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You are on page 1of 126

Structures, Roof Top Structures &

Equipment, and Other Special Conditions

Paullus Structural Consultants

BPaullus@PaullusConsulting.com

26 February 2013

Wind Webinar #3

26 February 2013

Page 1 of 126

Other Structures, Roof-Top

Structures & Equipment, and

Other Special Conditions

Bob Paullus, P.E., S.E.

Paullus Structural Consultants

Wind Webinar #3

26 February 2013

Page 2 of 126

Outline

1. 1. Chapter 29 Other Structures (MWFRS

Directional Method)

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

h.

i.

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Conditions

Limitations

Solid Freestanding Walls or Signs

Solid Attached Signs

Design Wind Loads on Other Structures

Design Wind Loads on Rooftop Structures

and Equipment on Buildings

Parapets

Roof Overhangs

Minimum Design Wind Loadings

Page 3 of 126

Outline

1. 2. Chapter 30 Part 6 - Components &

Cladding for Building Appurtenances

and Rooftop Structures and Equipment

(Directional Procedure)

a.

b.

c.

Parapets

Roof Overhangs

Rooftop Structures and Equipment for

Buildings with h 60 ft (18.3 m)

2. 3. Examples

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1. The structure is a regular-shaped

structure as defined in Section 26.2.2.

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STRUCTURE, REGULAR-SHAPED: A

building or other structure having no

unusual geometrical irregularity in spatial

form.

Page 5 of 126

2. The structure does not have response

characteristics making it subject to acrosswind loading, vortex shedding, or instability

due to galloping or flutter; or it does not

have a site location for which channeling

effects or buffeting in the wake of upwind

obstructions warrant special consideration.

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1. This chapter DOES consider: load

magnification effect caused by gusts in

resonance with along-wind vibrations of

flexible structures.

2. This chapter DOES NOT consider:

Unusual shapes or configurations that lead

to effects listed in Section 29.1.2

Conditions.

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Page 7 of 126

3. If your structure does not fall within the

listed limitations, it should probably be the

subject of Wind Tunnel Study.

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Page 8 of 126

1. No reductions allowed for apparent

shielding by buildings, other structures, or

terrain features.

a.

b.

c.

Individual hills

Individual trees or small groves of

trees

Individual levees and similar

features.

Features in determining Exposure

Categories in Chapter 26.

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Steps

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1. Steps 1-4 are the same as in Chapters

26-30.

a. Chapter 29, like Chapters 26-30, has its

own table, Table 29.3-1, for Kh and Kz

b. Step 5: Eq. 29.3-1

qz = 0.00256KzKztKdV2 (lb/ft2)

under each section.

Wind Webinar #3

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Page 11 of 126

and Solid Freestanding Signs

1. Hollow Signs and Walls are not covered.

a. Signs which have openings that can be

pressurized

1) Boxed signs

2) Signs made from sea containers

3) Signs with large internal areas for lights

with translucent panels

Tech University by Douglas Smith, PhD

Wind Webinar #3

26 February 2013

Page 12 of 126

and Solid Freestanding Signs

3. Solid Signs can have openings up to

30% of the Gross Area.

a. Reduction factor can be applied to solid

signs with openings.

b. Reduction factor (1 - (1 - )1.5)

c. = ratio of solid area to gross area

the gross area, it is an open sign.

Proceed to Section 29.5 - Design Wind

LoadsOther Structures

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Page 13 of 126

and Solid Freestanding Signs

5. Basic Equation: (Eq. 29.4-1)

F = qhGCfAs (lb)

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height h (defined in Fig. 29.4-1) as

determined in accordance with

Section 29.3.2

and Kd in Eq 29.3-1 is the Kd of Solid

Freestanding Walls and Solid Freestanding and Attached Signs in Table

26.6-1

Page 14 of 126

and Solid Freestanding Signs

c. Cf = net force coefficient from Fig. 29.4-1

d. As = the gross area of the solid freestanding wall or freestanding solid sign, in

ft2 (m2)

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Figure 29.4-1

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Figure 29.4-1

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Figure 29.4-1

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26 February 2013

Page 18 of 126

and Solid Freestanding Signs

Load Cases to Consider

Case A Load applied to the centroid of

the area

Case B Load applied with an

eccentricity of 0.2*B (width of the wall or

sign)

Case C Stepped application of reduced

wind pressures as the distance decreases

from the windward edge.

Wind Webinar #3

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Page 19 of 126

and Solid Freestanding Signs

Case C

Reduction in loads for walls or signs with

Up to 40 % reduction

For Elevated Signs or walls: where s/h > 0.8,

force coefficients shall be multiplied by the

reduction factor (1.8 - s/h)

Accounts for reduced wind pressures

when free air flow under the wall or sign

is reduced.

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Page 20 of 126

and Solid Freestanding Signs

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a.1. Requirements to use method in Section

29.4.1

a.

b.

c.

d.

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26 February 2013

contact with the supporting wall

Edges of the sign do not extend past the

supporting wall

Use Component & Cladding Wall pressures

calculated in Chapter 30

Set the Internal Pressure Coefficient (GCpi)

equal to 0

Page 22 of 126

a. 2.

signs attached to but not in contact

with the supporting wall.

a.

b.

c.

Sign must not be more than three (3) feet

from the wall.

Edges of the sign must be at least (3) feet in

from the free edges of the supporting wall:

b.

Bottom of the supporting wall

c.

a.

Wind Webinar #3

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Page 23 of 126

Structures

Wind Webinar #3

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Page 24 of 126

Structures

Basic Equation: (Eq. 29.5-1)

F = qzGCfAf (lb) (N)

a. qz = velocity pressure evaluated at height z as

defined in Section 29.3, of the centroid of area Af

Note qz is at the centroid of the area and Kd in

Eq 29.3-1 is the Kd of the structure type in

Table 26.6-1

b. G = gust-effect factor from Section 26.9 (these

structures may often be flexible)

c. Cf = force coefficients from Figs. 29.5-1

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Page 25 of 126

Structures

d. Af = projected area normal to the wind except

where Cf is specified for the actual surface area,

in ft2 (m2)

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Figure 29.5-1

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Figure 29.5-1

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Figure 29.5-2

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Figure 29.5-2

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Figure 29.5-3

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Figure 29.5-3

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Equipment For Buildings with h 60 feet

1. No guidance is given for rooftop

2. Research in the ASCE 7 committee

suggests that it is probably acceptable to

use loads from this section for rooftop

structures on buildings > 60 feet, but this

has not been confirmed yet.

3. Equation 29.5-2 gives lateral pressure

on the rooftop structure.

Wind Webinar #3

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Page 33 of 126

Equipment For Buildings with h 60 feet

Lateral Wind force on Rooftop Structures

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26 February 2013

Fh = qh(GCr)Af (lb) (N)

(GCr) = 1.9 for rooftop structures and

equipment with Af less than (0.1Bh). (GCr)

shall be permitted to be reduced linearly

from 1.9 to 1.0 as the value of Af is

increased from (0.1Bh) to (Bh).

qh = velocity pressure evaluated at mean

roof height of the building

Page 34 of 126

Equipment For Buildings with h 60 feet

Wind Webinar #3

26 February 2013

in Eq 29.3-1 is the Kd of the building, in

Table 26.6-1, on which the rooftop

structure sits.

Af = vertical projected area of the rooftop

structure or equipment on a plane normal

to the direction of wind, in ft2 (m2)

Page 35 of 126

Equipment For Buildings with h 60 feet

Vertical Wind force on Rooftop Structures

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Fv = qh(GCr)Ar (lb) (N)

(GCr) = 1.5 for rooftop structures and

equipment with Ar less than (0.1BL). (GCr)

shall be permitted to be reduced linearly

from 1.5 to 1.0 as the value of Ar is

increased from (0.1BL) to (BL).

qh = velocity pressure evaluated at mean

roof height of the building

Page 36 of 126

Equipment For Buildings with h 60 feet

Wind Webinar #3

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Eq 29.3-1 is the Kd of the building, in Table

26.6-1, on which the rooftop structure sits.

Ar = horizontal projected area of rooftop

structure or equipment, in ft2 (m2)

Page 37 of 126

Loads for Rooftop Structures and

Equipment for Buildings with h 60 feet

Lateral C & C pressure (psf) shall be equal

to the lateral force (Lbs) calculated with

equation (29.5-2) DIVIDED BY the

RESPECTIVE WALL Surface area of the

Rooftop Structure considered.

Wind Webinar #3

26 February 2013

and outward

Page 38 of 126

Loads for Rooftop Structures and

Equipment for Buildings with h 60 feet

Vertical C & C pressure (Lbs) shall be

equal to the vertical force (Lbs) calculated

with equation (29.5-3) DIVIDED BY the

Horizontal projected area of the roof of

the Rooftop Structure considered.

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26 February 2013

considered to act in the UPWARD direction.

Page 39 of 126

Loads for Rooftop Structures and

Equipment for Buildings with h 60 feet

Comment: If the Rooftop Structure is

large (10x20 or larger), consider looking

at the downward pressures from the

building C&C loading figures and make

some judgment about downward wind

loading rooftop structures that resemble

small buildings (penthouses for instance).

Wind Webinar #3

26 February 2013

Dead and Roof Live Loads or Snow Loads.

Use appropriate load combinations.

Page 40 of 126

Other Resources

Wind Webinar #3

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Page 41 of 126

Other Resources

Prepared by: Task

Committee on WindInduced Forces of the

Petrochemical Committee

of the Enginery Division of

ASCE

Several of those on the

Task Committee are on

the ASCE 7 Wind

Subcommittee

Based on ASCE 7-05

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Section 27.4.5 for buildings of all heights

designed using the Directional Procedure

and in Section 28.4.2 for low-rise

buildings designed using the Envelope

Procedure.

Method presented is the Directional

Procedure

Page 43 of 126

Chapter 28 The Envelope Method, is

exactly the same.

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26 February 2013

determined with the Envelope Method,

rather than the velocity pressure in Chapter

27 using the Directional Method.

Page 44 of 126

MWFRS pressures due to parapets

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Page 45 of 126

Basic Equation: (Eq 27.4-4)

pp = qp(GCpn) (lb/ft2)

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26 February 2013

due to the combination of the net pressures

from the front and back parapet surfaces.

Plus (and minus) signs signify net pressure

acting toward (and away from) the front

(exterior) side of the parapet

Page 46 of 126

Wind Webinar #3

26 February 2013

the parapet

(GCpn) = combined net pressure

coefficient

= +1.5 for windward parapet

= 1.0 for leeward parapet

Page 47 of 126

FIGURE C29.7-1 Design Wind Pressures on Parapets

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Applicable to All Building Heights

Except Where the Provisions of Part 4

are used (Simplified Method for

Buildings with h 160 feet)

Page 49 of 126

Basic Equation: (Eq. 30.9-1)

p = qp((GCp) (GCpi))

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the parapet

(GCp) = external pressure coefficient given in

Fig. 30.4-1 for walls with h 60 ft (48.8 m)

Figs. 30.4-2A to 30.4-2C for flat roofs,

gable roofs, and hip roofs

Fig. 30.4-3 for stepped roofs

Page 50 of 126

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Fig. 30.4-4 for multispan gable roofs

Figs. 30.4-5A and 30-5B for monoslope

roofs

Fig. 30.4-6 for sawtooth roofs

Fig. 30.4-7 for domed roofs of all heights

Fig. 30.6-1 for walls and flat roofs with h >

60 ft (18.3 m)

Fig. 27.4-3 footnote 4 for arched roofs

Page 51 of 126

evaluating C & C pressures on parapets

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Table 26.11-1, based on the porosity of the

parapet envelope.

Windward parapet

Case B Pressures on the surfaces of the

Leeward parapet

Page 52 of 126

Specifics of Case A:

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26 February 2013

applicable positive wall pressure from Fig. 30.4-1

(h 60 ft (18.3 m)) or Fig. 30.6-1 (h > 60 ft (18.3

m)) to the windward surface of the parapet while

applying the applicable negative edge or corner

zone roof pressure from Figs. 30.4-2 (A, B or C),

30.4-3, 30.4-4, 30.4-5 (A or B), 30.4-6, 30.4-7, Fig.

27.4-3 footnote 4, or Fig. 30.6-1 (h > 60 ft (18.3

m)) as applicable to the leeward surface of the

parapet.

Page 53 of 126

Specifics of Case B:

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applicable positive wall pressure from Fig. 30.4-1

(h 60 ft (18.3 m)) or Fig. 30.6-1 (h > 60 ft (18.3

m)) to the windward surface of the parapet, and

applying the applicable negative wall pressure

from Fig. 30.4-1 (h 60 ft (18.3 m)) or Fig. 30.6-1

(h > 60 ft (18.3 m)) as applicable to the leeward

surface. Edge and corner zones shall be arranged

as shown in the applicable figures. (GCp)

Page 54 of 126

FIGURE C29.7-1 Design Wind Pressures on Parapets

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If internal pressure

is present, both

load cases should

be evaluated

under positive and

negative internal

pressure.

Page 55 of 126

Wind Loads on Parapets

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26 February 2013

see Table 1.5-1

for applicable risk category, see Figure 26.51A, B or C

Page 56 of 126

Wind Loads on Parapets

Wind directionality factor, Kd , see Section 26.6

26.8-1

Enclosure classification, see Section 26.10

Internal pressure coefficient, (GCpi), see Section

26.11 and Table 26.11-1

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Page 57 of 126

Wind Loads on Parapets

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exposure coefficient, Kh, at top of the

parapet see Table 30.3-1

the top of the parapet using Eq. 30.3-1

Page 58 of 126

Wind Loads on Parapets

coefficient for wall and roof surfaces

adjacent to parapet, (GCp)

Walls with h 60 ft., see Fig. 30.4-1

Flat, gable and hip roofs, see Figs. 30.4-2A to

30.4-2C

Stepped roofs, see Fig. 30.4-3

Multispan gable roofs, see Fig. 30.4-4

Monoslope roofs, see Figs. 30.4-5A and 30.4-5B

Sawtooth roofs, see Fig. 30.4-6

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Page 59 of 126

Wind Loads on Parapets

Step 6: (Continued)

Domed roofs of all heights, see Fig. 30.4-7

Walls and flat roofs with h > 60 ft., see Fig. 30.6-1

Arched roofs, see footnote 4 of Fig. 27.4-3

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30.9-1 on windward and leeward face of

parapet, considering two load cases (Case A

and Case B) as shown in Fig. 30.9-1.

Page 60 of 126

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Page 61 of 126

Figure 30.6-1

parapets

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Similar note on other figures

Page 62 of 126

Wind loads on roof overhangs are

specified in Section 27.4.4 for buildings of

all heights designed using the Directional

Procedure and in Section 28.4.3 for lowrise buildings designed using the Envelope

Procedure.

Present Direction Method in Section 27.4.1

Uses different factor for Cp

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Page 63 of 126

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bottom surface of windward roof

overhangs shall be determined using Cp =

0.8 and combined with the top surface

pressures determined using Fig. 27.4-1.

Page 64 of 126

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Page 65 of 126

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pressure and negative internal pressure

Page 66 of 126

Overhangs

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Applicable to All Building Heights

Except Where the Provisions of Part 4

are used (Simplified Method for

Buildings with h 160 feet)

Page 67 of 126

Overhangs

Basic Equation: (Eq. 30.10-1)

p = qh((GCp) (GCpi))

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evaluated at mean roof height h using

exposure defined in Section 26.7.3

(GCp) = external pressure coefficients for

overhangs given in Figs. 30.4-2A to 30.4-2C

(flat roofs, gable roofs, and hip roofs),

including contributions from top and bottom

surfaces of overhang.

Page 68 of 126

Overhangs

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covering on the underside of the roof

overhang is the same as the external

pressure coefficient on the adjacent wall

surface, adjusted for effective wind area,

determined from Figure 30.4-1 or Figure

30.6-1 as applicable

given in Table 26.11-1

Page 69 of 126

Figure 30.4-2A

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Page 70 of 126

Figure 30.4-1

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Page 71 of 126

Wind Loads on Roof Overhangs

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see Table 1.5-1

for applicable risk category, see Figure 26.51A, B or C

Page 72 of 126

Wind Loads on Roof Overhangs

Wind directionality factor, Kd , see Section 26.6

26.8-1

Enclosure classification, see Section 26.10

Internal pressure coefficient, (GCpi), see Section

26.11 and Table 26.11-1

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Page 73 of 126

Wind Loads on Roof Overhangs

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exposure coefficient, Kh, see Table 30.3-1

mean roof height h using Eq. 30.3-1

Page 74 of 126

Wind Loads on Roof Overhangs

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coefficient, (GCp), using Figs. 30.4-2A

through C for flat, gabled and hip roofs.

30.10-1. Refer to Figure 30.10-1

Page 75 of 126

Figure 30.10-1

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Page 76 of 126

Loading (MWFRS)

shall be not less than 16 lb/ft2 (0.77 kN/m2)

multiplied by the area Af.

16 psf is 10 psf from ASCE 7-05 times 1.6 to bring

Apply to the full projected area in each

orthogonal direction.

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Page 77 of 126

Loads on many shapes in industrial plants

Tanks, Silos, Pipe racks, Partially Clad

Frames, etc.

See ASCE report: Wind Loads for

Petrochemical and Other Industrial

Facilities

Wind Loads on roof mounted Solar

Photovoltaic Arrays

See new SEOC Guide

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Page 78 of 126

Other Ressources

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Page 79 of 126

Example

Office Complex

Location: Wichita, KS

Freestanding Sign

3-Story Office

5-foot tall parapet

Roof Top Unit

Well Pump & Maintenance Building

Roof Overhang

Chemical Storage Silo

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Page 80 of 126

Example

Site Parameters Common to All Examples

Location: N 37.7500, W 97.1683

Section 26.7.3 (Open Farmland)

Table 1.5-1

Fig. 26.5-1A

http://www.atcouncil.org/windspeed/index.php

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Section 26.8

Page 81 of 126

Example

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Page 82 of 126

Example-Freestanding Sign

Solid Billboard Sign at Ground Level

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Reference Figure 29.4-1 (MWFRS)

s=10

B=30

h=10

Kh = 0.85 (Table 29.3-1)

Kd = 0.85 (Solid Freestanding Walls & Signs)(Table 26.6-1)

qh = 0.00256 KzKztKdV2 (psf)

qh = 0.00256(0.85)(1.00)(0.85)(115)2 = 24.46 psf

B/s = 30/10 = 3.0

s/h = 10/10 = 1.0

Page 83 of 126

Example-Freestanding Sign

Applies to Cases A & B

For B/s = 2: Cf = 1.40

For B/s = 4: Cf = 1.35

Interpolating for B/s 3.0, Cf = 1.375

G = 0.85 (Section 26.9 Rigid Structure)

F = qhGCfAs (Lb) (Eq 29.4-1)

F = (24.46 psf)(0.85)(1.375)As = 28.59 psf*As

As = Af = 30x10 = 300 ft2

28.59 psf*As > 16 psf * Af (Section 29.8 Min. Load)

F = 28.59 psf(300 ft2) = 8577 Lbs

For CASE A, Load is applied at the plan C.L. and at

(s/2)+(0.05h) = 5.5 above base

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Page 84 of 126

Example-Freestanding Sign

See Cross-Section View, Figure 29.4-1

For CASE B, Load is applied @ 5.5 above base and at 0.2B

offset, either side of plan C.L.

0.2B = 0.2(30) = 6.0 either side of plan C.L.

Check to see if CASE C must be considered

Note 3, Figure 29.4-1

If B/s 2.0, CASE C must be considered

B/s = 30/10 = 3.0 > 2.0, therefore consider CASE C

Enter Figure 29.4-1 for Cf, under CASE C

0-s (0-10):

Cf = 2.60

s-2s (10-20): Cf = 1.70

2s-3s (10-30): Cf = 1.15

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Page 85 of 126

Example-Freestanding Sign

For CASE C, where s/h > 0.8, Cf may be multiplied by the

reduction factor (1.8 s/h)

s/h = 1.0 > 0.8

(1.8 s/h) = (1.8 1.0) = 0.8

F = qhGCfAs (Lb) (Eq 29.4-1)

F1 = (24.46psf)(0.85)(2.60)(0.8)(10x10) = 4324 Lbs

F2 = (24.46psf)(0.85)(1.70)(0.8)(10x10) = 2828 Lbs

F3 = (24.46psf)(0.85)(1.15)(0.8)(10x10) = 1913 Lbs

Apply F1, F2, and F3 at plan C.L. of each plan length, s,

from each end of sign. See Figure.

Apply F1, F2 and F3 at 5.5 above base of each plan

length, s

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Page 86 of 126

Example-Freestanding Sign

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Page 87 of 126

Example-Parapet (MWFRS)

Parapet (MWFRS) (Section 29.6)

Office Building

L = 200 ft., B = 100 ft.

Roof Height: h = 40 ft.

Parapet Height: hp = 45 ft.

Roof Slope, Flat: 0.25:12

Ridge parallel to 200 side

Exposure Category: C

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directional procedure for MWFRS Parapet load

determination.

Page 88 of 126

Example-Parapet (MWFRS)

pp = qp(GCpn) (psf)

qp = 0.00256KhKztKdV2 (psf) (Eq 27.3-1)

Kh @ hp = 45, Kh = 1.065

Kzt = 1.00 (for complex)

Kd = 0.85 (Building MWFRS)(Table 26.6-1)

V = 115 mph (for complex)

qp = 0.00256(1.065)(1.00)(0.85)(115)2 = 30.65 psf

GCpn = +1.5 for windward parapet (Section 27.4.5)

GCpn = -1.0 for leeward parapet (Section 27.4.5)

Windward Parapet

pp = (30.65 psf)(1.5) = 45.98 psf acting toward building

Leeward Parapet

pp = (30.65 psf)(-1.0) = -30.65 psf acting away from

building

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Page 89 of 126

Example-Parapet (C & C)

Parapet (C & C Loads) (Section 30.9)

from parapet MWFRS, above

p = qp((GCp) (GCpi)) (Eq 30.9-1)

Parapet can be pressurized along with building

See Figure

GCpi = 0.18 (Enclosed Building Table 26.11-1)

Wind Webinar #3

26 February 2013

Page 90 of 126

Example-Parapet (C & C)

Wind Webinar #3

26 February 2013

Page 91 of 126

Example-Parapet (C & C)

Wind Webinar #3

26 February 2013

Determine Effective Wind Area of Studs

Greater of Tributary Area or Effective Width

Effective Wind Area Definition (Section 26.2)

Greater of 16/12 = 1.33 or

Length/3 = 5/3 = 1.67 (governs)

Effective Wind Area: l2/3 = 52/3 = 8.33 ft2

If Effective Wind Area > 700 ft2, use MFWRS loads

Determine which figure to reference from Table 30.9-1,

Step 6

Figure 30.4-1 for wall pressures, h 60 ft.

Page 92 of 126

Example-Parapet (C & C)

Figure 30.4-2A for roof loads, h 60 ft. and gable roofs

7

Lesser of 10% of B = 0.10(100) = 10 and 0.4h =

0.4(40) = 16

10 governs

Not less than the greater of 4% of B = 0.04(100) = 4

or 3

a = 10

Entering Figure 30.4-1 for pressure coefficients on

exterior surfaces of the parapets:

Zone 4 Positive Pressure: GCp = 1.0

Zone 5 Positive Pressure: GCp = 1.0

Wind Webinar #3

26 February 2013

Page 93 of 126

Example-Parapet (C & C)

Zone 4 Negative Pressure: GCp = -1.1

Zone 5 Negative Pressure: GCp = -1.4

Note 5 says that values of GCp may be reduced

by 10% when 10

Zone 5 Positive Pressure: GCp = (0.9)1.0 = 0.9 Zone 4

Negative Pressure: GCp = (0.9)-1.1 = -1.0

Zone 5 Negative Pressure: GCp = (0.9)-1.4 = -1.26

Entering Figure 30.4-2A for pressure coefficients on

interior (roof side) surfaces of parapet:

Effective Wind Area: A= 52/3 = 8.33 ft2

a = 10 ft. as in Figure 30.4-1

Zone 1, 2, and 3 Positive Pressure: GCp = 0.3

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26 February 2013

Page 94 of 126

Example-Parapet (C & C)

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26 February 2013

Zone 2 Negative Pressure: GCp = -1.8

Zone 3 Negative Pressure: GCp = -2.8

Note 5: If a parapet equal to or higher than 3 ft

(0.9m) is provided around the perimeter of the

roof with 7

, the negative values of GCp in

Zone 3 shall be equal to those for Zone 2 and

positive values of GCp in Zones 2 and 3 shall be

set equal to those for wall Zones 4 and 5

respectively in Figure 30.4-1.

Parapet height hp = 5 > 3

Zone 3 Negative GCp is Not Applicable

Zone 2 and Zone 3 Positive Pressure GCp are

those of Wall Zone 4 and Zone 5, respectively.

Page 95 of 126

Example-Parapet (C & C)

Wind Webinar #3

26 February 2013

windward and leeward faces of parapet, considering two

load cases (CASE A and CASE B) as shown in Figure 30.9-1

Note: As wind direction changes, each parapet with shift

from a windward parapet to a leeward parapet.

CASE A Windward Parapet

Exterior Face Wall Studs

p = qp((GCp) (GCpi)) (Eq 30.9-1)

With Positive Internal Pressure

Zone 4 = Zone 5

P = (30.65 psf)((0.9)-(0.18)) = 22.06 psf

With Negative Internal Pressure

Zone 4 = Zone 5

p = (30.65 psf)((0.9)-(-0.18)) = 33.10 psf

Page 96 of 126

Example-Parapet (C & C)

Apply to Tributary Area, not Effective Wind Area

33.10 psf(1.33) = 44.12 plf

Interior Face (roof side) Parapet Studs

p = qp((GCp) (GCpi)) (Eq 30.9-1)

With Positive Internal Pressure

Zone 2 (Zone 3 also treated as Zone 2)

p = (30.65 psf)((-1.8)-(0.18)) = -60.69 psf

With Negative Internal Pressure

Zone 2 (Zone 3 also treated as Zone 2)

p = (30.65 psf)((-1.8)-(-0.18)) = -40.65 psf

Apply to Tributary Area, not Effective Wind Area

-60.69 psf(1.33) = -80.72 plf

Wind Webinar #3

26 February 2013

Page 97 of 126

Example-Parapet (C & C)

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26 February 2013

Interior Face Parapet Studs (load toward parapet)

p = qp((GCp) (GCpi)) (Eq 30.9-1)

With Positive Internal Pressure

Substitute Zone 4 and Zone 5 pressures for roof

Zone 2 and Zone 3 pressures, respectively. Zone

4 = Zone 5

P = (30.65 psf)((0.9)-(0.18)) = 22.06 psf

With Negative Internal Pressure

Zone 4 = Zone 5

p = (30.65 psf)((0.9)-(-0.18)) = 33.10 psf

Apply to Tributary Area, not Effective Wind Area

33.10 psf(1.33) = 44.12 plf

Page 98 of 126

Example-Parapet (C & C)

Wind Webinar #3

26 February 2013

p = qp((GCp) (GCpi)) (Eq 30.9-1)

With Positive Internal Pressure

Zone 4 pressure

p = (30.65 psf)((-1.0)-(0.18)) = -36.17 psf

Zone 5 pressure

p = (30.65 psf)((-1.26)-(0.18)) = -44.14 psf

With Negative Internal Pressure

Zone 4 pressure

p = (30.65 psf)((-1.0)-(-0.18)) = -25.13 psf

Zone 5 pressure

p = (30.65 psf)((-1.26)-(-0.18)) = -33.10 psf

Page 99 of 126

Example-Parapet (C & C)

Apply to Tributary Area, not Effective Wind Area

Zone 4

-36.17 psf(1.33) = -48.11 plf

Zone 5

-44.14 psf(1.33) = -58.71 plf

Summary

Exterior Wall Studs extended past roof into parapet:

Zone 4: 44.12 plf (toward building)

Zone 4: -48.11 plf (away from building)

Zone 5 is anything within 10ft of the corner

Zone 5: 44.12 plf (toward building)

Zone 5: -58.71 plf (away from building)

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Example-Parapet (C & C)

Wind Webinar #3

26 February 2013

Zone 4: 44.13 plf (toward parapet)

Zone 4: -80.72 plf (away from parapet)

Zone 5 is anything within 10ft of the corner

Zone 5: 44.13 plf (toward parapet)

Zone 5: -80.92 plf (away from parapet)

Rooftop Equipment for Buildings (MWFRS)

(Section 29.5.1)

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Plan Dimensions: 10 wide x 20 long

RTU Height: 4 over 1 tall curb

Projected Height: 4+1=5

Lateral Force: Fh = qh(GCr)Af (Lb) (Eq 29.5-2)

Vertical Force: Fv = qh(GCr)Ar (Lb) (Eq 29.5-3)

qh calculated at mean roof height of building

Kh @ h = 40, Kh = 1.04 (Table 29.3-1)

Use Kd for building NOT Kd for rectangular Other Structures

Wind Webinar #3

26 February 2013

Other parameters as previously defined for building

qh = 0.00256(1.04)(1.00)(0.85)(115)2 = 29.93 psf

HORIZONTAL WIND FORCE

Check projected area of side compared with least

projected area of building

B*h = 100(40) = 8000 ft2

Af (max) = 20(5) = 100 ft2

Af <0.1Bh: 100 ft2 < 800 ft2

GCr = 1.9

Fh = (29.93 psf)(1.9)(Af) = 56.87 psf(Af) < 16 psf(Af)

Minimum Load from Section 29.8

Fh = (29.93 psf)(1.9)(100 ft2) = 5687Lbs(Eq 29.5-2)

Perpendicular to long side

Fh = (29.93 psf)(1.9)(50 ft2) = 2843 Lbs (Eq 29.5-2)

Parallel to long side

Horizontal wind forces applied to geometric center of

vertical projected plane of unit

VERTICAL WIND FORCE

Check projected area of roof compared with that of

building

B*L = 100(200) = 20,000 ft2

Ar = 20(10) = 200 ft2

Ar <0.1BL: 200 ft2 < 2,000 ft2

GCr = 1.5

Fv = (29.93 psf)(1.5)(200 ft2) = 8979Lbs(Eq 29.5-2)

Wind Webinar #3

26 February 2013

Vertical Up

Vertical wind forces applied to geometric center of

horizontal projected plane of unit

Note: The UPLIFT pressure on the top of the rooftop

equipment acts SIMULTANEOUSLY with either the Lateral

pressure parallel to or perpendicular to the long edge of the

rooftop equipment or structure.

The same procedure is used for a roof-mounted penthouse.

Wind Webinar #3

26 February 2013

Rooftop Equipment for Buildings (C&C)

(Section 30.11)

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26 February 2013

wall components for a penthouse

Lateral C & C pressures

Fh = 5687 Lbs (from previous)

C & C Lateral Loads: Fh/Af = 5687 Lbs/100 ft2 = 56.87 psf

Load is applied toward or away from unit on all sides

C & C Vertical Loads: Fv/Ar = 8979 Lbs/200 ft2 = 44.90 psf

Load is applied only in the Upward direction, away from

the top of the unit

Wind Webinar #3

26 February 2013

If the unit is large (over 200 ft2), consider a minimum

downward wind load.

C & C Loading from Figure 30.4-2A

GCp = 0.2 (downward component)

Fv = qhGCp = (29.93psf)(0.2) = 6 psf

For higher wind loads and low snow loads,

particularly less than 10 psf, this may produce a

controlling load combination

Roof Overhang (MWFRS) (Section 29.7)

Equipment Building

L = 60 ft., B = 30 ft.

Eave Height: 10 ft.

Overhang Width: 3 ft.

Roof Slope: 4.375:12 ( = 20

)

Ridge parallel to 60 side

Exposure Category: C

Average Building Height: h = 13.28 < 15

Wind Webinar #3

26 February 2013

directional procedure for MWFRS Roof Overhang

load determination.

Page 108 of 126

Use Cp = 0.8 in Eq 27.4-1 for determining roof and wall

loads over and adjacent to roof overhang

p = qGCp-qi(GCpi) (psf) (Eq 27.4-1)

G = 0.85 (rigid structure) (Section 26.9)

Kzt = 1.00 (for complex)

Kd = 0.85 (Building MWFRS)(Table 26.6-1)

V = 115 mph (for complex)

Kz @ z = 10 for soffit, Kz = 0.85 (Table 27.3-1)

qz = 0.00256KzKztKdV2 (psf) (Eq 27.3-1)

qz = 0.00256(0.85)(1.00)(0.85)(115)2 = 24.46 psf

GCpi = 0.18 (Enclosed building)(Figure 26.11-1)

Transverse Wind Loading governs, by Inspection

Wind Webinar #3

26 February 2013

Pressure on underside of roof overhang

p = (24.46 psf)(0.85)(0.8) (24.46 psf)(0.18)

p = 12.23 psf (positive internal pressure)

p = (24.46 psf)(0.85)(0.8) (24.46 psf)(-0.18)

p = 21.04 psf (negative internal pressure)

Enter Figure 27.4-1 for pressures on windward roof

h/L = 13.28/60 = 0.22 < 0.25

Cp = 0.2 (Condition 1)

Cp = -0.3 (Condition 2)

Condition 1

p = (24.46 psf)(0.85)(0.2) (24.46 psf)(0.18)

p = 0.24 psf (positive internal pressure)

p = (24.46 psf)(0.85)(0.2) (24.46 psf)(-0.18)

p = 8.56 psf (negative internal pressure)

Wind Webinar #3

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Wind Webinar #3

26 February 2013

Condition 2

p = (24.46 psf)(0.85)(-0.3) (24.46 psf)(0.18)

p = -10.64 psf (positive internal pressure)

p = (24.46 psf)(0.85)(-0.3) (24.46 psf)(-0.18)

p = -1.83 psf (negative internal pressure)

Combine Top & Bottom Pressures with Same Internal

Pressure Conditions

Note: signs indicate pressure toward or away

from surface

Change signs so (+) is up, globally

Change signs so (-) is down, globally

Wind Webinar #3

26 February 2013

povh = 12.23 psf - 0.24 psf = 11.99 psf

povh = 12.23 psf + 10.64 psf = 22.87 psf

overall povh is upward

Negative Internal Pressure

povh = 21.04 psf 8.56 psf = 12.48 psf

povh = 21.04 psf + 1.83 psf = 22.87 psf

overall povh is upward

Note: Net effect of internal pressures is zero so

that the total uplift on the overhang is the same.

Wind Webinar #3

26 February 2013

calculated the same way, but uses the negative

pressure on the wall immediately adjacent to

the overhang for downward pressures on soffit.

By inspection, total force on windward

overhang will control.

Example-Roof Overhang

Wind Webinar #3

26 February 2013

Roof Overhang (C & C) (Section 30.10)

Wind Webinar #3

26 February 2013

Equipment Building

Unless otherwise listed, parameters are

identical to those for the MWFRS calculations

Determine C & C loads for overhangs of roof

trusses, spaced at 2-0 o.c.

p = qh[(GCp) (GCpi)] psf (Eq 30.10-1)

Kd = 0.85 (Building C&C) (Table 26.6-1)

All other parameters for qh are same as for

MFWRS

qh = 0.00256(0.85)(1.00)(0.85)(115)2 = 24.46 psf

Enter Figure 30.4-2B for Roof Overhang C & C coefficients

Determine Effective Wind Area of Studs

Greater of Tributary Area or Effective Width

Effective Wind Area Definition (Section 26.2)

Greater of 2.0 or (governs)

Length/3 = 3/3 = 1.00

Effective Wind Area: 3x2 = 6.00 ft2

If Effective Wind Area > 700 ft2, use MFWRS loads

Determine a distance (Figure 30.4-1 and 30.4-2A)

Lesser of 10% of B = 0.10(30) = 3 and 0.4h =

0.4(13.28) = 5.31

3 governs

Wind Webinar #3

26 February 2013

Not less than the greater of 4% of B = 0.04(30) = 1.2

or 3 (3 controls)

a = 3 (equal to width of overhang; therefore, Zone 1

pressures are not applicable to any part of the

overhang)

Zone 2: GCp = -2.2

p = (24.46 psf)[(-2.2) (0.18)] = -58.21 psf

with positive internal building pressure

p = (24.46 psf)[(-2.2) (-0.18)] = -49.41 psf

with negative internal building pressure

Zone 3: GCp = -3.7

p = (24.46 psf)[(-3.7) (0.18)] = -94.90 psf

with positive internal building pressure

Wind Webinar #3

26 February 2013

Wind Webinar #3

26 February 2013

with negative internal building pressure

For the overhang portion of the truss:

Tributary Width = 2

Upward force on the entire truss end is:

Zone 2: (-58.21 psf)(2) = -116.42 plf

(upward)

Zone 3: (-94.90 psf)(2) = -189.90 plf

(upward)

These are NOT the loads on the soffit material .

Wind Webinar #3

26 February 2013

covering on the underside of the roof overhang (soffit) is the

same as the external pressure coefficient on the adjacent

wall surface, determined from Figure 30.4-1 or Figure 30.61, as applicable.

Use of the GCp with negative internal pressure yields the

greatest upward load on the material on the underside of

the overhang on the windward wall.

Use of the GCp with positive internal pressure yields the

greatest downward load on the material on the

underside of the overhang on the leeward wall.

For this building, assuming effective wind area is the

same as for the truss overhang:

Wind Webinar #3

26 February 2013

Zone 4 and Zone 5: GCp = +1.0

p = (24.46 psf)[(1.0) (-0.18)] = 28.86 psf

acting upward

Leeward Wall Soffit Material (Figure 30.4-1)

Zone 4: GCp = -1.1

p = (24.46 psf)[(-1.1) (0.18)] = -31.31 psf

(acting downward)

Zone 5: GCp = -1.4

p = (24.46 psf)[(-1.4) (0.18)] = -38.65 psf

(acting downward)

Chemical Silo (Other Structure MWFRS)

(Section 29.5)

Wind Webinar #3

26 February 2013

Welded Steel Tank: smooth sides, no ladder

Roof Slope: 1:12 (conical)

Maximum rise: 2.5 inches (consider

contribution to wind load, negligible)

Unless otherwise listed, parameters for

calculation of qz are identical to those for the

MWFRS calculations for equipment building.

F = qzGCfAf Lbs (Eq 29.5-1)

Wind Webinar #3

26 February 2013

qz = 0.00256KzKztKdV2 (psf)

Kz = 0.90 (Building C&C) (Table 29.3-1)

Kd = 0.95 (Circular Tanks) (Table 26.6-1)

G = 0.85 (Rigid Structure) (Section 26.9)

qz = 0.00256(0.90)(1.00)(0.95)(115)2 = 28.95 psf

Go to Table 29.5-1

D/ qz = 5/Sqrt(28.95psf) = 0.93 < 2.5

Go to bottom row

h/D = 20/5 = 4.0

Must interpolate between h/D=1.0 and h/D= 7.0

Cf = 0.75

F = (28.95 psf)(0.85)(0.75) Af = (18.45 psf)Af

F = (18.45 psf)Af < (16psf)Af

Wind Webinar #3

26 February 2013

Af = 5x20 = 100 ft2

F = (18.45 psf)(100 ft2) = 1845 Lbs

This is conservative, OR calculate F for increase in

pressure as height increases

q15 = 0.00256(0.85)(1.00)(0.95)1152 = 27.34 psf

q(15-20)= 0.00253(0.90)(1.00)(0.95) (115)2 = 28.95 psf

For 0-15: D/ qz = 5/Sqrt(27.34psf) = 0.96 < 2.5

Cf = 0.75

F0-15 = (27.34 psf)(0.85)(0.75)Af = 17.43 psf Af > 16 psf Af

F0-15 = (17.43 psf)(5)(15) = 1307 Lbs.

F15-20 = (18.45 psf)(5)(5) = 461 Lbs.

Total F on Silo: 1307 Lbs + 461 Lbs = 1768 Lbs

Wind Webinar #3

26 February 2013

Conservative OTM: (1845 Lbs)(10) = 18,450 ft-lbs

More Detailed OTM: (1307 Lbs)(15/2)+(461

Lbs)(15+5/2) = 17,870 ft-lbs

The taller the structure is, the more important it is to

use the stepped wind force approach.

Wind Webinar #3

26 February 2013

Questions

Wind Webinar #3

26 February 2013

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