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November 26, 2009

Blk 2-2a Engr. Roell Atangan

1. Addition of vectors:

**Two or more vectors may be added together to produce their addition. If two vectors have
**

the same direction, their resultant has a magnitude equal to the sum of their magnitudes

and will also have the same direction.

2. Polygon method:

**Two vectors A and B are added by drawing the arrows which represent the vectors in such a
**

way that the initial point of B is on the terminal point of A. The resultant C = A + B, is the

vector from the initial point of A to the terminal point of B.

**Many vectors can be added together in this way by drawing the successive vectors in a
**

head-to-tail fashion:

**If the polygon is closed, the resultant is a vector of zero magnitude and has no direction.
**

This is called the null vector, or 0.

Parallelogram method:

**In the parallelogram method for vector addition, the vectors are translated, (i.e., moved) to
**

a common origin and the parallelogram constructed as follows:

**The resultant R is the diagonal of the parallelogram drawn from the common origin.
**

3. Method of components:

**The components of a vector are those vectors which, when added together, give the original
**

vector.

The sum of the components of two vectors is equal to the sum of these two vectors.

**If components are appropriately chosen, this theorem can be used as a convenient method
**

for adding vectors.

**The direction of vectors is always defined relative to a system of axes. For example, in
**

discussing displacement on the surface of the earth, it is convenient to use axes directed

from South to North and from West to East:

**In such a situation, an arbitrary displacement A can be thought of as being made up of two
**

components A1 and A2 directed along these axes, such that A = A1 + A2.

**The components could be determined by constructing a scale diagram, but they are easily
**

calculated as follows (Note: It is convenient to specify Q clockwise from North when

referring to displacements on the earth:

**A1, the component in an easterly direction, will have a magnitude
**

|A1| = |A| cosQ.

A2, the component in a northerly direction, will have a magnitude

|A2| = |A|sinQ

Rectangular components:

In all vector problems a natural system of axes presents itself. In many cases the axes are

at right angles to one another. Components parallel to the axes of a rectangular system of

axes are called rectangular components.

**In general it is convenient to call the horizontal axis X and the vertical axis Y. The direction
**

of a vector is given as an angle counter-clockwise from the X-axis.

Note that if a vector is directed along one of the axes, then the component along the other

axis is zero.

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