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Menes, Michelle I.

Recruitment and Selection
What this topic is about
Need for workforce planning
The recruitment and selection process
Advantages and disadvantages of recruitment methods
Reasons to Recruit Staff
Business expansion due to
Increasing sales of existing products
Developing new products
Entering new markets
Existing employees leave:
To work with competitors or other local employers
Due to factors such as retirement, sick leave, maternity leave
Business needs employees with new skills
Business is relocating
Not all of existing workforce want to move to new location
Changes in Employment Patterns
The way we work is changing rapidly:
Increase in part-time working
Increases in numbers of single-parent families
More women seeking work
Ageing population
Greater emphasis on flexible working hours
Technology allows employees to communicate more effectively whilst apart
People rarely stay in the same job for life
Businesses need to understand and respond to these changes if they are to recruit staff of the
right standard and keep them!
Part-time Staff + Flexible Working
Increased numbers of people in the UK are working part-time
Cheaper to employ as entitled to less benefits
More flexible workforce (easier to reduce labour hours when sales fall or add hours
when demand increases)
Wide range of potential recruits (e.g. working mothers who want to restrict the number
of hours they work)
Employees feel less loyal to business and therefore less motivated
Harder for managers to control and coordinate workforce

What is Workforce Planning?

- Workforce planning is about deciding how many and what types of workers are required
Steps in Workforce Planning
The workforce plan establishes what vacancies exist
Managers produce a job description and job specification for each post
Job description
Detailed explanation of the roles and responsibilities of the post advertised
Most applicants will ask for this before applying for the job
Refers to the post available rather than the person
Job specification
Sets out the kind of qualifications, skills, experience and personal attributes a
successful candidate should possess.
A vital tool in assessing the suitability of job applicants
Refers to the person rather than the post
Recruitment Methods
Internal recruitment
Jobs given to staff already employed by business
Involves promotion and reorganization
External recruitment
Job centers
Job advertisements
Recruitment agencies (offline and online)
Headhunting Personal recommendation
Internal Recruitment
Cheaper and quicker to recruit
People already familiar with business and how it operates
Provides opportunities for promotion with in business
Business already knows strengths and weaknesses of candidates
Limits number of potential applicants
No new ideas can be introduced from outside
May cause resentment amongst candidates not appointed
Creates another vacancy which needs to be filled
External Recruitment
Outside people bring in new ideas
Larger pool of workers from which to find best candidate
People have a wider range of experience
Longer process
More expensive process due to advertisements and interviews required

Selection process may not be effective enough to reveal best candidate

The Recruitment Process

Stages of Recruitment Process

Identifying what jobs need filling and what role and specification of job is
Finding possible candidates
Various methods (e.g. advertising) to encourage potential candidates to apply for job
Interviews and other selection processes to choose best person for job
Completing contractual employment of that person
Introducing selected candidate to business
Job Description and Specification
Job description
Detailed explanation of roles and responsibilities of post advertised
Most applicants will ask for this before applying for job
Refers to post available rather than person
Job specification
Drawn up by business
Sets out qualifications, skills, experience and personal attributes a successful candidate
should possess
Vital tool in assessing suitability of job applicants
Refers to person rather than post
Contents of a Job Description
Job Title
This indicates the role/function that the job plays within an organization, and the level of
job within that function
Reporting responsibilities: who is the immediate boss of the job holder?
Subordinates: who reports directly TO the job holder?
Main purpose: what is involved in the job overall

Main tasks: description of the main activities to be undertaken and what the job holder is
expected to achieve
Employment conditions (e.g. basis of payment; fringe benefits, holiday, period of notice,
Objectives of Recruitment Advertising
Inform audience of potential candidates about opportunity
Provide enough information to both inform and interest possible applicants
Help screen or dissuade unsuitable applicants
Obtain most number of suitably qualified applicants for post advertised
Note recruitment adverts can be published internally and externally
Placing a Job Advertisement
Internal recruitment
Notice boards
Staff magazines & newsletters
External recruitment
Newspapers and magazines
Job centres
Employment agencies and Head- hunters
Direct contacts (e.g. with employees in a competitor business) Internet recruitment
Role of a Recruitment Agency
A recruitment agency works to provide a link between the employer and employee
Potential employees register with the agency and provide personal details
Employers approach the agency for shortlists of potential candidates
Recruitment agencies charge a fee for the service
Main fee is to the employer
Usually a percentage of the employees wages and salary in the first 6-12 months
Often an expensive option
Some agencies specialize in particular employment areas
E.g. nursing, financial services, teacher recruitment
What to Consider When Advertising
Type of job
Senior management jobs merit adverts in the national newspapers and/or specialist
management magazines
Many semi-skilled jobs need only be advertised locally to attract sufficient good quality
Cost of advertising
National newspapers and television cost significantly more than local newspapers etc
Readership and circulation
How many relevant people does the medium reach?
How frequently is the publication published?

How often does the business want to advertise the post?
A Good Job Advertisement Accurate
Accurate - Describes the job and its requirements accurately
Short - Not too long-winded; covers just the important ground
Honest - Does not make claims about the job or the business that will later prove false to
Positive - Gives the potential applicant a positive feel about joining the business
Relevant - Provides details that prospective applicants need to know at the application
stage (e.g. is shift-working required; are there any qualifications required)
Contents of a Job Advertisement
Details of the business (name, brand, location, business activities)
Outline details of the job (title, main duties)
Conditions (special factors affecting the job)
Experience / qualifications required Rewards (financial and non- financial)
Application process (how should applicants apply, how to; deadlines)
Contents of a job application form
Personal details (name, nationality etc.)
Educational history & qualifications
Previous employment history (periods, positions, roles, achievements)
Suitability and reasons for applying for job
A chance for applicants to sell themselves
Names of referees
Curriculum Vitae
A written document
Often on one or two sides of A4
Designed by the job applicant
Covers similar ground as job application
Advantages of a job application versus a CV
Business can tailor questions and format to exact needs
An application form forces candidates to answer same questions and provide information in a
consistent format
CVs often come in many different formats, with key information either missing or presented in
different ways
Encourages the applicant to consider the specific needs of the employer e.g. respond to
questions relevant to the employer
More likely to get up-to-date information from the applicant
Reasons for Rejecting Candidates at Application Form Stage
May not meet standards set out in job specification
Wrong qualifications
Insufficient experience

May not have completed application form to a satisfactory standard

May be unlucky
Employer has set a limit on number of candidates who progress through to interview
The Shortlist
Long list = total pool of applicants
Shortlist = small number of suitable applicants that meet the job criteria
Should ideally be drawn up by two people, acting independently
Important not to only include perfect or ideal candidates
Recruitment Interview
Interview is a crucial part of the recruitment process
Chance for an employer to meet applicant face to face
Can obtain much more information on:
What person is like?
Whether they are suitable for job
Whether they will fit into the business
Interview is also an important for the candidate
Obtain information about job
Assess the working culture of a possible new employer
Recruitment interviewing is a hard skill
Often it is done very poorly!
Information to Obtain During a Recruitment Interview
By the employer:
Information that cannot be obtained on paper from a CV or application form
Conversational ability- often known as people skills
Natural enthusiasm or manner of applicant
See how applicant reacts under pressure
Queries or extra details missing from CV or application form
By the employee
Whether job or business is right for them
What is culture of company like?
What are exact details of job that may be omitted from job description?
Selection Tests
Aptitude tests
Intelligence tests
Personality tests
Why used
Basic interview can be unreliable as applicants can perform well at interview but not
have qualities or skills needed for job
Selection tests increase chances of choosing best applicant and so minimize high costs
of recruiting wrong people

Job Analysis & Design

What is Job Analysis?
Compiling a detailed description of tasks
Determining the relationship of the job to technology & other jobs
Examining the knowledge, qualifications or employment standards
Listing the accountabilities associated with the job
Describing the environment in which the job is performed
Job analysis information hierarchy

How to Conduct Job Analysis?

- Observation method
- Individual interview method
- Group interview method
- Structured questionnaire method
- Technical conference method
- Diary method
Job Analysis Process
Functional Job Analysis
Developed by DOL
Conducted via observation and interview
Three general functions of all jobs
1. Data
2. People and
3. Things
Position analysis Questionnaire
Developed by Purdue University
PAQ generates job requirement information
More quantitative/detailed description of jobs
Five dimensions of a job
1. decision-having making /communication/social responsibilities
2. Performing skilled activities
3. Being physically active/related environmental conditions

4. Operating vehicles/equipment
5. Processing information
Significance of Job Analysis
Job Descriptions: explains what a job holder does, how it is done and why it is done.
Important for describing the job to potential candidates, guiding newly hired employees,
providing the basis for comparing the actual performance with the stated duties
Job Specifications: outlines the knowledge, skills and qualifications required for the job.
Important for selection decisions
Job Evaluations: provides inputs for determining the compensation or fixing the value of
the job. Important part of compensation administration
Job Design Can job design and work scheduling affect motivation?
Hackman & Oldhams Job Characteristics Model

Job Redesign/ alternate work schedules

Job enrichment: Redesigning jobs in a way that increases the opportunities for the worker
to experience feelings of responsibility, achievement, growth, and recognition.
Job enlargement: Assigning workers additional same level activities, thus increasing the
number of activities they perform.
Job rotation: Moving a trainee from department to department to broaden his or her
experience and identify strong and weak points to prepare the person for an enhanced role
with the company. Systematically moving workers from one job to another to enhance
work team performance.
flex-time, home work, work sharing