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INDUSTRIAL VISIT AT

APOLLO TYRES LTD.
KALAMASSERY.
TEAM
S N M MEMBERS
l l
I N S T I T U T E O F
M A N A G E M E N T &
1. T E C HO.V
VISHNU ANAND N O L O G Y
M A L I A N K A R A
N . P A R A V U R
2. RAJEESH
[ T .G.NAIR
y p e t h e p h o n e
n u m b e r ]
[ T y p e t h e f a x n u m b
3. JIBIN.V.R[ P i c k t h e d a
e r ]
t e ]
C
ONTENTS
4. SHIBIN.T.B

5. ARUN N.S

6. SANGEETH SAGAR

1. INTRODUCTION
2. OBJECTIVE
3. HISTORY OF TYRES
4. ORGANISATION STRUCTURE
5. DEPARTMENTS AND FUNCTIONS
6. MANUFACTURING PROCESS
1. INTRODUCTION

The Organizational Structure Study at Apollo Tyres Ltd is a humble effort to understand and
comprehend about the organization. Here we have tried to make a study on its success, particularly trying to
concentrate on the structure of the organization, the role of its various departments and also the manufacturing
process.

Apollo Tyres is engaged in the manufacture of automobile tyres and tubes at Perambra and
Kalamassery, Kerala; Vadodara, Gujarat and Pune, Maharashtra. Mahindra and Mahindra and TAFC are its
major OEM clients. The company was incorporated in 1972 and commenced its production in 1977. It was the
first to receive the ISO 9001 accreditation in the Indian tyre industry for its entire range of brands. Apollo Tyres
Ltd took over Premier Tyres in Apr.'95 in which its sick Stallion Tyres came under the Apollo brand name.
Kalamassey plant commenced its operations in September 1962 under Premier Tyres when Apollo Tyres Ltd
took over Premier Tyres Kalamassey plant also came under Apollo Tyres Ltd at 1995.

Now Apollo Tyres Ltd. is currently the 16th largest tyre manufacturer in the world and the second
largest in India. It is also one of the fastest growing tyre companies in the world.

2. OBJECTIVE OF THE INDUSTRIAL VISIT

The requirement to undergo industrial visit in an organization is a dynamic exposure to the engineering
students during their course of study. The objective of the study is to:
1. Understand the structure and function of Apollo Tyres, Kalamassery.
2. Understand how the different departments function and the internal activities between them.
3. Understand the various manufacturing steps involved in tyre making at Apollo Tyres, Kalamassery

The study is to have an exposure into the functioning of the organization and its different departments.
3. HISTORY OF TYRES

The most important application of rubber relates to the transport sector, of which the tyre Industry
consumes over 60% of the total rubber produced. After the invention of the wheel by the Sumerians 5000 years
ago it was refined over the ages. In the year 1846, R.W. Thomson invented the predecessor of the pneumatic
tyres of the modern age. From there, the tyre industry has grown to be one of the largest industry of today.

During the last 20 years tyre has been virtually reinvented with most modern technologies like steel
radial tyres, tubeless tyres,. a milestone in the tyre technology. Tyre sector is experiencing a rapid improvement
with the advent of newer technologies.

A tyre is an annular round shaped container made of elastic material, reinforced by textile materials and
tightened by metal rings. Geometrically it is a torus, mechanically it is a pressure container, chemically a tyre
consists of materials from long chain macromolecules usually different types of rubber. A pneumatic tyre is a
fabricated structure, which holds air that carries the load of the vehicle with which it is attached to.
4. ORGANISATION STRUCTURE OF APOLLO TYRES LTD.

Manager Purchase, RMS,
Purchase FGS, Engg goods

Manager Systems
Systems

Manager PPC
PPC

Mech.maint,
Division Electrical&electron
head Engg. ics insrumentation,
Design & projects
civil, utilities
Division
Production
head
production
Division head Tyre Engg, heat
Unit Head
Technical engg, compounding

Division head HR, IR, time office,
HR security,
safety,welfare.admin

Assoc. manager Industrial Engg
(Industrial engg.
Dept)

Manager Accounts, finance,
F& A costing, excise

Manager
(Quality Quality assurance,
assurance) ISO-9000, QS-9000

5. DEPARTMENTS AND FUNCTIONS
5.1 HUMAN RESOURCES DEPARTMENT

Human resources play a crucial role in the development process of the present economy. Though the
exploitation of natural resources, availability of physical and financial resources and international aid play
prominent roles in the growth of modern economies, none of these factors is more significant than efficient and
committed manpower.

FUNCTIONS

1. RECRUITMENT
2. TRAINING
3. TIME OFFICE
4. INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS
5. SAFETY
6. SECURITY
7. WELFARE
ORGANISATION STRUCTURE OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENT

Group
Executives
Head
manager
HR & Admin
security

Manager Admin
Executives

Manager personal & IR

Assoc. manager Assoc. manager Assoc. manager
IR Time office
Executives
Executives Executives
5.2 PURCHASES & STORES DEPARTMENT

PURCHASE DEPARTMENT

This department is concerned with the purchase of both indigenous and imported materials. It covers
procurement of indigenous engineering spares, general engineering and miscellaneous items other than raw
materials. This department is headed by senior manager and under him there are a number of officers and staff.
The department is provided with the latest communication facilities and computers

FUNCTIONS

1. To ensureContinuous availability of materials
2. Make purchase competitively and wisely at the most economical price.
3. Purchase in reasonable quantities to keep investment in materials at minimum.
4. Purchase proper quality of materials to have minimum possible wastage of materials and loss in
production.
5. To develop good supplier relationship, this will ensure the best terms of supply of materials.
6. To develop alternative sources of supply.
7. Adopt most advantageous method of purchase to ensure smooth delivery of materials.
8. To act as an information centre on the materials knowledge.
9. To sum up, the basic objective of setting up a separate purchase department is to ensure continuous
availability of requisite quality of materials, to avoid hold up of production and loss in production and at
the same time reduce the ultimate cost of finished product.
STORES DEPARTMENT

Inventory department is responsible for storing the raw materials, finished goods and spare parts required for
the smooth functioning of the organisation. In this era of cutthroat competition companies cannot survive
without a well-managed inventory. A number of Inventory control techniques like ABC, VED etc are used for
maintaining an optimum level of inventory. The efficiency of the manufacturing operations largely depends on
the efficient functioning of the receiving and stores operations.

FUNCTIONS
The important functions of stores department are receipt, storage, retrieval, issue records, house keeping,
surplus stock, verification, co-ordination and co-operation.

ION STRUCTURE OF PURCHASES & STORES DEPARTMENT
STORES
PURCHAS
EXECUTIVES
GROUP
ASSO.
E MANAGER
(ENGG
(PURCHASE)
KERALA
(RMS)
(FGS)
STORES)
FACTORIES

5.3 PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT & PPC

PPC is an important department of the company headed by a senior manager. The department consists
of a senior officer, one officer, 4 junior officers and 4 production assistants. For administrative purpose plant is
divided into 3 divisions A, B, C. Banbury mixer, dip chord unit, 4 roll and 3 roll calendering units, dual
extruder and cement house come under division A. The horizontal and vertical bias cutters, Bead winding units
and tyre building units come under division B. Division C covers tyre curing section.

FUNCTIONS
The main function of PPC is to plan production in such a way as to make the best use of available
resources so as to meet the target set by the Management. Importance is given to best possible capacity
utilisation in terms of manpower, raw materials and equipment. The PPC department receives monthly ticket
from the management. This is converted to monthly production plan which in turn is distributed into a daily
plan on the basis of the number of working days and lead time required for making each component.

ORGANISATION STRUCTURE OF PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL
DEPARTMENT

Group Manager

Assoc. Manager Assoc. Manager Assoc. Manager

Executives
5.4 TECHNICAL DEPARTMENT

The Technical department plays a very crucial role in the organisation. It is basically an R&T (research
and technology) department. Technical department is mainly concerned with improving quality of tyres by
methods like reduction in curing cycles, reducing tyre shape problems etc. Technical coordination meetings
take place once in every 3 months. The Technical coordination committee will consist of members from
marketing field also. Technical Department looks after tyre engineering, heat engineering and related matters
and this department has close contacts with the production department

ORGANISATION STRUCTURE OF TECHNICAL DEPARTMENT

Division Head

Assoc.
Executives
Manager
Manager
5.5 QUALITY ASSURANCE DEPARTMENT

Quality is the totality of characteristic of an entity that bears on its ability to satisfy, stated and implied
needs. Quality is referred to as 'fitness for use' or 'fitness for purpose' or 'customer satisfaction' or 'conformance
to requirements'.
QA is the well-planned and systematic activities implemented within the quality system and
demonstrated as needed to provide adequate confidence that an entity will fulfill requirements for quality.
For international trade transaction ISO Certification has become inevitable. ATL has got the privilege to
have ISO 9001 Certification. ISO 9001 covers the quality system and model for QA in design, development,
production, installation and servicing.

FUNCTIONS

1.RAW MATERIAL TESTING
Quality of all the raw materials received are tested in the laboratory consists of three different sections.

1. Fabric laboratory
The laboratory tests all fabric and steel wires received, and at all stage of the process i.e. after
dipping, after calendering, and in the cured stage etc.

2. Chemical laboratory
This laboratory carries out tests for all polymers, fillers and chemicals.

3. Physical laboratory
All rubber compounds in process are tested in the laboratory on each stage i.e., after mixing in the
Banbury, after extrusion, and calendering and after curing.

2. TYRE TESTING

Samples of cured tyres are tested indoors on a test wheel. The wheel simulates the running condition of
a tyre, primarily used to detect carcass strength and heat generation. Tyres are also fitted on different vehicles to
study the effects of different types of roads, loads and climate conditions
ORGANISATION STRUCTURE OF QUALITY ASSURANCE DEPARTMENT

Manager
Process control & Audit Laboratory

Assoc. Manager Assoc. manager
Quality Engg. Systems product testing

Executives Executives Executives Executives
5.6 INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
Group manager is the head of this department and there are associate manager and executives under him. The
main objective of this department is to plan, design, implement and manage integrated production and service
delivery systems that assure productivity, quality, reliability, maintainability and cost control to keep Apollo
globally competitive.

FUNCTIONS
Conduct work-studies, improvement studies in various equipment and fixation of norms. Capacity
calculation in various equipment from time to time consequent to various changes. Design, Implementation
and follow up of incentive schemes in various zones. Planning and assessment of manpower requirements
of various departments periodically. Studying plant layout and material handling systems and suggesting
improvements. Explore the possibilities of capacity expansion and prepare project reports. Negotiations
with unions regarding various issues like incentive schemes, productivity, expansion and labour issues.
Analysis of capital expenditure request from various departments and make recommendations to Senior
Management Committee. Prepare budgetary planning for capital and cash flow requirement. Prepare
documents for long-term settlements, bonus settlements etc. and represent the management in the meetings
with the Unions /Labour Departments.

ORGANISATION STRUCTURE OF
Group Manager
Assoc.
Executives
Manager

5.7 ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
This department consists of Electrical, Mechanical and utility division

UTILITY DIVISION

The Utility division is the source of steam, power, water and compressed air.

ELECTRICAL WORK SHOP
The main job of this department is electrical maintenance including electronic instrumentation.

MECHANICAL

The main job of this deparment is mechanical maintenance of various machines used in production at time to
time.

ORGANISATION STRUCTURE OF ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

GROUPDIV.
GROUP MANAGER
HEAD
MANAGER
MANAGER
MANAGER
(PROJECTS
ENGINEERING
& DESIGN/
(INSTRUMENTATION)
(ELECTRICAL
MECHANICAL
UTILITIES
& CIVIL)
ELECTRONICS)
5.8 ACCOUNTING AND FINANCE DEPARTMENT

The corporate office situated at Gurgaon does most of the accounting and taxation jobs of Apollo tyres. At
Kalamassery plant there is a separate accounting and finance department. This department deals with salary,
wages and costing. Excise duty of the raw materials also comes under this department.

ORGANISATION STRUCTURE OF ACCOUNTS AND FINANCE DEPARTMENT
DIV.
ASSO.
EXECUTIVES
ASSO.
MANAGER
HEAD
MANAGER
MANAGER
(A/Cs
AFD-
(EXCISE)
(COSTING)
& KOCHI
FINANCE)
5.9 SYSTEMS DEPARTMENT

The system department is responsible for computerisation of different departments of Apollo tyres ltd. The
main function of this department, operates and co ordinates all systems in the organization. The simple structure
of department facilitates speedy communication flow with in the department.The software used in Apollo tyres
ltd kalamssery is SAP R/3

FUNCTIONS

1.MONITORING FUNCTION
Security problems in the SAP were solved using Central Virus Scanning System and Firewall at the head office
(Gurgaon, Haryana). HCL solve all the problems related to the network connection.

2. MAINTENANCE FUNCTION
The system department in the plant solved network problems as well as computer problems. Regular backups
were taken daily, weekly and monthly for providing reliability in the SAP system.

ORGANISATION STRUCTURE OF SYSTEMS DEPARTMENT

Division
ExecutiveHead
5.10 MARKETING DEPARTMENT

Sustained growth of ATL in the recent period of time is the result of planned and focused marketing
initiatives. There is no separate department for marketing in Kalamassery plant and in Perambra. ATL has three
corporate offices in Kerala (Cochin (Main office), Trivandrum, and Calicut which does the market functions for
company.

FUNCTIONS

1. To fix a reasonable price for the product.
2. To satisfy customers by providing high quality products.
3. Carry out promotional activities.
4. To identify new segments.
5. To carry out market research to collect information regarding price variations, export and analyzing
the current market situations.

6. MANUFACTURING PROCESS
The entire production system has been broadly divided in to three sections, namely Division A,
Division B and Division C.

DIVISION A

BANBURY
All polymers are mixed with filler, process oil and other chemicals to give different grades of rubber
compounds in the Banbury.The compound is mixed in power pack machine which is operated by a hydraulic
unit, the gases used for hydraulic operations are hydrogen and nitrogen. The mixed batch is then dropped on a
batch off mill for further mixing to form the rubber compound and then in to a sheet form. The rubber in sheet
form is then passed through a conveyor and stacked on skids. Each type of rubber compound is specifically
compounded for tyre performance. Tyre meant for high way services and fast speed have different rubber
formulation as compared to tyres for mining service, agricultural service etc, large bales of natural rubber are
cut into smaller parts by a bale cutter, prior to mixing in the Banbury. Carbon black, process oil, and other
chemicals are mixed in the Banbury along with rubber under specified temperature and time. An essential
characteristic of the Banbury is to give a good mix of fillers and chemicals with the rubber polymer. Normally
all rubber compounds are mixed in to two stages and natural rubber compounds in three stages, as natural
rubbers being tough, requires mastication. The final stage in the Banbury is a critical stage when the sulphur
and other curing agents are added.

After from Banbury the rubber sheets are get through extruders

EXTRUDERS
Extruders are distinguished by the diameter of their screws and are a single or dual type.

1.SINGLE EXTRUDER
Rubber compounds after being broken down and warmed up on Mills, are fed in to the screw of the
extruders from which with the help of dies, produces a green shape of treads, side walls, and other strips as per
specified dimensions and contours, width, gauge and weights. These strips are cooled in water sprayed
conveyors and then cut out in to specified lengths with the help of spadown (sidewall cutting machine) and
booked in metal trays or wrapped in cotton liners. The word green denote uncured rubber (i.e., non vulcanized)

2.DUAL EXTRUDER
Two separate set of mills on which two different types of compounds are broken down and heated and
fed separately to two different screws. The two compounds after extrusion are extruded together in a common
head and with the help of performer and final dies, emerge in to a pre-determined shape. The advantage of dual
extruder is that two rubber compounds of completely different composition can be extruded.In dual extruder
cap and base extruded to form tread.After forming tread through dual extruder it passes to the cooling
conveyors where it is cooled down by water spraying then its fed into skiver (Tread cutting machine with rotary
cutting knife) to cut into required lenth.

CORD DIPPING UNIT
Rayon and nylon cord requires treatment in order to make them suitable for adhesion of rubber
compounds. These cord fabric are passed through a liquid rubber solution called 'latex' and is heated under
tension through special ovens. Each type of fabric like rayon, Nylon, Polyester etc should be coated with
specific amount of rubber latex in the cord-dipping unit. Fabric after passing through cord dipping unit is
wound up in rolls and wrapped and packed in polyethylene in order to prevent absorption of moisture from the
atmosphere.
CALENDER
All fabric is coated with specific compounds in the calendar.Calendering is the process of forming a
compound sheet by sandwiching nylon thread between two rubber sheets . Cord fabric is coated on both sides
with rubber layer, where as square woven fabrics are normally frictioned and then they are coated on one side
or both sides. Coating consists of applying a rubber layer to top and bottom surface of the cords. Calenders are
of various types. 3 roll calender makes a layer of rubber compound between the top and middle roll and
squeezes the rubber layer on to the fabric on one side between the middle and bottom roll. The fabric is then to
be run again through the three-roll calender in a similar process to get a coat on either side. The 4-roll calender
can coat on both sides of the fabric with rubber layers simultaneously. After calendering, fabrics are wound in
cotton liners in order to prevent sticking. Calenders are also used to produce rubber layers to different widths
and gauge that are required in the process of tyre manufacturing.

DIVISION B

BEAD WINDING SECTION

Machines : 1.Universal bead winding machine(Pneumatic type)
2.FSW (mechanical type)

The bead building machine manufacturers beads for all types of tyres. Beads consists of a number of
strands of copper coated steel wire which is coated with a layer of rubber compound and then wound to
specified diameter depending on each tyre. Bead building machine consists of a lot of strands, for each strand of
wire spools, which is brought together and coated on an extruder with a layer of rubber compound and then
wound on a check which determines the final diameter. These rubber coated wire spools are then covered with
rubberised cotton sq. woven fabric with necessary fillers or rubber compounds. The functions of beads in a tyre
are to anchor the tyre while mounting rims of vehicles.After bead winding the beads are get in to Apexing and
Flipping.Apexing is the coating of rubber layer over the bead and Fliping is the covering rubber layer over the
bead .Fliping is done after Apexing.
BIAS CUTTER
Machines: 1.Vertical bias cutter
2.Horizontal bias cutter

Fabric after coating from the calender is run through bias cutter, which cuts the fabric to, specified
widths and angles. The width depends on the type of tyres and the angle of-the cut depends on the type of tyre
services required. The regular bias angle tyre, the angle of the cords varies from 35inches to 45 inches from
bead to bead. This is the basic difference between the radial and biased angle tyres.

TYRE BUILDING MACHINE

There are two types of tyre building machines
1.machines with turret –P1,P2,60RS and RB3
2. machines without turret-P3,P4,P5
For machines without turret to supply bands for green tyre building there is nother type of machines
called band building machines (Rolling type).

GREEN TYRE MANUFACTURING
All the necessary compounds like beads, plies (cord fabric), breakers, treads, sidewalls, chafer etc are
brought to the tyre-building machine. The tyre-building machine have a turret for holding different numbers of
plies, breaker fabric, chafer rolls besides tread applying conveyor. Tyre building machine itself consists of a
shaft, which can rotate at different speeds. The direction of rotation can also be changed. According to the size
of the tyre to be built specified building drum is mounted in the shaft of the tyre-building machine. The fabric
layers are then applied to the drum along with the bead wire bundles, which are compressed together with the
help of different types of sticher wheels. After building cord carcass on the drum, in the final stage the green
tread, sidewall and chafers are applied. The green tyres, which are in cylindrical form, are removed from the
drum by collapsing the same.
After green tyre manufactured the same are send to Auto awling machine in this machine drills
pinholes on the surface of green tyres to remove the entrapped air from it for to reduce ruptures arising from
the air holes and giving the tyres a good life period.
DIVISION C
TYRE CURING

Two types of tyre curing: 1. Bagomatic curing (Bladder type)
2.Shear strip curing (Airbag type)

Before tyre curing all the green tyres are send to lube booth at lube booth inner walls of green tyres are applied
with mica this to prevent sticking airbags or bladder to the inner surface of the green tyre.

BAGOMATIC CURING
The green tyre from the tyre-building machine is prepared for vulcanization by the application of
lubricants on the inner and outer surfaces for better moulding. The Bagomatic curing press which is the latest
design (no separate air bags are required) consists of a thin synthetic cured bladder positioned in the center of
the bottom half of the mould over which the green tyres are placed. As the press starts to close, steam pressure
is applied in to the bladder, which gives the tyre a press shape, and the pressure is increased till the full shape of
the tyre reached when the press is closed. (I.e., both the top and bottom halves of the moulds are in contact with
each other). At this stage when the press is fully closed under high internal pressure and temperature, curing
media like steam and hot water are passed through the bladder while the outer surface of the mould is heated by
the steam. The internal pressure in the bladder is critical for the purpose of obtaining good moulding effects.
The heat or temperature applied to different locations of the tyre compounds has to be as per the specifications.
Less heat or temperature will cause an under cure condition and excess heat or temperature will cause
deterioration in the rubber compounding fabric. After vulcanization, the tyre is removed from the press.

SHEAR STRIP CURING
In shear strip curing instead of bladder inflated airbags are used the bags are inserted into the
green tyres called tyre bagging after this the green tyres with bags are placed in the press .As the press starts to
close, steam pressure is applied in to the bags through the holes provided in it which gives the tyre a press
shape.As the press at completely closed position the internal pressure increases which will give the green tyre as
the shape provided in the press. After the tyre with required shape is manufactured the tyres fom the shear strip
curing process is get into a tyre debagging machine which removes the bags from the tyres .
After the tyre curing process the tyres from both curing process are placed in PCI unit (Post Curing
Inflation) which is a testing I this the tyres are inflated with air.After from the PCI unit tyres are get to the final
finishing and inspection unit where the tyres are inspected for any defects if any defects are found, tyres send
back to rework .All the tyres which is passes the inspection are get into final finishing process then to the ware
houses for storing or shipping.

BOILERS
All the steam and hot water needed for the curing and all the other process are supplied from the boilers
.Apollo Tyres Kalamassery have two boilers
1.Shellmax boiler (Water tube boiler)
2.Wester work (Fire tube boiler)
PRODUCTION PROCESS

Banbury mixer

Mills

Calendar Extruder

Dip unit Bias cutting Thread skiver

Band building

Bead building
Tyre building
unit

Tyre curing

Post cure inflation

Final inspection

Warehouse

.