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Paper Standards Measur Umschlag 08.05.

2007 15:42 Uhr Seite 2

Cover HannoArt Gloss 250 g/m2, Text HannoArt Gloss 150 g/m2, 2007 Sappi Europe SA
Paper Standards & Measurements is one in a series of Sappi’s technical brochures. Through them, we share our paper know-
ledge with our customers so that they can be the best they can be.
Paper
Standards & Measurements
PROCESSING
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IMPRESSION

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Paper Standards Measur Umschlag 08.05.2007 15:42 Uhr Seite 1

X Table of recommended units Xl Table of conversion factors
We hope this list of most frequently referred units and properties within this catalogue will be a useful tool for all who are involved Most of the world has accepted the International System of “Units-Systeme International d’Unités” (SI) as the standard system
in the pulp and paper field. Recommended units are from the International Standard, ISO 5651. for measurement. Test methods and standards require SI units as the primary reporting value. We trust that this guide will be
useful when converting between different units (FPS foot-pound-seconds and SI units).

Property Recommended unit or Property Recommended unit or FPS unit Faktor Sl-unit FPS unit Faktor SI-unit
method of expression method of expression A K
Adhesion on strength of glue bonds acres 4046.86 m2 Kgf/in 0.38609 kN/m
kN/m Light scattering power numerical value
of corrugated fiberboard
Air permeance µm/(Pa s) Light scattering oefficient m2/kg B L
Moisture content or dry Btu (IT) 1.055056 kJ Ib 0.4535924 kg
Air resistance (Gurley) s % (mass/mass)
matter content Btu/h 0.29307 W Ibf 4448.222 mN
Apparent bulk density g/cm3 Opacity % Btu/(h·ft·oF) 1.7307 W/(m·K) Ibf 4.448222 N
Apparent sheet density g/cm3 Picking velocity, IGT m/s Btu/(h.ft2 . OF) 5.6783 W/(m2·K) Ibf·in 0.1129848 Nm
Btu/lb 2.326 J/g Ibf/in2 6.894757 kPa
Ash % (mass/mass) Puncture resistance J, kJ
Btu/(lb·oF) 4.1868 x 103 J/(kg·K) Ibf/in 175.1268 N/m
Bending stiffness µm, mNm, Nm Reflectance factor % Ibf/in 0.1751268 kN/m
Bending stiffness index Nm7/kg3 Reflection (optical) density numerical value F Ibf/in2 6.894757 kN/m2
Box compression resistance BCT kN Resistance to water penetration min, h, d fl oz (Imp) 28.413 cm3 Ibf/in2 6.894757 kPa
Breaking length km Resistance to grease penetration min, h, d fl oz (US) 29.574 cm3 Ibf·ft 1.35582 N·m
Bulking thickness µm Ring crush kN/m ft H20 (39,2 °F) 2.98898 kPa Ibf/ft2 47.88026 Pa
ft 0.3048 m Ibf/15 mm 0.29655 kN/m
Burst energy absorption Jlm2 Roughness, Print-surf µm
ft2 0.09290304 m2 Ibf·s/ft2 47.88026 Pa·s
Burst index kPa m2/g Roughness, Bendtsen ml/min
ft3 0.02831685 m3 Ibf/ft3 16.01846 kg/m3
Bursting strength kPa Saleable mass kg ft/min 5.08 mm/s Ib/1000 ft2 4.8824 g/m2
Compression resistance SCT kN/m Surface resistivity Ohm ft/min 0.00508 m/s Ib/3000 ft2 1.6275 g/m2
Compression resistance SCT index kNm/kg Smoothness, Bekk s ft3/min 1.69901 m3/h Ib/in3 27.6799 Mg/m3
Conductivity of extracts mS/m Static bending force mN, N ft/s 0.3048 m/s Ib/gal (US) 0.1198264 kg/l
Dimensional change after ft3/s 28.31685 l/s Ib/ream, 17 x 22–500 3.7597 g/m2
% Stock concentration % ft·lbf 1.355818 J Ib/ream, 24 x 36–500 1.6275 g/m2
immersion in water
Dirt and shives in pulps 102 (number of specks)/kg Stretch at break % ft·lbf/in2 2.1015 kJ/m2 Ib/ream, 25 x 38–500 1.4801 g/m2
ft·lbf/ft2 14.5939 J/m2
Drainability of pulp –"CSF"
numerical value Swelling after water immersion % ft·lbf/s 1.35582 W M
and Schopper-Riegler
mi 1.60934 km
Edgewise crush resistance kN/m Tear index mNm /g 2
G mi2 2.589988 km2
Electric strength kV/mm Tearing strength N gal(US) 3.785412 I mil (0,001 in) 25.4 IJm
Flat compression resistance kPa Tensile index N m/g gal(lmp) 4.546092 I mil (0,001 in) 0.0254 mm
Flat crush resistance FCT gal(US)/d 0.00378541 m3/d
kPa Tensile energy absorption J/m2
(corrugated board) gal(US)/min 3.785412 I/min O
Flat crush resistance of gal(lmp)/min 7.5768 x 10-5 m3/s oz (avoir.) 28.34952 g
N Tensile stiffness N/m
laboratory fluted corrugated medium gal(US)/min 6.3090 x 10-5 m3/s oz (US fluid) 29.57353 ml
Fold number, double folds numerical value Tensile stiffness index Nm/kg grains/yd2 0.0775 g/m2 ozf 0.278014 N
Tensile stiffness orientation ° (degree with decimal ozf/in 10.945 N/m
Folding endurance log10 (number of folds)
(polar angle) sub-divisions) H oz/gal (US) 7.489152 g/l
Fracture toughness J/m Tensile strength kN/m hp (550 ft-lbf/s) 0.7457 kW
Fracture toughness index Jm/kg Tensile toughness index Jm/kg hp·h 2.68452 MJ P
psi 6.894757 kPa
Friction coefficient N/N Tensile toughness J/m
I
Gloss % or numerical value Thickness µm,mm in 25.4 mm T
Grammage g/m2 Transmission (optical) density numerical value in2 6.4516 cm2 ton (short) 0.9071847 tonnes(t)
Hygroexpansivity % Volume resistivity Qm in3 16.38706 cm3 ton (short)/l 00 ft2 0.092903 t/m2
Ink absorbency “K and N” “K and N” units Water absorbency g/m2 inHg (32 °F) 3.38638 kPa
Light absorption coefficient m /kg
2
– area basis g/m2 inHg (60 °F) 3.37685 kPa y
Sappi is committed to helping printers and graphic designers use paper in the best possible way. So we share our knowledge with inH20 (60 °F) 0.24884 kPa yd 0.9144 m
Light absorbing power numerical value – mass basis %
customers, providing them with samples, specifications, ideas, technical information and a complete range of brochures. Find out in·lbf 0.1129848 N·m yd2 0.83612736 m2
– capillary rise mm
in·lbf 0.1129848 J yd3 0.7645549 m3
more on our unique web site Water vapour transmission rate g (m2 d) in·lbf/in2 175.1268 J/m2 yd3/s 0.7645549 m3/s
z-direction strength properties kN/m2 in·ozf 7.061552 mJ
www.sappi.com/KnowledgeBank
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Paper
Standards & Measurements

Content

l Introduction 3 Vl Absorption 11

왏 Water absorption Cobb 11
ll Paper Specification 4 왏 Oil absorption Cobb-Unger 11
왏 Ink absorption / Set-off 11
왏 Basis weight 4 왏 Water absorption – Drop test (Prüfbau) 11
왏 Thickness / Caliper 4 왏 Ink repellence – IGT 12
왏 Specific volume 4 왏 Contact angle measurement 12
왏 Relative humidity 4 왏 Penetration Dynamic Analyzer (PDA) 12

III Optical Properties 5 VlI Others 13

왏 Gloss 5 왏 pH value 13
왏 ISO-Brightness 5 왏 Ash content 13
왏 CIE-Whiteness 6 왏 Mottle test 13
왏 Shade (colour) 6 왏 Ink rub resistance 14
왏 Opacity 6 왏 Cracking test 14
왏 Metamerism 6
왏 Fluorescence 6
왏 Yellowing 6 VIIl List of Standards and Measures 15

IV Surface Properties 7 IX Concluding remarks 16

왏 PPS roughness 7
왏 Smoothness 7 X Table of recommended units 17
왏 Surface roughness (laser profile) 7
왏 Picking resistance 7
IGT 7 XI Table of conversion factors 18
Prüfbau 7

V Strengths 8

왏 Tensile strength and breaking length 8
왏 Elongation (stretch at break) 8
왏 Tearing resistance 8
왏 Residual strength 9
왏 Bursting strength 9
왏 Stiffness (rigidity) 9
왏 Scott Bond 10
왏 Blister test 10

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l Introduction
This brochure is a small summary of the very extensive
publications of DIN and ISO standards. It has been produced
to help explain the most important standards and units with-
out complicated mathematical formulas and with simple
words.

The paper properties are arranged into different groups, so
that the emphasis in the requirements of the paper be-
comes clear. Therefore some overlaps cannot be avoided.

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ll Paper Specification
A paper specification is a list of characteristics with appro-
priate measured values, which the paper has to fulfill. The
measured values are indicated with their tolerances. A spe-
cification is necessary, since this shows the requirements of
the customer and forms the basis, that always the same
paper is supplied. In order to come to a specification, one The picture above shows the most important optical and physical characteris-
tics, in so-called Datasheets are listed. These can request or with your per-
must know the intended purpose and the requirements of sonal partner receive you at any time in the Internet.
the paper. Discussions with the customer or consumer are
the correct way to co-ordinate the requirements of the
paper and the possibilities in paper production.
Relative humidity Tappi 502

Basis weight ISO 536 The relative humidity indicates how many percent of the maxi-
mum possible water vapour portion, at a certain temperature
The weight in g/m2 is understood by the basis weight of a is actually in the air (i.e. between the sheets of a stack or the
paper under conditioned circumstances. The entire mass is windings of a reel).
the sum of fibrous materials, fillers, process materials and
water.

Thickness / Caliper ISO 534

The thickness of a paper is measured between two even
plates, which are adjustable with a defined pressure. Be-
cause of the compressibility and the inhomogeneity several
measurements have to be carried out and the results aver-
aged. The thickness of a paper is dependent on grammage
and specific volume.

Specific volume ISO 534

The thickness is expressed in micrometers (µm). To compare
the thickness of papers with different basis weights, the
specific volume is used. This is the thickness to which the
basis weight of 100 g/m2 refers. This calculation is carried
out according to the formula:
Thickness (µm) divided by the basis weight is the specific
volume (cm3/g).

L&W Micrometer

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lII Optical Properties ISO-Brightness ISO 2470

The first impression of a paper is its colour, its whiteness and The brightness is a measure for the reflection of blue light of
its gloss. The appearance of the paper is of course impor- the paper expressed in a percentage in comparison with an
tant when it is sold, but the optical properties are also impor- ultimate reference brightness standard (IR3 standard).
tant when the paper is printed on. In order to be able to There are three brightness values for fluorescent papers:
manufacture paper with the right optical properties, pulp ISO-brightness under C-light, D65-brightness under D65
and coating raw materials, paper technologists must have light and brightness with fluorescence eliminated.
access to good measurement methods.
The higher the brightness value, the brighter the paper is.
The optical characteristics of the paper are affected by the Papers with optical whitening agents show a peak in the
measurement of reflection, absorption or transmission of blue reflection. This addition of blue reflection causes the
light which strikes a sheet of paper. sample to appear whiter to the observer and gives higher
ISO-brightness and D65-brightness values. The ultraviolet
Whiteness and shade of the paper do not have direct influ- energy level of the illumination must be adjusted using a
ence on the printability but have an influence on the printed fluorescent calibration standard.
result. Colour printed on bright white underground results in
another impression than printed on other white under-
grounds.

The ISO12647-2 standard used for the colour management
in the graphic arts industry provides a colour-correct repro-
duction with the consideration of the paper type.

Gloss ISO 8254-1 (DIN)
ISO 8254-2 (Tappi)

A calendered, coated or varnished paper has a high propor-
tion of direct reflection, which is commonly called gloss.
Gloss is an important characteristic in the production of
coated papers. The gloss makes paper look elegant and the
property is therefore important for advertising print. Gloss is
measured with special instruments where the sample is illu-
minated with parallel light at a certain incidental angle. Fixed
optical geometries, incidental and reflection angles of 75, 60
or 20 degrees, are usually used. A specific geometry and
angle is used, based on paper quality and gloss level. The
following gloss standards are common: DIN 45° or 75° and
Tappi 75° or 20°.

DIN standard and/or low angle are used for (ultra) high gloss
levels.

Gloss can also be measured on a printed area and is called
print gloss.

L&W Gloss Tester

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CIE-Whiteness ISO 2470 Yellowing DIN 6167

Whiteness is a subjectively perceived property. Most people Degree of yellowing / discolouration of paper exposed to day-
consider that it increases when the material has a slightly light or heat, after a specified period of time. A test piece is
blue tone. It is thus clear that whiteness in some way is an exposed for a specified time to UV light or heat. Colour mea-
aspect of colour perception, and that any measurement of surements at specific time intervals describe the yellowing /
whiteness must be based on colour management. discolouration. The degree of yellowing is expressed in a yel-
lowing number.

Shade (colour) ISO 5631

Shade of a paper is the colour of a paper. The colour is de-
scribed as blue, green, yellow or red or as a mixture of these
colours. The colour can be described according to intensity
and saturation. There are several different systems in use,
but most common for the paper industry is the CIE L* a* b*.

Opacity ISO 2471

The opacity is a measurement for the light transparency
degree of the paper, expressed in a percentage in relation to
the reflected light. Paper which lets a lot of light through is
transparent; paper which lets less light through is opaque.
The higher the value, the more opaque the paper is.

Metamerism

Metamerism is the condition in which two colours can
appear identical under certain light sources but exhibit clear
differences in other light sources. This occurs because the
reflective/reflection curves of the metameric colours are not
the same/alike over the whole spectrum.

Fluorescence

If a colour becomes more optically intensive under a certain
light source it is due to the effect of fluorescence. This
occurs when parts of the incident light are reflected in other
wavelengths. The impact of fluorescence is shown by the
optical brighteners used in many papers as they convert UV
light into visible light.

Elrepho

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IV Surface Properties Picking resistance

Paper is a surface product, its surface determines the visual The picking resistance of a paper is the strength of the paper
impression and the feel. Beyond that, printing techniques, surface (Z-direction). In the offset printing process there are
converting techniques and application determine the char- forces on the paper surface caused by splitting of the ink
acteristics of the paper surface. (tack) and adhesion forces of the blankets. Individual fibers,
coating particles or whole surface areas can be pulled out.

PPS roughness ISO 8791-4 The picking resistance can be determined according to
different methods:
The geometric form of a paper surface is defined as devia-
tion from the ideal dead level. The more the surface ap- IGT ISO 3783
proaches the ideal level, the smoother the paper is. The The IGT and Prüfbau picking tests show rather good corre-
measuring method (PPS) is based on the measurement of lations with picking demands in the offset printing process.
the air leakage between the paper surface and an even The principle of the test methods is to simulate as much as
measuring head. In case of the PPS roughness, the depth of possible the print conditions. With the IGT method oils with
the pores is measured by a defined circle. The higher the different viscosity are used in combination with accelerated
measured value is, the “rougher” the paper surface is. speed. The selection of a combination of oil and speed is
dependent on the kind of paper (LWC, WFC etc.).

Smoothness ISO 879/-2/3 und ISO 5627 Prüfbau
With the Prüfbau-test special test inks or commercial inks
Definition and measuring method are comparable with can be used to perform a picking test. It is also possible to
those used for roughness. Depending upon measuring pre-wet the paper with fountain water to determine the wet
technology either the time is measured in which a certain pick. The adjustable parameters such as pressure, speed,
amount of air is used (Bekk and Gurley) or airspeed is mea- printing roller and time interval must be taken from the test
sured under a constant pressure (Bendtsen or Sheffield). provisions and be tuned with the respective type of paper
and its application.
Apart from the air flow measurement principles there is also
the optical smoothness measurement according to FOGRA
and IGT method for determination of print smoothness.

Surface roughness (laser profile)

By use of a laser profile device it is possible to make a 3D
topographical roughness profile of the paper surface. Every
component’s surface has some form of texture which varies
according to its structure. These surfaces can be broken
down into three main categories: Surface roughness, Wavi-
ness and Form.

With this measurement it is possible to analyze defects of
the paper surface related to the paper machine.

Prüfbau

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V Strengths
The strength of paper plays an important role during pro-
duction but especially at converting of the paper. The
strength is in many cases also important for the use of
paper. A paper, which is produced as a reel is subject to a
tensile force in linear direction, a paper which is produced as
a sheet is subject usually to a tensile force in transverse di-
rection. Depending on the forces on the paper there are test
methods, which can objectively determine if the paper’s
strength is sufficient for these demands (forces).
Tearing Tester

Tensile strength
and breaking length ISO 1924-2 Tearing resistance ISO 1974

The testing of the paper on tensile strength takes place via The mean force required to continue the tearing of an initial
tear test under a defined increasing force. The measured cut in a single sheet of paper is expressed as the internal
tensile strength value is the quotient of the force (N) at the tearing resistance. If the initial slit is made in the machine
moment of break and the width of the test strip. The tensile direction, the result is given as machine direction tearing
strength index is the quotient of the tensile strength and the resistance and similarly for the cross machine direction.
grammage (g/m2) of the paper.

The breaking force (N) and the grammage are the basis for
calculating the breaking length. The breaking length is the
length of a strip of paper with a defined width, when, freely
suspended, it tears due to its own weight.

Elongation (stretch at break) ISO1924-2

The elongation at rupture defines the stretch of a paper in
percentage (%) at the time of tearing in relation to the un-
loaded length. The elongation at rupture is simultaneously
measured with the breaking force. From the breaking force
and elongation graph the elasticity module can be calculated.
This elasticity module is related to the dimensional stability
of the paper in different printing and converting processes.

Tensile Tester

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Residual strength FOGRA

Residual strength is an important characteristic for web off-
set papers. In web offset the paper is printed, heated and
folded. During this process the paper should have a specific
residual strength to prevent web breaks and breaks on the
fold.

Under standardized circumstances a paper is heated and
folded. Directly afterwards the tensile strength of the test
piece is determined.

A general method for residual strength is the FOGRA
method. With this method the residual strength of the paper
should be higher than a minimum value of 0.67 kN/m.

Bursting strength ISO 2758

The bursting strength is expressed as the maximum uni- Bursting Strength Tester
formly distributed pressure, applied at right angles to its
surface that a single sample piece can withstand under test
conditions. The Burst index is the bursting strength divided
by the grammage.

Stiffness (rigidity) ISO 5628

The stiffness is an important characteristic of the paper,
because it has substantial influence on the runability proper-
ties during the printing process and on the requirements for
converting (folding, creasing etc.). Stiffness is defined as
resistance against bending in the elastic area of the paper.
Beside grammage and thickness there are other items
which have influence on the stiffness, such as choice of raw
materials, refining degree of the fibers, quality and amount of
filler and moisture content. The extent of the bend follows
the laws of mechanics, which means the paper is not dam-
aged when stretched on the outside and compressed on
the inside. There are different methods available to deter-
mine the stiffness but the most used method in the paper
industry is the 2-points load method. With this method the
force needed to bend a rectangular test piece to a specified
angle is measured. The stiffness in machine direction and
cross direction are the key factors.

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Scott-Bond Tappi T 569
ZDT Tappi T 541

Internal bond strength (paper’s strength in its thickness
direction) is an important characteristic during printing and
converting processes. Internal bond strength is the maxi-
mum load that single ply or multiple paper or boxboard can
withstand when loaded with a force directed at right angles
to the surface of the sample material. The paper’s ability to
withstand these forces depends on factors such as choice
of pulp, degree of beating and refining, paper machine set-
tings and choice of additives.

The Z-directional tensile and Scott Bond tests are different
methods. The ZD-tensile measures the maximum force to
split the sample at a low standardized test speed perpen-
dicular to the test surface. The Scott Bond method mea-
sures the energy needed to split the sample at a speed several
thousand times higher.

Internal bond is related to several phenomena during
printing and converting such as delaminating, blistering,
creasability etc.

Scott-Bond Tester

Blister test

With the Blister test the drying section of a HSWO printing
press is simulated. The blister oil test has proven to be a
good test to determine the blister resistance in practice. The
paper is put in an oil bath with a specific temperature and
the water located in the paper evaporates, just as happens
in the drying section of the HSWO printing press. Blistering
can occur if the temperature is too high, the internal bond
too low or the vapour permeability too low. Printed areas
with a high coverage of ink (300–400%) are more sensitive
for blistering. Papers used for HSWO should show no
blistering at a temperature of 160–170°C or 340-360°F.

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Vl Absorption Oil absorption Cobb-Unger FOGRA

Types of paper for offset printing should have a certain The Cobb test can also be used for the measurement of oil
absorption to give the ink a good adhesion and to store the absorption instead of water and is called the Cobb-Unger.
fountain water (temporarily). The absorption level should not
be so high that printing ink and fountain water show through
the paper. The absorption is an important property of the Ink absorption / Set-off
paper during the printing process and is a crucial factor for
paper-ink-fountain water interaction studies. The set-off of paper describes the absorption of ink on the
paper. The speed of absorption is determined by the time
that the ink needs to penetrate into the paper. For the offset
Water absorption Cobb ISO 535 process this property is very important. An absorption which
is too slow, may result in smearing because the ink does not
Dependent on the intended purpose, different measuring dry fast enough. An absorption which is too fast, may result
methods for the determination of the water absorption ability in a reduction of the dry ink properties.
were developed. An old method is with the help of a pulling
feather/spring to apply a coloured ink on the paper with a The set-off of paper can be measured with a test printing
specific increasing width and observe if the ink spreads out machine like Prüfbau or IGT.
or shows through. With the ink swimming test the measure
of gluing is likewise tested. Both testing methods are limited A sample is printed with a standard ink. After several time
to printing and writing papers. intervals, a part of the printed sample is countered against a
blank counter sheet of the same paper (top on bottom in
For papers which are printed in offset the absorption is often order to simulate a pile). The density of the transferred ink of
determined with the Cobb test. The water absorption is de- each area on the counter sheet is measured and plotted
termined by measuring the amount of water, which is taken against time.
up by the paper within a specific time. The Cobb test gives
only reliable values, if the paper is not fully soaked through The shorter the time from high ink transfer to no ink transfer
with water. of the counter sheet the faster the set-off.

Water absorption – Drop test (Prüfbau)

The drop test is carried out using the Prüfbau printing
machine. A drop of a defined Isopropylalcohol solution is
applied to the paper sample by means of a micro-pipette
and the paper is immediately printed with an ink. The ink
densities in the pre-wetted and dry printed areas are mea-
sured. The ink density in the pre-wetted area is expressed
as a percentage of the ink density in the dry printed area.
The higher the value, the lower is the ink repellence of the
paper.

Cobb Sizing Tester

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Ink repellence – IGT Penetration Dynamic Analyzer (PDA)

If the flow rate of fountain solution is high and/or the paper With this test it is possible to measure process relevant
has poor water-absorbing characteristics, the film of foun- parameters of paper, coating colours or chemicals like glue
tain solution on the surface of the paper results in repulsion and ink with the aim of predicting printability, glueability and
of the ink in the following printing unit. Depending on the ex- ability for coating.
tent of the repulsion, solid areas can show an uneven print-
out. A paper sample is brought into contact with liquid in a mea-
suring cell. From the moment of liquid contact, it is radiated
The ink repellence test is carried out using the IGT test-print- in the Z-direction with high-frequency low-energy ultrasonic
ing machine. Dampening is performed using an engraved signals. These signals are received by a highly sensitive
steel roller dampened with fountain solution. The printing sensor before they are processed in the device and trans-
unit of the IGT tester is situated below the dampening unit, mitted to a personal computer. The main advantage of this
which allows the first section of the paper strip to be printed method compared to other methods is that the penetration
dry. The second section of the paper strip is printed after dynamics can be tracked in real time with millisecond time
dampening and is designated as the first interval. There is a resolution.
time interval of 0.05 seconds between wetting and printing.
The printing densities of the solid area (dry printing) and the
pre-wetted area are measured. The mean value of the
dampening interval is expressed as a percentage of the
mean value of the solid area. The higher these values are,
the lower is the ink repellence of the paper.

Contact angle measurement Tappi-558

With determination of the absorptive capacity of paper for
liquid it is necessary to define clearly, which liquid it con-
cerns, how long the time of contact will be and under which
conditions the test is implemented. In most cases where a
liquid droplet is applied to a solid material, an angle is
formed at the point of contact between droplet and solid,
the so called wettability angle or contact angle. This contact
angle is an indication of the wetting performance of liquids
applied to solids. This contact angle must be determined im-
mediately, because the liquid could penetrate rapidly into the
pores of the paper. Many printing inks, oils, paraffins and
similar products have rather a low surface tension and are
spreading immediately on the paper surface. Contact angle Drop test: Paper with a good water absorption
measurements and wetting studies can be performed using
an automated contact angle tester.

Drop test: Paper with a bad water absorption

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Vll Others There can be three kinds of mottle:

Backtrap mottle
pH value ISO 6588 Ink applied to paper surface on a preceding printing unit of a
multi-colour press will split onto the blanket in a subsequent
The pH value in the data sheets defines the pH value of the unit and then be re-deposited onto the next sheet. If this
surface. The pH values are indicated on a scale from 0 to 14. occurs unevenly, the print can become mottled.
The measuring value 7 marks the neutral point which corre-
sponds to distilled water. Values below 7 refer to “increas- This backtrap mottle can be simulated on a test printing
ingly acid”, values above 7 stand for “increasingly alkaline”. machine by printing the paper and countering the paper in
Papers should be close to, if possible, next to the neutral pre-defined times against a clean blanket reel.
area or in the slightly alkaline range to have ideal require-
ments for printing and further treatment. Water interference mottle
Water transferred to paper surface on a preceding printing
unit of a multi-colour press should be absorbed by the coat-
Ash content ISO 2144 ing before it reaches a subsequent printing unit. If it is not
absorbed it will prevent even transfer of the ink. A mottled
The ash content is the remaining residue as percentage of print can result.
dry paper after ignition at 900°C. The ash content is the total
of inorganic material, like carbonate, kaolin etc. in the paper The method IGT ink repellence (see chapter VI Absorption)
(including filler). Fillers have an important influence on the is used to test this phenomenon.
paper quality (for instance opacity) and are dosed with care
depending on the application of the paper. Midtone mottle (screen mottle)
This is an uneven print in 30–60% screens, caused by differ-
ences in the scattering and absorption behaviour of base
Mottle test paper and/or coating. This effect can occur in one colour
printing and even in case of perfectly formed dots of equal
Mottling is the uneven print appearance, mostly in solid density (optical effect).
areas: small dark and light areas in the surface of paper
(board) caused by ink, paper or printing press. Mottle is in- Midtone mottle can be evaluated by printing a screen with
fluenced by many parameters: e.g. ink, colour sequence, the test printing machine or with help of a plastic screen
construction of printing press, speed, rubber blanket and which is put on top of the paper. The level of screen mottle
fountain water. Variations in the surface characteristics such can be evaluated visually or with help of image analysis.
as absorption and smoothness play an important role
regarding mottle and are caused by the production process
and the components within the paper.

13
Paper Standards Measur Inhalt 07.05.2007 16:14 Uhr Seite 14

Ink rub resistance Prüfbau

Rubbing is the effect of repeated relative shifting of two
touching surfaces under a certain amount of pressure. The
measure of resistance of a printed material to this rubbing
effect is known as ink rub resistance.

Ink rub resistance can be determined with the Prüfbau ink
rub tester. 48 hours after printing the ink rub resistance is
visually evaluated. It is also possible to evaluate the ink rub
resistance with a spectrophotometer or with image analysis.

Cracking test DIN 55437

After the printing process the paper is mostly converted to
brochures, books, maps etc.

During converting when the paper is folded, cracking of the
coating can occur at the folds.

Papers below 170g/m2 are directly folded, whereas papers
equal or above 170g/m2 are creased before folding. Folding
can be carried out with the Fogra folding tester. Fold is
visually evaluated for cracking.

The creasability of a paper is tested with a special machine,
which has a creasing knife and different rules.

Papers which can be creased within a wide range (combina-
tions depths and widths) without showing faults, have a
good creasability level. Papers that can only be creased
without showing faults within a small range have a bad
creasability level.

14
Paper Standards Measur Inhalt 07.05.2007 16:14 Uhr Seite 15

Vlll List of Standards and Measures
Selection of ISO/DIN/TAPPI and FOGRA test methods
Unit Europe US
Paper Specification
Basis weight g/m2 ISO 536 Tappi T 410
Thickness / Caliper µm ISO 534 Tappi T 411
Specific volume cm2/g ISO 534 Tappi T 500
Relative humidity % Tappi 502 Tappi T 502

Optical Properties
Gloss % ISO 8254 – 1 and 2 Tappi T 480
ISO-Brightness % ISO 2470 Tappi T 452
CIE-Whiteness ISO 11475 Tappi T 562
Shade ISO 5631 Tappi T 524 or T 527
Opacity % ISO 2471 Tappi T 425
Metamerism
Fluorescent
Yellowing DIN 6167

Surface Properties
Roughness PPS µm ISO 8791-4 Tappi T 555
Smoothness Bekk sec. ISO 8791-2/3 and ISO 5627 Tappi T 479
Surface roughness (laser profile)
Picking resistance
IGT ISO 3783 Tappi T 514
Prüfbau

Strengths
Tensile strength and breaking length kN/m – km ISO 1924-2 Tappi T 494
Elongation % ISO 1924-2 Tappi T 494
Tear resistance mN ISO 1974 Tappi T 414
Residual strength kN/m FOGRA
Bursting strength kPa ISO 2758 Tappi T 403
Stiffness mN.m ISO 5628 Tappi T 556
Scott Bond / ZD Tensile J/m2 – kPa Tappi T 569 – Tappi T 541 Tappi T 569 – Tappi T 541
Blister test ° Tappi T 526

Absorption
Water absorption Cobb g/m2 ISO 535 Tappi T 441
Oil absorption Cobb-Unger g/m2 FOGRA
Ink absorption / set-off test (Prüfbau)
Water absorption (Drop test)
Ink repellence – IGT
Contact angle measurement Tappi T 558 Tappi T 558
Penetration Dynamic Analyzer

Others
pH-Value ISO 6588 Tappi T 509
Ash content % ISO 2144 Tappi T 211 and T 413
Mottle test
Ink rub resistance
Cracking test DIN 55437

15
Paper Standards Measur Inhalt 07.05.2007 16:14 Uhr Seite 16

lX Concluding remarks

The contents of this brochure result from extensive research
work, closely linked with practice and with practical experi-
ence.

We would like to take this opportunity to thank the following
company for their support and assistance

Lorentzen & Wettre
16493 KISTA, Schweden

All statements and information are correct to the best of our
knowledge. All liability for losses associated with sugges-
tions given in this brochure is excluded, regardless of the
legal basis. The right is reserved to make technical changes
to our grades in the course of further development.

All rights reserved
© 2007 by Sappi Europe SA

Imprint
Sappi Fine Paper Europe

Text and Editing:
Herrmann Nax, Maurice van Duuren

16
Paper Standards Measur Umschlag 08.05.2007 15:42 Uhr Seite 1

X Table of recommended units Xl Table of conversion factors
We hope this list of most frequently referred units and properties within this catalogue will be a useful tool for all who are involved Most of the world has accepted the International System of “Units-Systeme International d’Unités” (SI) as the standard system
in the pulp and paper field. Recommended units are from the International Standard, ISO 5651. for measurement. Test methods and standards require SI units as the primary reporting value. We trust that this guide will be
useful when converting between different units (FPS foot-pound-seconds and SI units).

Property Recommended unit or Property Recommended unit or FPS unit Faktor Sl-unit FPS unit Faktor SI-unit
method of expression method of expression A K
Adhesion on strength of glue bonds acres 4046.86 m2 Kgf/in 0.38609 kN/m
kN/m Light scattering power numerical value
of corrugated fiberboard
Air permeance µm/(Pa s) Light scattering oefficient m2/kg B L
Moisture content or dry Btu (IT) 1.055056 kJ Ib 0.4535924 kg
Air resistance (Gurley) s % (mass/mass)
matter content Btu/h 0.29307 W Ibf 4448.222 mN
Apparent bulk density g/cm3 Opacity % Btu/(h·ft·oF) 1.7307 W/(m·K) Ibf 4.448222 N
Apparent sheet density g/cm3 Picking velocity, IGT m/s Btu/(h.ft2 . OF) 5.6783 W/(m2·K) Ibf·in 0.1129848 Nm
Btu/lb 2.326 J/g Ibf/in2 6.894757 kPa
Ash % (mass/mass) Puncture resistance J, kJ
Btu/(lb·oF) 4.1868 x 103 J/(kg·K) Ibf/in 175.1268 N/m
Bending stiffness µm, mNm, Nm Reflectance factor % Ibf/in 0.1751268 kN/m
Bending stiffness index Nm7/kg3 Reflection (optical) density numerical value F Ibf/in2 6.894757 kN/m2
Box compression resistance BCT kN Resistance to water penetration min, h, d fl oz (Imp) 28.413 cm3 Ibf/in2 6.894757 kPa
Breaking length km Resistance to grease penetration min, h, d fl oz (US) 29.574 cm3 Ibf·ft 1.35582 N·m
Bulking thickness µm Ring crush kN/m ft H20 (39,2 °F) 2.98898 kPa Ibf/ft2 47.88026 Pa
ft 0.3048 m Ibf/15 mm 0.29655 kN/m
Burst energy absorption Jlm2 Roughness, Print-surf µm
ft2 0.09290304 m2 Ibf·s/ft2 47.88026 Pa·s
Burst index kPa m2/g Roughness, Bendtsen ml/min
ft3 0.02831685 m3 Ibf/ft3 16.01846 kg/m3
Bursting strength kPa Saleable mass kg ft/min 5.08 mm/s Ib/1000 ft2 4.8824 g/m2
Compression resistance SCT kN/m Surface resistivity Ohm ft/min 0.00508 m/s Ib/3000 ft2 1.6275 g/m2
Compression resistance SCT index kNm/kg Smoothness, Bekk s ft3/min 1.69901 m3/h Ib/in3 27.6799 Mg/m3
Conductivity of extracts mS/m Static bending force mN, N ft/s 0.3048 m/s Ib/gal (US) 0.1198264 kg/l
Dimensional change after ft3/s 28.31685 l/s Ib/ream, 17 x 22–500 3.7597 g/m2
% Stock concentration % ft·lbf 1.355818 J Ib/ream, 24 x 36–500 1.6275 g/m2
immersion in water
Dirt and shives in pulps 102 (number of specks)/kg Stretch at break % ft·lbf/in2 2.1015 kJ/m2 Ib/ream, 25 x 38–500 1.4801 g/m2
ft·lbf/ft2 14.5939 J/m2
Drainability of pulp –"CSF"
numerical value Swelling after water immersion % ft·lbf/s 1.35582 W M
and Schopper-Riegler
mi 1.60934 km
Edgewise crush resistance kN/m Tear index mNm /g 2
G mi2 2.589988 km2
Electric strength kV/mm Tearing strength N gal(US) 3.785412 I mil (0,001 in) 25.4 IJm
Flat compression resistance kPa Tensile index N m/g gal(lmp) 4.546092 I mil (0,001 in) 0.0254 mm
Flat crush resistance FCT gal(US)/d 0.00378541 m3/d
kPa Tensile energy absorption J/m2
(corrugated board) gal(US)/min 3.785412 I/min O
Flat crush resistance of gal(lmp)/min 7.5768 x 10-5 m3/s oz (avoir.) 28.34952 g
N Tensile stiffness N/m
laboratory fluted corrugated medium gal(US)/min 6.3090 x 10-5 m3/s oz (US fluid) 29.57353 ml
Fold number, double folds numerical value Tensile stiffness index Nm/kg grains/yd2 0.0775 g/m2 ozf 0.278014 N
Tensile stiffness orientation ° (degree with decimal ozf/in 10.945 N/m
Folding endurance log10 (number of folds)
(polar angle) sub-divisions) H oz/gal (US) 7.489152 g/l
Fracture toughness J/m Tensile strength kN/m hp (550 ft-lbf/s) 0.7457 kW
Fracture toughness index Jm/kg Tensile toughness index Jm/kg hp·h 2.68452 MJ P
psi 6.894757 kPa
Friction coefficient N/N Tensile toughness J/m
I
Gloss % or numerical value Thickness µm,mm in 25.4 mm T
Grammage g/m2 Transmission (optical) density numerical value in2 6.4516 cm2 ton (short) 0.9071847 tonnes(t)
Hygroexpansivity % Volume resistivity Qm in3 16.38706 cm3 ton (short)/l 00 ft2 0.092903 t/m2
Ink absorbency “K and N” “K and N” units Water absorbency g/m2 inHg (32 °F) 3.38638 kPa
Light absorption coefficient m /kg
2
– area basis g/m2 inHg (60 °F) 3.37685 kPa y
Sappi is committed to helping printers and graphic designers use paper in the best possible way. So we share our knowledge with inH20 (60 °F) 0.24884 kPa yd 0.9144 m
Light absorbing power numerical value – mass basis %
customers, providing them with samples, specifications, ideas, technical information and a complete range of brochures. Find out in·lbf 0.1129848 N·m yd2 0.83612736 m2
– capillary rise mm
in·lbf 0.1129848 J yd3 0.7645549 m3
more on our unique web site Water vapour transmission rate g (m2 d) in·lbf/in2 175.1268 J/m2 yd3/s 0.7645549 m3/s
z-direction strength properties kN/m2 in·ozf 7.061552 mJ
www.sappi.com/KnowledgeBank
17 18
Paper Standards Measur Umschlag 08.05.2007 15:42 Uhr Seite 1

X Table of recommended units Xl Table of conversion factors
We hope this list of most frequently referred units and properties within this catalogue will be a useful tool for all who are involved Most of the world has accepted the International System of “Units-Systeme International d’Unités” (SI) as the standard system
in the pulp and paper field. Recommended units are from the International Standard, ISO 5651. for measurement. Test methods and standards require SI units as the primary reporting value. We trust that this guide will be
useful when converting between different units (FPS foot-pound-seconds and SI units).

Property Recommended unit or Property Recommended unit or FPS unit Faktor Sl-unit FPS unit Faktor SI-unit
method of expression method of expression A K
Adhesion on strength of glue bonds acres 4046.86 m2 Kgf/in 0.38609 kN/m
kN/m Light scattering power numerical value
of corrugated fiberboard
Air permeance µm/(Pa s) Light scattering oefficient m2/kg B L
Moisture content or dry Btu (IT) 1.055056 kJ Ib 0.4535924 kg
Air resistance (Gurley) s % (mass/mass)
matter content Btu/h 0.29307 W Ibf 4448.222 mN
Apparent bulk density g/cm3 Opacity % Btu/(h·ft·oF) 1.7307 W/(m·K) Ibf 4.448222 N
Apparent sheet density g/cm3 Picking velocity, IGT m/s Btu/(h.ft2 . OF) 5.6783 W/(m2·K) Ibf·in 0.1129848 Nm
Btu/lb 2.326 J/g Ibf/in2 6.894757 kPa
Ash % (mass/mass) Puncture resistance J, kJ
Btu/(lb·oF) 4.1868 x 103 J/(kg·K) Ibf/in 175.1268 N/m
Bending stiffness µm, mNm, Nm Reflectance factor % Ibf/in 0.1751268 kN/m
Bending stiffness index Nm7/kg3 Reflection (optical) density numerical value F Ibf/in2 6.894757 kN/m2
Box compression resistance BCT kN Resistance to water penetration min, h, d fl oz (Imp) 28.413 cm3 Ibf/in2 6.894757 kPa
Breaking length km Resistance to grease penetration min, h, d fl oz (US) 29.574 cm3 Ibf·ft 1.35582 N·m
Bulking thickness µm Ring crush kN/m ft H20 (39,2 °F) 2.98898 kPa Ibf/ft2 47.88026 Pa
ft 0.3048 m Ibf/15 mm 0.29655 kN/m
Burst energy absorption Jlm2 Roughness, Print-surf µm
ft2 0.09290304 m2 Ibf·s/ft2 47.88026 Pa·s
Burst index kPa m2/g Roughness, Bendtsen ml/min
ft3 0.02831685 m3 Ibf/ft3 16.01846 kg/m3
Bursting strength kPa Saleable mass kg ft/min 5.08 mm/s Ib/1000 ft2 4.8824 g/m2
Compression resistance SCT kN/m Surface resistivity Ohm ft/min 0.00508 m/s Ib/3000 ft2 1.6275 g/m2
Compression resistance SCT index kNm/kg Smoothness, Bekk s ft3/min 1.69901 m3/h Ib/in3 27.6799 Mg/m3
Conductivity of extracts mS/m Static bending force mN, N ft/s 0.3048 m/s Ib/gal (US) 0.1198264 kg/l
Dimensional change after ft3/s 28.31685 l/s Ib/ream, 17 x 22–500 3.7597 g/m2
% Stock concentration % ft·lbf 1.355818 J Ib/ream, 24 x 36–500 1.6275 g/m2
immersion in water
Dirt and shives in pulps 102 (number of specks)/kg Stretch at break % ft·lbf/in2 2.1015 kJ/m2 Ib/ream, 25 x 38–500 1.4801 g/m2
ft·lbf/ft2 14.5939 J/m2
Drainability of pulp –"CSF"
numerical value Swelling after water immersion % ft·lbf/s 1.35582 W M
and Schopper-Riegler
mi 1.60934 km
Edgewise crush resistance kN/m Tear index mNm /g 2
G mi2 2.589988 km2
Electric strength kV/mm Tearing strength N gal(US) 3.785412 I mil (0,001 in) 25.4 IJm
Flat compression resistance kPa Tensile index N m/g gal(lmp) 4.546092 I mil (0,001 in) 0.0254 mm
Flat crush resistance FCT gal(US)/d 0.00378541 m3/d
kPa Tensile energy absorption J/m2
(corrugated board) gal(US)/min 3.785412 I/min O
Flat crush resistance of gal(lmp)/min 7.5768 x 10-5 m3/s oz (avoir.) 28.34952 g
N Tensile stiffness N/m
laboratory fluted corrugated medium gal(US)/min 6.3090 x 10-5 m3/s oz (US fluid) 29.57353 ml
Fold number, double folds numerical value Tensile stiffness index Nm/kg grains/yd2 0.0775 g/m2 ozf 0.278014 N
Tensile stiffness orientation ° (degree with decimal ozf/in 10.945 N/m
Folding endurance log10 (number of folds)
(polar angle) sub-divisions) H oz/gal (US) 7.489152 g/l
Fracture toughness J/m Tensile strength kN/m hp (550 ft-lbf/s) 0.7457 kW
Fracture toughness index Jm/kg Tensile toughness index Jm/kg hp·h 2.68452 MJ P
psi 6.894757 kPa
Friction coefficient N/N Tensile toughness J/m
I
Gloss % or numerical value Thickness µm,mm in 25.4 mm T
Grammage g/m2 Transmission (optical) density numerical value in2 6.4516 cm2 ton (short) 0.9071847 tonnes(t)
Hygroexpansivity % Volume resistivity Qm in3 16.38706 cm3 ton (short)/l 00 ft2 0.092903 t/m2
Ink absorbency “K and N” “K and N” units Water absorbency g/m2 inHg (32 °F) 3.38638 kPa
Light absorption coefficient m /kg
2
– area basis g/m2 inHg (60 °F) 3.37685 kPa y
Sappi is committed to helping printers and graphic designers use paper in the best possible way. So we share our knowledge with inH20 (60 °F) 0.24884 kPa yd 0.9144 m
Light absorbing power numerical value – mass basis %
customers, providing them with samples, specifications, ideas, technical information and a complete range of brochures. Find out in·lbf 0.1129848 N·m yd2 0.83612736 m2
– capillary rise mm
in·lbf 0.1129848 J yd3 0.7645549 m3
more on our unique web site Water vapour transmission rate g (m2 d) in·lbf/in2 175.1268 J/m2 yd3/s 0.7645549 m3/s
z-direction strength properties kN/m2 in·ozf 7.061552 mJ
www.sappi.com/KnowledgeBank
17 18
Paper Standards Measur Umschlag 08.05.2007 15:42 Uhr Seite 2

Cover HannoArt Gloss 250 g/m2, Text HannoArt Gloss 150 g/m2, 2007 Sappi Europe SA
Paper Standards & Measurements is one in a series of Sappi’s technical brochures. Through them, we share our paper know-
ledge with our customers so that they can be the best they can be.
Paper
Standards & Measurements
PROCESSING
ON-PRESS
MATT PAPERS
TROUBLESHOOTING

FOLDING AND CREASING

CLIMATE
AND PAPER

THE PAPER MAKING
MOTTLING- PROCESS
MOTTLED
IMPRESSION

THE PRINTING
PAPER, INK AND PROCESS www.sappi.com
PRESS CHEMISTRY
ADHESIVE
TECHNIQUES Sappi Fine Paper Europe
Sappi Europe SA
154 Chausseé de la Hulpe
B-1170 Brussels
Tel. + 32 (0) 676 97 00
Fax + 32 (0) 676 96 60

For comprehensive technical information
www.sappi.com/KnowledgeBank sappi sappi
The word for fine paper The word for fine paper
sappi
Paper Standards Measur Umschlag 08.05.2007 15:42 Uhr Seite 2

Cover HannoArt Gloss 250 g/m2, Text HannoArt Gloss 150 g/m2, 2007 Sappi Europe SA
Paper Standards & Measurements is one in a series of Sappi’s technical brochures. Through them, we share our paper know-
ledge with our customers so that they can be the best they can be.
Paper
Standards & Measurements
PROCESSING
ON-PRESS
MATT PAPERS
TROUBLESHOOTING

FOLDING AND CREASING

CLIMATE
AND PAPER

THE PAPER MAKING
MOTTLING- PROCESS
MOTTLED
IMPRESSION

THE PRINTING
PAPER, INK AND PROCESS www.sappi.com
PRESS CHEMISTRY
ADHESIVE
TECHNIQUES Sappi Fine Paper Europe
Sappi Europe SA
154 Chausseé de la Hulpe
B-1170 Brussels
Tel. + 32 (0) 676 97 00
Fax + 32 (0) 676 96 60

For comprehensive technical information
www.sappi.com/KnowledgeBank sappi sappi
The word for fine paper The word for fine paper
sappi