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PATHOLOGY ASSIGNMENT 2 16/1/2010

NAME: OMAR MOHAMUD SALAH NO: 0085

Inflammation and disorders of the central nervous system
Nervous system contains CNS (brain and spinal cord) and PNS (other nerves in the body.
The inflammation of the brain is called encephalitis and is characterized by purulent or
proliferative changes. Encephalitis is inflammation of brain and spinal cord.
Inflammation central nervous system is classified in to may types according to their
locations and they are presented blow:
Encephalitis: is the inflammation of the brain
myelitis is the inflammation of the spinal cord
epedymitis is the inflammation of the ependyma
choroiditis is the inflamtion of the choroid plexux
Meningitis is the inflammation of the meninges and when it involves to the pia matter
and arachinoid it is called leptomeningitis and when dura is involved is called
Pachymeningitis
\Leptomeningitis can be classified according to etiology (eg. Bacterial, mycotic) and
according to duration (eg. acute, chronic) and according to the type of exudate
(eg. Fibrinous, purulent)

Neuritis
This is the inflammation of the nerves along with degenerative changes characterized
with oedema and inflammation of the cells.

Causes
• Toxins
• Trauma
• Virus
• Lead mercury
• Bacteria (strangles)
• Deficiency of vitamin

Macroscopic lesions
• Wallerian degeneration
• Infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes.
• More destraction at distal end of the neuron
Encephalitis:
Causes of encephalitis

 Bacteria
-Heamophius spp.
- Pastaurella spp.
 Virus
 Mycoplasm
 strychinie poisoning
Macroscopic lesions
 Congestion
PATHOLOGY ASSIGNMENT 2 16/1/2010
NAME: OMAR MOHAMUD SALAH NO: 0085
 Hemorrhage
 Small, tiny abscess
 Necrosis, also known as encephalomalacia.
 Involvement of spinal cord leads to encephalomyelitis and of meanings and is
called meningocephallitis.
Encephalomalacia
Encephalomalecia is the necrosis of the nervous tissue in brain characterized by loss of
normal architacture and soft friable liquefied mass.
Causes
Deficient of copper thiamine, vitamin E
Poisoning: bracken fern, lead, mercury, salt, poisoning, enterotoxaemia and mycotoxins.
Macroscopic features
 Encephalomalecia nescrosis in brain.
 Myeliomalacia - necrosis in spinal cord gray matter
 Poliomalcia - necrosis in brain
 Leukomalacia - necrosis in brain and spinal cord gray matter

Meningitis
This is inflammation of the meninges
Usually occurs in the encephalitis or encephalomyelitis with the characteristic of
congestion and infiltration of neutrophils.
Causes of meningitis
 Virus (like swine fever)
 Bacteria
 Toxoplasma
 Leptospira

Macroscopic lesions
 Congestion
 Inflammation of neutrophils and lymphocytes
 Fibrosis
 Increased white blood cells
 Neutrophils with bacterial meningitis
 Increased protein (mild with viral)
 Reduced glucose with bacterial meningitis

SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY
This is charectrized by the precense of vacuoles in the gray or in the white matter.
Causes
 Prion protein
 Scrapie in sheep
 BSE in cattle

Macroscopic features
PATHOLOGY ASSIGNMENT 2 16/1/2010
NAME: OMAR MOHAMUD SALAH NO: 0085
 No gross lesion
 Edema of brain
 Congestion

Disease associated with the nervous disorders
One of the most important nervous diseases in Somali eco system is rabies.
Rabies: Rabies is a viral neuroinvasive disease that causes acute encephalitis
(inflammation of the brain) in warm-blooded animals. It is zoonotic (transmitted by
animals), most commonly by a bite from an infected animal but occasionally by other
forms of contact. Rabies is almost invariably fatal if post-exposure prophylaxis is not
administered prior to the onset of severe symptoms. It is a significant killer of livestock in
some countries.

Gross lesions of rabies:
• Negri bodies in neuronal cytoplasm
• Lymphocytic foci
• Babes nodules consisting of glial cells
• Negri bodies
• Typical of non-suppurative encephalitis with ganglioneuritis and parotid endetitis
• Hemorrhage in the gray matter of the spinal cord
• Severe non-suppurative inflammation of trigerminal ganglion
• Gangloneuritis occurs particularly in the gasserian ganglion.
• Vascular lesions investigated.
• Lesions in salivary glands consist of degeneration and necrosis of acinar
epithelium.
• Pre vascular cuffing, focal and diffuse gliosis, degeneration.
• Mononuclear infiltration
• Perivascular cuffing of lymphocytes or polymorphonuclear cells