INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LABORATORY

SYLLABUS
1

EC 1314 AIM:

INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LABORATORY

0 0 3

100

To study various digital & linear integrated circuits used in simple system configuration. LIST OF EXPERIMENTS: 1. Study of Basic Digital IC’s. Verification of truth table for AND, OR, EXOR, NOT, NOR, NAND, JK FF, RS FF, D FF) 2. Implementation of Boolean Functions, Adder/ Subtractor circuits. 3.a). Code converters, Parity generator and parity checking, Excess 3, 2s Complement, Binary to gray code using suitable IC’s . b) Encoders and Decoders: Decimal and Implementation of 4-bit shift registers in SISO,SIPO,PISO,PIPO modes using suitable IC’s. 4. Counters: Design and implementation of 4-bit modulo counters as synchronous and asynchronous types using FF IC’s and specific counter IC. 5. Shift Registers: Design and implementation of 4-bit shift registers in SISO, SIPO, PISO, PIPO modes using suitable IC’s. 6. Multiplex/ De-multiplex : Study of 4:1; 8:1 multiplexer and Study of 1:4; 1:8 demultiplexer 7. Timer IC application. Study of NE/SE 555 timer in Astable, Monostable operation. 8. Application of Op-Amp-I Slew rate verifications, inverting and non-inverting amplifier, Adder, comparator, Integrator and Differentiator. 9. Study of Analog to Digital Converter and Digital to Analog Converter: Verification of A/D conversion using dedicated IC’s. 10. Study of VCO and PLL ICs i. Voltage to frequency characteristics of NE/ SE 566 IC. ii. Frequency multiplication using NE/SE 565 PLL IC. P = 45 Total = 45

DETAILED SYLLABUS
2

1.

Study of Basic Digital IC’s. (Verification of truth table for AND, OR, EXOR, NOT, NOR, NAND, JK FF, RS FF, D FF) Aim To test of ICs by using verification of truth table of basic ICs. Exercise 1. Breadboard connection of ICs with truth table verification using LED’s.

2. Implementation of Boolean Functions, Adder/ Subtractor circuits. [Minimization using K-map and implementing the same in POS, SOP from Using basic gates] Aim Minimization of functions using K-map implementation and combination Circuit. Exercise 1. Realization of functions using SOP, POS, form. 2. Addition, Subtraction of at least 3 bit binary number using basic gate IC’ s. 3a) Code converters, Parity generator and parity checking, Excess 3, 2s Complement, Binary to gray code using suitable IC’s . Aim Realizing code conversion of numbers of different bar. Exercise 1 2. 3b) Conversion Binary to Grey, Grey to Binary; 1’s. 2’s complement of numbers addition, subtraction, Parity checking of numbers using Gates and with dedicated IC’s

Encoders and Decoders: Decimal and Implementation of 4-bit shift registers in SISO, SIPO, PISO, PIPO modes using suitable IC’s. Exercise 1. Decimal to binary Conversion using dedicated IC’s. 2. BCD – 7 Segment display decoder using dedicated decoder IC& display. Counters: Design and implementation of 4-bit modulo counters as synchronous and asynchronous types using FF IC’s and specific counter IC 3

4.

Aim Design and implementation of 4 bit modulo counters. Exercise 1. 2. 5. Using flip-flop for up-down count synchronous count. Realization of counter function using dedicated ICs.

Shift Registers Design and implementation of 4-bit shift registers in SISO, SIPO, PISO, PIPO modes using suitable IC’s. Aim Design and implementation of shift register. Exercise 1. 2. Shift Register function realization of the above using dedicated IC’s For SISO, SIPO, PISO, PIPO, modes of atleast 3 bit binary word. Realization of the above using dedicated IC’s.

6.

Multiplex/ De-multiplex Study of 4:1; 8:1 multiplexer and Study of 1:4; 1:8 demultiplexer Aim To demonstrate the addressing way of data channel selection for multiplex De-multiplex operation. Exercise 1. 2. Realization of mux-demux functions using direct IC’s. Realization of mux-demux using dedicated IC’s for 4:1, 8:1, and vice versa.

7.

Timer IC application. Study of NE/SE 555 timer in Astable, Monostable operation. Aim To design a multi vibrator circuit for square wave and pulse generation. Exercise 1. Realization of Astable multivibrator & monostable multivibrator circuit 4

2. 8.

using Timer IC. Variation of R, C, to vary the frequency, duty cycle for signal generator.

Application of Op-Amp-I Slew rate verifications, inverting and non-inverting amplifier, Adder, comparator, Integrator and Differentiator. Aim Design and Realization of Op-Amp application. Exercise 1. 2. 3. Verification of Op-Amp IC characteristics. Op-Amp IC application for simple arithmetic circuit. Op-Amp IC application for voltage comparator wave generator and wave shifting circuits.

9.

Study of Analog to Digital Converter and Digital to Analog Converter: Verification of A/D conversion using dedicated IC’s. Aim Realization of circuit for digital conversions. Exercise 1. 2. Design of circuit for analog to digital signal conversion using dedicated IC’s. Realization of circuit using dedicated IC for digital analog conversion.

10.

Study of VCO and PLL IC’s i). Voltage to frequency characteristics of NE/ SE 566 IC. ii). Frequency multiplication using NE/SE 565 PLL IC. Aim Demonstration of circuit for communication application Exercise 1. 2. To realize V/F conversion using dedicated IC’s vary the frequency of the generated signal. To realize PLL IC based circuit for frequency multiplier, divider. .

5

CYCLE – I

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
6

CYCLE I : Applications of Op-Amp - I. ( Inverting and Non – Inverting Amplifier) Applications of Op-Amp – II. ( Differentiator and Integrator) Timer IC Applications – I. ( Astable Multivibrator) Timer IC Applications – II. ( Monostable Multivibrator)

1.

2.

3.

4.

5. Study of basic Digital ICs. 6. Implementation of Boolean functions. 7. Implementation of Half Adder & Full Adder.

Expt. No.1

APPLICATIONS OF OP-AMP - I ( INVERTING AND NON – INVERTING AMPLIFIER) 7

1. a. INVERTING AMPLIFIER AIM: To design an Inverting Amplifier for the given specifications using Op-Amp IC 741. APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Name of the Apparatus Function Generator CRO Dual RPS Op-Amp Bread Board Resistors Connecting wires and probes Range 3 MHz 30 MHz 0 – 30 V IC 741 As required As required Quantity 1 1 1 1 1

THEORY: The input signal Vi is applied to the inverting input terminal through R1 and the noninverting input terminal of the op-amp is grounded. The output voltage Vo is fed back to the inverting input terminal through the R f - R1 network, where Rf is the feedback resistor. The output voltage is given as, Vo = - ACL Vi Here the negative sign indicates that the output voltage is 180 input signal. PROCEDURE: 1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram. 2. + Vcc and - Vcc supply is given to the power supply terminal of the Op-Amp IC. 3. By adjusting the amplitude and frequency knobs of the function generator, appropriate input voltage is applied to the inverting input terminal of the OpAmp. 4. The output voltage is obtained in the CRO and the input and output voltage waveforms are plotted in a graph sheet.

0

out of phase with the

PIN DIAGRAM:

8

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF INVERTING AMPLIFIER:

DESIGN: We know for an inverting Amplifier ACL = RF / R1 Assume R1 ( approx. 10 KΩ ) and find Rf Hence Vo = - ACL Vi OBSERVATIONS: S.No 1. 2. Amplitude ( No. of div x Volts per div ) Time period ( No. of div x Time per div ) 9 Input Output Practical Theoretical

MODEL GRAPH:

RESULT: The design and testing of the inverting amplifier is done and the input and output waveforms were drawn.

1. b. NON - INVERTING AMPLIFIER 10

AIM: To design a Non-Inverting Amplifier for the given specifications using Op-Amp IC 741. APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Name of the Apparatus Function Generator CRO Dual RPS Op-Amp Bread Board Resistors Connecting wires and probes Range 3 MHz 30 MHz 0 – 30 V IC 741 As required As required Quantity 1 1 1 1 1

THEORY: The input signal Vi is applied to the non - inverting input terminal of the op-amp. This circuit amplifies the signal without inverting the input signal. It is also called negative feedback system since the output is feedback to the inverting input terminals. The differential voltage Vd at the inverting input terminal of the op-amp is zero ideally and the output voltage is given as, Vo = ACL Vi Here the output voltage is in phase with the input signal. PROCEDURE: 1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram. 2. + Vcc and - Vcc supply is given to the power supply terminal of the Op-Amp IC. 3. By adjusting the amplitude and frequency knobs of the function generator, appropriate input voltage is applied to the non - inverting input terminal of the Op-Amp. 4. The output voltage is obtained in the CRO and the input and output voltage waveforms are plotted in a graph sheet.

PIN DIAGRAM: 11

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF NON INVERITNG AMPLIFIER:

DESIGN: We know for a Non-inverting Amplifier ACL = 1 + ( RF / R1) Assume R1 ( approx. 10 KΩ ) and find Rf Hence Vo = ACL Vi OBSERVATIONS: S.No 1. 2. Amplitude ( No. of div x Volts per div ) Time period ( No. of div x Time per div ) 12 Input Output Practical Theoretical

MODEL GRAPH:

RESULT: The design and testing of the Non-inverting amplifier is done and the input and output waveforms were drawn.

Expt. No.2

APPLICATIONS OF OP-AMP - II 13

(DIFFERENTIATOR AND INTEGRATOR) 2. a. DIFFERENTIATOR AIM: To design a Differentiator circuit for the given specifications using Op-Amp IC 741. APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Name of the Apparatus Function Generator CRO Dual RPS Op-Amp Bread Board Resistors Capacitors Connecting wires and probes Range 3 MHz 30 MHz 0 – 30 V IC 741 Quantity 1 1 1 1 1

As required

THEORY: The differentiator circuit performs the mathematical operation of differentiation; that is, the output waveform is the derivative of the input waveform. The differentiator may be constructed from a basic inverting amplifier if an input resistor R1 is replaced by a capacitor C1 . The expression for the output voltage is given as, Vo = - Rf C1 ( dVi /dt ) Here the negative sign indicates that the output voltage is 180 0 out of phase with the input signal. A resistor Rcomp = Rf is normally connected to the non-inverting input terminal of the op-amp to compensate for the input bias current. A workable differentiator can be designed by implementing the following steps: 1. Select fa equal to the highest frequency of the input signal to be differentiated. Then, assuming a value of C1 < 1 µF, calculate the value of Rf. 2. Choose fb = 20 fa and calculate the values of R1 and Cf so that R1C1 = Rf Cf. The differentiator is most commonly used in waveshaping circuits to detect high frequency components in an input signal and also as a rate–of–change detector in FM modulators.

PIN DIAGRAM: 14

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF DIFFERENTIATOR:

DESIGN : [ To design a differentiator circuit to differentiate an input signal that varies in frequency from 10 Hz to about 1 KHz. If a sine wave of 1 V peak at 1000Hz is applied to the differentiator , draw its output waveform.] Given fa = 1 KHz We know the frequency at which the gain is 0 dB, fa = 1 / (2π Rf C1) Let us assume C1 = 0.1 µF ; then Rf = _________ Since fb = 20 fa , fb = 20 KHz We know that the gain limiting frequency fb = 1 / (2π R1 C1) Hence R1 = _________ Also since R1C1 = Rf Cf ; Cf = _________ 15

Given Vp = 1 V and f = 1000 Hz, the input voltage is Vi = Vp sin ωt We know ω = 2πf Hence Vo = - Rf C1 ( dVi /dt ) = - 0.94 cos ωt PROCEDURE: 1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram. 2. + Vcc and - Vcc supply is given to the power supply terminal of the Op-Amp IC. 3. By adjusting the amplitude and frequency knobs of the function generator, appropriate input voltage is applied to the inverting input terminal of the OpAmp. 4. The output voltage is obtained in the CRO and the input and output voltage waveforms are plotted in a graph sheet. OBSERVATIONS: S.No 1. 2. Amplitude ( No. of div x Volts per div ) Time period ( No. of div x Time per div ) Input Output

MODEL GRAPH:

RESULT: The design of the Differentiator circuit was done and the input and output waveforms were obtained. 2. b. INTEGRATOR 16

AIM: To design an Integrator circuit for the given specifications using Op-Amp IC 741. APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Name of the Apparatus Function Generator CRO Dual RPS Op-Amp Bread Board Resistors Capacitors Connecting wires and probes Range 3 MHz 30 MHz 0 – 30 V IC 741 Quantity 1 1 1 1 1

As required

THEORY: A circuit in which the output voltage waveform is the integral of the input voltage waveform is the integrator. Such a circuit is obtained by using a basic inverting amplifier configuration if the feedback resistor Rf is replaced by a capacitor Cf . The expression for the output voltage is given as, Vo = - (1/Rf C1 ) ∫ Vi dt Here the negative sign indicates that the output voltage is 180 0 out of phase with the input signal. Normally between fa and fb the circuit acts as an integrator. Generally, the value of fa < fb . The input signal will be integrated properly if the Time period T of the signal is larger than or equal to Rf Cf . That is, T ≥ Rf Cf The integrator is most commonly used in analog computers and ADC and signal-wave shaping circuits.

PIN DIAGRAM: 17

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF INTEGRATOR:

DESIGN: [ To obtain the output of an Integrator circuit with component values R 1Cf = 0.1ms , Rf = 10 R1 and Cf = 0.01 µF and also if 1 V peak square wave at 1000Hz is applied as input.] We know the frequency at which the gain is 0 dB, fb = 1 / (2π R1 Cf) Therefore fb = _____ Since fb = 10 fa , and also the gain limiting frequency fa = 1 / (2π Rf Cf) We get , R1 = _______ and hence Rf = __________ PROCEDURE: 18

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram. 2. + Vcc and - Vcc supply is given to the power supply terminal of the Op-Amp IC. 3. By adjusting the amplitude and frequency knobs of the function generator, appropriate input voltage is applied to the inverting input terminal of the OpAmp. 4. The output voltage is obtained in the CRO and the input and output voltage waveforms are plotted in a graph sheet. OBSERVATIONS: S.No 1. 2. Amplitude ( No. of div x Volts per div ) Time period ( No. of div x Time per div ) Input Output

MODEL GRAPH:

RESULT: The design of the Integrator circuit was done and the input and output waveforms were obtained.

Expt. No.3

TIMER IC APPLICATIONS - I 19

( ASTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR) AIM: To design an Astable multivibrator circuit for the given specifications using 555 Timer IC. APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Name of the Apparatus Function Generator CRO Dual RPS Timer IC Bread Board Resistors Capacitors Connecting wires and probes Range 3 MHz 30 MHz 0 – 30 V IC 555 Quantity 1 1 1 1 1

As required

THEORY: An Astable multivibrator, often called a free-running multivibrator, is a rectangularwave-generating circuit. This circuit do not require an external trigger to change the state of the output. The time during which the output is either high or low is determined by two resistors and a capacitor, which are connected externally to the 555 timer. The time during which the capacitor charges from 1/3 V cc to 2/3 Vcc is equal to the time the output is high and is given by, tc = 0.69 (R1 + R2) C Similarly the time during which the capacitor discharges from 2/3 V cc to 1/3 Vcc is equal to the time the output is low and is given by, td = 0.69 (R2) C Thus the total time period of the output waveform is, T = tc + td = 0.69 (R1 + 2 R2) C The term duty cycle is often used in conjunction with the astable multivibrator. The duty cycle is the ratio of the time t c during which the output is high to the total time period T. It is generally expressed in percentage. In equation form, % duty cycle = [( R1 + R2) / (R1 + 2 R2)] x 100

PIN DIAGRAM: 20

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF ASTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR

DESIGN: 21

[ To design an astable multivibrator with 65% duty cycle at 4 KHz frequency, assume C= 0.01 µF] Given f= 4 KHz, Therefore, Total time period, T = 1/f = ____________ We know, duty cycle = tc / T Therefore, tc = -----------------------and td = ____________ We also know for an astable multivibrator td = 0.69 (R2) C Therefore, R2 = _____________ tc = 0.69 (R1 + R2) C Therefore, R1 = _____________ PROCEDURE: 1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram. 2. + 5V supply is given to the + Vcc terminal of the timer IC. 3. At pin 3 the output waveform is observed with the help of a CRO 4. At pin 6 the capacitor voltage is obtained in the CRO and the V 0 and Vc voltage waveforms are plotted in a graph sheet. OBSERVATIONS: Amplitude ( No. of div x Volts per div ) Time period ( No. of div x Time per div ) tc 1. 2. Output Voltage , Vo Capacitor voltage , Vc td

S.No

22

MODEL GRAPH:

RESULT: The design of the Astable multivibrator circuit was done and the output voltage and capacitor voltage waveforms were obtained.

23

Expt. No.4 AIM:

TIMER IC APPLICATIONS -II ( MONOSTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR)

To design a monostable multivibrator for the given specifications using 555 Timer IC. APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Name of the Apparatus Function Generator CRO Dual RPS Timer IC Bread Board Resistors Capacitors Connecting wires and probes Range 3 MHz, Analog 30 MHz 0 – 30 V IC 555 Quantity 1 1 1 1 1

As required

THEORY: A monostable multivibrator often called a one-shot multivibrator is a pulse generating circuit in which the duration of the pulse is determined by the RC network connected externally to the 555 timer. In a stable or stand-by state the output of the circuit is approximately zero or at logic low level. When an external trigger pulse is applied, the output is forced to go high (approx. Vcc). The time during which the output remains high is given by, tp = 1.1 R1 C At the end of the timing interval, the output automatically reverts back to its logic low state. The output stays low until a trigger pulse is applied again. Then the cycle repeats. Thus the monostable state has only one stable state hence the name monostable.

24

PIN DIAGRAM:

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF MONOSTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR:

25

DESIGN: [ To design a monostable multivibrator with tp = 0.616 ms , assume C = 0.01 µF ] Given tp = 0.616 ms = 1.1 R1 C Therefore, R1 = _____________ PROCEDURE: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram. + 5V supply is given to the + Vcc terminal of the timer IC. A negative trigger pulse of 5V, 2 KHz is applied to pin 2 of the 555 IC At pin 3 the output waveform is observed with the help of a CRO At pin 6 the capacitor voltage is obtained in the CRO and the V 0 and Vc voltage waveforms are plotted in a graph sheet.

OBSERVATIONS: Amplitude ( No. of div x Volts per div ) Time period ( No. of div x Time per div ) ton 1. 2. 3. Trigger input Output Voltage , Vo Capacitor voltage , Vc toff

S.No

26

MODEL GRAPH:

RESULT: The design of the Monostable multivibrator circuit was done and the input and output waveforms were obtained.

27

Expt. No.5

STUDY OF BASIC DIGITAL ICS

AIM: To verify the truth table of basic digital ICs of AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR, EX-OR gates. APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Name of the Apparatus Digital IC trainer kit AND gate OR gate NOT gate NAND gate NOR gate EX-OR gate Connecting wires Range IC 7408 IC 7432 IC 7404 IC 7400 IC 7402 IC 7486 As required Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

THEORY: a. AND gate: An AND gate is the physical realization of logical multiplication operation. It is an electronic circuit which generates an output signal of ‘1’ only if all the input signals are ‘1’. b. OR gate: An OR gate is the physical realization of the logical addition operation. It is an electronic circuit which generates an output signal of ‘1’ if any of the input signal is ‘1’. c. NOT gate: A NOT gate is the physical realization of the complementation operation. It is an electronic circuit which generates an output signal which is the reverse of the input signal. A NOT gate is also known as an inverter because it inverts the input.

28

AND GATE LOGIC DIAGRAM:

PIN DIAGRAM OF IC 7408 :

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

TRUTH TABLE: S.No 1. 2. 3. 4. INPUT A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 OUTPUT Y=A.B 0 0 0 1

29

OR GATE LOGIC DIAGRAM:

PIN DIAGRAM OF IC 7432 :

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

TRUTH TABLE: INPUT A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 OUTPUT Y=A+B 0 1 1 1

S.No 1. 2. 3. 4.

30

NOT GATE LOGIC DIAGRAM:

PIN DIAGRAM OF IC 7404 :

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

TRUTH TABLE: S.No 1. 2. INPUT A 0 1 OUTPUT Y = A’ 1 0

31

NAND GATE LOGIC DIAGRAM:

PIN DIAGRAM OF IC 7400 :

CIRCUIT DIARAM:

TRUTH TABLE: INPUT A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 OUTPUT Y = (A . B)’ 1 1 1 0

S.No 1. 2. 3. 4.

32

NOR GATE LOGIC DIAGRAM:

PIN DIAGRAM OF IC 7402 :

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

TRUTH TABLE: INPUT A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 OUTPUT Y = (A + B)’ 1 0 0 0

S.No 1. 2. 3. 4.

33

EX-OR GATE LOGIC DIAGRAM

PIN DIAGRAM OF IC 7486 :

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

TRUTH TABLE: S.No 1. 2. 3. 4. INPUT A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 OUTPUT Y=A B 0 1 1 0

34

d. NAND gate: A NAND gate is a complemented AND gate. The output of the NAND gate will be ‘0’ if all the input signals are ‘1’ and will be ‘1’ if any one of the input signal is ‘0’. e. NOR gate: A NOR gate is a complemented OR gate. The output of the OR gate will be ‘1’ if all the inputs are ‘0’ and will be ‘0’ if any one of the input signal is ‘1’. f. EX-OR gate: An Ex-OR gate performs the following Boolean function, A B = ( A . B’ ) + ( A’ . B )

It is similar to OR gate but excludes the combination of both A and B being equal to one. The exclusive OR is a function that give an output signal ‘0’ when the two input signals are equal either ‘0’ or ‘1’. PROCEDURE: 1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram 2. For all the ICs 7th pin is grounded and 14th pin is given +5 V supply. 3. Apply the inputs and verify the truth table for all gates.

RESULT: The truth table of all the basic digital ICs were verified.

35

Expt. No.6 AIM:

IMPLEMENTATION OF BOOLEAN FUNCTIONS

To design the logic circuit and verify the truth table of the given Boolean expression, F (A,B,C,D) = Σ (0,1,2,5,8,9,10) APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.No Name of the Apparatus 1. Digital IC trainer kit 2. AND gate 3. OR gate 4. NOT gate 5. NAND gate 6. NOR gate 7. EX-OR gate 8. Connecting wires DESIGN: Given , F (A,B,C,D) = Σ (0,1,2,5,8,9,10) The output function F has four input variables hence a four variable Karnaugh Map is used to obtain a simplified expression for the output as shown, Range IC 7408 IC 7432 IC 7404 IC 7400 IC 7402 IC 7486 As required Quantity 1

From the K-Map, F = B’ C’ + D’ B’ + A’ C’ D Since we are using only two input logic gates the above expression can be re-written as, F = C’ (B’ + A’ D) + D’ B’ Now the logic circuit for the above equation can be drawn. 36

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

TRUTH TABLE: S.No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. INPUT B C 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 OUTPUT F=D’B’+C’(B’+A’D) 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 37

A 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

D 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

PROCEDURE: 1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram 2. For all the ICs 7th pin is grounded and 14th pin is given +5 V supply. 3. Apply the inputs and verify the truth table for the given Boolean expression. RESULT: The truth table of the given Boolean expression was verified.

38

Expt. No. 8

IMPLEMENTATION OF HALF ADDER & FULL ADDER

AIM: To design and verify the truth table of the Half Adder & Full Adder circuits. APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Name of the Apparatus Digital IC trainer kit AND gate OR gate NOT gate EX-OR gate Connecting wires Range IC 7408 IC 7432 IC 7404 IC 7486 As required Quantity 1

THEORY: The most basic arithmetic operation is the addition of two binary digits. There are four possible elementary operations, namely, 0+0=0 0+1=1 1+0=1 1 + 1 = 102 The first three operations produce a sum of whose length is one digit, but when the last operation is performed the sum is two digits. The higher significant bit of this result is called a carry and lower significant bit is called the sum. HALF ADDER: A combinational circuit which performs the addition of two bits is called half adder. The input variables designate the augend and the addend bit, whereas the output variables produce the sum and carry bits. FULL ADDER: A combinational circuit which performs the arithmetic sum of three input bits is called full adder. The three input bits include two significant bits and a previous carry bit. A full adder circuit can be implemented with two half adders and one OR gate.

HALF ADDER 39

TRUTH TABLE: S.No 1. 2. 3. 4. DESIGN: From the truth table the expression for sum and carry bits of the output can be obtained as, Sum, S = A B Carry, C = A . B CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: INPUT A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 S 0 1 1 0 OUTPUT C 0 0 0 1

FULL ADDER TRUTH TABLE: S.No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. INPUT B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 OUTPUT SUM CARRY 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 40

A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1

C 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

DESIGN: From the truth table the expression for sum and carry bits of the output can be obtained as, SUM = A’B’C + A’BC’ + AB’C’ + ABC CARRY = A’BC + AB’C + ABC’ +ABC Using Karnaugh maps the reduced expression for the output bits can be obtained as, SUM

SUM = A’B’C + A’BC’ + AB’C’ + ABC = A CARRY

B

C

CARRY = AB + AC + BC CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

41

PROCEDURE: 1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagrams. 2. For all the ICs 7th pin is grounded and 14th pin is given +5 V supply. 3. Apply the inputs and verify the truth table for the half adder and full adder circuits. RESULT: The design of the half adder and full adder circuits was done and their truth tables were verified.

42

CYCLE – II

43

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

CYCLE II : Implementation of Half Subtractor & Full Subtractor.

8.

9. Code converters. 10. Parity Generator & Checker. 11. Multiplexer / Demultiplexer 12. Study of Flip-Flops. 13. Asynchronous Decade counter 14. Shift Register.

Expt. No. 8

IMPLEMENTATION OF HALF SUBTRACTOR & 44

FULL SUBTRACTOR

AIM: To design and verify the truth table of the Half Subtractor & Full Subtractor circuits. APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Name of the Apparatus Digital IC trainer kit AND gate OR gate NOT gate EX-OR gate Connecting wires Range IC 7408 IC 7432 IC 7404 IC 7486 As required Quantity 1

THEORY: The arithmetic operation, subtraction of two binary digits has four possible elementary operations, namely, 0-0=0 0 - 1 = 1 with 1 borrow 1-0=1 1-1=0 In all operations, each subtrahend bit is subtracted from the minuend bit. In case of the second operation the minuend bit is smaller than the subtrahend bit, hence 1 is borrowed. HALF SUBTRACTOR: A combinational circuit which performs the subtraction of two bits is called half subtractor. The input variables designate the minuend and the subtrahend bit, whereas the output variables produce the difference and borrow bits. FULL SUBTRACTOR: A combinational circuit which performs the subtraction of three input bits is called full subtractor. The three input bits include two significant bits and a previous borrow bit. A full subtractor circuit can be implemented with two half subtractors and one OR gate.

HALF SUBTRACTOR 45

TRUTH TABLE: S.No 1. 2. 3. 4. DESIGN: From the truth table the expression for difference and borrow bits of the output can be obtained as, Difference, DIFF = A B Borrow, BORR = A’ . B CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: INPUT A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 OUTPUT DIFF BORR 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0

FULL SUBTRACTOR 46

TRUTH TABLE: S.No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. DESIGN: From the truth table the expression for difference and borrow bits of the output can be obtained as, Difference, DIFF= A’B’C + A’BC’ + AB’C’ + ABC Borrow, BORR = A’BC + AB’C + ABC’ +ABC Using Karnaugh maps the reduced expression for the output bits can be obtained as, DIFFERENCE INPUT B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 OUTPUT DIFF BORR 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1

A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1

C 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

DIFF = A’B’C + A’BC’ + AB’C’ + ABC = A BORROW

B

C

BORR = A’B + A’C + BC

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: 47

PROCEDURE: 1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagrams. 2. For all the ICs 7th pin is grounded and 14th pin is given +5 V supply. 3. Apply the inputs and verify the truth table for the half subtractor and full subtractor circuits. RESULT: The design of the half subtractor and full subtractor circuits was done and their truth tables were verified.

48

Expt. No. 9

CODE CONVERTERS

AIM: To design and verify the truth table of a three bit binary to gray code converter. APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.No 1. 2. 3. Name of the Apparatus Digital IC trainer kit EX-OR gate Connecting wires Range IC 7486 As required Quantity 1

THEORY: Code converter is a circuit that makes two systems compatible even though each uses different binary codes. There is a wide variety of binary codes used in digital systems. Some of these codes are Binary Coded Decimal, Gray code, Excess- 3 code , ASCII code, etc. A combinational circuit performs the transformation of a three bit binary to gray code converter by means of logic gates. The input variables are binary bits named as A,B,C with A as the MSB and C as the LSB. The Gray code output bits are termed as X,Y,Z with X as the MSB and Z as the LSB. The Gray code is also called as reflective code. The gray coded number corresponding to the decimal number 2n – 1, for any n, differs from gray coded 0 (0000) in one bit position only. DESIGN: TRUTH TABLE: S.No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. INPUT - BINARY A B C 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 OUTPUT-GRAY X Y Z 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0

49

From the truth table the expression for the output gray bits are, X (A, B, C) = Σ (4, 5, 6, 7) Y (A, B, C) = Σ (2, 3, 4, 5) Z (A, B, C) = Σ (1, 2, 5, 6) Hence obtain the reduced SOP expression using Karnaugh maps as follows, For X:

X=A For Y:

Y=A For Z:

B

Z=B

C

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: 50

3 BIT BINARY TO GRAY CODE CONVERTER

PROCEDURE: 1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagrams. 2. For all the ICs 7th pin is grounded and 14th pin is given +5 V supply. 3. Apply the inputs and verify the truth table for the three bit binary to gray code converter. RESULT: The design of the three bit Binary to Gray code converter circuit was done and its truth table was verified.

51

Expt. No. 10

PARITY GENERATOR & CHECKER

AIM: To design and verify the truth table of a three bit Odd Parity generator and checker. APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.No 1. 2. 3. 4. Name of the Apparatus Digital IC trainer kit EX-OR gate NOT gate Connecting wires Range IC 7486 IC 7404 As required Quantity 1

THEORY: A parity bit is used for the purpose of detecting errors during transmission of binary information. A parity bit is an extra bit included with a binary message to make the number of 1’s either odd or even. The message including the parity bit is transmitted and then checked at the receiving end for errors. An error is detected if the checked parity does not correspond with the one transmitted. The circuit that generates the parity bit in the transmitter is called a parity generator and the circuit that checks the parity in the receiver is called a parity checker. In even parity the added parity bit will make the total number of 1’s an even amount and in odd parity the added parity bit will make the total number of 1’s an odd amount. In a three bit odd parity generator the three bits in the message together with the parity bit are transmitted to their destination, where they are applied to the parity checker circuit. The parity checker circuit checks for possible errors in the transmission. Since the information was transmitted with odd parity the four bits received must have an odd number of 1’s. An error occurs during the transmission if the four bits received have an even number of 1’s, indicating that one bit has changed during transmission. The output of the parity checker is denoted by PEC (parity error check) and it will be equal to 1 if an error occurs, i.e., if the four bits received has an even number of 1’s.

ODD PARITY GENERATOR 52

TRUTH TABLE: INPUT ( Three bit message) A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 C 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 OUTPUT ( Odd Parity bit) P 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0

S.No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

From the truth table the expression for the output parity bit is, P( A, B, C) = Σ (0, 3, 5, 6) Also written as, P = A’B’C’ + A’BC + AB’C + ABC’ = (A B C) ‘

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: ODD PARITY GENERATOR

ODD PARITY CHECKER 53

TRUTH TABLE: INPUT ( four bit message Received ) A B C P 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 OUTPUT (Parity error check) X 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1

S.No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

From the truth table the expression for the output parity checker bit is, X (A, B, C, P) = Σ (0, 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, 12, 15) The above expression is reduced as, X = (A CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: ODD PARITY CHECKER B C P) ‘

54

PROCEDURE: 1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagrams. 2. For all the ICs 7th pin is grounded and 14th pin is given +5 V supply. 3. Apply the inputs and verify the truth table for the Parity generator and checker. RESULT: The design of the three bit odd Parity generator and checker circuits was done and their truth tables were verified.

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Expt. No. 11 AIM:

MULTIPLEXER & DEMULTIPLEXER

To design and verify the truth table of a 4X1 Multiplexer & 1X4 Demultiplexer. APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Name of the Apparatus Digital IC trainer kit OR gate NOT gate AND gate ( three input ) Connecting wires Range IC 7432 IC 7404 IC 7411 As required Quantity 1

THEORY: Multiplexer is a digital switch which allows digital information from several sources to be routed onto a single output line. The basic multiplexer has several data input lines and a single output line. The selection of a particular input line is controlled by a set of selection lines. Normally, there are 2n input lines and n selector lines whose bit combinations determine which input is selected. Therefore, multiplexer is ‘many into one’ and it provides the digital equivalent of an analog selector switch. A Demultiplexer is a circuit that receives information on a single line and transmits this information on one of 2n possible output lines. The selection of specific output line is controlled by the values of n selection lines. DESIGN: 4 X 1 MULTIPLEXER LOGIC SYMBOL:

TRUTH TABLE: 56

S.No 1. 2. 3. 4.

SELECTION INPUT S1 S2 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1

OUTPUT Y I0 I1 I2 I3

PIN DIAGRAM OF IC 7411:

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

1X4 DEMULTIPLEXER 57

LOGIC SYMBOL:

TRUTH TABLE: INPUT S1 S2 Din 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 OUTPUT Y0 Y1 Y2 Y3 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

S.No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: 58

PROCEDURE: 1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagrams. 2. For all the ICs 7th pin is grounded and 14th pin is given +5 V supply. 3. Apply the inputs and verify the truth table for the multiplexer & demultiplexer. RESULT: The design of the 4x1 Multiplexer and 1x4 Demultiplexer circuits was done and their truth tables were verified.

Expt. No. 12

STUDY OF FLIP FLOPS 59

AIM: To verify the characteristic table of RS, D, JK, and T Flip flops . APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Name of the Apparatus Digital IC trainer kit NOR gate NOT gate AND gate ( three input ) NAND gate Connecting wires Range IC 7402 IC 7404 IC 7411 IC 7400 As required Quantity 1

THEORY: A Flip Flop is a sequential device that samples its input signals and changes its output states only at times determined by clocking signal. Flip Flops may vary in the number of inputs they possess and the manner in which the inputs affect the binary states. RS FLIP FLOP: The clocked RS flip flop consists of NAND gates and the output changes its state with respect to the input on application of clock pulse. When the clock pulse is high the S and R inputs reach the second level NAND gates in their complementary form. The Flip Flop is reset when the R input high and S input is low. The Flip Flop is set when the S input is high and R input is low. When both the inputs are high the output is in an indeterminate state. D FLIP FLOP: To eliminate the undesirable condition of indeterminate state in the SR Flip Flop when both inputs are high at the same time, in the D Flip Flop the inputs are never made equal at the same time. This is obtained by making the two inputs complement of each other. JK FLIP FLOP: The indeterminate state in the SR Flip-Flop is defined in the JK Flip Flop. JK inputs behave like S and R inputs to set and reset the Flip Flop. The output Q is ANDed with K input and the clock pulse, similarly the output Q’ is ANDed with J input and the Clock pulse. When the clock pulse is zero both the AND gates are disabled and the Q and Q’ output retain their previous values. When the clock pulse is high, the J and K inputs reach the NOR gates. When both the inputs are high the output toggles continuously. This is called Race around condition and this must be avoided. T FLIP FLOP: 60

This is a modification of JK Flip Flop, obtained by connecting both inputs J and K inputs together. T Flip Flop is also called Toggle Flip Flop. RS FLIP FLOP LOGIC SYMBOL:

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

CHARACTERISTIC TABLE: CLOCK PULSE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 INPUT S 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 R 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 PRESENT STATE (Q) 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 D FLIP FLOP 61 NEXT STATE(Q+1) 0 1 0 0 1 1 X X STATUS

LOGIC SYMBOL:

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

CHARACTERISTIC TABLE:

CLOCK PULSE 1 2 3 4

INPUT D 0 0 1 1

PRESENT STATE (Q) 0 1 0 1

NEXT STATE(Q+1) 0 0 1 1

STATUS

JK FLIP FLOP 62

LOGIC SYMBOL:

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

CHARACTERISTIC TABLE: CLOCK PULSE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 INPUT J 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 K 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 PRESENT STATE (Q) 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 T FLIP FLOP 63 NEXT STATE(Q+1) 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 STATUS

LOGIC SYMBOL:

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

CHARACTERISTIC TABLE: CLOCK PULSE 1 2 3 4 INPUT T 0 0 1 1 PRESENT STATE (Q) 0 1 0 1 NEXT STATE(Q+1) 0 0 1 0 STATUS

PROCEDURE: 64

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagrams. 2. For all the ICs 7th pin is grounded and 14th pin is given +5 V supply. 3. Apply the inputs and observe the status of all the flip flops. RESULT: The Characteristic tables of RS, D, JK, T flip flops were verified.

Expt. No. 13

ASYNCHRONOUS DECADE COUNTER 65

AIM: To implement and verify the truth table of an asynchronous decade counter. APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.No 1. 2. 4. 5. Name of the Apparatus Digital IC trainer kit JK Flip Flop NAND gate Connecting wires Range IC 7473 IC 7400 Quantity 1 2 1 As required

THEORY: Asynchronous decade counter is also called as ripple counter. In a ripple counter the flip flop output transition serves as a source for triggering other flip flops. In other words the clock pulse inputs of all the flip flops are triggered not by the incoming pulses but rather by the transition that occurs in other flip flops. The term asynchronous refers to the events that do not occur at the same time. With respect to the counter operation, asynchronous means that the flip flop within the counter are not made to change states at exactly the same time, they do not because the clock pulses are not connected directly to the clock input of each flip flop in the counter. PIN DIAGRAM OF IC 7473:

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: 66

TRUTH TABLE: S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 PROCEDURE: 1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagrams. 2. Apply the input and verify the truth table of the counter. RESULT: The truth table of the Asynchronous decade counter was hence verified. Expt. No. 14 IMPLEMENTATION OF SHIFT REGISTERS 67 CLOCK PULSE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 OUTPUT D(MSB) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 C 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 A(LSB) 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0

AIM: To implement and verify the truth table of a serial in serial out shift register. APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.No 1. 2. 3. Name of the Apparatus Digital IC trainer kit D Flip Flop Connecting wires Range IC 7474 Quantity 1 2 As required

THEORY: A register capable of shifting its binary information either to the left or to the right is called a shift register. The logical configuration of a shift register consists of a chain of flip flops connected in cascade with the output of one flip flop connected to the input of the next flip flop. All the flip flops receive a common clock pulse which causes the shift from one stage to the next. The Q output of a D flip flop is connected to the D input of the flip flop to the left. Each clock pulse shifts the contents of the register one bit position to the right. The serial input determines, what goes into the right most flip flop during the shift. The serial output is taken from the output of the left most flip flop prior to the application of a pulse. Although this register shifts its contents to its left, if we turn the page upside down we find that the register shifts its contents to the right. Thus a unidirectional shift register can function either as a shift right or a shift left register. PIN DIAGRAM OF IC 7474:

68

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

TRUTH TABLE: For a serial data input of 1101, S.NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 CLOCK PULSE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 D1 1 1 0 1 X X X X INPUTS D2 D3 X X 1 X 1 1 0 1 1 0 X 1 X X X X D4 X X X 1 1 0 1 X Q1 1 1 0 1 X 1 0 X OUTPUTS Q2 Q3 X X 1 X 1 1 0 1 1 0 X 1 X X X X Q4 X X X 1 1 0 1 X

PROCEDURE: 1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagrams. 2. Apply the input and verify the truth table of the counter. RESULT: The truth table of a serial in serial out left shift register was hence verified.

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