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**Abstract and Applied Analysis
**

Volume 2013, Article ID 203875, 6 pages

http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/203875

Research Article

The Analytical Solution of Some Fractional Ordinary

Differential Equations by the Sumudu Transform Method

Hasan Bulut,1 Haci Mehmet Baskonus,2 and Fethi Bin Muhammad Belgacem3

1

**Department of Mathematics, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey
**

Department of Computer Engineering, Tunceli University, Tunceli, Turkey

3

Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Basic Education, PAAET, Shamiya, Kuwait

2

**Correspondence should be addressed to Hasan Bulut; hbulut@firat.edu.tr
**

Received 16 March 2013; Accepted 31 July 2013

Academic Editor: Santanu Saha Ray

Copyright © 2013 Hasan Bulut et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License,

which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

We introduce the rudiments of fractional calculus and the consequent applications of the Sumudu transform on fractional

derivatives. Once this connection is firmly established in the general setting, we turn to the application of the Sumudu transform

method (STM) to some interesting nonhomogeneous fractional ordinary differential equations (FODEs). Finally, we use the

solutions to form two-dimensional (2D) graphs, by using the symbolic algebra package Mathematica Program 7.

1. Introduction

The Sumudu transform was first defined in its current

shape by Watugala as early as 1993, which he used to solve

engineering control problems. Although he might have had

ideas for it sooner than that (1989) as some conference

proceedings showed, he used it to control engineering problems [1, 2]. Later, Watugala extended in 2002 the Sumudu

transform to two variables [3]. The first applications to

differential equations and inversion formulae were done by

Weerakoon in two papers in 1994 and 1998 [4, 5]. The

Sumudu transform was also first defended by Weerakoon

against Deakin’s definition who claimed that there is no

difference between the Sumudu and the Laplace and who

reminded Weerakoon that the Sumudu transform is really the

Carson or the S-multiplied transform disguised [6, 7]. The

applications followed in three consecutive papers by Asiru

dealing with the convolution-type integral equations and the

discrete dynamic systems [8, 9]. At this point, Belgacem et

al. using previous references and connections to the Laplace

transform extended the theory and the applications of the

Sumudu transform in [10–17] to various applications. In

the meantime, subsequent to exchanges between Belgacem

and other scholars, the following papers sprang up in the

last decade [18–22]. Moreover, the Sumudu transform was

**also used to solve many ordinary differential equations with
**

integer order [23–29]. The application of STM turns out to

be pragmatic in getting analytical solution of the fractional

ordinary differential equations fast. Notably, implementations of difference methods such as in the differential transform method (DTM), the Adomian decomposition method

(ADM) [30–33], the variational iteration method (VIM)

[34–40] empowered us to achieve approximate solutions of

various ordinary differential equations. STM [41–44] which

is newly submitted to the literature is a suitable technique for

solving various kinds of ordinary differential equations with

fractional order (FODEs). In this sense, it is estimated that

this novel approach that is used to solve homogeneous and

nonhomogeneous problems will be particularly valuable as a

tool for scientists and applied mathematicians.

**2. Fundamental Properties of Fractional
**

Calculus and STM

2.1. Fundamental Facts of the Fractional Calculus. Firstly, we

mention some of the fundamental properties of the fractional

calculus. Fractional derivatives (and integrals as well) definitions may differ, but the most widely used definitions are

those of Abel-Riemann (A-R). Following the nomenclature

∞)} . { 𝑑𝑡𝑚 (5) A fundamental feature of the Caputo fractional derivative is that [17] ∞ 𝐽𝛼 [𝐶𝐷𝛼 𝑓 (𝑡)] = 𝑓 (𝑡) − ∑ 𝑓(𝑘) (0+ ) 𝑘=0 𝑡𝑘 . (1) 𝑡 1 [𝑓 (𝑡)] = ∫ (𝑡 − 𝜏)𝛼−1 𝑓 (𝜏) 𝑑𝜏. (7) Theorem 2. an integral of fractional order is defined by implementing the integration operator 𝐽𝛼 in the following manner: 𝑡 1 𝐽𝛼 [𝑓 (𝑡)] = ∫ (𝑡 − 𝜏)𝛼−1 𝑓 (𝜏) 𝑑𝜏. 0 𝑢 ∈ (−𝜏1 . ∫ { { Γ [𝑚 − 𝛼] 𝑑𝑡𝑚 0 (𝑡 − 𝜏)𝛼−𝑚+1 ={ 𝑚 {𝑑 { { 𝑑𝑡𝑚 𝑓 (𝑡) . Let us take the Laplace transform of 𝑓 (𝑡) = 𝑑𝑓(𝑡)/𝑑𝑡 as follows: 𝑛−1 𝐿 [𝐷𝛼 𝑓 (𝑡)] = 𝑠𝛼 𝐹 (𝑠) − ∑ 𝑠𝑘 [𝐷𝛼−𝑘−1 (𝑓 (𝑡))]𝑡=0 𝑘=0 (8) (13) − 1 < 𝑛 − 1 ≤ 𝛼 < 𝑛. |𝑡|/𝜏 𝑗 𝑓 (𝑡) < 𝑀𝑒 𝑖 . one knows that the Sumudu transform of the derivatives with integer order is given as follows [46–49]: 𝛼 𝑛 (14) 𝑘−1 = 𝑠 𝐹 (𝑠) − ∑ 𝑠 𝑘=0 [𝐷 𝛼−𝑘 (𝑓 (𝑡))]𝑡=0 . 𝑚 − 1 < 𝛼 < 𝑚. 𝑛 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡𝑛 𝑡=0 𝑘=0 𝑘=1 2. the Sumudu transform of 𝑓(𝑡) is defined as 𝐹 (𝑢) = 𝑆 [𝑓 (𝑡)] = ∫ 𝑓 (𝑢𝑡) 𝑒−𝑡 𝑑𝑡. 𝜏1 . 𝜏2 > 0. 𝑑𝑡2 𝑢2 𝑑𝑡 𝑡=0 𝐴 = {𝑓 (𝑡) | ∃𝑀. and −𝛼 Theorem 1. a derivative of fractional order in the A-R sense is defined by 𝐷𝛼 [𝑓 (𝑡)] 𝑓 (𝜏) 1 𝑑 𝑡 { 𝑑𝜏. 𝑑𝑡 𝑢 Proof. one can take into consideration the Sumudu transform of the RiemannLiouville fractional derivative as follows [17]: 𝑛 𝑆 [𝐷𝛼 𝑓 (𝑡)] = 𝑢−𝛼 [𝐹 (𝑢) − ∑ 𝑢𝛼−𝑘 [𝐷𝛼−𝑘 (𝑓 (𝑡))]𝑡=0 ] . When we continue in the same manner. 𝛼 = 𝑚. 2] as follows. if 𝑡 ∈ (−1) × [0. Fundamental Facts of the Sumudu Transform Method. Among these. Γ [1 + 𝑛 + 𝛼] 𝑛 Another main definition of the fractional derivative is that of Caputo [46.2. (3) 1 1 1 𝑝 = lim [− 𝑓 (0) + ( ∫ 𝑒−(𝑡/𝑢) 𝑓 (𝑡) 𝑑𝑡)] 𝑝→∞ 𝑢 𝑢 𝑢 0 When it comes to some of the fundamental properties of fractional integration and fractional differentiation. 𝛼 = 𝑚. If 𝐹(𝑢)is the Sumudu transform of 𝑓(𝑡). Γ [1 + 𝑛 − 𝛼] 𝛼 (9) ∞ 𝑑𝑓 𝑝 𝑑𝑓 𝑑𝑓 (𝑡) (𝑢𝑡) −𝑡 (𝑢𝑡) −𝑡 ]=∫ 𝑒 𝑑𝑡 = lim ∫ 𝑒 𝑑𝑡 𝑝→∞ 0 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 0 On the other hand. 𝑘! (6) 𝑑𝑓 (𝑡) 𝑑2 𝑓 (𝑡) 1 = − 𝑓 − 𝑢 ] [𝐹 (𝑢) (0) ]. Γ [𝛼] 0 𝑆[ 𝑝 1 𝑝 1 = lim [ 𝑒−(𝑡/𝑢) 𝑓 (𝑡) + 2 ∫ 𝑒−(𝑡/𝑢) 𝑓 (𝑡) 𝑑𝑡] 𝑝→∞ 𝑢 0 𝑢 0 0 < 𝛼 ≤ 1. 𝐷 𝑆[ 𝑚 − 1 < 𝛼 ≤ 𝑚.2 Abstract and Applied Analysis in [45]. Proof. (2) 𝑝 1 = lim [ 𝑒−(𝑡/𝑢) 𝑓 (𝑡) 𝑝→∞ 𝑢 0 1 1 𝑝 + ( ∫ 𝑒−(𝑡/𝑢) 𝑓 (𝑡) 𝑑𝑡)] 𝑢 𝑢 0 𝑡 > 0. Let us take the Sumudu transform [46–49] of 𝑓 (𝑡) = 𝑑𝑓(𝑡)/𝑑𝑡 as follows: where 𝑚 ∈ Z+ and 𝛼 ∈ 𝑅+ . . these have been introduced to the literature by Podlubny [46]. 𝜏2 ) . 𝑢 𝑢 Equation (10) gives us the proof of Theorem 1. we mention 𝐽𝛼 [𝑡𝑛 ] = Γ [1 + 𝑛] 𝑛+𝛼 𝑡 . we get the Sumudu transform of the second-order derivative as follows [46–49]: 𝑆[ 𝛼 𝐷 [𝑓 (𝑡)] 𝑡 𝑓(𝑚) (𝜏) 1 { { 𝑑𝜏. we get the Sumudu transform of the 𝑛-order derivative as follows: 𝑛−1 𝑑𝑛 𝑓 (𝑡) 𝑑𝑛 𝑓 (𝑡) 𝑆[ ] = 𝑢−𝑛 [𝐹 (𝑢) − ∑ 𝑢𝑘 (12) ]. Over the set of functions ∞ (10) (4) Γ [1 + 𝑛] 𝑛−𝛼 𝐷 [𝑡 ] = 𝑡 . If 𝐹(𝑢) is the Sumudu transform of 𝑓(𝑡). 47] who defined it by 𝐶 1 1 = − 𝑓 (0) + 𝐹 (𝑢) . ∫ { {Γ − 𝛼] 0 (𝑡 − 𝜏)𝛼−𝑚+1 = { [𝑚 { { 𝑑𝑚 { 𝑓 (𝑡) . (11) If we go on the same way. 𝛼 > 0. Γ [𝛼] 0 𝑑𝑓 (𝑡) 1 ] = [𝐹 (𝑢) − 𝑓 (0)] . 𝐷𝛼 is a derivative operator here. according to A-R. The Sumudu transform is defined in [1.

we get the Sumudu transform of (20) as follows: 𝜕𝑓 (𝑡) 1 = 2 [𝐹 (𝑢) − 𝑓 (0) − 𝑢 ] 𝑢 𝜕𝑡 𝑡=0 1 + [𝐹 (𝑢) − 𝑓 (0)] + 𝐹 (𝑢) + 𝑐. 𝜕𝑡𝛼 𝜕𝑡2 𝜕𝑡 being subject to the initial condition where 𝑔(𝑢) is defined by ∑𝑛𝑘=1 𝑢𝛼−𝑘 [𝐷𝛼−𝑘 (𝑈(𝑡))]𝑡=0 − 𝑢𝛼−1 (𝜕𝑈(𝑡)/𝜕𝑡)|𝑡=0 . when we substitute 1/𝑢 for 𝑠. 0 < 𝛼 ≤ 1. 𝑢−𝛼 [𝐹 (𝑢) − ∑ 𝑢𝛼−𝑘 [𝐷𝛼−𝑘 (𝑈 (𝑡))]𝑡=0 ] 𝑘=1 𝐹 (𝑢) − ∑ 𝑢 𝛼−𝑘 [𝐷 𝛼−𝑘 𝑘=1 𝑆 [𝐷𝛼 𝑈 (𝑡)] + 𝑆 [𝑈 (𝑡)] 1 2 𝑡2−𝛼 − 𝑡1−𝛼 + 𝑡2 − 𝑡] . We take into consideration a general linear ordinary differential equation with fractional order as follows: 𝜕𝛼 𝑈 (𝑡) 𝜕2 𝑈 (𝑡) 𝜕𝑈 (𝑡) (16) = + + 𝑈 (𝑡) + 𝑐. we get the Sumudu transform of fractional order of 𝑓(𝑡) as follows: 𝑛 𝑆 [𝐷𝛼 𝑓 (𝑡)] = 𝑢−𝛼 [𝐹 (𝑢) − ∑ 𝑢𝛼−𝑘 [𝐷𝛼−𝑘 (𝑓 (𝑡))]𝑡=0 ] . When we take the Sumudu transform of (16) under the terms of (12) and (15). Firstly. (18) (22) . we consider the nonhomogeneous fractional ordinary differential equation as follows [50]: 2 1 𝐷𝛼 [𝑈 (𝑡)] = −𝑈 (𝑡) + 𝑡2−𝛼 − 𝑡1−𝛼 Γ [3 − 𝛼] Γ [2 − 𝛼] (20) 𝑈 (0) = 𝑓 (0) . When we take the inverse Sumudu transform of (18) by using the inverse transform table in [11. + 𝑢𝛼 𝐹 (𝑢) + 𝑐𝑢𝛼 . Then. we have applied STM to the nonhomogeneous fractional ordinary differential equations as follows. we will obtain the analytical solutions of some of the fractional ordinary differential equations by using STM. Applications of STM to Nonhomogeneous Fractional Ordinary Differential Equations (17) In this section. 𝑆[ 𝜕2 𝑈 (𝑡) 𝜕𝑈 (𝑡) 𝜕𝛼 𝑈 (𝑡) ] = 𝑆 [ ] + 𝑆[ ] + 𝑆 [𝑈 (𝑡)] + 𝑆 [𝑐] . Γ [2 − 𝛼] 𝐹 (𝑢) 𝐷𝛼−1 [𝑈 (𝑡)] 2 + 𝐹 (𝑢) = − 𝑆 [𝑡2−𝛼 ] 𝑢𝛼 𝑢 Γ [3 − 𝛼] 𝑡=0 1 − 𝑆 [𝑡1−𝛼 ] Γ [2 − 𝛼] = 𝑆[ (𝑈 (𝑡))]𝑡=0 = 𝑢𝛼−2 [𝐹 (𝑢) − 𝑓 (0) − 𝑢 + 𝑢𝛼−1 [𝐹 (𝑢) − 𝑓 (0)] 𝜕𝑈 (𝑡) ] 𝜕𝑡 𝑡=0 + 𝑢𝛼 𝐹 (𝑢) + 𝑐𝑢𝛼 . 𝐹 (𝑢) = 2𝑢2 − 𝑢. 𝜕𝑡𝛼 𝜕𝑡2 𝜕𝑡 + 𝑡2 − 𝑡. we will introduce the improvement form of STM for solving FODEs. when we take the Sumudu transform of both sides of (20). 𝐹 (𝑢) − 𝑢𝛼−2 𝐹 (𝑢) − 𝑢𝛼−1 𝐹 (𝑢) − 𝑢𝛼 𝐹 (𝑢) = −𝑢𝛼−2 𝑓 (0) 𝑛 + ∑ 𝑢𝛼−𝑘 [𝐷𝛼−𝑘 (𝑈 (𝑡))]𝑡=0 − 𝑢𝛼−1 𝑘=1 𝛼−1 𝜕𝑈 (𝑡) 𝜕𝑡 𝑡=0 𝑈 (0) + 𝑐𝑢𝛼 . With the initial condition being 𝑛 𝑈 (0) = 0. 1 𝐹 (𝑢) = 𝛼−2 1 − 𝑢 − 𝑢𝛼−1 − 𝑢𝛼 −𝑢 × [𝑔 (𝑢) − 𝑢 𝛼−1 𝑈 (0) − 𝑢 (21) In order to solve (20) by using STM. we obtain the Sumudu transform of (16) as follows: Example 3. Γ [2 − 𝛼] 1 (1 + 𝛼 ) 𝐹 (𝑢) = 2𝑢2−𝛼 − 𝑢1−𝛼 + 2𝑢2 − 𝑢. 𝑢 (1 + 𝑢𝛼 ) 𝐹 (𝑢) = 2𝑢2 − 𝑢 + 2𝑢2+𝛼 − 𝑢1+𝛼 . 𝐹 (𝑢) − 𝑢𝛼−1 𝑓 (0) 𝐹 (𝑢) 2 + 𝐹 (𝑢) = 𝑢2−𝛼 Γ [3 − 𝛼] 𝑢𝛼 Γ [3 − 𝛼] 1 − 𝑢1−𝛼 Γ [2 − 𝛼] + 2𝑢2 − 𝑢. (19) 3. Γ [3 − 𝛼] Γ [2 − 𝛼] 2 𝑆 [𝐷𝛼 𝑈 (𝑡)] + 𝐹 (𝑢) = 𝑆 [ 𝑡2−𝛼 ] Γ [3 − 𝛼] 1 − 𝑆[ 𝑡1−𝛼 ] + 𝑆 [𝑡2 ] − 𝑆 [𝑡] . 17].Abstract and Applied Analysis 3 Therefore. 𝐹 (𝑢) = (2𝑢 − 1) 𝑢. 𝐹 (𝑢) = 𝑢𝛼−2 𝐹 (𝑢) − 𝑢𝛼−2 𝑈 (0) 𝑛 + ∑ 𝑢𝛼−𝑘 [𝐷𝛼−𝑘 (𝑈 (𝑡))]𝑡=0 − 𝑢𝛼−1 𝑘=1 𝛼−1 +𝑢 𝜕𝑈 (𝑡) 𝜕𝑡 𝑡=0 + 𝑆 [𝑡2 ] − 𝑆 [𝑡] . 𝛼−2 𝛼 𝑈 (0) + 𝑐𝑢 ] . we get the solution of (16) by using STM as follows: 1 𝑈 (𝑡) = 𝑆−1 [ 𝛼−2 1 − 𝑢 − 𝑢𝛼−1 − 𝑢𝛼 × [𝑔 (𝑢) − 𝑢𝛼−1 𝑈 (0) − 𝑢𝛼−2 𝑈 (0) + 𝑐𝑢𝛼 ] ] . 𝑢 𝑛 𝑡 > 0. (15) 𝑘=1 Now. (1 + 𝑢𝛼 ) 𝐹 (𝑢) = 𝑢 (2𝑢 − 1) + 𝑢𝛼 𝑢 (2𝑢 − 1) .

and mathematical physics. u (23) 3 2 1 0. and based on our findings such as Figures 1 and 2.5] 4 𝑆 [𝐷0. engineering fields. 4. In this paper. Secondly. fractional ordinary differential equations have been solved by using the Sumudu transform after giving the related formulae for the fractional integrals.0 2 1.0 Analytical solution by STM Figure 2: The 2D surfaces of the obtained solution by means of STM for (27) when 0 < 𝑡 < 3. we get the analytical solution of (24) by using STM as follows: 𝐹 (𝑢) = 𝑈 (𝑡) = 𝑡2 . 1. 1 + 𝑢0.5 3. we get the analytical solution of (20) by STM as follows: 6 𝑈 (𝑡) = 𝑡2 − 𝑡.0 Figure 1: The 2D surfaces of the obtained solution by means of STM for (23) when 0 < 𝑡 < 3.5 0. 51].5 ) 𝐹 (𝑢) = 2𝑢2 + 2𝑢1. The Sumudu technique can be used to solve many types such as initial-value problems and boundary-value problems in applied sciences.5 3.0 (25) 8 6 u Γ [3] 𝑆 [𝑡1. Consequently. various approaches have been performed to obtain approximate solutions of some fractional differential equations [50. 2 𝐹 (𝑢) 𝐷𝛼−1 [𝑈 (𝑡)] + 𝐹 (𝑢) − 𝑢0. 1 + 𝑢0. then the solution of (20) is in full agreement with the solution of (30) mentioned in [50]. To our knowledge.5] 𝑡 > 0.5 Example 5.5 𝑡 .5 𝑈 (𝑡)] + 𝑆 [𝑈 (𝑡)] = 𝑆 [𝑡2 ] + 1. the STM technique remains direct.5 1 + 𝑢0. 4 5 Remark 4.5 2𝑢2 + = = 2𝑢2 . the derivatives. the analytical solution of FODEs that we find in this paper has been newly submitted to the literature.5 𝑢0. 1. If we take the corresponding values for some parameters into consideration.5 𝑈 (𝑡)] + 𝑆 [𝑈 (𝑡)] = 𝑆 [𝑡2 ] + 1. Watugala.5 ] . Conclusion and Future Work Prior to this study.5 t 2. 2𝑢2 (1 + 𝑢0. Γ [2.0 (27) Remark 6. when we take the Sumudu transform of both sides of (24). 𝑢 ( 2. This technique has been investigated in terms of the double Sumudu transform in [44]. Without a doubt.5 ] .5 𝑈 (𝑡) + 𝑈 (𝑡) = 𝑡2 + Γ [3] 1. and the Sumudu transform of FODEs. we get the Sumudu transform of (24) as follows: 𝑆 [𝐷0.5 + 𝐹 (𝑢) = 2𝑢2 + 2𝑢1. Γ [2. The solution (27) obtained by using the Sumudu transform method for (24) has been checked by the Mathematica Program 7.5 ⇒ (1 + 𝑢 ) 𝐹 (𝑢) = 2𝑢 + 2𝑢 .50451𝑆 [𝑡1. K.0 2. this new approach has been implemented with success on interesting fractional ordinary differential equations. As such and pragmatically so. In order to solve (24) by using STM. we consider the nonhomogeneous fractional ordinary differential equation as follows [51]: 𝐷0.5 𝑢 𝑡=0 0.5 t Analytical solution by STM (24) With the initial condition being 𝑈 (0) = 0. robust and valuable tool for solving same fractional differential equations. The Sumudu transform method has been used for The discrete fractional calculus in [43].5 1 + 𝑢0.5 When we take the inverse Sumudu transform of (26) by using the inverse transform table in [48]. 2.5 . “Sumudu transform: a new integral transform to solve differential equations and control engineering . To our knowledge. aerospace sciences.5 = 2𝑢2 + 2𝑢1. the analytical solution that we find in this paper has been newly submitted to the literature.5 ) 2𝑢2.5 (26) 𝐹 (𝑢) ⇒ 0. nonhomogeneous References [1] G.4 Abstract and Applied Analysis When we take the inverse Sumudu transform of (22) by using the inverse transform table in [11].5 1. it enriches the library of integral transform approaches.

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