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Ye Okie Presse. E.G.Printed by Henry J. Drane. Salisbury Square. . Saint Bride's London.

• . and their Treatment . CHAPTER H — Fraudulent to Buy a PIorse Practices to be Guarded Against How . . 36 . 64 CHAPTER HI How TO Tell the Age of the Horse CHAPTER Management General Stabling— Feeding IV Grooming— : . 7 . . . 7o CHAPTER V Minor Accidents and Ailments.CONTENTS PAGE PREFACE 9 CHAPTER I Different Breeds of Horses Difficulty of Selection . — The n . • 96 .

Dog to a Dog. E. on receipt of published price. to DOG How of the and theif Treatment* How Buy Train to The Ailments a Dog. etc* BY HAROLD TREMAYNE Price Shilling Price One Shilling One London HENRY "Ye J. . the Publisher will be pleased to /br^vard. etc. /y you have any difficulty in obtaining the above Book." Salisbury House. DRANE. post free.G. Olde Saint Bride's Presse. Salisbury Square.BY THE SAME AUTHOR ALL YOU WANT TO KNOW ABOUT THE DOG ABC How T« Choose a Dog.

or. the dealer he 9 a the display of groom he may be buying from. to the It is not intended as a competitor with the large and serious works which have of late years placed such a fund of valuable information at the The disposal of the lover of the equine race. ABC of Horse merely seeks to render man who keeps one.PREFACE The little book. to the for not time. the I merely to learning ignorance a new in and large do not for one profess to say anything his of perhaps the or through wade technical volume. has not any pretentious aims. well-being moment the book. . and who a little whilst the help to the desirous animals. which now makes its bow public. but give the owner an opportunity of sufficient in to prevent the presence of employs. it may be two horses for pleasure. has inclination.

feeling that tentiousness of the volume kindly consideration of the I will be danger of the graver troubles being overlooked. down my veterinary Simple ailments are only dealt with. earn put the and that may have perhaps done a little whom no man hath the animal for I very unpre- to help greater love than has HAROLD TREMAYNE. then there With this explanation the pen. section also asks for the standing. . for if the is may be he The stable. whom friend his will critics.PREFACE 16 or the " horsey showing over " learnt but little same modest under- capability to realise their presence and appreciated.

it is this impossible to deal at length with the numerous breeds of horses found in the which British are Isles. such as only professes to be. necessity for such a course is to be and the nullified by the knowledge that the reader of II .The ABC of Horse the CHAPTER I — DIFFERENT BREEDS OF HORSES THE DIFFICULTY OF SELECTION In an elementary work.

" be a to again. of Arabian and Charles it is would be out of place with present-day has had upon Such information. the effect which the introduction James I. valuable although I. say. the Stud Book. or to trace. the tyro decides that he will . the thoroughbred. by blood to the student. here. it is impossible in the space at disposal to deal with the history of those breeds.A B C OF THE HORSE 12 this book purchaser of a is hardly of other " light likely than a specimen Then breed. which we have When to consider. for requirements it is rather than the particulars furnished by that valuable work.

he confronted sort is with the question of animal should say. the shortest mile and a space possible a morning every station keep?" I is — "What man who obvious that the to 13 It wishes half to the in of time. will choose a different class of animal to him who desires something which make envious neighbours of ment. and declare — ! the What The horse which which is page. travel. must wanted " What a splendid magnificent is the Command- Tenth injunction animal forget will action ! intended for show. for a necessarily stylish be a equitrifle ." A B C OF THE HORSE find an occupant for his stable.

unlike some same emanating sayings quarter. turn which animal the at is pace in- a fast great deal of proved by a The is its visit horses which up again and again as winners are those which are in high condition. experience goes show that to continually driven variably a loses action. in by no are action al- means incompatible. which. and it will be noticed that they are always driven " is in a collected manner. the . This fact to the showyards. is from perfectly true. Pace brings down the knee action an old stable saying." 14 A B C OF THE HORSE "above itself" and though pace and condition.

however. he will different in class of animal — certainly a different type of shoulder —to what he would seek a trapper. utility one capable of . first should What do That to the novice is The great. " 15 difficulty of selection of a of animal which OF THE HORSE the first he wants a hack. carefully any step dissatisfaction place. in whilst horse if he wants —that is to a general say. require the animal for I considered before as type undoubtedly question." ABC The he put himself to otherwise be should question that it is look for a ? is taken. more than likely will from result what was a wrong move If is.

hands is is Between is above parted utility upon to if with horse. although not be so stylish kept for one purpose 15. his only.A i6 EC OF THE HORSE being ridden or driven —he will for the " useful stamp. either or under saddle.3 an animal he requires a large or high carriage. 15. be secured. although make such heavy banker's his look If 15. lightly.3 should. more favoured brother as that of his who is inroads between the shafts may appearance or sister not general which can be and balance. go well invaluable. and of late years fashion ." which.1 hands and a useful height. not likely to on once The relied quietly.

1 hands. 1 the perhaps is it with hands and statement may perhaps be challenged by the equine authority." "cob" term ambiguous.2 This argument can only be met with the is will reply that 14.A B C OF THE HORSE 17 has rather favoured the medium-height trap. popular very are is the 14. when a allowed to measure 14. Although a trifle generally applied to any animal between 1 5. 1 who triumphantly ask. " How 14.1 This hands. can a cob be anything between hands and polo pony hands?" is 15.2 hands the extreme limit of height of the . Cobs " one - horse keeper.

BC OF THE HORSE A i8 polo pony. and that that limit. although doubtless fixed game. This animal enormous short is is not surpris- capable of an amount of work on very Although he shows commons. the fact ing. of popular share a plentiful pony supply of can rub along . certainly of the any of the best in specimen of the in past exceeds that mountain the which breeds of ponies to interests we have our best of recent years come looked for specimens. The pony has in for favour. a wonderful and when all the circumstances are considered. the benefit of good the food.

" shown by commands. of no is it one-horse. " other work beside The value the to value to the little finds the stable for the the place. is hardy and strong." owner. with capacity his rather. and . also wonderfully Long journeys seem his rough " and constitution.ABC where many OF THE HORSE specimens 19 of the large He race would soon go to the wall. but nevertheless prices show an upward tendency. is money in one-pony man employed about of the increased Every increasing. who agree to the year fact pony prices is he the supply that there is pony breeding being more and more recognised. or.

3 hands.A B C OF THE HORSE 20 when a really good specimen comes under the hammer. for? . would in to in animal the carry. probability do better to choose a stout general utility cob of 14. These points must be in carefully borne mind before the purchase What is the animal is wanted made. fifteen all bear or mind the may be The man who sixteen stone. say. the heads of pro- nod buyers spective The regularity. must not pony hands - makes an excellent hack is prompt with if the action but the prospective buyer fail weight which called upon to rides. 14 all right.

may. the owner wishes to pace however travel at ? is or a spice behave required tells man. . spirits questions. be not quickly holding mischievousness.A BC OF THE HORSE What and type of carriage size required to draw? Who be the drivers the those drivers or nervous the steed who and the of quiet with one pursue the much work is with is the reins. which very To another person. differently What naust it pony excessive Are inexperienced or horse it are Hkely to intuition is is riders? riders for ? that through or or forgotten perfectly 21 to — How be done? which And the lastly.

its physical bound suffer. but. neglected. the horse which its if and. hand. writer. is other required to different brother an hour food and who is . for its sequently. amount of proposed to attention is it bestow on the animal? must be not This question taken do with but that certain animals can little attention. to the on the is do half miles six requires attention somewhat to his in it be con- capacity. or do its owner the or itself of justice.A 22 BC OF THE HORSE What but perhaps by no means least. health. suggesting as Such an idea mind is very far from No horse or pony can thrive.

in In concluding this chapter perhaps the best thing to do would be to give a few particulars of the leading breeds and the types they represent. variation Animals in price possessing is The remarkable. excellent points can frequently be picked up for twenty pounds or twenty-five pounds. a Park cob. that is. the other hand. really whilst. — As previously mentioned the cob has of late years been taken wonderfully into popular favour. on first-class an animal which .A B C OF THE HORSE taken from in comfortably paddock the a trot 23 to distance similar double the time. The Cob.

so . A figure. whilst denote strength The hind legs should not be set on too far behind. in perfect in is its pacos and quiet for the most nervous old gentleman to ride. will a very big have should quarters. and muscular. to round a The limbs. command should be with which denotes breeding. and neck and well-sloping graceful line and good should the be hocks without typical cob barrel and muscular.A 24 BC OF THE HORSE has good all-round action an animal which or a trap. should coarseness. broad flat and that strength The knees flat. short should be joined shoulders. short.

years reason Wealthy men now been the light all is have lavishing not far to many for money on him. in a place where he will not acquit himself . The Hackney. until they have produced as fine specimens could by desire to admirers Hackney and horse of that is he see. of a the general cannot as flesh It is breed claimed that utility be man put a horse." a loss unpleasantness of of action.A as to be what then for power BC OF THE HORSE is there and known be will an as " 25 camped. is the — Probably the Hackney most popular of breeds. and the seek.

The possesses a face of full. Although an hold a different view. The however. my own chosen not the best that can is when of the action of a must him rider. dares to writer. the . kind eye at once arresting attention. ardent admirer of the harness horse. against as a experience goes to show that that animal be Hackney of the as Hackney makes a comfortable carrier but to having said urge harness Hackney his this I enormous purposes. The intelligence. hasten merits typical striking venture to state that I for a saddle horse is The very magnificence also required.A B C OF THE HORSE 26 well.

the the ribs well loins powerful. is bad- a rara avis. of the favour in are that he generally possesses plenty of courage. 27 sprung. the chest should body short. Prize . whilst the limbs should display strength Strong arguments Hackney without coarseness. work of it." show that the Hackney is Prices showing vary the softness goes to capable of doing an enormous amount without " of effects considerably.A B C OF THE HORSE be deep and wide. and excellent feet and tempered Hackney A legs. good temper. and although detractors of the breed have often urged the charge of experience of constitution.

the reason being that the increased pace at which days makes to be it able to tremendous hounds nowa- travel necessary for a horse gallop and rate. is it a very fair animal possible to obtain for by mares or winners. of Leicestershire.. from pounds forty-five to eighty pounds. — During thoroughbred the years recent become has the popular mount in the grass counties Northamptonshire. Tlie Hunter. etc.DC OF THE HORSE A 28 winners fetch large anything well-known but prices. It is jump for any and a frequently affirmed that the thoroughbred horse at every is the county .

as A BC OF THE HORSE a matter county. lean Good oblique strong withers. well - shoulders. 29 hunter is typical hunter sound wind in and eyesight. and land. and hips. should top powerful legs and should sound be upon them feet. in where is.but. back wide should be prominent and loins. the are smaller. sprung ribs. there the A should be absolutely a close is more enclosures half-bred generally preferred. that ploughed of fact. particularly is The hocks strong. The head and the neck moderately long. for thrown the chief portion of the work whenever a leap is under- . muscular thighs.

30 ABC taken. pounds or forty pounds the man who stone may ten way his with thorough- upon which deal great knows ride he for may thirty apiece. a hunter should power all a is breeding. In fact. about. fill " bred a skill light-weight. the price without over. whilst rides sixteen or seventeen find it difficult to satisfy . and also upon with is show to can. his if his weeds. that man who can say. a stone. usually great deal depends on the weight of the rider." he stable of sport. see A animals. which ness A OF THE HORSE It sign that coarse- of inferior name impossible to is paid for a hunter.

the are New Exmoor. however. this known breeds an in There is now has. best the Dartmoor. the Shetland. the earh'er The chapter. paid pony the to of portion —A Forest. too little breeds Unfortunately. paid to these consequently the result of neglect in mating but too apparent. and it is to be hoped that in the near . The Pony.. attention was for many years. A BC OF THE HORSE his requirements 31 than ten tribute of praise was for less times those sums. recently been a change for the better societies for their preservation and improvement have sprung into existence. and the Welsh ponies.

will be resuscitated. and that specimens of the breeds true placed on the market prohibitive to the The income. not Shetland unsuitable but with the other breeds. although possess certain it prices be with a limited of size any but small they man at will distinguishing naturally follows that ponies must necessarily possess certain points of similarity in common. it children. should be similar the cob — in fact. in The pony conformation to he should be a .A BC OF THE HORSE 32 future the many too good points which have cases been in allowed to dis- appear. pony for the necessarily renders regard to all features.

the very nature of his early existence making for surefootedness and vary prices the five " Dartmoor considerably. whilst made article. pounds or six pounds." that is. crossed. will its appear- General Utility fetch anything. It or consist of any breed of any of the breeds or of would be waste of space c . quiet to ride and drive." be usually will It 33 found that the legs and feet of the mountain-bred pony are good. be purchased as yearlings ponies can for The strength. the five-year old pony. according to ance and action. Roadster The Horse may horse at all.A B C OF THE HORSE "miniature cob.

wrong. course. soundness and strength of limbs and feet should be a sine qua non. and who bears in his mind's eye the description given of a cob and a hackney. for the horse which does not possess these essentials. "What is must play the leading part in the decision arrived Taken the generally. The general horse can be bought for any- . will not go far In the roadster. however. the animal wanted for?" the here recapitulate as of for. damage himself and down the utility first hill is likely to his driver or rider he goes.A B C OF THE HORSE 34 to attempt to points which should be looked question. the at. man who buys a half-bred.

35 to sixty would be price is .ABC thing from OF THE HORSE thirty pounds pounds. although perhaps safe to say it that the average about forty-five pounds.

CHAPTER II HOW TO BUY A HORSE— FRAUDULENT PRACTICES TO BE GUARDED AGAINST It is one perhaps of things in the world to tell he should buy a horse. prospective the text-books for. 36 and . fill a man how easy to It is pages of a book with good advice as to what faults should be looked what good points should be but hardest the even carried all if the subject to the essential. buyer on the place where he was to see the animal under consideration.

little been the although this true. and may in some degree be perfectly certain that whilst the dissatisfied purchaser can always send the horse to the nearest repository. glancing the while at the steed. the dissatisfied husband must— but why pursue the subject further ? . if he had not a natural gift for finding and appreciating good the in some has horse difficult as it is detail. then the would be that he would probabilities err bad or declared Buying a to be as choice of a wife.ABC even if OF THE HORSE 37 he read every word of that advice. points. if the text-book student had not had previous experience.

may be .BC OF THE HORSE A 3^ There are. number of the horses which way This his requirements. large do so because they have fault or vice value. for from and them. attend a local fair. Ireland. of course. A undertake. of horses. numerous ways The buyer may and relying upon his own judgment choose an animal which seems to meet is a difficult experienced task to for even the most to fairs some This taken in find their which reduces especially those are perfectly sound worth the money paid but in general way it be Scores sent well a their statement must not too sweeping a sense. of purchasing a horse.

A B C OF THE HORSE safely 39 assumed that the animals which are at all worth the money asked are quickly snapped up by the dealers and Usually the their representatives. The material it is for difficult "experience" to very excitement of a fair is a cloak to the faults which are not easily discernible. is like putting the . or in one of the repositories which abound in all the big towns. it may be safely assumed that for a novice to purchase a horse of his own selection at a fair. partially broken which horses. are excellent to work upon. or else of aged horses for whom find a market. fairs are the resort of either young. In fact.

appears will Frequently in a be the or shafts under statement the catalogue — horse's " Has been . purchaser be determined to If the buy have of these places he should in either his for companion a veterinary surgeon or a friend upon whose judg- ment he can possibilities of a no means Even then the rely. bad bargain are by remote. has any physical The veterinary tell if the animal but defect. of course. surgeon can.A BC OF THE HORSE 40 hand where the blanks into a lucky dip considerably exceed the prizes. it is impossible in a short examination to prophesy what behaviour between saddle.

a boy of eleven years —therefore well within the description " ridden by a child" —who Has been will sit any- thing pretty well that has ever been foaled.A BC OF THE HORSE ridden and driven by a lady. Not so very long ago this young hopeful had a twenty-minutes' tussle with as bad tempered a thorough- . whilst the writer has a little friend." or been ridden by a child." this information for all been Has sufficient men who have trade will not hesitate to say that there are plenty of can and do " the novice would seem purposes. but in the To 4t ride and women who drive animals which a great many men would hesitate to tackle.

" been ridden and driven by a lady " ? Has . the perspiring youngster ing. bucking vitality had exhausted his energies." or. " that I slid out of the saddle. if Of course. and mass of kicking. remark- have ridden quieter horses than one.A D C OF THE HORSE 42 bred as any his stable. man would desire to see in when the plunging. it may be said an animal does not come up to the warranty it can be returned. what warranty " that Has been is True ! But there in the statement ridden by a child. father." This illustration is furnished in order to demonstrate the necessity for a certain amount of reserva- tion in the acceptance of catalogue descriptions.

and buying from the second is entering into negotiations with a bonafide advertiser in one of the high-class agricultural In journals. especially ample time to weigh the offered him. The first is a reputable dealer. information When a gentle- sell a horse. he will to go on a week's it if both these the prospective pur- sum chaser agrees to pay a small deal is not effected.A B C OF THE HORSE 43 There are two ways of purchasing animals which seem to reduce the risk to a minimum. cases the purchaser has consider which man is is and anxious to frequently allow trial. A large if a number of dealers will also allow an animal to .

when than lose a customer. . in the event of its The return. the horse way your own stable. and undoubtedly there are many dealers who do not like the " trial system. and away from the eye which jealously guards him from the danger of obviously betraying any little amounting failing.ABC 44 go on fair trial for payment OF THE HORSE a week or a fortnight. if for hire. nevertheless. be guaranteed. horse which the dealer would not allow to leave his stable on these terms should be viewed with This a certain may sound amount of suspicion. a sweeping statement. to a defect whilst not may." but as a rule a dealer will give is in rather Of course. which.

meets his requirements. We will suppose. as goes. far as and he is shown general build one. that the prospective buyer is visiting a dealer's stable for the purpose of purchasing a horse. for it the dealer trial to who has go back is not fair on given you a week's to him a month later and complain about some defect which should have been obvious long before. Take advantage of that opportunity. your opportunity a for prolonged examination is careful all that and you could possibly desire. however. which. Now the process of careful examina- .ABC OF THE HORSE 45 militate against the chances of a deal.

" Pointing. the stable his general behaviour should be carefully watched. even if he has the assistance. of a veterinary surgeon or an experienced adage one" "Two is friend. for the heads better to horse applicable Whilst the horse are is in old than buying." pose should be one of things to be observed. of course.ABC 46 OF THE HORSE tion should be This proceeded with." . can be done by the novice himself. he should have. The front legs should be looked at to see if the animal " points " or not. officious On no account should an groom be allowed head with an exhortation for the natural the first to to " go to its Get up. which.

whilst the horse feet are clean.ABC as it is standing Horses OF THE HORSE known in stable with the lame with slight 47 parlance. is stable vices as crib- wind sucking. to most animal easily is It is as well. is and resting one hind cerned when the perfectly quiet. biting. . shiver- upon the other are of each foot a flexing of the its it See that the frog perfectly clean and sound. ing. weaving. in the stable. scraping. and go up alongside of and examine them. leg is flexed. lameness will when they have frequently point. the first indication Such afflicted limb. is foot dis- standing perhaps. or incipient trouble with the feet or legs.

be slowly trotted Lameness. will then be apparent . also for sandcrack.A B C OF THE HORSE 48 and that does not smell. present. and which. The heels should be open. if not taken in time. let upon hard it ground. and in no ways contracted. When the horse has been taken out- side the stable. it If there is any unpleasant smell arising from the sole it animal may is be safely assumed that the suffering from thrush. soon plays havoc with the foot. if and as a . which is a difficult disease to cure. but perhaps it Look would be as well to reserve a more detailed examination of the foot is until the animal outside in the broad glare of daylight.

' or incipient ring bone. But if bability 'seedy he goes on the heel. . and the toe of the shoe becomes generally find that it D worn. and suspensory the ligaments of those horses used for fast work. may wears away the toe of the shoe.A BC OF THE HORSE when an animal general rule behind. In his interesting Veterinary Notes. the prois that he has either laminitis. Captain " When without work. If the lameness be behind. toe. is we shall due to spavin. the disease when front in is in 49 lame is in the hock. we suspect that foot of navicular disease. Hayes says : a horse goes lame on a fore leg any perceptible and cause.

prospective buyer should therefore watch very carefully the animal's move- ments from the time that stable. for the its exercise more the it less leaves the it gets warmed by likely chances of detecting defects.A BC OF THE HORSE 50 Side-bones are almost peculiar to cart horses." Intermittent lameness by rheumatism. whilst in mind the lameness The may well to bear it is many fact that in disappears be caused with cases exercise. sore shins to navicular disease to race-horses. riding. occult spavin are hardly ever found in horses under seven years of age. are the . and cab and Navicular disease and carrias^e horses.

or turning in or out of the be could toes observed. and the position of the fore and hind limbs. will never cannot carry Horses with . A do food justice.A B C OF THE HORSE Having 51 himself as to the satisfied soundness of the action of the animal. should be noted. buyer the should examination in conformation proceed The detail. should be from the front studied with so his general carefully that any wasting at the shoulder. around to the near Coming the general side. shape of the body. narrowness of the chest. whilst unless the its flat-sided legs are set itself or its animal on properly it rider safely.

off-side. the knee well. observer the as now hit the and under Moving on. are frequently caused they very Passing seldom around to by kicking. Capped hocks can be observed from this position. observer pursues his examination. the takes his stand behind animal. this of though vendor course takes time. and he should carefully note the space between the hocks. They are unsightly. which perhaps is not and irritating without use to to the All al- the the . and also the general shape of those joints. but cause the lameness.ABC 52 twisted OF THE HORSE fore-legs are apt to inside of the fetlock joint.

If. The examined for of be handled those signs of defects to the should be apparent teeth in crib-biting . whilst standing the 53 out with it.ABC OF THE HORSE The manner purchaser. for ment is its tempera- hardly likely to suit the " one- horse" owner. in which the animal submits to the ordeal guide as to little its animal lashes legs. behind for instance. then the examination can be promptly concluded. Having concluded the ocular inspection the horse should order to find any which may not be naked eye. hind its have seen horses do more than once. as I is some temperament.




and fraudulent practices

are dealt with later on

— the


nostrils for

the general tone of health, the eyes for
cataract or other disease, and the poll




" poll-evil."


Then, moving around to the near or






should be

of the jugular groove, in order to
there are



fairly sure

signs that the horse has been bled.



be mentioned here that those scars

are not so frequently

met with nowa-

days as they were thirty years

when bleeding was


the rage."

the collar presses should







be carefully


whilst referring to that matter,




be perhaps as well to point out the
necessity of examining the withers for

and the "saddle-bed"

for galls.

If old

marks only are found




haps well not to pay too much attention
to them, as they are generally caused

by an


we presume


saddle, a thing which

the reader of this



one moment.

Having concluded the examination of

shoulders and

should be run





the hand

the near fore-leg



blemish or any bony deposit
as a splint

— between


— known

the knee and the



any thickening of the

fetlock, or


tendons or of the suspensory ligament.








likely to involve



be near a


a joint, then






grave defect, but otherwise veterinary

surgeons do not attach

ance to





the other hand, any

thickening of the flexor tendons and of
the suspensory ligament


very serious,

and should ensure the rejection of the


Having examined the


leg to



"neurotomy" has not been performed,

knee or fetlock joints should be

flexed, as



about either of

of and then a the hock next Wasting of stifle careful should leg should be examinabe made. A further examination of the foot should then be made in order to see are any laminitic rings wall. upon the hoof any be present the animal flinch and exhibit other signs of The near hind comes examination. will if for. the there and the hoof should be tapped corns. Stiffness of the joint can be discovered by flexing it. in for muscles over the looked tion for If uneasiness. and comparison between the two hocks. whilst an examination by the hand. should help the observer in .ABC these joints OF THE HORSE is 57 very objectionable.

the stable. If the slightest difference in appearance be noted. and found it clean and cool to . the hock only. Having run the hand down the cannon bone. shov^ themselves on the inner side of that Spavin animal joint. for. and although they frequently do not cause lameness. which are somevi^hat similar to except that they occur in splints. they undoubtedly constitute unsoundness. Curbs occur a few inches below the point of the hock. the reason should be searched carefully Spavins. is first below just evident very leaves its the when bend.A B C OF THE HORSE 58 arriving at a decision as to their condition.

the hoof and sole are care- Then examined. or by having it put in a carriage. fully the observer passes around to the offside. best done on galloped a by having and. the only thing which remains to be done This is is to test the animal's wind. cluded. and driven steep hill. and repeats on the off fore and hind legs the task fore he has performed and hind on the near This being con- legs. heavy piece of ground.BC OF THE HORSE A 59 the touch. soft. the wind is rapidly if a harness horse. up a moderately Another method of testing to place the animal against a wall and suddenly raise the hand as . it if smartly possible.

would probably make a much more detailed examination. than most other callings to fraudulent practices. and ceeded with. but such details would be for the far too technical compass of the present work.A DC OF THE HORSE 6o if to strike it. perhaps. the above directions the examination for of a horse are merely intended for the The amateur. — Unfortunately. Why this should be so it . such an "expert. sound the suspicions liveliest be aroused." amateur should by whom always be accompanied. emits a grunting If it a As further should test pro- previously stated. Fraudulent Practices. horse-dealing lends itself more.

but When the fact exists. but it is apparent to the not so Then. 6i nevertheless the skin of the has been blemished or galled. horse different coloured hair makes its ap- pearance on the seat of the injury. and it is no uncommon thing for the " horse- coper" to dye the offending hairs so as to enable them Such a fraud is to escape detection. be detected if on Both these the hoof is . mud. a course easily dis- covered by the experienced man. again. stopped with the coper sand cracks often gutta-percha. although more frequently relies carefully plastered-in frauds can are novice.A B C OF THE HORSE is to difficult say.

There are scores of such to the are stable also tricks known hanger-on. but strong arm of the law has done to put a stop to it. tampering with the teeth make an after horse in a peris a order to more appear years ago this opera- was very popular with a certain of class migratory dealer. so water. but as they known to the expert they . formed the nefarious youthful.A BC OF THE HORSE 62 thoroughly cleaned with a brush and Bishoping. tion aged Some first operation. Tar is the much sometimes given to broken-winded horses in order to keep quiet the secret-telling cough. man named called who Bishop.

attempted and discovered. . he would. where safety on chaser. for his own reputation's sake promptly inquire into the matter.A BC OF THE HORSE do not often accomplish They at 63 their purpose. repositories. Needless to say. the vendor relies the innocence of the and upon his own for pur- capacity to make a speedy departure before the fraud is if discovered. is to say that these frauds are but seldom attempted there. for if the auctioneer had his suspicions aroused. are for the most part attempted fairs. the seller can promptly receive the attention of the police. It is only fair to the where so much business done nowadays.

Manual T. The Veterinary for Horse Owners^ 64 Mr F. and many although there have been cases in which they have misled the examiner.CHAPTER III HOW TO TELL THE AGE OF THE HORSE The teeth are the means by which the age of the horse can be told. it may be that stated safely cases out of 1000. the in teeth are 999 up to eight years of age a sure indication of the age of the horse. . Barton. In his highly interesting work.

etc. eight or ten years.V.ABC OF THE HORSE "The M. to After this time an more speculative. the other hand. " On first/ ' ' 65 second/ molars (grinders) are but i.C.e. says: and ' third ' temporary.S. becomes opinion When the foal is at least. and at the age of two years the " ' fifth The ' ' permanent molar sixth ' is up.. but not worn. one year old the permanent molar 'fourth' up is up. all the incisor (nipping) teeth are 'temporary/ and is their replacement.. permanent molar E is not . never replaced. (aided which affords by an inspection part in it of molars) such reliable evidence of the the horse's age.R.

the corners Many horses bred in the North of Scotland are frequently several getting their teeth.' ABC 66 OF THE HORSE cut until the horse arrives at three and a half years. two years or thereabout temporary nature. and the 'third' one at three " the Up to nipping (incisor) central four years. "When six the animal months the ' two years and is first ' and ' second temporary molars are replaced. months later in . and at the five teeth At all of a are three years the incisors are middle level. pair years the are on a level with the others. at and a half permanent years same.

said to be seven. teeth their at arrives 67 edge. teeth of a pony. " To many of these gentlemen all the horses they have for disposal are either instance and in one we remember examining the seven or eight. Mark near ' is the . Seven and eight years afford the cheating horse - the dealer greatest delight. yet it proved to be thirty years old at " At seven elongated.BC OF THE HORSE A *' When years corner the confined to a horse in " horse the front five six at show wear. absent years. and hinder edge. years it is the very ' least.

overhanging . unless the mouth be kept The very directions these forces closed. ' eight This also other incisors.' A BC OF THE HORSE 68 Look " the ' Mark ' nearly runs length the of the tooth. but in a horse at it very is much applies to the " At which at the corner teeth." simplicity the of writer to make extracts. Sometimes when the mouth the these is closed upper teeth project. "In all cases is it the rule to refer to the lower incisor teeth only. ten years a groove starts upon the outer face of the upper corner incisor. in smaller.

but only arise during the early stage of their careers. or a surface filed down." defect is siderable A horse with such a naturally placed disadvantage when Horses. and this constitutes a " parrot mouth. or The when old age is veterinary surgeon of to-day combines the duty of dentist with his other professional qualifications. like human con- at feeding.A B C OF THE HORSE 69 the lower teeth. beings. frequently suffer from diseases of the in the majority of cases these troubles teeth. and it is no uncommon thing for an animal to have the troublesome tooth extracted. . creeping on.

for a successful are steadiness. sobriety. man who is the sufficient He whole time. done would not be fore generally The owner seldom one-horse good The hasty or brutal will soon 70 . and a love of animals. temper.CHAPTER IV GENERAL MANAGEMENT GROOMING : — STABLING — FEEDING The a man work to only to be occupy for working his in the chief coachman the fills in the house or requisites there- odd hours by in the garden. keeps as stable.

if he has to of the dis- advantages of keeping only one servant is that on wet days.A B C OF THE HORSE 71 ruin the best-tempered horse that ever No man ate out of a manger. whilst carriage receives the first if the attention the horse or horses run a risk of catching cold and developing that bane of the stable—cracked An heels. One go out with them. it not is dries it takes longer to clean. and the paint and varnish suffer. excellent motto to be placed in every stable would be " Groom well . should be expected to look after more than two horses and a carriage. if the mud cleaned off the carriage before on.

A BC OF THE HORSE 72 and Lack often. lack a sleek coat is impossible. ? way to To probably It is — or anyrate do say one in five high an too the curry comb which so popular with the strapper. prevents the pores of the skin getting choked. is But how many good grooming. and when. but the fluid apt to con- is solidate again at the roots of the hair if it is for not removed. and the respiratory system cannot be properly Perspiration stimulated. hence the necessity men know —groom would the well be estimate. . by the aid of its sharp teeth." bound mean to Without it grooming of is of good health.














brought into use.
with which










only the vigour

applied could




favourable comparison with that shown

by the


of hissing,











speck of dust



but un-


not the case.

vigorously, brushes

functory way, the animal



way down

would be

fortunately such







and the master wonders why.




brush applied with pressure being



quite as efficacious











than a hard






work, The Practical Horse Keeper^







in stable-kept horses is














doubt that





kept renders cleanliness of the skin a






cognised that the beauty, health, and
vigour of the horse


upon the









function of the skin






very im-


just in proportion as that


will the health

activity, so



be improved.


the skin thoroughly, a brush






the best appliance


where the horses have very

thin, sensitive skins


as with


may cause

coats, as


some horses

country, a brush






must, however, be re-

garded as essential to proper manage-


that under no pretext

to be left for the night until


all his

have been thoroughly dried.
this precept



a horse



of execution


those preventing undesirable but conse- quences engendered by continued apof cold and wet to the ex- plication The tremities. affording not only a sense of comfort to the animal. dust. as a rule. be applied to the skin of nothing brush dirt is to for .A BC OF THE HORSE 76 wood sawdust a handful or two of light rubbed few minutes well into the for a hair will absorb all moisture from the most hirsute legs. better than a remove be rough suffices. horses and a good and the use of advantageously supple- . iron curry comb should never. finer-coated brush may long. coats good dandy dandriff. bristle this For horses.

he should on no account be allowed to remain undried but if for any length of time he cannot be attended to immedi- ately in a proper manner. . If the horse .ABC OF THE HORSE yy mented by the wisp and rubber. these. the two fine- are latter generally found sufficient. or or clothing and leaving on the body bandaging saddle or harness until an opportunity arrives for grooming him . indeed. he may . provided the groom efficiently. better still. . for coated horses. he may either receive a temporary wisping of the and legs. rain. or is them energetically and applies . or. some extremely thin-skinned. is wet from perspiration or heated.

to. the legs should well dried. when all the may been so treated. and especially in a cold or draughty stable bronchitis. so as to prevent what is he can be attended be first When called a chill. a blanket being thrown over the body meanwhile . and .A B C OF THE HORSE 78 be exercised for a short time. have then be has this finished. out. and when be removed from the brushed bandages legs. the body groomed. \i necessary. and then bandaged. as inflammation pleurisy. the thoroughly legs been may and these It is very dangerous to allow the skin to dry by simple evaporation. of the lungs or intestines are very often the .

a horse properly amount of requires a considerable and much and exertion skill 79 therefore necessary. while if the . and should also see that is done thoroughly. is grooms are very trustworthy. shining. is If. dirt and unsightly. it . and if against the hairs them. that owners of horses should know when their horses are groomed.A BC OF THE HORSE To groom result. A it well-groomed horse gives evidence of the fact in the clean. staring. unless time. the coat will be dull. the hand be rubbed it is not soiled by on the contrary. the horse not well-groomed. and healthy appearance of the coat. and patches of may be seen upon it.

of the hairs of the forelock When will yield the legs must be washed. tail. Some in favour of washing flannel grooms are greatly after. scurf and be observed where the saddle dirt will or harness has been tion of the . the sides and points of the hocks. as when very muddy. roots and further evidence. points while on examinaof and hips the shoulders. the animal has perspired. which sometimes happens. . it covered with a white greasy if will be and film. the mane.A BC OF THE HORSE 8o hand is pushed up through it. or with white and should be they thoroughly dried immediately wrapped in and bandages. grey-legged horses.

when the greasy or dirty mended. or both. washing had better be dispensed with. in known as ' order to avoid mud fever. if body the is wet. and then clothe and bandage.' If drying could be ensured im- mediately after harm would always be washing. — It is 8i skin is extremely this cannot be recom- much better to wisp or scrape well." F . perhaps result relied no but as this cannot . especially should this procedure be observed what are is perfect in winter. upon.A B C OF THE HORSE the body and cases — as but unless in special legs. leaving the thorough cleaning to be carried out when More circumstances favourable.

so the good horse owner nises that he who do his —the man who recog- owes a duty to the animals work for him examine those portions of which do not — should their bodies at the first glance attract . two pieces of advice When to the novice your horse has been finished off for the day.: ABC 82 OF THE HORSE Before leaving the subject of grooming. forgive it. occasionally visit the stable and pass your hand under the chest between the forelegs. and feel for hair If you you find it a second time. find it once. dismiss the man. but if of her house for dirt and dust. As a good housewife searches the corners matted with dry perspiration.

— A B C OF THE HORSE The second attention. Stabling. piece of advice occasionally run your fingers through mane the — see that and turn not knotted is it make over in order to it that the roots are not is 83 full sure of dust. place he but conformation site. It another of those hidden corners which require the master's eye to investigate. hardly power or stables. is. — the necessity and well questions and easy to hold forth on of properly constructed ventilated - as locality It is to decision keeper he be if house he in his own come within the of the occupies. the one-horse tenant If a may of man the lives be tempted .

but if he is only the tenant he generally feels that he must make the best of what the landBut everyone can have lord provides. Nothing can be worse than horse to the for be exposed to a keen wind or a crossdraught when stall. to go to the other extreme. Grooms he is are generally inclined. cessive heat is animal than owner excessive cold. find a almost worse for the place in watch which carefully the should always every stable. When .A 84 to BC OF THE HORSE spend money on it. and the should thermometer. standing in his however. Ex- and to block up every aperture. a well-regulated stable.

and lack of How any can animal.A BC OF THE HORSE the doors are thrown open 85 the first thing in the morning. for ventilation causes effect as should see draughts of the ordinary precau- are preserved. be expected to be refreshed by The horse wants pure rest? much as that. whilst all are stopped up. the nostrils are often by assailed generated by stale proper ventilation. for ing air maintenance of proper the often seen in night's young animals the that a foetid cannot I have vitiat- atmosphere . a odour strong litter. coming out of such a place. tions its The owner man. I urge this point too strongly.

one is clean. and see that its foundation to do. but is the foundation of it is the bed which reeks of ammonia. It same not the is evacuations which do so much as those of previous days. night's mischief In too many- stables the upper surface of the litter kept all right. turn It is with sufficient to get a general not the of probably. and sets up irritation Occasionally take a fork and turn over the bed. which sends up nostrils and fumes into the animal's its and eyes. and the groom seeing you do will much it once mere expectancy your renewing your investigations. disease. .BC OF THE HORSE A 86 has had. from fork is impression.

the microbe. all who people upon the doors of being are kept is 87 the and neat. right. point of wall better wide — are from a because view. stable can thus be thoroughly aired sun's rays their way . there be light. the have then a chance of finding into the little corners which are such grounds for all Light the enemy is the and therefore let nooks and happy hunting forms of of bacteria. but open always when the horses closed They do out.A B C OF THE HORSE the see that bed There are some insist of kept — back equally hygienic on so against as their stables the score doors thrown neatness. .

when the wind is in a certain direction. the made be to not all matters allow the outside just throw It is easier to used-up straw there. holes and . what it Be the system of may. but it will also be in just the position to pollute the atmosphere. to flow back into the stable. and with cleanliness naturally goes attention to of Do drainage. the owner can drainage at anyrate see that the drains are not allowed to collect that and stagnate in any may in the there be little floor. and to cause the smells arising from it.A B C OF THE HORSE 88 Cleanliness ance in any is of the utmost innport- stable. dung-heap the stable door.

is thrown down. the knowledge that the "guv'ner takes a pride in his horses " should always be behind him.A BC OF THE HORSE 89 has been passed the brush that after along the back of the horses' disinfecting fluid. of as — The much the matter of diet as a to food this realise. and however little details which make All a keen a groom may be. Feeding. what too many men They is The great importance as any. is attention human give to in being. require still. better little powder. horse requires as and of question fail an animal . things the stalls. or. these a master's eye. It is of stable management for success.

you brute up build they is strength. ! " to move Good oats not to The well-fed give capable of doing better work .A BC OF THE HORSE 90 his proportion and then they of food. They case. as be tempted to mess which is and the eat. are at all But they If of a nervous temperament can they be expected to go on with repast their whilst a man hissing is around them with a sharp curry-comb. and because yells. such not is the are as fastidious want to Some horses any man. " them is animal venture Get up. thrown into their stall does not induce an appetite. think they have done their duty. false and economy.

any human arrive. horse looks for his food at certain He knows stated times. except his manger A food. work cannot tell and man should therefore remember it Neither him. for can the horse by allowing the crav- ings of hunger to go unsatisfied. it. being when and he if as well as those times disappointed his is He stomach gets weak. is full clean and manger tempts the food is with refuse easily of from sweet appetite. spoilt a or dusty stale by - smelling and good mixing previous it meal.A BC OF THE HORSE 91 and the extra cost of the oats con- sumed The is repaid by the done. when protest. .

freely lengthy and enforced abstinence. and inclined made if harshness. as comes home very likely to is far himself if not his do so more drink He him. Horses and Stables. In his highly interesting and valuable work. he not good than is more likely allowed to a horse is permitted is to linseed will have a for are supply of the great mistake.A BC OF THE HORSE 92 Bran mashes should be given regularly once a week. very the coat or if after a thirst. at all is Some stablemen beneficial effect. Lieutenant- . injure quench to some mash fond of limiting water. to hot a into This unless the hot.

such as where the horse in a is Excepting in general the best judge.. Fitzwygram. Sir 93 quantity of water to be given at one time. is a . practice cause . is The contrary exceedingly likely otherwise called to gripes. excessively hot or exhausted.. It colic. a tendency to purgation the horse allowed to drink as It is may much safely be as he likes. or where there or is diuresis. F. the horse himself is few cases.A General says: BC OF THE HORSE "Of the Bart. a cardinal rule in stable manage- ment that horses should be watered before being fed. or has from any cause without kept been water for an undue length of time.

even though somewhat Probably the friction which place takes from return their heated. river or troughs certain that are a field handy. about same the time.A BC OF THE HORSE 94 somewhat singular may be watered immediatety that horses safety almost fact with after work. and no mischief the practice. from grooming. day. prevents the occurrence of a Many regiments water their horses on way home from their chill. There is less of chill from drinking cold water when the body is still actively warm . Probably it a is from results in if case this the further slight exercise in returning home risk prevents mischief.

A B C OF THE HORSE 95 than when the system has begun to flag." . and hence the animal chilled. and is thor- oughly tired should be made slightly tepid. the horse If. gruel the may In such cases there water be given may not be sufficient vitality to raise a large quantity of cold water to the temperature of the body may become stare. warm fagged. or a bucket of instead. bowels and his coat will may become deranged and further serious consequences may result. however. his .

for it at the would be impossible disposal subject.CHAPTER V MINOR ACCIDENTS AND AILMENTS. AND THEIR TREATMENT In chapter merely a few of the this minor accidents ailments which and occur to the horse are dealt with. for once It is lengthily deal to ill. in call not the owner to ing. for there are with horse is the best plan a veterinary the animal amateur doctor- many 96 a fair to try the space in diseases which . Whenever found to be really is to at surgeon.

expression. Bleeding {See Haemorrhage). what to refers it varicose an ignorant is as it is passes over the front of the hock. although careful cure atten- . tion of the flank will An by examina- show a hesitancy during the expulsion of each breath although with is inspiration steadiness. Broken difficulty Wind displayed is of breathing. A is performed permanent impossible.A BC OF THE HORSE to the inexperienced 97 eye present the same symptoms. although the methods of successful be treatment are bound to different. Blood Spavin. really a for — This vein.

effect. and the odour emitted is overpowering. tions followed horse are Hot fomenta- by a cooling lotion will have a soothing and beneficial Canker. — Generally caused by . should at once be called in. — The limbs of the most frequently bruised. Capped Elbow. Bruises. water frequently and is in some Feed and small quantities sound advice.ABC 98 OF THE HORSE tion to feeding will bring about alleviation of the trouble. thrush. skilled aid When suspected. due to improper stable Violent inflammation is always present. — Really an advanced stage of and is management.

given to it which are kicking frequently get their hocks capped. organs fever is avoided. Capped Hock. common the usually accompanied and cough. required.ABC the animal OF THE HORSE striking down. the lying that 99 when joint continual irritation eventually producing a tumour. chiefly a — This nasal by some Careful nursing Draughts there is must be should be Laxative food and nitrate of potass in the water . Discharge disease. Catarrh or Cold. date — Animals will I f the trouble is of recent be shown by increased heat in the part. although plenty of fresh little is from a air.

A B C OF THE HORSE loo will usually effect a cure. — Easily recognised by the swelling-up of the legs. Should the symptoms become grave then aid should be at once called Corns. Cracked Heels. the result of the They are unnatural pressure thrown upon the part by the use of the shoe. and preventing thus touching the shoe from it. The remedy is to be found in removing the pressure by paring away the horn covering the seat of the corn. is skilled in. and the fore limbs are those usually affected. — The inner quarter of the sole the seat of a corn. and amount of heat in the the neighbourhood of .

glossy and and discharge follow. when all ment consisting of powdered common Curb. it is Skilled aid should . of. red. enlargement at the back just below. the point of the hock.ABC The the heels. and of heat has disappeared. consists of fomentations of hot water and the application made of poultices parts of linseed linseed. Sickle-shaped hocks are predisposed towards curbs. Later on. or of equal and bran. be obtained. Eczema is a skin disease which often hard to cure. OF THE HORSE and skin fissures The treatment is loi hard. an oint- alum and lard should be rubbed — An in.

A B C OF THE HORSE 102 Elephantiasis. It is —A difficult disease highly dangerous to work a horse suffering from them. to cure. Flat Feet are highly objectionable as they are a sign of weakness. and v/ho re- stable from Saturday to Monday. as sudden pressure on the part affected might . That disease most frequently met with employed what in is animals slow work. vulgarly known Disease. — A permanent thicken- ing of the skin and underlying tissues. causing a permanent enlargement of the part Attacks affected. Fistulous Withers." bring as " it of main in in the is Monday Morning on.

but un- its cure up to the present seems hopeless. whilst the infectious powers of glanders are known too Human being and endangered glandered Captain "is by in " are alike presence the animal. Hayes animal well. Glanders.A B C OF THE HORSE cause it to bolt or 103 become unmanage- able. — This terrible disease is almost entirely confined to the large Scientific research has towns. the mere contact of . Glanders. some light fortunately upon its thrown ravages." of a says Vetennary Notes^ most readily communicated by in- oculation with the diseased discharge from the nostrils.

to be very careful to avoid the possibility of his sneezing • we may or coughing in one's face. by gaining entrance hair follicles. which do by using the special face-guards that are manufactured ment makers by veterinary for the persons examining protection glandered Bab^s has proved that the bacillus may instru- of horses. Hence it is advisable. when examining a suspected horse. and thus . glanders penetrate into the skin.ABC I04 OF THE HORSE whichwith any of the mucous membranes is sufficient to give rise to the disease. where into it some of the will multiply. without the aid of any existing wound. cause ulceration of the skin.

though the . tainted OF THE HORSE 105 The moral with glanders- blood has been found to more often than it mitting the disease. infected healthy animals. is fail succeeds in trans.ABC infect the animal. without contact. Inoculation obvious. of infecting the atmosphere of a stable seems to be possessed by glandered show no outward animals which symptom of the disease. This power . as well as those which have a running from the nose. into whose near vicinity they have been brought. fact it In has not infrequently happened that such horses have. . so virulently that the latter have died in a short time from glanders.

the the The pulse breathing the animal rapidly and the mucous mem- branes of the nose become filled with nodules and ulcers which run together . about 99° Fahr. . . dry and weak and hurried and painful loses condition staring . and. less fever coat is frequent more or usher in the attack. consequently.). . More or less marked a rise or 8° Fahr. a form of the disease which is of course the most easily diagnosed. Hayes says Captain persistent shivering (often of f " : fits .) in the internal temperature of the body (normal." in symptoms the of acute glanders.ABC io6 OF THE HORSE former continued Describing apparent health.

Grease. and a dis- charge of offensive matter.ABC OF THE HORSE Symptoms and discharge pus. 107 of farcy. and there is considerable swelling. at an early period of the disease serve as a warning to the amateur of the necessity of at once obtaining professional aid. It is admitted . is an aggravated form If not taken in time the disease extends above the fetlock-joints. however. with cracks and ulcers in the skin.— i:\i\?> of sore heels." shivering fits and rise of temperature should. is The disease frequently the result of overcrowding and injudicious feeding. diarrhoea and swellings of the limbs and The premonitory head may appear.

The attacks sharp. name the popular is Turpentine sudat its or remains outare short and in linseed oil is an old-fashioned and popular remedy. rolls. Fomentations and poultices should be the first treatment adopted.ABC io8 OF THE HORSM always to be the result of improper stable management. for colic. denly. and found a veterinary to be the case horses if this is . Gripes. the from a number arise The pain comes on horse paws. Some are very subject to colic. lies down. — This and may of causes. but most grooms have their own favourite medicine for the disease. stretched. strikes belly.

water will heated applied to is 130° in Fahr. will — Some- stop this. becomes necessary it is When well to call a veterinary surgeon. vessels. plugging the wound with tow. — This state may of . but failing success a styptic this Cold frequently stop bleeding only small vessels are involved. or must be used. or Hcemorrkage pressure times Bleeding.ABC OF THE HORSE 109 surgeon should be consulted as to the may probable cause. as extensive bleeding necessarily denotes injury to one of the larger ion. which be found to be indigestion. if Water continually a safe remedy.

which commences and neglected if succeeded by symptoms of high The progress of the disease is is fever. Influenza. with a shivering fit. skilled in is should at once be requisitioned. . It is by increase denoted temperature. — The remarks with regard to inflammation are especially applic- able to influenza. or by heat of the part. very rapid.A BC OF THE HORSE no course be set up in any portion of the body. any When aid if inflamma- of the internal organs suspected. it be a local tion of affection. as the progress of such diseases as inflammation of the or bowels is lungs rapid and needs prompt and skilful treatment.

and the bodily health soon is affected. Laminitis frequently leaves permanent injury to common Lungs. thing for it it being no un- to be shed. get very hammer the horse adopts a cramped attitude whilst standing. There are several excellent specifics on the market. ing the —A contagious disease caus- the hair to fall off in patches.A B C OF THE HORSE Laniinitis is chiefly confined to the The hoofs sensitive laminae. hot. leaving the skin scaly and rough. hoof. and greasy to the touch. and pain is if in tapped with a The intensified. local remedy may consist The of sulphur . — {See Inflammation.) Mange.

Thein. oil OF THE HORSE made up of sulphur and train equal quantities and applied to in the affected parts. of the right hand down and is ball The tongue and the head is is seen throat is held to which thumb then placed well the animal. Medicines. and —The most medicine giving means of a mouth on the firmly in the is form horse the drawn off-side and held there The hand. medicine by of his out held between the fingers and back is of In giving a ball the is left Administer to popular to ball.ABC 112 ointment. tongue horse's How of the then released up pass until the down the .

is In giving a drench the tongue should not be interfered with. H the horse is but is if he . Dr Fleming's "This may quiet. The operation should be performed quietly as possible. and at all refractory the aid it if 13 1 as the animal is better to obtain is of a skilled On no person. if assistant.: A B C OF THE HORSE on the gullet left side of the neck. The horse's head should be raised so that the nose is horizontal line. account should the hold on the tongue be retained animal the if struggles violently. by an a little To higher than the quote again from Practical Horse Keeper be done. as otherwise serious injury likely to result.

of the (which fluid it is gets into likely to do the if little at If any windpipe the head is . The drink is then to be given by a person standing on the right side (the assistant being in front or on the side a the of little side of the horse) the mouth being pulled out left to form a sack or funnel.114 A B C OF THE HORSE restless it is necessary to keep the head elevated by a loop of cord inserted into the mouth over the upper prong of a stable through by the it. allowing an interval now and again for the horse to swallow. into which the medicine is poured. the being passed and the handle steadily held assistant. fork jaw. a a time.

etc. eruption This is the upon same . — An the legs. believed to be one of causes of quite what of the really is A brain. Mud Fever. " Powders may be given mash little or gruel. belly. coughing will be set when the head should be up. well stirred up. A to first attack predisposes to a recurrence.A BC OF THE HORSE held too high). tight- exposure to the collar or long rays of a powerful sun contributes the appearance of the disease. nostrils should be interfered with. 115 instantly Neither the tongue nor the lowered." Megrims come on Heart disease the a in chief congestion fitting is suddenly.

tempted by continually changing the food offered. Sickness. disease is — The the back part of the foot. A cure is impossible. . warm — Careful The without being appetite should be stable stuffy. are is Fresh absolute should be The half the air. Navicular Disease. and is due the to same cause or causes. where the navicular bone The seat of this animal is to be found.ABC ii6 OF THE HORSE condition of the skin as cracked heels. Nursing during nursing ness. goes affected downhill with more difficulty than he goes uphill. battle during sick- quiet and cleanliness essentials.

. Roaring. or of a tread on the foot.ABC OF THE HORSE 117 The body should not be overloaded with heavy clothing. of some waterproof encased be When material. in they are to be applied to the feet a poultice- shoe is of advantage. It is noticeable during inspiration of breath when the horse is in motion. linseed made are Poultices bran. Quittor. It is a difficult disease to cure. meal. a — Frequently the result of puncture of the foot when shoeing. this —An disease is animal suffering from of little value. carrots or char- They should coal. turnips.

— In all cases of sprains it necessary to keep the affected part still as The preliminary possible. treatment should consist of cold-water Absolute bandages. hind tail. — Shivering. — An involuntary uplift- "a jerky manner" of one or the hind limbs during move- .A B C OF THE HORSE ii8 Sanderack. Stringhalt. rest is an essential to recovery. is as malady of the muscles of the shoulders. An incurable shown by a quivering in the region quarters and Sprains. ing in both ment. —A splitting in the wall of the hoof.



Thoroughpins are generally seen


short fleshy hocks, and are a distention


of the back parts of the hocks.

are compressible on both sides of the

hock, and are often the results of hard



an ulceration of the


causing a secretion of very offensive



on no



account be neglected.

— Appear

of the skin.




They may be removed
ligature, the


by the


hot iron



this habit,

— There




which consists of a






moving of the head from

side to side.

which contract the habit are

usually bad "doers."
" Whistlers."





an affection of the breathing organs.
constitutes unsoundness.




— Puffy

swellings in the

neighbourhood of the






who have done a




great deal

of work.


— Several kinds of worms

of the horse, and they

fest the intestines

have the



effect of




producing loss of

a voracious appetite
harsh, rough














— When








supply one.

bleeding from a








should be






loss of

blood means loss of strength.

In his

Veterinary Manual^

M.R.C.V.S., says:







pure blood
Pressure by



sent out






former, being





"If an artery has

been torn, the blood


and of a

purple colour.

the finger can often


bleeding and besides. etc. The of should always be tried application Friar's with a piece thread. etc.. purpose will free often stop the helps to clean Balsam.A BC OF THE HORSE 122 used to control bleeding. it may be catgut or silk use of cold The it water alum. same the bleeding excessive." . a fact to be remembered cases in of emergency. If the bleeding vessel can be grasped. off tied is when the wound. collodion. used the for THE END steel. is not . of tincture of styptic.

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