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Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................................................................. i
SYMBOLS & ABBREVIATIONS ..................................................................................................................ii
ASTROPHYSICS ............................................................................................................................................. 1
Solar System ........................................................................................................................................................ 1
1. Solar System Objects ................................................................................................................................. 1
2. Motions of Stars ......................................................................................................................................... 1
Basic Definitions in Astrophysics ....................................................................................................................... 2
Observing & Analyzing Methods ........................................................................................................................ 3
1. Information Collected on Earth ................................................................................................................. 3
2. Classification of Stars ................................................................................................................................ 4
3. Parallax Method ......................................................................................................................................... 4
4. Absolute & Apparent Magnitudes ............................................................................................................. 4
5. Spectroscopic Parallax & Cepheid Star Method ........................................................................................ 4
Stellar Evolution (Nucleosynthesis) .................................................................................................................... 5
1. Formations of Stars .................................................................................................................................... 5
2. Fates of Stars .............................................................................................................................................. 5
3. Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) Diagram & Evolutionary Paths ....................................................................... 6
Cosmology........................................................................................................................................................... 7
1. Olbers Paradox ......................................................................................................................................... 7
2. Evidence of The Big Bang ......................................................................................................................... 7
3. Big Bang Model & Evolution of Universe ................................................................................................ 8
4. Type of Galaxies ........................................................................................................................................ 9
RELATIVITY ................................................................................................................................................. 10
Background & Definitions in SR....................................................................................................................... 10
The Basic of Special Relativity ......................................................................................................................... 10
Lorentzs Transformation ................................................................................................................................. 11
Simultaneity & Addition of Velocity ................................................................................................................. 11
Time Dilation & Length Contraction ................................................................................................................ 13
Relativistic Mechanics ...................................................................................................................................... 14
General Relativity ............................................................................................................................................. 14
Sy Hai Dinh Kungsholmens Gymnasium
IB Physics HL Notes (May 2014 Session)

Sy Hai Dinh Kungsholmens Gymnasium (2014)

INTRODUCTION
This is part of my series of detailed IB Physics HL notes that I took during my physics course at Kungsholmens
Gymnasium. This part consists of

HL options (Astrophysics and Relativity) and contains lots of derivations and

explanations for different laws and concepts that students need to master at the end of their IB Physics HL course. In
order to make the study guide short, concise but still understandable, the language of mathematics (i.e. symbols) is
used intensively throughout the study guide; thus people who have a stronger background in mathematics will clearly
be more advantaged when using this guide.
Note that therere things within this guide that are totally not part of the syllabus, but are still put here for the ones who
are interested. These supplementary materials are put within the information boxes such as the one presented below:

The texts that are emphasized throughout the guide can be divided into 4 types:
-

Bold: means that the phrase is either a headline or a key terminology

Bold & Italic: means important phrases

Bold, Italic, & Underlined: means vitally important key words

Mathematical formulas that are marked bold are the ones that appear within the IB physics formula booklet

It is necessary to understand that images/figures that are used here in the study guide are as equally important as the
texts themselves; and the text that is placed next to a figure always contains some contents that refer to the picture.
There are many common symbols and abbreviations used repeatedly throughout the study guide, and for that reason,
they are listed in the next section down below for easy referencing; however, note that all symbols that are not
commonly used are defined within the guide itself, so pay attention to these definitions when using the guide!
This guide is not for commercial use; hence, the information presented here (in which most are taken from the internet,
and from the Physics for the IB Diploma 5th Edition textbook, written by K. A. Tsokos) will not be formally
referenced. In addition, I also used Professor Leonard Susskinds Special-Relativity course (in 2012) Lecture
(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=toGH5BdgRZ4) & Lecture

(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qfTJP7Soto4),

to extend my understanding in the Relativity Option.


Please feel free to contact me through email (my email address is dinhsyhai@yahoo.com.vn) if you have any questions
regarding this study guide. Thank you!

Sy Hai Dinh Kungsholmens Gymnasium (2014)

SYMBOLS & ABBREVIATIONS


General Symbols & Abbreviations:
Electrons

Photons

Delta/Change

Protons

Speed of light in vacuum

Kinetic energy

Neutrons

Plancks constant

Potential energy

Electron neutrino

Wavelength

Schwarzchild radius

Symbols & Abbreviations used in Astrophysics


Astronomical Unit

Arrow used in nuclear reaction

Emissivity

Light year

Hydrogen

Surface area

Parsec

Hydrogen gas

Temperature

Solar masses

Helium

Power

Carbon

Electromagnetic

Arcsecond (

Shnberg-Chandrasekhar Limit

Iron

Magnetic field

Chandrasekhar Limit

Main-sequence star

Density

Oppen-heimer Volkoff Limit

Mass of a stars core

Critical density of universe

Luminosity

A stars initial mass

Hubbles constant

Apparent brightness

Centre of mass

Planks time

Apparent magnitude

Stefan-Boltzmann constant

Absolute magnitude

Charged couple device


Symbols & Abbreviations used in Relativity

Special relativity

Gamma factor

Relativistic energy

General relativity

Position in space

Relativistic mass

Permittivity of free space

Time

Relativistic momentum

Permeability of free space

Proper time

Rest energy

Height

Length

Rest mass

Gravitational field strength

Proper length

Gravitational constant

, ,

Velocities of different objects

ii

Sy Hai Dinh Kungsholmens Gymnasium (2014)

ASTROPHYSICS

Solar System
1. Solar System Objects
-

Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus & Neptune; while Pluto is:
o

Classified as dwarf planet as it hasnt cleared its orbital region of other objects (its not a dominant object in
its orbit in terms of mass as it shares orbits with many Kuiper Belt objects of equal size)

Pluto has orbits crossing Neptunes; however their orbital planes are different

Orders of magnitude of radius of planets are

Orders of magnitude of planets average distance to Sun range from

(Mercury

Mars) &

(Jupiter

Neptune)

Comets contain dust & frozen gases which evaporate when its near Sun, forming its tail

Planets & comets follow elliptical orbits (with Sun at 1 foci) with the same directions orbital planes differ only
slightly; comets orbits actually extend beyond solar system long periods

Large asteroids belt (minor planets) between Mars & Jupiter collisions between themselves knock them out of
orbits & head towards Earth with most being burnt in atmosphere the belt exists due to either:
o

Disruption of a planet into many pieces

Jupiter (with large mass) doesnt allow these materials to assemble into a planet

2. Motions of Stars
-

Relative positions of star constellations remain unchanged motions of stars in the sky are a consequence of
Earths rotation about its axis & around Sun stars follow circular patterns on Celestial Sphere
o At Earths poles, stars circle around celestial poles (CP) which appear to not move at all (which points at
Polaris in NCP however as Earths axis of rotation precesses with period of 26000 years, different stars will
be at CP) anti-clockwise at Northern Hemisphere & clockwise at Southern Hemisphere
o At equator, stars move across the sky from West

East over night as Earth rotates around itself

o At equator, different stars will appear directly overhead at midnight at different times of year as Earth rotates
around Sun with change of direction from one night to the next of

Sy Hai Dinh Kungsholmens Gymnasium (2014)

These figures (Figure

is the work of

LCGS Russ, published here on Wikimedia


Commons, under CC BY-SA 3.0 license)
show the imaginary celestial sphere &
the night sky at North Poles where the
paths of the stars on the sky are tracked
throughout the night

Basic Definitions in Astrophysics


-

Conversion of units of distances:


o
light year

parsec average distance between stars in a galaxy is

average distance between galaxies varies from 100

, while

for galaxies within the same cluster to a few

for

galaxies belonging to different clusters


-

Interstellar medium is made of gases (mainly

&

) & dust grains (silicates, , &

between stars density of interstellar mass is very low (


-

), which fills the space

) temp is

Constellation is a collection of stars that are far from each other but make a recognizable pattern; stellar cluster is
a group of nearby stars, created by the collapse of the same cloud during stars formation

Dwarf is a star with no nuclear reactions taking place come with different colours Brown, White, Black

Variable is star with variable


o

due to changes in internal structure light curve (graphs of

vs time) is either:

Non-periodic e.g. when stars undergo planetary nebula or supernova, or in binary star system, matters can
be transferred between the 2 stars, thus raising temperature & radiating energy

Periodic e.g. cepheids (the greater peak , the longer the period; this is due to interaction of EM waves with
matter in cepheids atmospheres which causes outer layers to undergo periodic expansions & contractions, thus
varying the surface areas which changes

Pulsar is a rapidly (

periodically)

period) rotating neutron star emitting radio waves due to its strong magnetic fields

( ), as it rotates, EM waves are produced in-continuously which head to Earth if direction of coincides with
rotation axis, no EM waves are produced
-

Quasars are quasi-stellar radio-emitting objects with spectrum that has been greatly red-shifted very powerful
which contains active cores of young galaxies by Hubbles law, quasars are far away looking back in time

Sy Hai Dinh Kungsholmens Gymnasium (2014)


-

Nova is when a white dwarf attracts material from nearby star, which heats up & leads to a sudden increase of

2 binary stars rotate around a centre of mass (CM) CM formula deduces that
replacing
binary-system &
o

&

into

, we get

is distance between them) by finding

by

&
(where

is period of

(period) & , we can find mass of binary system

Visual binary stars can be viewed by a telescope as 2 separate stars to calculate mass of each star, either
measure radius to CM using parallax, or measure velocities of each star by analyzing red- & blue-shift

Earth is contained within plane of rotation of eclipsing binary stars when dimmer star is behind brighter
one, theres a small dip in apparent brightness, & vice versa

(period) is equal the period of the dip

Spectroscopic binary stars can only be observed by noticing Dopplers shift in their spectrum spectral lines
regularly split into 2 lines & then recombine as one star approaches while other recedes

Observing & Analyzing Methods


Summary of methods of measuring distances:
-

Parallax up to hundreds of

Spectroscopic parallax up to a few

Standard Candles (e.g. Cepheid variables up to a few

) are stars of known

1. Information Collected on Earth


-

As

for a black-body), apparent brightness is

(unit of

), which is

measured by CCD or by a bolometer (supersensitive thermometer)


on a black-body radiation curve is used to determine the stars colour & surface temp (using Wiens law)

Peak

Stellar spectrum can be used to measure Doppler Shifts to determine stars velocities (with respect to Earth) &
rotational velocities (by measuring shifts on different parts of the star)

By comparing stellar spectrum with absorption lines of an element (measured on Earth) shows stars chemical
composition it is however unreliable as stars have different temp but essentially the same composition:
), thus cant absorb any

Hot star has ionized hydrogen (without

Cold star (

Only stars that are neither too hot or too cool can give characteristic spectrum for hydrogen

from EM waves before they reach Earth

) can only absorb UV light due to high electrical energy between

&

Sy Hai Dinh Kungsholmens Gymnasium (2014)

2. Classification of Stars
-

Spectral classes of stars are based on temp & colour (which are determined by stellar spectrum):
o

Oh Be A Fine Girl Kiss Me!


Sun),

(yellow,

(blue,

),
),

(red,

),

(white,

),

),

Each class is divided into subclasses to indicate temp

To indicate size, scale of Roman Numeral is added (for supergiant)

(the lower the number, the higher the temp)


(for dwarf)

Sun is

3. Parallax Method
-

As Earth moves around Sun, position of a close (up to hundreds of

) star with respect to a background of distant

stars would be different at different times of a year (6 months in between for simplicity)

This figure illustrates the parallax method to measure the distance to a


star; it shows the example of where the distance is

as

is typically small,

(in which

is the parallax angle, measuring the difference

between 2 different angular position of the star, &


-

Definition of a parsec

)(

is distance between Earth & Sun)


)(

4. Absolute & Apparent Magnitudes


Apparent magnitude

is the reference value)

(
human eyes cant detect
Absolute magnitude
-

Let

( ) the larger the magnitude, the dimmer the star

, while the largest telescopes can record up to

is the apparent magnitude that the star would have at

be the apparent brightness at

distance

is apparent brightness in logarithmic scale, i.e.

; as

in parsec can be calculated using

from Earth
&

, thus the

( )

5. Spectroscopic Parallax & Cepheid Star Method


These methods find distance to a star by
it may be graphed against time, while

in which

is measured on Earth, or for a Cepheid star

can be either found by:

on HR diagram ( can be deduced from studying stars spectrum)

Relationship between

&

Relationship between

& Cepheid stars periods

Sy Hai Dinh Kungsholmens Gymnasium (2014)

Stellar Evolution (Nucleosynthesis)

1. Formations of Stars
Gases in interstellar space (nebulae) become unstable & collapse under gravity when gravitational energy exceeds
thermal kinetic energy this is called Jeans Criterion, which is satisfied when:
-

( is no. of molecules,

Substituting

As density

is Boltzmans constant, & typically

is mass of 1 gas molecule) into 1st formula

As nebulae collapse under Jeans Criterion, protostars & then MSS are formed because gravitational potential energy
has been transformed into kinetic energy, thus raising enough temp & pressure to initiate fusion
-

Proton-proton cycle:

this is

summarized into a single equation:


-

Energetic

&

then transfer

to the whole star which stabilize the star against gravity

2. Fates of Stars
Cores Mass (in

Initial Star Mass (in

Usually

Outcome
White Dwarf with

core

White Dwarf with

core

White Dwarf with


Neutron Star

Usually

Black Hole

Usually

core

Sy Hai Dinh Kungsholmens Gymnasium (2014)


Red Giants & Super-giants:
-

After

(SCL) of

of a star has been used, it becomes a giant or supergiant gravitational potential energy

is transformed into heat which forces outer layers (envelope) to expand core is heated while envelope is cooled
-

&

are formed in the core through triple alpha process (with

atoms)

Fusion cant produce elements heavier than

, since binding energy per nucleon peaks with

fusion is not possible massive stars contain different layers made of different elements with

, thus further
at the core

Planetary Nebulas & White Dwarfs:


-

Stable white dwarfs (e.g. Sirius B, binary-system companion of Sirius A star) are formed due to electron pressure
(Paulis exclusion principle forces

to have large

to not have same quantum states when compressed in small

volumes) white dwarfs then become black dwarfs as it cools down to absolute zero
Supernova, Neutron Stars, & Black Holes:
-

Stars with

-core are full of energetic

, which can rip apart

into

,&

due to high densities &

(a temporary neutron stars) as a result of Paulis exclusion principle, neutron

temp,

pressure creates a force outward, causing a supernova


-

Black holes Schwarzschild radius is


o

derived from escape velocity formula

Effects of a black holes to nearby star (e.g. its binary-system companion star) are observable gases of
companion star are accelerated into black hole, thus become hot & radiate X-rays

o Much heavier black holes exist in a galactic centre which affect motions of stars in the galaxy

3. Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) Diagram & Evolutionary Paths

This image (taken from NASA/CXC/SAO at


http://chandra.harvard.edu/edu/formal/variable_st
ars/bg_info.html)shows the HR-Diagram Pay
attention to the
-

Hertzsprung plotted

vs temp ( ), while Russell plotted absolute magnitude vs spectral class 4 axes

absolute magnitude are similar concepts, while


-

axes & their scale!!!

& spectral class are also similar concepts

Main Sequence Stars (MSS):


o

Relationship between

Contains stars which produce enough fusion energy to counterbalance gravity

&

helps make good prediction for spectroscopic parallax method

&

Sy Hai Dinh Kungsholmens Gymnasium (2014)


-

Evolutionary path of a star can be drawn right on the HR graph

(where

,&

is mass of a MSS) this comes from nuclear physics & uncertainty of

to unknown composition of stars (unknown equation of state) the bigger


burning

is due

, the bigger , the bigger rate of

, thus the less time the star spends on the main sequence

Cosmology
Cosmological Principle:
-

Homogeneity on a large scale, universe looks uniform

Isotropy there is no direction that is special in comparison with another

Implies that universe has no edge and no centre


Newton used an extreme version of cosmological principle suggested that universe is infinite & static, thus had
no beginning since there is no centre, gravity also spreads out evenly, keeping the universe static all the time

1. Olbers Paradox

This sphere where stars are filled on the surface area will aid the
calculations down below
Let the sphere have density stars per unit area total no. of stars is
for each star total light received is (
of such a sphere with each contributing

)(

, & observer at the center measures


(a constant) since theres an infinite no.

infinite energy received sky must be infinitely bright! paradox!

Big Bang model solves Olbers Paradox:


-

Theres a finite no. of stars, each with finite lifetime contribute only finite amount of energy

Universe has finite age for stars beyond observable universe, light hasnt yet had time to reach us

Due to universe expansion, light received is red-shifted contains less energy

2. Evidence of The Big Bang


During nucleosynthesis phase, Big Bang predicts that there were

which is exactly the

It has been observed that all stars spectrum show red-shifts


is

for every

&

-abundance that is observed in stars


( is emitted frequency) for small , red-shift

( is only velocity along the line of sight, not the total velocity)

, which can combine into

Sy Hai Dinh Kungsholmens Gymnasium (2014)


Hubbles Law:
-

is Hubble constant) universe is expanding

( is velocity of recession, &


which can be visualized by using a 2D model of a balloon

&

Since
Observer
velocity (

from Earth looking from

s frame, the distant galaxy is moving away at


)

) Hubbles law can be applied

to any observers all observers have the illusion that they are
at the center of the universe, which is not correct!!!
-

Let be age of universe & assume that rate of expansion is constant (i.e.
the age is

for all time) upper bound to

years as expansion rate must have been faster at the beginning

Cosmic Background Radiation (CBR), detected by radio-wave antenna of Penzias & Wilson, is Big Bangs remnant;
its a black-body spectrum filling all space that has been red-shifted & cooled down to

due to universe expansion

3. Big Bang Model & Evolution of Universe


Time ( )

Temp ( )

Plank time

Events
Quantum gravitational effects which havent had any universal theory yet

Strong & weak nuclear forces joined into 1 unified force all particles show symmetry
Strong & weak nuclear forces separated; inflation begins
All 4 forces of nature became separated
&

are formed from quarks

Nucleosynthesis nuclear physics & thermodynamics can be used to predict


-abundance
Matter & radiation separate end of radiation domination, start of matter domination
previously,
were scattered off from
Galaxies & other large structures form in universe

Development of Universe since the Big Bang


According to standard & outdated Big Bang model, expansions of universe can be modeled as ( )
the scale factor ( ) depends on the shape of Universe (open, flat, or closed), while

&

( )

where

represent the distance

between any 2 galaxies); this model of the future of Universe is shown in the table below
( )

Hyperbolic

Starts at , increases without limit

Open

Infinite

Forever, at slowing rate

Visualization
Horse saddle

Euclidean

Starts at , increases to max with


a decreasing rate

Flat

Infinite

Forever, but rate


approaches zero

Flat sheet of paper


extending

Spherical

Starts from , increases to a max,


then decreases back to

Closed

Finite

Stops, followed by
collapse

Surface of a sphere

Geometry

Density

Type

Volume

Expansion

Sy Hai Dinh Kungsholmens Gymnasium (2014)


Rough estimate of critical density
-

(which is the exact density to make Universe flat):

Using Newtonian mechanics, consider a spherical cloud of dust of radius

& a mass

which moves away from the centre with a velocity

that satisfies Hubbles Law

Total energy of the mass is

just escapes the gravitational pull when the total energy is

at the surface of this cloud

Using the law of escape velocity, the object

Discussion of standard Big Bang model & consideration of dark matter & dark energy:
-

Current scientific evidence suggests that

, which suggests that Universe is open

However, based on the method of gravitational lensing, there seems to be much more mass which accounts for
dark matters (which are dark as they interact with matter very weakly & dont radiate energy):

WIMPS neutrinos & exotic particles predicted by models of particle physics (e.g. supersymmetric particles)

MACHOS ordinary matter (e.g. brown, black, & red dwarfs or black holes)

If dark matter really exists, then there must exist dark energy to account for the accelerating expansion of
Universe, as dark energy acts as a force that counters gravity of dark matters

Discussion of Homogeneity of Universe


-

Milky Way is one of 20 galaxies belonging to Local Group clusters of galaxies which make up super-clusters

Distribution of clusters in space is not uniform there are areas of linear size

that are empty

4. Type of Galaxies
A galaxy typically contains
galaxies is

stars & is

across distance between 2 stars is

, while distance between

galaxies are classified by Hubbles criteria which is based mainly on galaxies appearance 3

basic types are spiral/barred spiral, elliptical, & regular

Shape

Spirals/barred spirals

Ellipticals

Irregulars

Flattened disc in spirals, theres a

Ellipsoidal shape

No obvious structure

central spherical halo (spiral arms start

stars are distributed

here) in barred spirals, central halo

uniformly

looks like a bar where spiral arms start


from the 2 ends
Content

Halo contains mainly of old stars;

Contain mainly old

Both young (formed from gas

while spiral arms contain both young

stars; no gas or dust

& dust) & old stars

No new stars!

Stars forming from gas & dust

(formed from gas & dusts) & old stars


Star Formation

Takes place in spiral arms

Sy Hai Dinh Kungsholmens Gymnasium (2014)


___________________________________________________________________________________

RELATIVITY

Background & Definitions in SR


-

A frame of reference refers to a coordinate system which involves the measurement of positions (using a ruler), &
of time (using a clock) if this observer is not accelerated, its called an inertial frame of reference

2 observers in different inertial frames are equally justified in considering themselves to be at rest

An event is a specific instant at a specific location in space, i.e. a coordinate of space-time

Galilean transformations of frames were used in Newtonian physics, in which

&

however

this transformation doesnt work mathematically if is the same for all inertial frames it must be fixed!!!

The Basic of Special Relativity


Since speed of light is a constant in Maxwell theory (

) he believed that his theory was only accurate for

observers at rest with respect to ether (a medium) Michelson-Morley experiment:


-

Used interferometer (which relies on interference of light) to measure accurately relative speed of Earth with
respect to ether as Earth rotates around Sun experiment was done at different times of year

As Earth moves in different direction with respect to ether, detailed calculations show that rotating interferometer
should change interference pattern by shifting interference fringes

However, no changes in interference patterns were found could not prove ethers existence
Principles of SR:
-

Laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames

Speed of light in vacuum ( ) is the same for all inertial observers constancy of speed of light has now been
confirmed by accurate experiment at CERN (neutral pions moving close to

decay into 2

in different

directions, but both are observed to move at )


-

Relativity states that no material object can exceed the speed of light; also no signal can be sent faster than

Constancy of means that space & time are now linked in which time is the 4th dimension space-time

10

Sy Hai Dinh Kungsholmens Gymnasium (2014)

Lorentzs transformation
Derivation of Lorentzs Transformation Let

be the primed frame (in which

relative to , & vice versa) by Galilean transformation,

moves with velocity


-

be the unprimed frame, &

,&

Since this transformation must be fixed according to postulates of SR, we would hypothesize that

&

are related

by a function of called gamma factor ( ) thus:


(

)
}
)

(
-

)(

By SRs postulate, is the same for all inertial frames if


paths must satisfy
)(

)(

Substituting back, we have

For relation between

& , we have

(negative

) can give the same result for , only when

&

both shoot a light-ray, then lights traveling

&

root is excluded here because 2 inertial frames (where


-

( )

substitute these into Equation ( ) gives:

,&

)(

(
)

)
(

(
)

)
(

Summarization of Lorentzs Transformation:


-

Gamma factor

Position

similarly, for velocity , we have

that if motion is only along -direction, then things happen normally in other dimensions (i.e.
-

Time

similarly, for velocity

, we have

notice

&

Simultaneity & Addition of Velocity


Relativity of Simultaneity absolute simultaneity is based on absolute time; but since time is relative, so is
simultaneity thus 2 observers moving relative with each other:
-

Will not agree on simultaneity of events that take place at different points in space

Will agree on simultaneity of events that take place at same points in space (as

11

Sy Hai Dinh Kungsholmens Gymnasium (2014)


Derivation of Addition-of-Velocity Formulas:
-

Objects ,

,&

will have subscripts , , &

respectively by Lorentzs transformation,

,&

Substitute these into

gives

The figure shows 2 objects ( & ) as viewed


from Object s frame of reference; this is a
situation that is set up to help us deriving the
addition-of-velocity formulas

As were interested in velocity of


)

reference frame (i.e.

as observed in s frame, thus here indicates position of


)

must be the trajectory of

rearranging this, we get 2 additional formulas,

observed by ; thus

in its own
as

&

Using Addition-of-Velocity Formulas:


The most difficult thing here is to identify velocities of which objects correspond to

, ,&

for simplicity, when

dealing with addition-of-velocity problems, we need to follow three rules down below (which can be basically derived
by re-analyzing the situation that was set up above) for 3 different types of problems
-

Use Velocity Subtraction formula


o

velocities (

& ) that describe motions of two different objects & are both observed by the same (stationary)

observers since
-

&

describe same objects, its better to write the formula as

Use Velocity Addition formula


o

to find velocity when were given:

velocities ( & ) that describe motions of two different objects & are observed by

Use Special-Case formula


o

to find velocity when were given:

velocities (

different observers

to find velocity when were given:

& ) that describe motions of the same object, but are observed by 2 different observers

remember that velocity is the one that is observed by a stationary observer!!!


When given velocities are in different direction, be extremely careful with the signs of these velocities!!!

12

Sy Hai Dinh Kungsholmens Gymnasium (2014)

Time Dilation & Length Contraction


( )

Space-time geometry has an invariance


( )
-

&

( ) & similarly

( ) which can be proven by Lorentzs transformation

explain why more time passes along shorter edge (e.g. at event , time

along side

is more than proper time on side

For time-like,

For space-like,

due to time dilation

Proper time ( ) is elapsed time between two events that take place at same point in space in an observers frame;

mathematically,

light trajectory,

is only defined for time-like trajectory let

proper time for a light trajectory is always

, then for a

time stops for light!!!

Proper length ( ) is the length of an object, measured by an observer at rest relative to the object
Time Dilation let
-

inertial observers,

(unprimed frame) &

(primed frame), move relative to each other:

Dilation is a symmetric effect (i.e. its frame dependent):


o

From s frame,

moves with velocity

From s frame,

moves with velocity

For case ,

) but
) but

in s frame
in s frame

thus time is relative & dilation is symmetric this isnt a paradox as

; for case ,

theres no way one can compare 2 clocks unless one of them decelerates, thus breaking the symmetry
o

Twin paradox is not a real paradox as the problem is asymmetric due to the accelerated reference frame

Time dilation formula is thus

Small difference in time can only be measured with super-accurate atomic clocks, as it has been done in HafeleKeating experiment (which compares time difference of a clock on an airplane with the one on Earth)

Length Contraction let


-

Suppose that
o

For case ,

(unprimed frame) &

(primed frame), move relative to each other:


thus:

is measuring the length of an object at rest in s frame at time


(

Similarly, suppose that


o

inertial observers,

))

)
thus:

is measuring the length of an object at rest in s frame at time

(
; for case ,

))

like time dilation, length contraction is symmetric, & length is relative

(the rulers dont only look shorter, but they are shorter looking from both frames) length contraction formula is
thus

(note that only lengths along the direction of motion get contracted!!!)

13

Sy Hai Dinh Kungsholmens Gymnasium (2014)


Muons proper time of decaying is short (

), thus cant cover the distance from where it was created

to Earths ground); however, we can still detect muons on the ground this can only be explained by SR:
-

Time dilation from Earths frame, muon decays in a longer time, as

Length contraction from muons frame, distance that Earth travels towards it is contracted, because
(where

is time measured on Earth)

are distances measured by the muon & by an observer on Earth, respectively)

&

is now

short enough for Earth to reach the muon before it decays!!!

Relativistic Mechanics
In SR, its better to use

as unit for

as unit for mass!!!

) is amount of energy needed to produce a particle at rest relativistic energy is

Rest energy (

& as unit for speed of light, &

is relativistic mass as

approaches ,

approaches

(only for a particle with mass); but since

thus with constant , & with increasing , then would decrease, such that

( )

For small & by binomial expansion,

Since

)
( )

classical mechanics!
(

Notice that for a charged particle being accelerated by a potential difference , then

Relativistic momentum is

relates to

For

For a particle at rest (i.e.

Law of conservation of momentum still applies:


o

(i.e.

For a free

), then

A free

cant absorb a

this replaces

by

of energy , then
)

)
in classical theory

rest energy!

), then

at rest to absorb a

energy conservation,

will not reach !

must have

after absorption but due to

which gives an impossible answer (


can only absorb

when

is bound in an atom as the atom can

participate in sharing energy & momentum

General Relativity
Equivalence Principle states that gravitational & inertial effects (i.e. effects of acceleration) are the same this is
because no experiments within a frame can be done to know exactly about the frames motion consequences:
-

An inertial frame is equivalent to a freely-falling frame in a uniform gravitational field

An accelerating frame (far from all masses) is equivalent to a frame at rest in a gravitational field

Gravitational mass (

) & inertial mass (

) are the same

14

Sy Hai Dinh Kungsholmens Gymnasium (2014)


Basic of GR:
-

matter (energy & mass) distorts space-time

o
-

geometry of space-time determines motion of mass & energy in space-time

Unlike Euclidean geometry, in curved space-time (4D), shortest path is a geodesics:


o This means that theres no actual gravitational force because objects & light follow geodesics which are
completely determined by the bending of space-time

Consequence of GR:

(a)
(b)
(c)
Red arrows represent actual paths of light rays (which are bent as shown)
-

Figure (a): Since light must feel the same gravitational effects as a ship in a gravitational field does (such that
Equivalence Principle holds true) light must follow

-path to hit the ships front shows the bending of

light, & that light follows paths of shortest length (geodesics) this can be used for gravitational lensing
-

Figure (b): Combination of SR & Equivalence Principle gives to be constant even inside a gravitational field

for light ray


-

&

to be in phase time for

Figure (c): As time runs slower near Earth, a

must pass slower than time for

time dilation!!!

will have smaller period, higher frequency & shorter

gravitational frequency-shift blue-shift (for motion towards

), & red-shift (for motion away from

Test for the bending of light (i.e. gravitational lensing):


-

Involves measuring angle that light is bent by Suns gravity done by measuring apparent & real position of a
star can only be observed during total solar eclipse to avoid interference from Suns light

Description of experiment
testing bending of light
(dotted lines represent
imaginary lines; red lines
represent light paths)

15

Sy Hai Dinh Kungsholmens Gymnasium (2014)


-

From the figure, its clear that


value of

is the angle that the light bends due to Suns gravity experimental

is shown to be exactly the same compared to the value predicted by GR evidence for GR!!!

To increase accuracy, radio signals from very distant galaxies have been used instead of using light from a star

Pound-Rebka Experiment (test for gravitational frequency-shift) let


& observed frequency, respectively; &

&

be emitted

be the gravitational mass of

thus by law of conservation of energy, we have:


-

Emission from top:

GR & Black Holes:


-

Since

for

, derivation of Schwarzchild Radius (

) can only be estimated by Newtons law

( is distance of the near object to black holes centre) time dilation near a black hole!!!

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