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Mt s thut ng trong Business ethics

Descriptive Ethics
Describing how people behave and/or what sorts of moral standards they claim to follow.
Descriptive ethics incorporates research from the fields of anthropology, psychology, sociology
and history as part of the process of understanding what people do or have believed about moral
Normative Ethics
The category of normative ethics involves creating or evaluating moral standards. Thus, it is an
attempt to figure out what people should do or whether their current moral behavior is
Values are our fundamental beliefs. They are the principles we use to define that which is
right, good and just. Values provide guidance as we determine the right versus the wrong, the
good versus the bad. They are our standards.
Morals are values which we attribute to a system of beliefs, typically a religious system, but it
could be a political system of some other set of beliefs. These values get their authority from
something outside the individual- a higher being or higher authority (e.g. society). By that
definition one could categorize the values listed above (honesty, integrity, compassion ) as
moral values - values derived from a higher authority. That is a convenient way to differentiate
them from what are often called utilitarian or business values, such as excellence, quality, safety,
service, which define some elements of right and good in a business context.
Norms: standards of proper or acceptable behavior
Personal integrity is the quality of sticking to one's high moral principles and professionalism in
a way that allows the person to be undivided, undamaged and honest in his dealings with others.
Many people view a person with integrity as someone who "walks the talk," or, in other words,
whose actions are congruent with what he says he believes. A person with personal integrity
shows a pattern of behavior in which he lives according to what he believes and portrays his best
self at all times. A person with great personal integrity typically is honest and does not lie.
Stakeholders: Stakeholders are broadly defined as anyone who is impacted by a decisionmaker's decision. Some examples of corporate stakeholders would be shareholders, employees,
customers, suppliers, financiers, families of employees and the community in which the
corporation is located. Stakeholders could also be less directly related to the operations of a
corporation. For example, taxpayers who later need to fund a government rescue of a distressed
company, the government and even those suffering the effects of corporate pollution are all
stakeholders, in that they have a stake in decisions.
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