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WIND WEBINAR SERIES #3:

ASCE 7 10 Wind Loads for Signs, Other


Structures, Roof Top Structures &
Equipment, and Other Special Conditions

Robert Paullus, P.E., S.E., SECB


Paullus Structural Consultants
BPaullus@PaullusConsulting.com

26 February 2013
Wind Webinar #3
26 February 2013

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Wind Loads for Solid Signs,


Other Structures, Roof-Top
Structures & Equipment, and
Other Special Conditions
Bob Paullus, P.E., S.E.
Paullus Structural Consultants

Wind Webinar #3
26 February 2013

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Outline
1. 1. Chapter 29 Other Structures (MWFRS
Directional Method)
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.

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Conditions
Limitations
Solid Freestanding Walls or Signs
Solid Attached Signs
Design Wind Loads on Other Structures
Design Wind Loads on Rooftop Structures
and Equipment on Buildings
Parapets
Roof Overhangs
Minimum Design Wind Loadings
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Outline
1. 2. Chapter 30 Part 6 - Components &
Cladding for Building Appurtenances
and Rooftop Structures and Equipment
(Directional Procedure)
a.
b.
c.

Parapets
Roof Overhangs
Rooftop Structures and Equipment for
Buildings with h 60 ft (18.3 m)

2. 3. Examples

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Section 29.1.2 - Conditions


1. The structure is a regular-shaped
structure as defined in Section 26.2.2.

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Section 26.2.2 - BUILDING OR OTHER


STRUCTURE, REGULAR-SHAPED: A
building or other structure having no
unusual geometrical irregularity in spatial
form.

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Section 29.1.2 - Conditions


2. The structure does not have response
characteristics making it subject to acrosswind loading, vortex shedding, or instability
due to galloping or flutter; or it does not
have a site location for which channeling
effects or buffeting in the wake of upwind
obstructions warrant special consideration.

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Section 29.1.3 Limitations


1. This chapter DOES consider: load
magnification effect caused by gusts in
resonance with along-wind vibrations of
flexible structures.
2. This chapter DOES NOT consider:
Unusual shapes or configurations that lead
to effects listed in Section 29.1.2
Conditions.

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Section 29.1.3 Limitations


3. If your structure does not fall within the
listed limitations, it should probably be the
subject of Wind Tunnel Study.

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Section 29.1.4 Shielding


1. No reductions allowed for apparent
shielding by buildings, other structures, or
terrain features.
a.
b.
c.

Individual hills
Individual trees or small groves of
trees
Individual levees and similar
features.

2. Reductions are afforded for Terrain


Features in determining Exposure
Categories in Chapter 26.
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Steps

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Steps to Determine Wind Loads


1. Steps 1-4 are the same as in Chapters
26-30.
a. Chapter 29, like Chapters 26-30, has its
own table, Table 29.3-1, for Kh and Kz
b. Step 5: Eq. 29.3-1
qz = 0.00256KzKztKdV2 (lb/ft2)

2. Be careful to use qz or qh, as directed


under each section.

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Section 29.4.1 Solid Freestanding Walls


and Solid Freestanding Signs
1. Hollow Signs and Walls are not covered.
a. Signs which have openings that can be
pressurized
1) Boxed signs
2) Signs made from sea containers
3) Signs with large internal areas for lights
with translucent panels

2. Research is being conducted at Texas


Tech University by Douglas Smith, PhD

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Section 29.4.1 Solid Freestanding Walls


and Solid Freestanding Signs
3. Solid Signs can have openings up to
30% of the Gross Area.
a. Reduction factor can be applied to solid
signs with openings.
b. Reduction factor (1 - (1 - )1.5)
c. = ratio of solid area to gross area

4. If the area of openings exceeds 30% of


the gross area, it is an open sign.
Proceed to Section 29.5 - Design Wind

LoadsOther Structures

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Section 29.4.1 Solid Freestanding Walls


and Solid Freestanding Signs
5. Basic Equation: (Eq. 29.4-1)
F = qhGCfAs (lb)

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a. qh = the velocity pressure evaluated at


height h (defined in Fig. 29.4-1) as
determined in accordance with
Section 29.3.2

h = top of the wall or sign

Note: qh is at the top of the sign or wall


and Kd in Eq 29.3-1 is the Kd of Solid
Freestanding Walls and Solid Freestanding and Attached Signs in Table
26.6-1
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Section 29.4.1 Solid Freestanding Walls


and Solid Freestanding Signs

b. G = gust-effect factor from Section 26.9


c. Cf = net force coefficient from Fig. 29.4-1
d. As = the gross area of the solid freestanding wall or freestanding solid sign, in
ft2 (m2)

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Figure 29.4-1

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Figure 29.4-1

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Figure 29.4-1

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Section 29.4.1 Solid Freestanding Walls


and Solid Freestanding Signs
Load Cases to Consider
Case A Load applied to the centroid of
the area
Case B Load applied with an
eccentricity of 0.2*B (width of the wall or
sign)
Case C Stepped application of reduced
wind pressures as the distance decreases
from the windward edge.

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Section 29.4.1 Solid Freestanding Walls


and Solid Freestanding Signs

Case C
Reduction in loads for walls or signs with

returns at the ends


Up to 40 % reduction
For Elevated Signs or walls: where s/h > 0.8,
force coefficients shall be multiplied by the
reduction factor (1.8 - s/h)
Accounts for reduced wind pressures
when free air flow under the wall or sign
is reduced.

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Section 29.4.1 Solid Freestanding Walls


and Solid Freestanding Signs

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Section 29.4.1 2 - Solid Attached Signs


a.1. Requirements to use method in Section
29.4.1
a.

b.

c.

d.

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The plane of the sign is parallel to and in


contact with the supporting wall
Edges of the sign do not extend past the
supporting wall
Use Component & Cladding Wall pressures
calculated in Chapter 30
Set the Internal Pressure Coefficient (GCpi)
equal to 0

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Section 29.4.1 2 - Solid Attached Signs


a. 2.

Procedure can also be used for


signs attached to but not in contact
with the supporting wall.
a.
b.

c.

Sign must be parallel to the supporting wall.


Sign must not be more than three (3) feet
from the wall.
Edges of the sign must be at least (3) feet in
from the free edges of the supporting wall:
b.

Top of the supporting wall.


Bottom of the supporting wall

c.

Side Edges of the supporting wall

a.

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Section 29.5: Design Wind LoadsOther


Structures

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Section 29.5: Design Wind LoadsOther


Structures
Basic Equation: (Eq. 29.5-1)
F = qzGCfAf (lb) (N)
a. qz = velocity pressure evaluated at height z as
defined in Section 29.3, of the centroid of area Af
Note qz is at the centroid of the area and Kd in
Eq 29.3-1 is the Kd of the structure type in
Table 26.6-1
b. G = gust-effect factor from Section 26.9 (these
structures may often be flexible)
c. Cf = force coefficients from Figs. 29.5-1

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Section 29.5: Design Wind LoadsOther


Structures
d. Af = projected area normal to the wind except
where Cf is specified for the actual surface area,
in ft2 (m2)

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Figure 29.5-1

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Figure 29.5-1

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Figure 29.5-2

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Figure 29.5-2

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Figure 29.5-3

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Figure 29.5-3

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Section 29.5-1 Rooftop Structures and


Equipment For Buildings with h 60 feet
1. No guidance is given for rooftop

structures on buildings > 60 feet.


2. Research in the ASCE 7 committee
suggests that it is probably acceptable to
use loads from this section for rooftop
structures on buildings > 60 feet, but this
has not been confirmed yet.
3. Equation 29.5-2 gives lateral pressure
on the rooftop structure.
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Section 29.5-1 Rooftop Structures and


Equipment For Buildings with h 60 feet
Lateral Wind force on Rooftop Structures

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Basic Equation: (Eq 29.5-2)


Fh = qh(GCr)Af (lb) (N)
(GCr) = 1.9 for rooftop structures and
equipment with Af less than (0.1Bh). (GCr)
shall be permitted to be reduced linearly
from 1.9 to 1.0 as the value of Af is
increased from (0.1Bh) to (Bh).
qh = velocity pressure evaluated at mean
roof height of the building

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Section 29.5-1 Rooftop Structures and


Equipment For Buildings with h 60 feet

Lateral Wind force on Rooftop Structures

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Note, qh is at the mean roof height and Kd


in Eq 29.3-1 is the Kd of the building, in
Table 26.6-1, on which the rooftop
structure sits.
Af = vertical projected area of the rooftop
structure or equipment on a plane normal
to the direction of wind, in ft2 (m2)

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Section 29.5-1 Rooftop Structures and


Equipment For Buildings with h 60 feet
Vertical Wind force on Rooftop Structures

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Basic Equation: (Eq 29.5-3)


Fv = qh(GCr)Ar (lb) (N)
(GCr) = 1.5 for rooftop structures and
equipment with Ar less than (0.1BL). (GCr)
shall be permitted to be reduced linearly
from 1.5 to 1.0 as the value of Ar is
increased from (0.1BL) to (BL).
qh = velocity pressure evaluated at mean
roof height of the building

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Section 29.5-1 Rooftop Structures and


Equipment For Buildings with h 60 feet

Vertical Wind force on Rooftop Structures

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Note qh is at the mean roof height and Kd in


Eq 29.3-1 is the Kd of the building, in Table
26.6-1, on which the rooftop structure sits.
Ar = horizontal projected area of rooftop
structure or equipment, in ft2 (m2)

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Section 30.11 Component & Cladding


Loads for Rooftop Structures and
Equipment for Buildings with h 60 feet
Lateral C & C pressure (psf) shall be equal
to the lateral force (Lbs) calculated with
equation (29.5-2) DIVIDED BY the
RESPECTIVE WALL Surface area of the
Rooftop Structure considered.

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Forces (psf) shall be considered to act inward


and outward

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Section 30.11 Component & Cladding


Loads for Rooftop Structures and
Equipment for Buildings with h 60 feet
Vertical C & C pressure (Lbs) shall be
equal to the vertical force (Lbs) calculated
with equation (29.5-3) DIVIDED BY the
Horizontal projected area of the roof of
the Rooftop Structure considered.

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The pressures are ONLY required to be


considered to act in the UPWARD direction.

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Section 30.11 Component & Cladding


Loads for Rooftop Structures and
Equipment for Buildings with h 60 feet
Comment: If the Rooftop Structure is
large (10x20 or larger), consider looking
at the downward pressures from the
building C&C loading figures and make
some judgment about downward wind
loading rooftop structures that resemble
small buildings (penthouses for instance).

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Vertical Wind Load would act in addition to


Dead and Roof Live Loads or Snow Loads.
Use appropriate load combinations.
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Other Resources

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Other Resources
Prepared by: Task
Committee on WindInduced Forces of the
Petrochemical Committee
of the Enginery Division of
ASCE
Several of those on the
Task Committee are on
the ASCE 7 Wind
Subcommittee
Based on ASCE 7-05

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Section 29.6 Parapets (MWFRS)

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Wind loads on parapets are specified in


Section 27.4.5 for buildings of all heights
designed using the Directional Procedure
and in Section 28.4.2 for low-rise
buildings designed using the Envelope
Procedure.
Method presented is the Directional
Procedure

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Section 29.6 Parapets (MWFRS)


Chapter 28 The Envelope Method, is
exactly the same.

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Chapter 28 uses the velocity pressure


determined with the Envelope Method,
rather than the velocity pressure in Chapter
27 using the Directional Method.

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Section 27.4.5 - Parapets


MWFRS pressures due to parapets

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Rigid or Flexible Buildings

Applies to Flat, Gable, or Hip Roofs

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Section 27.4.5 Parapets (MWFRS)


Basic Equation: (Eq 27.4-4)
pp = qp(GCpn) (lb/ft2)

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pp = combined net pressure on the parapet


due to the combination of the net pressures
from the front and back parapet surfaces.
Plus (and minus) signs signify net pressure
acting toward (and away from) the front
(exterior) side of the parapet

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Section 27.4.5 Parapets (MWFRS)

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qp = velocity pressure evaluated at the top of


the parapet
(GCpn) = combined net pressure
coefficient
= +1.5 for windward parapet
= 1.0 for leeward parapet

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Section 27.4.5 Parapets (MWFRS)


FIGURE C29.7-1 Design Wind Pressures on Parapets

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Section 30.9 C & C Loading on Parapets

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Applicable to All Building Types


Applicable to All Building Heights
Except Where the Provisions of Part 4
are used (Simplified Method for
Buildings with h 160 feet)

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Section 30.9 C & C Loading on Parapets


Basic Equation: (Eq. 30.9-1)
p = qp((GCp) (GCpi))

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qp = velocity pressure evaluated at the top of


the parapet
(GCp) = external pressure coefficient given in
Fig. 30.4-1 for walls with h 60 ft (48.8 m)
Figs. 30.4-2A to 30.4-2C for flat roofs,
gable roofs, and hip roofs
Fig. 30.4-3 for stepped roofs

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Section 30.9 C & C Loading on Parapets

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(GCp) = external pressure coefficient given in


Fig. 30.4-4 for multispan gable roofs
Figs. 30.4-5A and 30-5B for monoslope
roofs
Fig. 30.4-6 for sawtooth roofs
Fig. 30.4-7 for domed roofs of all heights
Fig. 30.6-1 for walls and flat roofs with h >
60 ft (18.3 m)
Fig. 27.4-3 footnote 4 for arched roofs

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Section 30.9 C & C Loading on Parapets

Consider Two (2) Load Cases when


evaluating C & C pressures on parapets

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(GCpi) = internal pressure coefficient from


Table 26.11-1, based on the porosity of the
parapet envelope.

Case A Pressures on the surfaces of the


Windward parapet
Case B Pressures on the surfaces of the
Leeward parapet

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Section 30.9 C & C Loading on Parapets


Specifics of Case A:

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Windward Parapet shall consist of applying the


applicable positive wall pressure from Fig. 30.4-1
(h 60 ft (18.3 m)) or Fig. 30.6-1 (h > 60 ft (18.3
m)) to the windward surface of the parapet while
applying the applicable negative edge or corner
zone roof pressure from Figs. 30.4-2 (A, B or C),
30.4-3, 30.4-4, 30.4-5 (A or B), 30.4-6, 30.4-7, Fig.
27.4-3 footnote 4, or Fig. 30.6-1 (h > 60 ft (18.3
m)) as applicable to the leeward surface of the
parapet.

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Section 30.9 C & C Loading on Parapets


Specifics of Case B:

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Leeward Parapet shall consist of applying the


applicable positive wall pressure from Fig. 30.4-1
(h 60 ft (18.3 m)) or Fig. 30.6-1 (h > 60 ft (18.3
m)) to the windward surface of the parapet, and
applying the applicable negative wall pressure
from Fig. 30.4-1 (h 60 ft (18.3 m)) or Fig. 30.6-1
(h > 60 ft (18.3 m)) as applicable to the leeward
surface. Edge and corner zones shall be arranged
as shown in the applicable figures. (GCp)

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Section 30.9 C & C Loading on Parapets


FIGURE C29.7-1 Design Wind Pressures on Parapets

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If internal pressure
is present, both
load cases should
be evaluated
under positive and
negative internal
pressure.

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Table 30.9-1 Steps to Determine C&C


Wind Loads on Parapets

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Step 1: Determine risk category of building,


see Table 1.5-1

Step 2: Determine the basic wind speed, V,


for applicable risk category, see Figure 26.51A, B or C

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Table 30.9-1 Steps to Determine C&C


Wind Loads on Parapets

Step 3: Determine wind load parameters:


Wind directionality factor, Kd , see Section 26.6

and Table 26.6-1

Use Kd for Buildings C&C (0.85)

Exposure category B, C or D, see Section 26.7

Topographic factor, Kzt, see Section 26.8 and Fig.

26.8-1
Enclosure classification, see Section 26.10
Internal pressure coefficient, (GCpi), see Section
26.11 and Table 26.11-1

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Open, Partially Enclosed, or Enclosed (parapet or bldg)

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Table 30.9-1 Steps to Determine C&C


Wind Loads on Parapets

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Step 4: Determine velocity pressure


exposure coefficient, Kh, at top of the
parapet see Table 30.3-1

Step 5: Determine velocity pressure, qp, at


the top of the parapet using Eq. 30.3-1

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Table 30.9-1 Steps to Determine C&C


Wind Loads on Parapets

Step 6: Determine external pressure


coefficient for wall and roof surfaces
adjacent to parapet, (GCp)
Walls with h 60 ft., see Fig. 30.4-1
Flat, gable and hip roofs, see Figs. 30.4-2A to

30.4-2C
Stepped roofs, see Fig. 30.4-3
Multispan gable roofs, see Fig. 30.4-4
Monoslope roofs, see Figs. 30.4-5A and 30.4-5B
Sawtooth roofs, see Fig. 30.4-6

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Table 30.9-1 Steps to Determine C&C


Wind Loads on Parapets

Step 6: (Continued)
Domed roofs of all heights, see Fig. 30.4-7
Walls and flat roofs with h > 60 ft., see Fig. 30.6-1
Arched roofs, see footnote 4 of Fig. 27.4-3

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Step 7: Calculate wind pressure, p, using Eq.


30.9-1 on windward and leeward face of
parapet, considering two load cases (Case A
and Case B) as shown in Fig. 30.9-1.

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Section 30.9 C & C Loading on Parapets

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Figure 30.6-1

Note 7 defines parapets > 3 feet as tall


parapets

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Reduced corner pressures on parapet


Similar note on other figures

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Section 29.7 Roof Overhangs (MWFRS)


Wind loads on roof overhangs are
specified in Section 27.4.4 for buildings of
all heights designed using the Directional
Procedure and in Section 28.4.3 for lowrise buildings designed using the Envelope
Procedure.
Present Direction Method in Section 27.4.1

Envelope Method in Section 28.3.1 is similar


Uses different factor for Cp

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Section 27.4 Roof Overhangs (MWFRS)

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The positive external pressure on the


bottom surface of windward roof
overhangs shall be determined using Cp =
0.8 and combined with the top surface
pressures determined using Fig. 27.4-1.

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Section 27.4 Roof Overhangs (MWFRS)

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Section 27.4 Roof Overhangs (MWFRS)

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From Figure 27.6-3

Must consider cases with positive internal


pressure and negative internal pressure

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Section 30.10 C & C Loading on Roof


Overhangs

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Applicable to All Building Types


Applicable to All Building Heights
Except Where the Provisions of Part 4
are used (Simplified Method for
Buildings with h 160 feet)

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Section 30.10 C & C Loading on Roof


Overhangs
Basic Equation: (Eq. 30.10-1)
p = qh((GCp) (GCpi))

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qh = velocity pressure from Section 30.3.2


evaluated at mean roof height h using
exposure defined in Section 26.7.3
(GCp) = external pressure coefficients for
overhangs given in Figs. 30.4-2A to 30.4-2C
(flat roofs, gable roofs, and hip roofs),
including contributions from top and bottom
surfaces of overhang.

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Section 30.10 C & C Loading on Roof


Overhangs

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The external pressure coefficient for the


covering on the underside of the roof
overhang is the same as the external
pressure coefficient on the adjacent wall
surface, adjusted for effective wind area,
determined from Figure 30.4-1 or Figure
30.6-1 as applicable

(GCpi) = internal pressure coefficient


given in Table 26.11-1

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Figure 30.4-2A

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Figure 30.4-1

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Table 30.10-1 Steps to Determine C&C


Wind Loads on Roof Overhangs

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Step 1: Determine risk category of building,


see Table 1.5-1

Step 2: Determine the basic wind speed, V,


for applicable risk category, see Figure 26.51A, B or C

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Table 30.10-1 Steps to Determine C&C


Wind Loads on Roof Overhangs

Step 3: Determine wind load parameters:


Wind directionality factor, Kd , see Section 26.6

and Table 26.6-1

Use Kd for Buildings C&C (0.85)

Exposure category B, C or D, see Section 26.7

Topographic factor, Kzt, see Section 26.8 and Fig.

26.8-1
Enclosure classification, see Section 26.10
Internal pressure coefficient, (GCpi), see Section
26.11 and Table 26.11-1

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Open, Partially Enclosed, or Enclosed (overhang or bldg)

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Table 30.10-1 Steps to Determine C&C


Wind Loads on Roof Overhangs

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Step 4: Determine velocity pressure


exposure coefficient, Kh, see Table 30.3-1

Step 5: Determine velocity pressure, qh, at


mean roof height h using Eq. 30.3-1

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Table 30.10-1 Steps to Determine C&C


Wind Loads on Roof Overhangs

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Step 6: Determine external pressure


coefficient, (GCp), using Figs. 30.4-2A
through C for flat, gabled and hip roofs.

Step 7: Calculate wind pressure, p, using Eq.


30.10-1. Refer to Figure 30.10-1

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Figure 30.10-1

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Section 29.8 Minimum Design Wind


Loading (MWFRS)

The design wind force for other structures


shall be not less than 16 lb/ft2 (0.77 kN/m2)
multiplied by the area Af.
16 psf is 10 psf from ASCE 7-05 times 1.6 to bring

the load to a strength level load.


Apply to the full projected area in each
orthogonal direction.

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Material in Chapters 29 Not Covered


Loads on many shapes in industrial plants
Tanks, Silos, Pipe racks, Partially Clad
Frames, etc.
See ASCE report: Wind Loads for
Petrochemical and Other Industrial
Facilities
Wind Loads on roof mounted Solar
Photovoltaic Arrays
See new SEOC Guide

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Other Ressources

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Example
Office Complex
Location: Wichita, KS
Freestanding Sign
3-Story Office
5-foot tall parapet
Roof Top Unit
Well Pump & Maintenance Building
Roof Overhang
Chemical Storage Silo
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Example
Site Parameters Common to All Examples

Exposure (Terrain Roughness): C


Location: N 37.7500, W 97.1683
Section 26.7.3 (Open Farmland)

Risk Category II Structures

Table 1.5-1

Wind Velocity: 115 mph


Fig. 26.5-1A
http://www.atcouncil.org/windspeed/index.php

Topographic Factor, Kzt: 1.00

Wind Webinar #3
26 February 2013

Section 26.8

All Loads are Calculated to LRFD Levels


Page 81 of 126

Example

Wind Webinar #3
26 February 2013

Page 82 of 126

Example-Freestanding Sign
Solid Billboard Sign at Ground Level

Wind Webinar #3
26 February 2013

Dimensions: 30 Wide x 10 High


Reference Figure 29.4-1 (MWFRS)
s=10
B=30
h=10
Kh = 0.85 (Table 29.3-1)
Kd = 0.85 (Solid Freestanding Walls & Signs)(Table 26.6-1)
qh = 0.00256 KzKztKdV2 (psf)
qh = 0.00256(0.85)(1.00)(0.85)(115)2 = 24.46 psf
B/s = 30/10 = 3.0
s/h = 10/10 = 1.0

Page 83 of 126

Example-Freestanding Sign

Enter Figure 29.4-1 for Cf


Applies to Cases A & B
For B/s = 2: Cf = 1.40
For B/s = 4: Cf = 1.35
Interpolating for B/s 3.0, Cf = 1.375
G = 0.85 (Section 26.9 Rigid Structure)
F = qhGCfAs (Lb) (Eq 29.4-1)
F = (24.46 psf)(0.85)(1.375)As = 28.59 psf*As
As = Af = 30x10 = 300 ft2
28.59 psf*As > 16 psf * Af (Section 29.8 Min. Load)
F = 28.59 psf(300 ft2) = 8577 Lbs
For CASE A, Load is applied at the plan C.L. and at
(s/2)+(0.05h) = 5.5 above base

Wind Webinar #3
26 February 2013

Page 84 of 126

Example-Freestanding Sign
See Cross-Section View, Figure 29.4-1
For CASE B, Load is applied @ 5.5 above base and at 0.2B
offset, either side of plan C.L.
0.2B = 0.2(30) = 6.0 either side of plan C.L.
Check to see if CASE C must be considered
Note 3, Figure 29.4-1
If B/s 2.0, CASE C must be considered
B/s = 30/10 = 3.0 > 2.0, therefore consider CASE C
Enter Figure 29.4-1 for Cf, under CASE C
0-s (0-10):
Cf = 2.60
s-2s (10-20): Cf = 1.70
2s-3s (10-30): Cf = 1.15

Wind Webinar #3
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Page 85 of 126

Example-Freestanding Sign
For CASE C, where s/h > 0.8, Cf may be multiplied by the
reduction factor (1.8 s/h)
s/h = 1.0 > 0.8
(1.8 s/h) = (1.8 1.0) = 0.8
F = qhGCfAs (Lb) (Eq 29.4-1)
F1 = (24.46psf)(0.85)(2.60)(0.8)(10x10) = 4324 Lbs
F2 = (24.46psf)(0.85)(1.70)(0.8)(10x10) = 2828 Lbs
F3 = (24.46psf)(0.85)(1.15)(0.8)(10x10) = 1913 Lbs
Apply F1, F2, and F3 at plan C.L. of each plan length, s,
from each end of sign. See Figure.
Apply F1, F2 and F3 at 5.5 above base of each plan
length, s

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Page 86 of 126

Example-Freestanding Sign

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Page 87 of 126

Example-Parapet (MWFRS)
Parapet (MWFRS) (Section 29.6)
Office Building
L = 200 ft., B = 100 ft.
Roof Height: h = 40 ft.
Parapet Height: hp = 45 ft.
Roof Slope, Flat: 0.25:12
Ridge parallel to 200 side
Exposure Category: C

Wind Webinar #3
26 February 2013

Section 29.6 references Section 27.4.5 for


directional procedure for MWFRS Parapet load
determination.

Page 88 of 126

Example-Parapet (MWFRS)
pp = qp(GCpn) (psf)
qp = 0.00256KhKztKdV2 (psf) (Eq 27.3-1)
Kh @ hp = 45, Kh = 1.065
Kzt = 1.00 (for complex)
Kd = 0.85 (Building MWFRS)(Table 26.6-1)
V = 115 mph (for complex)
qp = 0.00256(1.065)(1.00)(0.85)(115)2 = 30.65 psf
GCpn = +1.5 for windward parapet (Section 27.4.5)
GCpn = -1.0 for leeward parapet (Section 27.4.5)
Windward Parapet
pp = (30.65 psf)(1.5) = 45.98 psf acting toward building
Leeward Parapet
pp = (30.65 psf)(-1.0) = -30.65 psf acting away from
building

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26 February 2013

Page 89 of 126

Example-Parapet (C & C)
Parapet (C & C Loads) (Section 30.9)

Office Building same as previous

qp = 0.00256(1.065)(1.00)(0.85)(115)2 = 30.65 psf


from parapet MWFRS, above
p = qp((GCp) (GCpi)) (Eq 30.9-1)
Parapet can be pressurized along with building
See Figure
GCpi = 0.18 (Enclosed Building Table 26.11-1)

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Page 90 of 126

Example-Parapet (C & C)

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Page 91 of 126

Example-Parapet (C & C)

Wind Webinar #3
26 February 2013

Studs @ 16 o.c. (both faces)


Determine Effective Wind Area of Studs
Greater of Tributary Area or Effective Width
Effective Wind Area Definition (Section 26.2)
Greater of 16/12 = 1.33 or
Length/3 = 5/3 = 1.67 (governs)
Effective Wind Area: l2/3 = 52/3 = 8.33 ft2
If Effective Wind Area > 700 ft2, use MFWRS loads
Determine which figure to reference from Table 30.9-1,
Step 6
Figure 30.4-1 for wall pressures, h 60 ft.

Page 92 of 126

Example-Parapet (C & C)
Figure 30.4-2A for roof loads, h 60 ft. and gable roofs
7

Determine a distance (Figure 30.4-1 and 30.4-2A)


Lesser of 10% of B = 0.10(100) = 10 and 0.4h =
0.4(40) = 16
10 governs
Not less than the greater of 4% of B = 0.04(100) = 4
or 3
a = 10
Entering Figure 30.4-1 for pressure coefficients on
exterior surfaces of the parapets:
Zone 4 Positive Pressure: GCp = 1.0
Zone 5 Positive Pressure: GCp = 1.0

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Page 93 of 126

Example-Parapet (C & C)
Zone 4 Negative Pressure: GCp = -1.1
Zone 5 Negative Pressure: GCp = -1.4
Note 5 says that values of GCp may be reduced
by 10% when 10

Zone 4 Positive Pressure: GCp = (0.9)1.0 = 0.9


Zone 5 Positive Pressure: GCp = (0.9)1.0 = 0.9 Zone 4
Negative Pressure: GCp = (0.9)-1.1 = -1.0
Zone 5 Negative Pressure: GCp = (0.9)-1.4 = -1.26
Entering Figure 30.4-2A for pressure coefficients on
interior (roof side) surfaces of parapet:
Effective Wind Area: A= 52/3 = 8.33 ft2
a = 10 ft. as in Figure 30.4-1
Zone 1, 2, and 3 Positive Pressure: GCp = 0.3

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Page 94 of 126

Example-Parapet (C & C)

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Zone 1 Negative Pressure: GCp = -1.0


Zone 2 Negative Pressure: GCp = -1.8
Zone 3 Negative Pressure: GCp = -2.8
Note 5: If a parapet equal to or higher than 3 ft
(0.9m) is provided around the perimeter of the
roof with 7
, the negative values of GCp in
Zone 3 shall be equal to those for Zone 2 and
positive values of GCp in Zones 2 and 3 shall be
set equal to those for wall Zones 4 and 5
respectively in Figure 30.4-1.
Parapet height hp = 5 > 3
Zone 3 Negative GCp is Not Applicable
Zone 2 and Zone 3 Positive Pressure GCp are
those of Wall Zone 4 and Zone 5, respectively.

Page 95 of 126

Example-Parapet (C & C)

Wind Webinar #3
26 February 2013

Step 7: Calculate wind pressure, p using Eq 30.9-1 on


windward and leeward faces of parapet, considering two
load cases (CASE A and CASE B) as shown in Figure 30.9-1
Note: As wind direction changes, each parapet with shift
from a windward parapet to a leeward parapet.
CASE A Windward Parapet
Exterior Face Wall Studs
p = qp((GCp) (GCpi)) (Eq 30.9-1)
With Positive Internal Pressure
Zone 4 = Zone 5
P = (30.65 psf)((0.9)-(0.18)) = 22.06 psf
With Negative Internal Pressure
Zone 4 = Zone 5
p = (30.65 psf)((0.9)-(-0.18)) = 33.10 psf

Page 96 of 126

Example-Parapet (C & C)
Apply to Tributary Area, not Effective Wind Area
33.10 psf(1.33) = 44.12 plf
Interior Face (roof side) Parapet Studs
p = qp((GCp) (GCpi)) (Eq 30.9-1)
With Positive Internal Pressure
Zone 2 (Zone 3 also treated as Zone 2)
p = (30.65 psf)((-1.8)-(0.18)) = -60.69 psf
With Negative Internal Pressure
Zone 2 (Zone 3 also treated as Zone 2)
p = (30.65 psf)((-1.8)-(-0.18)) = -40.65 psf
Apply to Tributary Area, not Effective Wind Area
-60.69 psf(1.33) = -80.72 plf

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Page 97 of 126

Example-Parapet (C & C)

Wind Webinar #3
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CASE B Leeward Parapet


Interior Face Parapet Studs (load toward parapet)
p = qp((GCp) (GCpi)) (Eq 30.9-1)
With Positive Internal Pressure
Substitute Zone 4 and Zone 5 pressures for roof
Zone 2 and Zone 3 pressures, respectively. Zone
4 = Zone 5
P = (30.65 psf)((0.9)-(0.18)) = 22.06 psf
With Negative Internal Pressure
Zone 4 = Zone 5
p = (30.65 psf)((0.9)-(-0.18)) = 33.10 psf
Apply to Tributary Area, not Effective Wind Area
33.10 psf(1.33) = 44.12 plf

Page 98 of 126

Example-Parapet (C & C)

Wind Webinar #3
26 February 2013

Exterior Face Wall Studs (load away from parapet)


p = qp((GCp) (GCpi)) (Eq 30.9-1)
With Positive Internal Pressure
Zone 4 pressure
p = (30.65 psf)((-1.0)-(0.18)) = -36.17 psf
Zone 5 pressure
p = (30.65 psf)((-1.26)-(0.18)) = -44.14 psf
With Negative Internal Pressure
Zone 4 pressure
p = (30.65 psf)((-1.0)-(-0.18)) = -25.13 psf
Zone 5 pressure
p = (30.65 psf)((-1.26)-(-0.18)) = -33.10 psf

Page 99 of 126

Example-Parapet (C & C)
Apply to Tributary Area, not Effective Wind Area
Zone 4
-36.17 psf(1.33) = -48.11 plf
Zone 5
-44.14 psf(1.33) = -58.71 plf
Summary
Exterior Wall Studs extended past roof into parapet:
Zone 4: 44.12 plf (toward building)
Zone 4: -48.11 plf (away from building)
Zone 5 is anything within 10ft of the corner
Zone 5: 44.12 plf (toward building)
Zone 5: -58.71 plf (away from building)

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Page 100 of 126

Example-Parapet (C & C)

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Interior (roof side) Parapet Studs


Zone 4: 44.13 plf (toward parapet)
Zone 4: -80.72 plf (away from parapet)
Zone 5 is anything within 10ft of the corner
Zone 5: 44.13 plf (toward parapet)
Zone 5: -80.92 plf (away from parapet)

Page 101 of 126

Example-Rooftop Equip. (MWFRS)


Rooftop Equipment for Buildings (MWFRS)
(Section 29.5.1)

Wind Webinar #3
26 February 2013

Office Building same as previous


Plan Dimensions: 10 wide x 20 long
RTU Height: 4 over 1 tall curb
Projected Height: 4+1=5
Lateral Force: Fh = qh(GCr)Af (Lb) (Eq 29.5-2)
Vertical Force: Fv = qh(GCr)Ar (Lb) (Eq 29.5-3)
qh calculated at mean roof height of building
Kh @ h = 40, Kh = 1.04 (Table 29.3-1)
Use Kd for building NOT Kd for rectangular Other Structures

Page 102 of 126

Example-Rooftop Equip. (MWFRS)

Wind Webinar #3
26 February 2013

Kd = 0.85 (Table 26.6-1)


Other parameters as previously defined for building
qh = 0.00256(1.04)(1.00)(0.85)(115)2 = 29.93 psf
HORIZONTAL WIND FORCE
Check projected area of side compared with least
projected area of building
B*h = 100(40) = 8000 ft2
Af (max) = 20(5) = 100 ft2
Af <0.1Bh: 100 ft2 < 800 ft2
GCr = 1.9
Fh = (29.93 psf)(1.9)(Af) = 56.87 psf(Af) < 16 psf(Af)
Minimum Load from Section 29.8
Fh = (29.93 psf)(1.9)(100 ft2) = 5687Lbs(Eq 29.5-2)

Page 103 of 126

Example-Rooftop Equip. (MWFRS)


Perpendicular to long side
Fh = (29.93 psf)(1.9)(50 ft2) = 2843 Lbs (Eq 29.5-2)
Parallel to long side
Horizontal wind forces applied to geometric center of
vertical projected plane of unit
VERTICAL WIND FORCE
Check projected area of roof compared with that of
building
B*L = 100(200) = 20,000 ft2
Ar = 20(10) = 200 ft2
Ar <0.1BL: 200 ft2 < 2,000 ft2
GCr = 1.5
Fv = (29.93 psf)(1.5)(200 ft2) = 8979Lbs(Eq 29.5-2)

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Page 104 of 126

Example-Rooftop Equip. (MWFRS)


Vertical Up
Vertical wind forces applied to geometric center of
horizontal projected plane of unit
Note: The UPLIFT pressure on the top of the rooftop
equipment acts SIMULTANEOUSLY with either the Lateral
pressure parallel to or perpendicular to the long edge of the
rooftop equipment or structure.
The same procedure is used for a roof-mounted penthouse.

Wind Webinar #3
26 February 2013

Page 105 of 126

Example-Rooftop Equip. (C & C)


Rooftop Equipment for Buildings (C&C)
(Section 30.11)

Wind Webinar #3
26 February 2013

Loads for Designing the Equipment cabinet enclosure or the


wall components for a penthouse
Lateral C & C pressures
Fh = 5687 Lbs (from previous)
C & C Lateral Loads: Fh/Af = 5687 Lbs/100 ft2 = 56.87 psf
Load is applied toward or away from unit on all sides
C & C Vertical Loads: Fv/Ar = 8979 Lbs/200 ft2 = 44.90 psf
Load is applied only in the Upward direction, away from
the top of the unit

Page 106 of 126

Example-Rooftop Equip. (C & C)

Wind Webinar #3
26 February 2013

Personal Recommendation (Not in the Standard)


If the unit is large (over 200 ft2), consider a minimum
downward wind load.
C & C Loading from Figure 30.4-2A
GCp = 0.2 (downward component)
Fv = qhGCp = (29.93psf)(0.2) = 6 psf
For higher wind loads and low snow loads,
particularly less than 10 psf, this may produce a
controlling load combination

Page 107 of 126

Example-Roof Overhang (MWFRS)


Roof Overhang (MWFRS) (Section 29.7)
Equipment Building
L = 60 ft., B = 30 ft.
Eave Height: 10 ft.
Overhang Width: 3 ft.
Roof Slope: 4.375:12 ( = 20
)
Ridge parallel to 60 side
Exposure Category: C
Average Building Height: h = 13.28 < 15

Wind Webinar #3
26 February 2013

Section 29.7 references Section 27.4.4 for


directional procedure for MWFRS Roof Overhang
load determination.
Page 108 of 126

Example-Roof Overhang (MWFRS)


Use Cp = 0.8 in Eq 27.4-1 for determining roof and wall
loads over and adjacent to roof overhang
p = qGCp-qi(GCpi) (psf) (Eq 27.4-1)
G = 0.85 (rigid structure) (Section 26.9)
Kzt = 1.00 (for complex)
Kd = 0.85 (Building MWFRS)(Table 26.6-1)
V = 115 mph (for complex)
Kz @ z = 10 for soffit, Kz = 0.85 (Table 27.3-1)
qz = 0.00256KzKztKdV2 (psf) (Eq 27.3-1)
qz = 0.00256(0.85)(1.00)(0.85)(115)2 = 24.46 psf
GCpi = 0.18 (Enclosed building)(Figure 26.11-1)
Transverse Wind Loading governs, by Inspection

Wind Webinar #3
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Page 109 of 126

Example-Roof Overhang (MWFRS)


Pressure on underside of roof overhang
p = (24.46 psf)(0.85)(0.8) (24.46 psf)(0.18)
p = 12.23 psf (positive internal pressure)
p = (24.46 psf)(0.85)(0.8) (24.46 psf)(-0.18)
p = 21.04 psf (negative internal pressure)
Enter Figure 27.4-1 for pressures on windward roof
h/L = 13.28/60 = 0.22 < 0.25
Cp = 0.2 (Condition 1)
Cp = -0.3 (Condition 2)
Condition 1
p = (24.46 psf)(0.85)(0.2) (24.46 psf)(0.18)
p = 0.24 psf (positive internal pressure)
p = (24.46 psf)(0.85)(0.2) (24.46 psf)(-0.18)
p = 8.56 psf (negative internal pressure)

Wind Webinar #3
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Page 110 of 126

Example-Roof Overhang (MWFRS)

Wind Webinar #3
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Condition 2
p = (24.46 psf)(0.85)(-0.3) (24.46 psf)(0.18)
p = -10.64 psf (positive internal pressure)
p = (24.46 psf)(0.85)(-0.3) (24.46 psf)(-0.18)
p = -1.83 psf (negative internal pressure)
Combine Top & Bottom Pressures with Same Internal
Pressure Conditions
Note: signs indicate pressure toward or away
from surface
Change signs so (+) is up, globally
Change signs so (-) is down, globally

Page 111 of 126

Example-Roof Overhang (MWFRS)

Wind Webinar #3
26 February 2013

Positive Internal Pressure


povh = 12.23 psf - 0.24 psf = 11.99 psf
povh = 12.23 psf + 10.64 psf = 22.87 psf
overall povh is upward
Negative Internal Pressure
povh = 21.04 psf 8.56 psf = 12.48 psf
povh = 21.04 psf + 1.83 psf = 22.87 psf
overall povh is upward
Note: Net effect of internal pressures is zero so
that the total uplift on the overhang is the same.

Page 112 of 126

Example-Roof Overhang (MWFRS)

Wind Webinar #3
26 February 2013

Overall pressure on the Leeward Overhang is


calculated the same way, but uses the negative
pressure on the wall immediately adjacent to
the overhang for downward pressures on soffit.
By inspection, total force on windward
overhang will control.

Page 113 of 126

Example-Roof Overhang

Wind Webinar #3
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Page 114 of 126

Example-Roof Overhang (C & C)


Roof Overhang (C & C) (Section 30.10)

Wind Webinar #3
26 February 2013

Equipment Building
Unless otherwise listed, parameters are
identical to those for the MWFRS calculations
Determine C & C loads for overhangs of roof
trusses, spaced at 2-0 o.c.
p = qh[(GCp) (GCpi)] psf (Eq 30.10-1)
Kd = 0.85 (Building C&C) (Table 26.6-1)
All other parameters for qh are same as for
MFWRS

Page 115 of 126

Example-Roof Overhang (C & C)


qh = 0.00256(0.85)(1.00)(0.85)(115)2 = 24.46 psf
Enter Figure 30.4-2B for Roof Overhang C & C coefficients
Determine Effective Wind Area of Studs
Greater of Tributary Area or Effective Width
Effective Wind Area Definition (Section 26.2)
Greater of 2.0 or (governs)
Length/3 = 3/3 = 1.00
Effective Wind Area: 3x2 = 6.00 ft2
If Effective Wind Area > 700 ft2, use MFWRS loads
Determine a distance (Figure 30.4-1 and 30.4-2A)
Lesser of 10% of B = 0.10(30) = 3 and 0.4h =
0.4(13.28) = 5.31
3 governs

Wind Webinar #3
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Page 116 of 126

Example-Roof Overhang (C & C)


Not less than the greater of 4% of B = 0.04(30) = 1.2
or 3 (3 controls)
a = 3 (equal to width of overhang; therefore, Zone 1
pressures are not applicable to any part of the
overhang)
Zone 2: GCp = -2.2
p = (24.46 psf)[(-2.2) (0.18)] = -58.21 psf
with positive internal building pressure
p = (24.46 psf)[(-2.2) (-0.18)] = -49.41 psf
with negative internal building pressure
Zone 3: GCp = -3.7
p = (24.46 psf)[(-3.7) (0.18)] = -94.90 psf
with positive internal building pressure

Wind Webinar #3
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Page 117 of 126

Example-Roof Overhang (C & C)

Wind Webinar #3
26 February 2013

p = (24.46 psf)[(-3.7) (-0.18)] = -86.10 psf


with negative internal building pressure
For the overhang portion of the truss:
Tributary Width = 2
Upward force on the entire truss end is:
Zone 2: (-58.21 psf)(2) = -116.42 plf
(upward)
Zone 3: (-94.90 psf)(2) = -189.90 plf
(upward)
These are NOT the loads on the soffit material .

Page 118 of 126

Example-Roof Overhang (C & C)

Wind Webinar #3
26 February 2013

Section 30.10 states that the external coefficient for the


covering on the underside of the roof overhang (soffit) is the
same as the external pressure coefficient on the adjacent
wall surface, determined from Figure 30.4-1 or Figure 30.61, as applicable.
Use of the GCp with negative internal pressure yields the
greatest upward load on the material on the underside of
the overhang on the windward wall.
Use of the GCp with positive internal pressure yields the
greatest downward load on the material on the
underside of the overhang on the leeward wall.
For this building, assuming effective wind area is the
same as for the truss overhang:

Page 119 of 126

Example-Roof Overhang (C & C)

Wind Webinar #3
26 February 2013

Windward Wall Soffit Material (Figure 30.4-1)


Zone 4 and Zone 5: GCp = +1.0
p = (24.46 psf)[(1.0) (-0.18)] = 28.86 psf
acting upward
Leeward Wall Soffit Material (Figure 30.4-1)
Zone 4: GCp = -1.1
p = (24.46 psf)[(-1.1) (0.18)] = -31.31 psf
(acting downward)
Zone 5: GCp = -1.4
p = (24.46 psf)[(-1.4) (0.18)] = -38.65 psf
(acting downward)

Page 120 of 126

Example- Chemical SILO (MWFRS)


Chemical Silo (Other Structure MWFRS)
(Section 29.5)

Wind Webinar #3
26 February 2013

Silo Dimensions: h = 20, D = 5.0


Welded Steel Tank: smooth sides, no ladder
Roof Slope: 1:12 (conical)
Maximum rise: 2.5 inches (consider
contribution to wind load, negligible)
Unless otherwise listed, parameters for
calculation of qz are identical to those for the
MWFRS calculations for equipment building.
F = qzGCfAf Lbs (Eq 29.5-1)

Page 121 of 126

Example- Chemical SILO (MWFRS)

Wind Webinar #3
26 February 2013

Page 122 of 126

Example- Chemical SILO (MWFRS)


qz = 0.00256KzKztKdV2 (psf)
Kz = 0.90 (Building C&C) (Table 29.3-1)
Kd = 0.95 (Circular Tanks) (Table 26.6-1)
G = 0.85 (Rigid Structure) (Section 26.9)
qz = 0.00256(0.90)(1.00)(0.95)(115)2 = 28.95 psf
Go to Table 29.5-1
D/ qz = 5/Sqrt(28.95psf) = 0.93 < 2.5
Go to bottom row
h/D = 20/5 = 4.0
Must interpolate between h/D=1.0 and h/D= 7.0
Cf = 0.75
F = (28.95 psf)(0.85)(0.75) Af = (18.45 psf)Af
F = (18.45 psf)Af < (16psf)Af

Wind Webinar #3
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Page 123 of 126

Example- Chemical SILO (MWFRS)


Af = 5x20 = 100 ft2
F = (18.45 psf)(100 ft2) = 1845 Lbs
This is conservative, OR calculate F for increase in
pressure as height increases
q15 = 0.00256(0.85)(1.00)(0.95)1152 = 27.34 psf
q(15-20)= 0.00253(0.90)(1.00)(0.95) (115)2 = 28.95 psf
For 0-15: D/ qz = 5/Sqrt(27.34psf) = 0.96 < 2.5
Cf = 0.75
F0-15 = (27.34 psf)(0.85)(0.75)Af = 17.43 psf Af > 16 psf Af
F0-15 = (17.43 psf)(5)(15) = 1307 Lbs.
F15-20 = (18.45 psf)(5)(5) = 461 Lbs.
Total F on Silo: 1307 Lbs + 461 Lbs = 1768 Lbs

Wind Webinar #3
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Page 124 of 126

Example- Chemical SILO (MWFRS)


Conservative OTM: (1845 Lbs)(10) = 18,450 ft-lbs
More Detailed OTM: (1307 Lbs)(15/2)+(461
Lbs)(15+5/2) = 17,870 ft-lbs
The taller the structure is, the more important it is to
use the stepped wind force approach.

Wind Webinar #3
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Page 125 of 126

Questions

Wind Webinar #3
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Page 126 of 126