy (Solid Phase) Thermal conductivity 198 (W m1 K1) Specific heat capacity 917 (J kg1 K1) 2672 Density (kg m3) Coefficient of thermal 24 9 106 1 expansion (K ) Young modulus (Pa) 58.05874 T (W m1 K1) 351 + 0. FEBRUARY 2010—153 .490 Liquidus temperature (K) 890 Solidus temperature (K) 850 Fraction of solid 0.2288 T2 Poisson’s ratio 0. 3—Comparison of experimental[4] and predicted cooling curves. Al-7 pct Si alloys were cast in a cylindrical refractory fiber tube mold.0234 9 103 T 1 1 (J kg K ) + 4.41 9 109 9 100. solidification of an Al-7 pct Si alloy. This simulation was used in the present study to benchmark the ProCAST simulation results.4629 T Coefficient of thermal 17. The thermo-mechanical simulations were carried out using VOLUME 41B.35 T – 0. The predicted simulation results reasonably agreed with the experimentally measured cooling curves.33 Yield stress (Pa) 3. A.

2E–05 2.36 0.016 189.64 METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS B .Table II.02 1.21 1.37 0.6E–05 2.7.39 0.37 0.37 0. FEBRUARY 2010 573 843 845 1023 573 723 823 843 845 1023 573 843 845 1023 Value 152 144 80 80 1.E + 03 1.0.5E–05 2.E + 04 5.0.6E–05 2.36 0.E + 04 2.5E–05 1.48 0.E + 04 8.5E–05 1.4E05 1.8.6E–05 2.36 0.6E–05 2.59 0.9.73 0.E + 04 7.3E–05 521 611 701 791 881 971 1061 1151 521 641 761 881 1001 1121 1241 631 871 1051 1111 1171 Temperature (K) 298 473 673 873 1073 209.64 0.6.59 0.526 206.E + 04 7.37 0.E + 04 3.13 1.50 0.37 0.783 158.3.21 1.5E–05 1.930 200. and Sand Materials[8] Temperature (K) 1 Thermal conductivity (W m 1 K ) Specific heat capacity (kJ kg1 K1) Density (kg m3) Latent heat (J kg1) Eutectic Temperature (K) Yield stress (MPa) Young modulus (MPa) Thermal conductivity (W m1 K1) Density (kg m3) Enthalpy (kJ kg1) 154—VOLUME 41B.E + 03 6.E + 04 1.4.45 0.50 0.37 0.6E–05 2.36 0.1.36 0.36 0.202 140.3E–05 2.988 0.3.50 2.37 0.37 0.37 0.E + 04 4.44 0. Al-13 pct Si Alloy Properties of Al-13 wt pct Si Alloy.8.5.7.46 0.37 0.21 2600 2560 2478 2431 Poisson’s ratio 522.43 0.37 0. Steel.002 174.E + 03 1.2 1.37 0.43 0.E + 04 6.E + 03 25 26 27 28 28 7625 7619 7614 7608 7602 7596 7590 7584 7577 7571 7565 7558 7552 7545 7539 26 38 50 62 75 88 Coefficient of thermal expansion (K1) Young modulus (MPa) Poisson’s ratio Coefficient of thermal expansion (K1) Sand Thermal conductivity (W m1 K1) Temperature (K) Value 299 339 399 459 519 579 639 699 759 819 834 840 846 852 858 864 870 876 882 888 890 893 313 673 773 819 830 840 844 848 888 0.7.000 844 293 473 573 673 773 829 848 889 299 359 419 479 539 599 659 719 779 830 836 842 848 854 296 473 773 873 1073 518 538 558 578 598 618 638 658 678 698 718 738 758 778 798 518 538 558 578 598 618 186 172 117 54 31 9 5 5 7.E + 03 5.3E–05 Value 0.741 124.36 1.

86 0. Figure 6 shows the corresponding interface IHTC vs METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS B Fig.7 0. the heating rate of the mold changed more rapidly compared with the cooling behavior of the casting up to 200 seconds. time for hi = 1000 and 3000 Wm2 K1. Fig. 1. (b) Comparison of cooling curves at the mold surface in the cube casting for different initial IHTC (hi) (steel chill–metal interface). In this case.07 1. the material properties given in Table II. FEBRUARY 2010—155 .12 1. Note that the cooling curves were chosen at two equidistant locations of 2 mm on either side of the mold–metal interfaces for all the cases studied here. the VOLUME 41B.99 1. 6—Comparison of IHTC vs time for initial IHTC (hi) = 1000 and 3000 W m2 K1 (sand mold–metal interface).Table II. 7—(a) Comparison of cooling curves at the casting surface in cube casting for different initial IHTC (hi) (steel chill–metal interface). 5—Comparison of cooling curves at casting and mold surfaces in cube casting for different initial IHTC (hi) (sand mold–metal interface).17 Fig. Continued Al-13 pct Si Alloy Yield Stress (MPa) Temperature (K) 638 658 678 698 718 738 758 778 798 422 644 773 823 Value 101 114 128 141 156 170 185 200 215 814 647 396 302 Temperature (K) Specific heat capacity (kJ kg1 K1) Density (kg m3) 1273 300 400 600 800 1000 1200 1520 Value 0.68 0. This behavior is attributed to the fact that the interface gap did not form until 200 seconds (i.e. Cubical Block—Sand Mold Casting Figure 5 shows the comparison of cooling curves with different initial IHTC values for sand mold casting..

B. (b) Comparison of cooling curves at the mold surface in cube casting for different initial IHTC (hi) (copper chill–metal interface). the mold and the alloy began to cool at the same rate. Both the chill heating and the metal cooling were sensitive to the initial IHTC choice. Significant differences were observed in terms of the gap formation in these two Fig. 2. (b) Comparison of IHTC vs temperature for initial IHTC (hi) = 3000 and 7000 W m2 K1 (steel chill–metal interface). an air gap began to form. 9—(a) Comparison of cooling curves at the casting surface in cube casting for different initial IHTC (hi) (copper chill–metal interface).metal was in close contact with the sand where the initial IHTC value chosen predominantly controls the heat transfer through the sand mold). an initial choice of IHTC = 7000 Wm2 K1 was an optimal value that provided sufficient accuracy in casting simulations involving steel chill–metal interfaces. Effect of IHTC on Secondary Dendrite Arm Spacing (SDAS) and Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) The effect of initial IHTC on secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) Fig. again. METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS B . Based on these results. Figures 8(a) and (b) show the change in IHTC as a function of time and temperature. which then controlled the heat transfer process and lead to small changes in the cooling curves of the alloy for the chosen initial IHTC values. Cubical Casting with Steel Chill Figures 7(a) and (b) show the comparison of cooling curves with different initial IHTC (hi) values for a casting with a steel chill–metal interface. Here. respectively. FEBRUARY 2010 cases during the solidification process. The corresponding IHTC values as a function of time and temperature are shown in Figures 10(a) and (b). This behavior can be attributed to the high thermal conductivity and low heat capacity of the chill. When the air gap stabilized beyond 280 seconds. 3. which caused a gap to form within 1 second after the metal came into contact with the mold as opposed to the sand–mold interface in which the gap formation began after 200 seconds. 156—VOLUME 41B. during the thermomechanical simulation for two different initial values of IHTC. which explains the differences observed in the predicted metal cooling and chill heating curves. Also. 8—(a) Comparison of IHTC vs time for initial IHTC (hi) = 3000 and 7000 W m2 K1 (steel chill–metal interface). a similar behavior as the steel chill–metal interface was observed. After 200 seconds. Cubical Casting with Copper Chill Figures 9(a) and (b) compare the cooling curves with different initial IHTC values for the cubical casting with a copper chill. an optimal initial IHTC value of 7000 Wm2 K1 was sufficient to provide the required degree of accuracy for casting simulations that involved a copper chill–metal interface.

A similar variation was observed for the steel chill. 10—(a) Comparison of IHTC vs time for initial IHTC (hi) = 5000 and 10000 W m2 K1 (copper chill–metal interface). The thermophysical properties of the alloy (Al-7 wt pct Si) and chill materials (copper and steel) are shown in Table I. using the local solidification time.were analyzed for the cubical casting geometry shown in Figure 4 and for the case of a quarter section of an engine block casting. Table III clearly shows the significant changes in these properties because of the choice of the initial IHTC values. predicted at a location 2 mm above the chill–metal interface. The SDAS and UTS results were calculated with Eqs.000 m2 K1 (copper chill/metal interface).[13] provided an empirical correlation of SDAS with respect to the local solidification time ts for the Al-7 pct Si alloy through the following relationship: SDAS ¼ 8:79ðts Þ1=3 ½9 [14] Flemings et al. SDAS and UTS Calculations for Cubical Block Castings with Steel–Copper Chills Simulations were carried out using different initial values of the IHTC for cubical casting with different chill materials (steel and copper). Fig. ts. FEBRUARY 2010—157 . Zhang et al. These results also are depicted in Figures 12 and 13 for the cubical casting with a copper chill. These results clearly indicate that the SDAS and Fig. 11—Schematic view of chill geometry for engine block casting. respectively. Effect of Initial IHTC on the SDAS and UTS Predictions Using Copper–Steel Chills Using Thermomechanical (TH-ME)/Thermal (TH) Simulations for the Cubical Casting Copper Chill Initial IHTC (W m2 K1) 100 500 1000 3000 5000 7000 10000 Steel Chill SDAS (lm) TH-ME SDAS (lm) TH UTS (MPa) TH-ME UTS (MPa) TH SDAS (lm) TH-ME SDAS (lm) TH UTS (MPa) TH-ME UTS (MPa) TH 58 35 27 18 15 12 9 58 35 27 18 14 12 9 278 323 340 362 371 378 385 278 323 341 363 373 378 385 57 34 27 19 16 15 14 57 34 27 18 16 15 12 281 325 341 360 367 370 373 281 325 341 362 368 371 377 METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS B VOLUME 41B. correlated the UTS with the SDAS measurements for the A356 alloy from which the following relationship has been derived: UTS ¼ 410:9  2:864  SDAS þ 0:01  SDAS2 ½10 C. Table III. [9] and [10]. A schematic view of the chill geometry used for the engine block casting is shown in Figure 11. (b) Comparison of IHTC vs temperature for initial HTC (hi) = 5000 and 10.

Engine Block Casting Section Using Steel–Copper Chills The SDAS and UTS sensitivity analysis was extended to study the effect of the initial IHTC values at the chill–metal interface in an engine block section shown in Figure 14. 3. 13—Comparison of UTS vs initial IHTC (hi) in a simple cube casting (copper chill–metal interface). 2.UTS values were extremely sensitive to the choice of the initial IHTC values below 7000 Wm2 K1. D. The results show similar trends compared with the simple cubical casting geometries as described in the previous sections. Effect of Chill Expansion on Cooling Curves and SDAS Near the Chill–Metal Interface Fig. Fig. 14—Schematic view of engine block and chill model. The shape of the chill does not influence the initial IHTC results based on the similar cooling curve results that were obtained at locations 1 and 2 in this casting.. two different locations along the chill geometry (position 1 and 2). were considered. E.[15] the thermal expansion effect of the steel and copper chills during solidification on the cooling curves and SDAS were studied for Al-7 pct Si alloy cubical shape casting. In this study. Figures 17 and 18 show the cooling–heating curves with and without Fig. Effect of Initial IHTC on SDAS and UTS for Locations 1 and 2 of the Engine Block Casting Section Thermomechanical IHTC (W m2 K1) 100 500 1000 3000 5000 7000 10000 Thermal Location 1 SDAS (lm) Location 2 SDAS (lm) Location 1 UTS (MPa) Location 2 UTS (MPa) Location 1 SDAS (lm) Location 2 SDAS (lm) 72 33 25 17 15 13 12 80 35 25 17 14 12 11 257 327 345 365 371 375 378 246 323 345 366 373 378 382 72 33 25 17 14 13 11 80 35 26 16 13 12 10 158—VOLUME 41B. Table IV as well as Figures 15 and 16 show the effect of initial IHTC on these properties. 12—Comparison of SDAS vs initial IHTC (hi) between thermomechanical and thermal simulation in a simple cube casting (copper chill–metal interface). Table IV. at about 10 mm above the chill–metal interface. After work by Griffith et al. FEBRUARY 2010 METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS B . An optimized initial IHTC (hi) value of 7000 W m2 K1 was sufficient for these relatively large engine casting sections as well. The following observations were made: 1.

15—(a) Comparison of SDAS vs initial IHTC (hi) between positions 1 and 2 for the steel chill engine block casting (chill–metal interface). No significant change in SDAS values was observed METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS B VOLUME 41B. respectively. 17—Comparison of cooling curves between the steel chill rigid and the expansion in cube casting (chill–metal interface). (b) Comparison of UTS vs IHTC between positions 1 and 2 for the steel chill engine block casting (chill–metal interface). 16—(a) Comparison of SDAS vs initial IHTC (hi) between positions 1 and 2 for the copper chill engine block casting (chill–metal interface). Fig.Fig. differences were observed between the rigid vs expanding chill after the chill heated up to about 400 °C when the chill expansion became more noticable and began to affect further cooling of the metal. It was observed that in both cases during most of the solidification process. 18—Comparison of cooling curves between the copper chill rigid and the expansion in cube casting (chill–metal interface). chill expansion for the steel and copper chills. However. (b) Comparison of UTS vs IHTC between positions 1 and 2 for the copper chill engine block casting (chill/metal interface). FEBRUARY 2010—159 . Fig. Fig. SDAS values were calculated near the interface of casting and chill using the empirical equation discussed for both copper and steel chill shown in Table V. the effect of chill expansion on the cooling–heating curves was not significant.

35B. Eng. The initial IHTC is critical for thermal and thermomechanical simulations regardless of the type of mold material used or their geometrical shape complexities. Technol.M. F. FEBRUARY 2010 studied. Pehlke: Metall. 545–50.V. K. vol. France. 1993. Mater. when a chill–metal interface is involved in the casting. Ho and R. Hines: Metall.N. Griffiths: Metall. M. 5. pp. 285– 95. When the chill heats up beyond 400 °C.P. C. 35B. and J. 501–06. Trans. 299–311. Prabhu. Zhao: Mater. Trans. pp. Hallam and W. pp.A. Heat Mass Transfer. whereas for steel (or copper) chill–metal interface was 7000 W m2 K1. W. 174–86. Cuaresma.. pp. 319. 575–78.R.. Griffiths: Metall. 6. 15. Paris. The chill expansion does not affect SDAS and UTS values significantly near the chill–metal interface when the chill is assumed to be rigid. 30B.D. 1991.A. Zhang. Cuaresma. Z. 2007. 36. pp.C. B. Argyropoulos and H. P. Xu. Kayikci: Int. Griffiths: Metall. 2008. a thermal simulation is sufficient to predict the cooling curves accurately. 13.Z. 1991. B. which can be attributed to the fact that the chill expansion was negligible during most of the solidification process. J. 5. provided only sand mold–metal interfaces are involved in the casting. Voller and S. 3. vol. The optimized value for the initial IHTC for the sand–metal interface was 3000 W m–2 K1. Garcia: Alloys Compd. Trans. Sci. 9. vol. 2003.D. The chill expansion is small during solidification because the chill temperatures are lower. 15.D..V. The effect of initial IHTC on both SDAS and UTS using steel and copper chills for cubical casting as well as for an engine block casting section were 160—VOLUME 41B. Trans. 2000. vol.A. 99. 585– 94. METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS B . C. vols. Problems Sci. 2006. Sundarraj and V. Soc. Bardes: AFS Trans. 10. pp. 1993. CONCLUSIONS 1. 3. J. vol. Sci.A. 2004. B. S. Flemings. pp. 2. 243–50. pp. J. C.M.R..1. 474–81. version 6. vol. 2. pp. 12. 1999. Du. 4.D. and A. Spim: Inv.P. J. Trans. 279–96. REFERENCES 1. 31B.. 721–33. S. 11. vol. J. and B. Mater. pp. vol. IV. 12. vol. 4. However. future cooling of the casting section near the interface is affected when the chill expansion is considered. pp. With the correct initial IHTC value choice. vol. C. Ni and C. pp. J. A. ProCAST User Manual. C P. Trans. 2001. Forum. 473– 82. ESI Software. 22.Table V. 2004. Sundarraj: Mater.A. Chill Type Efffect of Chill Expansion on the SDAS Predictions for Al-7 pct Si Alloy Chill Rigid—SDAS (lm) Chill with Expansion—SDAS (lm) 16 18 15 17 Copper Steel between where the chill was assumed to be rigid and where the chill expansion was considered. Hallam. W. Carletti: Mineral Metals Mater. vol. B. 7. B.. the initial IHTC had a significant effect on the prediction of SDAS and UTS values. B. and L. W. Mater.D. Res. K. Voller: Int. 713–23. 2004. Kattamin. 1985. 115–20.A. 6. Siqueria. a thermomechanical simulation is required because both the initial IHTC and the rate of gap formation significantly affect the alloy solidification process. vol. Garcia. Griffiths. 16B. 8. Mater. pp. Cast Metal. Beckermann: Metall. V. 14. 349– 61. Santos. In both cases. and R. T. without resorting to the use of a fully coupled thermomechanical simulation. Santos. pp.G. 9.

Further reproduction prohibited without permission.Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. .