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Stability of Equilibrium Points

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Lecture # 4

Stability of Equilibrium Points

Basic Concepts

x = f (x)

f is locally Lipschitz over a domain D Rn

Suppose x D is an equilibrium point; that is, f (

x) = 0

Characterize and study the stability of x

For convenience, we state all definitions and theorems for the

case when the equilibrium point is at the origin of Rn ; that is,

x = 0. No loss of generality

y = x x

def

y = x = f (x) = f (y + x) = g(y),

Nonlinear Control Lecture # 4 Stability of Equilibrium Points

where g(0) = 0

Definition 3.1

The equilibrium point x = 0 of x = f (x) is

stable if for each > 0 there is > 0 (dependent on )

such that

kx(0)k < kx(t)k < , t 0

unstable if it is not stable

asymptotically stable if it is stable and can be chosen

such that

kx(0)k < lim x(t) = 0

t

Scalar Systems (n = 1)

The behavior of x(t) in the neighborhood of the origin can be

determined by examining the sign of f (x)

The requirement for stability is violated if xf (x) > 0 on

either side of the origin

f(x)

f(x)

Unstable

f(x)

Unstable

Unstable

neighborhood of the origin

f(x)

Stable

f(x)

f(x)

Stable

Stable

some neighborhood of the origin

f(x)

f(x)

(a)

Asymptotically Stable

(b)

Definition 3.2

Let the origin be an asymptotically stable equilibrium point of

the system x = f (x), where f is a locally Lipschitz function

defined over a domain D Rn ( 0 D)

The region of attraction (also called region of asymptotic

stability, domain of attraction, or basin) is the set of all

points x0 in D such that the solution of

x = f (x),

x(0) = x0

tends to infinity

The origin is globally asymptotically stable if the region of

attraction is the whole space Rn

Nonlinear Control Lecture # 4 Stability of Equilibrium Points

Two-dimensional Systems(n = 2)

Center

Stable Node

Stable Focus

Unstable Node

Unstable Focus

Saddle

Stability Property

x

1.6

1.4

1.2

1

0.8

Q

1

Q

2

0.6

0.4

0.2

Q

3

0

x

0.2

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

x=y

y = sin(x)

3

4

0

x

4

x2

3

x = Ax

x(t) = exp(At)x(0)

P 1AP = J = block diag[J1 , J2 , . . . , Jr ]

i 1 0 . . . . . . 0

0 i 1 0 . . . 0

..

..

..

.

.

.

Ji =

..

...

.

0

.

.

.

.

. 1

0 . . . . . . . . . 0 i mm

Nonlinear Control Lecture # 4 Stability of Equilibrium Points

exp(At) = P exp(Jt)P

mi

r X

X

i=1 k=1

Re[i ] < 0 i Asymptotically Stable

Re[i ] > 0 for some i Unstable

Re[i ] 0 i & mi > 1 for Re[i ] = 0 Unstable

Re[i ] 0 i & mi = 1 for Re[i ] = 0 Stable

If an n n matrix A has a repeated eigenvalue i of algebraic

multiplicity qi , then the Jordan blocks of i have order one if

and only if rank(A i I) = n qi

Nonlinear Control Lecture # 4 Stability of Equilibrium Points

Theorem 3.1

The equilibrium point x = 0 of x = Ax is stable if and only if

all eigenvalues of A satisfy Re[i ] 0 and for every eigenvalue

with Re[i ] = 0 and algebraic multiplicity qi 2,

rank(A i I) = n qi , where n is the dimension of x. The

equilibrium point x = 0 is globally asymptotically stable if and

only if all eigenvalues of A satisfy Re[i ] < 0

When all eigenvalues of A satisfy Re[i ] < 0, A is called a

Hurwitz matrix

When the origin of a linear system is asymptotically stable, its

solution satisfies the inequality

kx(t)k kkx(0)ket ,

Nonlinear Control Lecture # 4 Stability of Equilibrium Points

t 0, k 1, > 0

Exponential Stability

Definition 3.3

The equilibrium point x = 0 of x = f (x) is exponentially

stable if

kx(t)k kkx(0)ket , t 0

k 1, > 0, for all kx(0)k < c

It is globally exponentially stable if the inequality is satisfied

for any initial state x(0)

Exponential Stability Asymptotic Stability

Example 3.2

x = x3

The origin is asymptotically stable

x(0)

x(t) = p

1 + 2tx2 (0)

x(t) does not satisfy |x(t)| ket |x(0)| because

|x(t)| ket |x(0)|

e2t

k2

1 + 2tx2 (0)

e2t

=

t 1 + 2tx2 (0)

Linearization

x = f (x),

f (0) = 0

J(x) =

f

(x)

x

h(1) h(0) =

h () = J(x)x

h () d,

h(0) = f (0) = 0

f (x) =

J(x) d x

f (x) =

J(x) d x

Z 1

f (x) = [A + G(x)]x, where G(x) =

[J(x) J(0)] d

0

G(x) 0 as x 0

This suggests that in a small neighborhood of the origin we

can approximate the nonlinear system x = f (x) by its

linearization about the origin x = Ax

Theorem 3.2

The origin is exponentially stable if and only if Re[i ] < 0

for all eigenvalues of A

The origin is unstable if Re[i ] > 0 for some i

Linearization fails when Re[i ] 0 for all i, with Re[i ] = 0

for some i

Example 3.3

x = ax3

f

2

=

3ax

=0

A=

x=0

x x=0

When a < 0, the origin is not exponentially stable

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