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Definition 1 Integration
HRM is a series of integrated decisions that form the employment relationships; their quality contributes
to the ability of the organizations and the employees to achieve their objectives.
Definition 2 Influencing
HRM is concerned with the people dimensions in management. Since every organization is made up of
people, acquiring their services, developing their skills, motivating them to higher levels of performance
and ensuring that they continue to maintain their commitment to the organization are essential to
achieving organizational objectives. This is true, regardless of the type of the organization government,
business, education, health, recreational, or social action.
Definition 3 Applicability
HRM planning, organizing, directing and controlling of the procurement, development, compensation,
integration, maintenance and separation of human resources to the end those individual, organizational
and social objectives are accomplished.
MEANING OF HRM: HRM is management function that helps managers to recruit, select, train and develop members for an
organization. Obviously HRM is concerned with the peoples dimensions in organizations. HRM refers to
set of programs, functions, and activities designed and carried out
Core elements of HRM
People: Organizations mean people. It is the people who staff and manage organizations.
Management: HRM involves application of management functions and principles for acquisitioning,
developing, maintaining and remunerating employees in organizations.
Integration & Consistency: Decisions regarding people must be integrated and consistent.
Influence: Decisions must influence the effectiveness of organization resulting into betterment of
services to customers in the form of high quality products supplied at reasonable cost.
Applicability: HRM principles are applicable to business as well as non-business organizations too, such
as education, health, recreation and the like.

OBJECTIVES OF HRM: 1. Societal Objectives: HRM may contribute ethically and socially regarding the needs and challenges
emerging in the society. If an organization fails to use its resources for society benefits in ethical ways it
may lead to restriction by society. For example, society may limit the HR decisions through laws in
hiring; it may limit laws that address discrimination, laws regarding safety or other areas of concern.
2. Organizational Objectives: The main objective of HRM is to achieve organizational goals by
bringing organizations effectiveness. HRM is not an end but it is a means to assist the organization in
order to attain its objectives
3. Functional Objectives: Functional objective of HRM deals with contributions of each department
regarding their need and effectiveness in order to attain organization goal. All the resource or skill set get
wasted if HRM is not able to fulfill up with the organizational demand and To maintain departments
contribution and level of services at a level appropriate to the organizations needs.
4. Personal Objectives: HRM also deals with personal objectives of the individuals so that personal and
organizational objectives can be met or order to achieve maximum production and attain competitive
advantage. These personal objectives are important in order to maintain, retain and to motivate
employees. If this not done employees dissatisfaction and poor performance will result in attrition or low

SCOPE OF HRM: From Entry to the Exit of an employee in the organization

Scope of HRM can be described based on the following activities of HRM. Based on these activities we
can summarize the scope of HRM into 7 different categories as mentioned below after the activities. Lets
check out both of them.

7 Categories of Scope of HRM

1. Introduction to HRM 2. Employee Hiring 3. Employee and Executive Remuneration

4. Employee Motivation 5. Employee Maintenance 6. Industrial Relations 7. Prospects of HRM


Broader function- Human Resource Management is a comprehensive function because it is about
managing people in the organization. It covers all types of people in the organization from workers till the
top level management.
People oriented - Human resource is the core of all the processes of human resource management. So
HRM is the process which brings people and organizations together so that their goals can be achieved.
Action oriented - Human resource management believes in taking actions in order to achieve individual
and organizational goals rather than just keeping records and procedures.
Development oriented - Development of employees is an essential function of human resource
management in order to get maximum satisfaction from their work so that they give their best to the
Continuous function - As human resource is a living factor among all factors of production therefore it
requires continuous improvement and innovations in order to get excellence. So it requires a constant
alertness and awareness of human relations and there importance in every day to day operations.
Future oriented - HRM is very important activity which helps organization to achieve its objectives in
future by providing well motivated and competent employees.

1. Advisory Role: HRM advises management on the solutions to any problems affecting people,
personnel policies and procedures.
a. Personnel Policies: Organization Structure, Social Responsibility, Employment Terms & Conditions,
Compensation, Career & Promotion, Training & Development and Industrial Relations.
b. Personnel Procedures: Relating to manpower planning procedures, recruitment and selection
procedures, and employment procedures, training procedures, management development procedures,
performance appraisal procedures, compensation procedures, industrial relations procedures and health
and safety procedures.
2. Functional Role: The personnel function interprets and helps to communicate personnel policies. It
provides guidance to managers, which will ensure that agreed policies are implemented.
3. Service Role: Personnel function provides services that need to be carried out by full time specialists.
These services constitute the main activities carried out by personnel departments and involve the
implementation of the policies and procedures described above.

Role of HR Managers (Today)

1. Humanitarian Role: Reminding moral and ethical obligations to employees

2. Counselor: Consultations to employees about marital, health, mental, physical and career problems. 3.
Mediator: Playing the role of a peacemaker during disputes, conflicts between individuals and groups and
4. Spokesman: To represent of the company because he has better overall picture of his companys
5. Problem Solver: Solving problems of overall human resource management and long-term
Organizational planning.
6. Change Agent: Introducing and implementing institutional changes and installing organizational
Development programs
7. Management of Manpower Resources: Broadly concerned with leadership both in the group and
individual relationships and labor-management relations.
Role of HR Managers (Future)
1. Protection and enhancement of human and non-human resources
2. Finding the best way of using people to accomplish organizational goals
3. Improve organizational performance
4. Integration of techniques of information technology with the human resources
5. Utilizing behavioral scientists in the best way for his people
6. Meeting challenges of increasing organizational effectiveness
7. Managing diverse workforce


Managerial Functions of HRM

1. Planning: Plan and research about wage trends, labor market conditions, union demands and other
personnel benefits. Forecasting manpower needs etc.
2. Organizing: Organizing manpower and material resources by creating authorities and responsibilities
for the achievement of organizational goals and objectives.
3. Staffing: Recruitment & Selection
4. Directing: Issuance of orders and instructions, providing guidance and motivation of employees to
follow the path laid-down.
5. Controlling: Regulating personnel activities and policies according to plans. Observations and
comparisons of deviations
Operational Functions of HRM
1. Procurement: Planning, Recruitment and Selection, Induction and Placement

2. Development: Training, Development, Career planning and counseling.

3. Compensation: Wage and Salary determination and administration
4. Integration: Integration of human resources with organization.
5. Maintenance: Sustaining and improving working conditions, retentions, employee communication
6. Separations: Managing separations caused by resignations, terminations, lay offs, death, medical
sickness etc.


1. It helps management in the preparation adoption and continuing evolution of personnel programmes
and policies.
2. It supplies skilled workers through scientific selection process.
3. It ensures maximum benefit out of the expenditure on training and development and appreciates the
human assets.
4. It prepares workers according to the changing needs of industry and environment.
5. It motivates workers and upgrades them so as to enable them to accomplish the organisation goals. 6.
Through innovation and experimentation in the fields of personnel, it helps in reducing casts and helps in
increasing productivity.
7. It contributes a lot in restoring the industrial harmony and healthy employer-employee relations.
8. It establishes mechanism for the administration of personnel services that are delegated to the
personnel department.

1. Respect and Courtesy: This includes awareness, acceptance,
appreciation, recognition, understanding, and tact.
2. Trust and Trustworthiness: This includes dependability, consistency,
and clarity.
3. Honesty: This includes authenticity, openness, directness, and sincerity.
4. Integrity: This includes fairness, objectivity, and courage.
5. Professionalism: This includes excellence, responsibility, work ethic,
and commitment to the organization.
6. Teamwork: This includes community, inclusion, cooperation, and
positive attitude.
7. Creativity/Vision: This includes professional development, and lifelong
8. Continual Improvement: This includes commitment, excellence,
positive attitude, courage, and work ethic.


The evolution of human resource management as a distinct profession dates back to the industrial
revolution when factories established personnel departments to look into wages and welfare of workers.
To understand the evolution of Human Resource Management, one must first understand its basis. The
origins of workforce management lies in the arrangements made for the welfare of apprentices working
with the master craftsmen in the putting out system that prevailed during the medieval ages. The
industrial revolution that led to the establishment of factories displaced the putting out system.
The workers in the early factories faced long hours of works under extremely unhygienic conditions, and
mostly lived in slums. This soon resulted in several labor riots, the most famous being Ludds riots of 1811
in Nottingham, England, precipitated by reduced wages. The government soon intervened to provide
basic rights and protections for workers, and the need to comply with such statutory regulations forced
factory owners to set up a formal mechanism to look into workers wages and welfare, and redress other
issues concerning labor. This led to the emergence of Personnel Management as a distinct profession.
The Personnel Management Approach
The Personnel Management approach that remained in vogue for much of the 20th Century remained
administrative in nature. Arising out of the need to enforce statutory compliance, it concerned itself
primarily with
1. employee record keeping
2. adherence to the stated policies while implementing functions such as recruitment, training and
wage administration
3. taking welfare oriented measures such as providing medical care, vaccinations, housing facilities
and the like
4. attempting to increase productivity through wage increases and training, and enforcement of
standards derived from work studies influenced by the scientific management approach
promulgated by Frederick Taylor and the like
5. dealing with trade unions and trying to solve industrial disputes through collective bargaining and
other industrial relations approaches.
6. conducting performance appraisals or report card of past performance to determine pay and
7. The Personnel Management approach tried to convince workers of the business interests, and
convince management of workers interest and social obligations. It rarely had a direct say in the
companys strategy and did not involved itself with operations aspects, remaining a purely staff
The Traditional Human Resource Approach
The latter decades of the twentieth century saw the winds of change starting to affect the personnel
management profession. Elton Mayos Hawthorne Studies had debunked Taylors Scientific Management
approach toward productivity increase, and established that the major drivers of productivity and
motivation were non-monetary factors. A host of new theories emerged based on this new behavioral
perspective. Some of the popular theories that struck ground was Douglas McGregors Theory X and
Theory Y, Abraham Maslows hierarchy of needs theory that recognized the concept of individuals
aspiring to reach a state of self actualization, Victor Vrooms Expectation Theory, Alderfers ERG Theory,
and more. Government interventions led to the enactment of new legislations that guaranteed workers
more rights.
All these changed soon led to the transition from the administrative and passive Personnel Management
approach to a more dynamic Human Resource Management approach. This new approach considered
workers as valuable resources, a marked improvement from the earlier approach of considering them as
mere cogs.

While Personnel Management was a strictly staff function, Human Resource management began to
become an increasingly line management function, directly interlinked to the core business operations.
The major changes in approach from Personnel Management vs Human Resource Management
manifested in many ways.
1. The recruitment and skill enhancement of the workforce having a direct bearing on organizational
profitability, efforts began to increase workers commitment and loyalty.
2. Motivation took the shape of challenging work environment, free holidays, creating an active
social community within the workforce, fringe benefits and the like, besides monetary incentives.
3. Training acquired a new Training and Development dimension with the focus on behavioral
training to change attitudes and develop basic skills rather than remaining limited to inculcating
work-related skills.
4. Wage and Salary Administration became more complex with the introduction of performance
related pay, employee stock options and the like
5. The report-card based performance appraisal systems become more proactive with new
techniques such as Management by Objectives, 360 degree appraisals and the like
6. emphasis on leadership instead of managing

The Strategic Human Resource Approach

The evolution of Human Resource Management took a new turn at the end of the century. Increased free
market competition at global level and the proliferation of technology and knowledge based industries
raised the importance of human resources, and from an obscure role a century ago, human resource
management rose to become the most critical function of an enterprise.
The workforce, hitherto considered as resources now became assets and a valuable source of
competitive advantage. The thrust of human resource management now lies in trying to align individual
goals and objectives with corporate goals and objectives, and rather than enforce rules or dictate terms,
act as a facilitator and promotes a participative approach.
These changes influenced Human Resources functions in many ways.
1. Increased reliance on performance based short term contracts instead of long term employment
2. Direct linkage of compensation to the profitability of the enterprise and the employees
contribution towards such profitability
3. New dimensions for training and development function by encouraging and facilitating
innovation and creativity
4. Motivation through enriching the work experience
5. Performance and Talent Management displacing performance appraisals
6. Strategic Human Resource Management blurs the distinction between a specialized Human
Resource Management function and core operational activity, and very often, Human Resource
Management drives interventions such as Total Quality Management and the like.

1. Globalization: - Growing internationalization of business has its impact on HRM in terms of problems
of unfamiliar laws, languages, practices, competitions, attitudes, management styles, work ethics and
more. HR managers have a challenge to deal with more functions, more heterogeneous functions and
more involvement in employees personal life.
2. Corporate Re-organizations: - Reorganization relates to mergers and acquisitions, joint ventures, take
over, internal restructuring of organizations. In these situations, it is difficult to imagine circumstances hat

pose a greater challenge for HRM than reorganizations itself. It is a challenge to manage employees
anxiety, uncertainties, insecurities and fears during these dynamic trends.
3. New Organizational forms: - The basic challenge to HRM comes from the changing character of
competitions. The competition is not between individual firms but between constellations of firm. Major
companies are operating through a complex web of strategic alliances, forgings with local suppliers, etc.
These relationships give birth to completely new forms of organizational structure, which highly depend
upon a regular exchange of people and information. The challenge for HRM is to cope with the
implications of these newly networked relations more and more, in place of more comfortable
hierarchical relationships that existed within the organizations for ages in the past.
4. Changing Demographics of Workforce: - Changes in workforce are largely reflected by dual career
couples, large chunk of young blood between age old superannuating employees, working mothers, more
educated and aware workers etc. These dynamic workforces have their own implications for HR
managers and from HRM point of view is a true challenge to handle.
5. Changed employee expectations: - With the changes in workforce demographics, employee
expectations and attitudes have also transformed. Traditional allurements like job security, house, and
remunerations are not much attractive today, rather employees are demanding empowerment and equality
with management. Hence it is a challenge for HRM to redesign the profile of workers, and discover new
methods of hiring, training, remunerating and motivating employees.
6. New Industrial Relations Approach: - In todays dynamic world, even unions have understood that
strikes and militancy have lost their relevance and unions are greatly affected by it. The trade union
membership has fallen drastically worldwide and the future of labor movement is in danger. The
challenge before HRM is to adopt a proactive industrial relations approach which should enable HR
specialist to look into challenges unfolding in the future and to be prepared to convert them into
7. Renewed People Focus: - The need of todays world and business is the peoples approach. The
structure, strategy, systems approach which worked in post war era is no more relevant in todays
economic environment which is characterized by over capacities and intense competition. The challenge
of HR manager is to focus on people and make them justifiable and sustainable.
8. Managing the Managers: - Managers are unique tribe in any society, they believe they are class apart.
They demand decision-making, bossism, and operational freedom. However in the post liberalization era,
freedom given to managers is grossly misused to get rid of talented and hard working juniors. The
challenge of HRM is how to manage this tribe? How to make them realize that the freedom given to them
is to enable them make quick decisions in the interest of the organization and not to resort to witchhunting.
9. Weaker Society interests: - Another challenge for HRM is to protect the interest of weaker sections of
society. The dramatic increase of women workers, minorities and other backward communities in the
workforce has resulted in the need for organizations to reexamine their policies, practices and values. In
the name of global competition, productivity and quality the interests of the society around should not be
sacrificed. It is a challenge of todays HR managers to see that these weaker sections are neither denied
their rightful jobs nor are discriminated against while in service.

10. Contribution to the success of organizations: - The biggest challenge to an HR manager is to make
all employees contribute to the success of the organization in an ethical and socially responsible way.
Because societys well being to a large extent depends on its organizations.

Human resource policies are systems of codified decisions, established by an organization, to support
administrative personnel functions, performance management, employee relations and resource planning.[
Each company has a different set of circumstances, and so develops an individual set of human resource
Developing the HR Policies
HR policies allow an organization to be clear with employees on:
The nature of the organization
What they should expect from the organization
What the organization expects of them.
How policies and procedures work.
What is acceptable and unacceptable behavior?
The consequences of unacceptable behavior.
HR policies provide an organization with a mechanism to manage risk by staying up to date with current
trends in employment standards and legislation. The policies must be framed in a manner that the
companies vision & the human resource helping the company to achieve it or work towards it are at all
levels benefited and at the same time not deviated from their main objective.
The establishment of policies can help an organization demonstrate, both internally and externally, that it
meets requirements for diversity, ethics and training as well as its commitments in relation to regulation
and corporate governance of its employees. For example, in order to dismiss an employee in accordance
with employment law requirements, amongst other considerations, it will normally be necessary to meet
provisions within employment contracts and collective bargaining agreements. The establishment of an
HR Policy which sets out obligations, standards of behavior and document disciplinary procedures, is
now the standard approach to meeting these obligations.
HR policies can also be very effective at supporting and building the desired organizational culture. For
example recruitment and retention policies might outline the way the organization values a flexible
workforce, compensation policies might support this by offering a 48/52 pay option where employees can
take an extra four weeks holidays per year and receive less pay across the year.

Types of HR Policies
1. Originated policies :- Made by top Management.
2. Appealed policies :- Made on request to handle certain situation, or if certain aspects are
missing in the main policy.
3. Imposed policies :- Imposed by Govt & Legal authorities.
4. General policies :- Do not relate any issue, may represent the priority of Top Mgmt. (WPM).
5. Specific Policy :- Related to specific issues like Recruitment, Transfer, Promotion etc.


Definition 1: - Need, Availability, Supply=Demand
HRP includes estimation of how many qualified people are necessary to carry out the assigned activities,
how many people will be available, and what, if anything, must be done to ensure personnel supply
equals personnel demand at the appropriate point in the future.
Definition 2: - Right numbers, Capability, Organization Objectives
HRP is a Process, by which an organization ensures that it has the right number and kind of people at the
right place, at the right time, capable of effectively and efficiently completing those tasks that will help
the organization achieve its overall objectives.
Definition 3: - Translation of objectives into HR numbers
HRP is a process of translating organizational objectives and plans into the number of workers needed to
meet those objectives.


In simple words HRP is understood as the process of forecasting an organizations future demand for
and supply of the right type of people in the right numbers.
It is only after HRP is done, that the company can initiate and plan the recruitment and selection
HRP is a sub-system in the total organizational planning.
HRP facilitates the realization of the companys objectives by providing right type and right number of
HRP is important because without a clear-cut manpower planning, estimation of a organizations
human resource need is reduced to mere guesswork.


Forecast future personnel needs: To avoid the situations of surplus or deficiency of manpower in
future, it is important to plan your manpower in advance. For this purpose a proper forecasting of futures
business needs helps you to ascertain our future manpower needs. From this angle, HRP plays an
important role to predict the right size of manpower in the organization.
Cope with change: HRP enables an enterprise to cope with changes in competitive forces, markets,
technology, products and government regulations. Such changes generate changes in job content, skills
demands and number of human resources required. Creating highly talented personnel: Since jobs are
becoming highly intellectual and incumbents getting vastly professionalized, HRP helps prevent shortages
of labor caused by attritions. Further technology changes would further upgrade or degrade jobs and
create manpower shortages. In these situations only accurate human resource planning can help to meet
the resource requirements. Further HRP is also an answer to the problems of succession planning.

Protection of weaker sections: A well-conceived personnel planning would also help to protect the
interests of the SC/ST, physically handicapped, children of socially oppressed and backward classes who
enjoy a certain percentage of employments notwithstanding the constitutional provisions of equal
opportunity for all.
International strategies: International expansion strategies largely depend upon effective HRP. With
growing trends towards global operations, the need for HRP further becomes more important as the need
to integrate HRP more closely into the organization keeps growing. This is also because the process
of meeting staffing needs from foreign countries grows in a complex manner.
Foundation of personnel functions: HRP provides essential information for designing and
implementing personnel functions such as recruitment, selection, personnel development, training and
development etc.
Increasing investments in HR: Another importance is the investment that an organization makes in
human capital. It is important that employees are used effectively throughout their careers. Because
human assets can increase the organization value tremendously as opposed to physical assets.
Resistance to change & move: The growing resistance towards change and move, self evaluation,
loyalty and dedication making it more difficult to assume that organization can move its employees
everywhere. Here HRP becomes very important and needs the resources to be planned carefully.
Other benefits: Following are the other benefits of HRP.
1. Upper management has a better view of HR dimensions of business
2. Management can anticipate imbalances before they become unmanageable and expensive.
3. More time is provided to locate talent
4. Better opportunities exists to include women and minorities in future growth plans
5. Better planning of assignments to develop managers
6. Major and successful demands on local labor markets can be made.


Def. of human resource planning :Human resource planning can be defined as the process of identifying the number of people required by
an organization in terms of quantity and quality. All human resource management activities start with
human resource planning. So we can say that human resource planning is the principle/primary activity of
human resource management.
From human resource planning the organization identifies how many people it has currently and how
many people will be required in future. Based on this information major human resource decisions are

Steps in HRP
Human resource planning can be defined as the process of identifying the number of people required by
an organization in terms of quantity and quality. All human resource management activities start with

human resource planning. So we can say that human resource planning is the principle/primary activity of
human resource management.
The process of HRP involves various steps they can be explained with the help of the following diagram.

1. Personnel requirement/Demand forecast :This is the very first step in HRP process. Here the HRP department finds out department wise
requirements of people for the company. The requirement consists of number of people required as well
as qualification they must possess.
Forecasting the overall human resource requirement in accordance with the organizational plans is one of
the key aspects of demand forecasting. Forecasting of quality of human resources like skills, knowledge,
values and capabilities needed in addition to quantity of human resources is done through the following
methods: a. Executive or Managerial Judgement: Here the managers decide the number of employees in the
future. They adopt one of the three approaches mentioned below: 1. Bottom-Up approach: Here the concerned supervisors send their proposals to the top officials
who compare these with the organisational plans, make necessary adjustments and finalise them.
2. Top-Down approach: Here the management prepares the requirements and sends the
information downwards to the supervisory level who finalises the draft and approves it.
3. Participative Approach: Here the supervisors and the management sit together and projections
are made after joint consultations.

The chief drawback of these methods is that estimation of manpower is made using guesswork.
b. Statistical Techniques: These methods use statistical methods and mathematical techniques to
forecast and predict the supply and demand of Human Resources in the future.
Ratio-Trend analysis: In this method depending on the past data regarding number of employees in each
department, like production department, sales department, marketing department and workload level, etc
ratios for manpower are estimated. Past values are plotted and extrapolated to get fairly accurate future
c. Work Study method: This technique is suitable to study the correlation between volume of work and
labour i.e. demand for human resources is estimated based on the workload. Work study method is more
appropriate for repetitive and manual jobs when it is possible to measure work and set standards.
d. Delphi Technique: Delphi Technique is named after the Greek Oracle at the city of Delphi. In this
method, the views of different experts related to the industry are taken into consideration and then a
consensus about the Human Resource requirement is arrived at. Delphi technique is used primarily to
assess long-term needs of human resource.

2. Personnel supply forecast :In this step, HR department finds out how many people are actually available in the departments of the
company. The supply involves/includes number of people along with their qualification.

3. Comparison:Based on the information collected in the 1st and 2nd step, the HR department makes a comparison and
finds out the difference. Two possibilities arise from this comparison
a. No difference :It is possible that personnel requirement = personnel supplied. In this case there is no difference. Hence
no change is required.
b. Yes, there is a difference :There may be difference between supply and requirement. The difference may be
i. Personnel surplus
ii. Personnel shortage

4. Personnel surplus :When the supply of personnel is more than the requirement, we have personnel surplus. We require 100
people, but have 125 people. That is we have a surplus of 25 people. Since extra employees increase
expenditure of company the company must try to remove excess staff by methods of
i. Layoff
ii. Termination
iii. VRS/CRS

5. Personnel shortage :When supply is less than the requirement, we have personnel shortage. We require 100 people; we have
only 75 i.e. we are short of 25 people. In such case the HR department can adopt methods like Overtime,
Recruitment, Sub-contracting to obtain new employee

6. CONTROLLING AND REVIEW: After the action plans are implemented, human resource
structure and the processes should be controlled and reviewed with a view to keep them in accordance
with action plans.

JOB ANALYSIS:Job analysis is primary tool in personnel management. In this method, a personnel manager tries to gather,
synthesize and implement the information available regarding the workforce in the concern. A personnel
manager has to undertake job analysis so as to put right man on right job.
There are two outcomes of job analysis :
1. Job description
2. Job specification


1. Nature of jobs required in a concern.
2. Nature/ size of organizational structure.
3. Type of people required to fit that structure.
4. The relationship of the job with other jobs in the concern.
5. Kind of qualifications and academic background required for jobs.
6. Provision of physical condition to support the activities of the concern. For example- separate
cabins for managers, special cabins for the supervisors, healthy condition for workers, adequate
store room for store keeper.
The following are the benefits of job analysis.
1. Organizational structure and design :Job analysis helps the organization to make suitable changes in the organizational structure, so that it
matches the needs and requirements of the organization. Duties are either added or deleted from the job.

2. Recruitment and selection :Job analysis helps to plan for the future human resource. It helps to recruit and select the right kind of
people. It provides information necessary to select the right person.
3. Performance appraisal and training/development :Based on the job requirements identified in the job analysis, the company decides a training program.
Training is given in those areas which will help to improve the performance on the job. Similarly when
appraisal is conducted we check whether the employee is able to work in a manner in which we require
him to do the job.
4. Job evaluation :Job evaluation refers to studying in detail the job performance by all individual. The difficulty levels,
skills required and on that basis the salary is fixed. Information regarding qualities required, skilled
levels, difficulty levels are obtained from job analysis.
5. Promotions and transfer :When we give a promotion to an employee we need to promote him on the basis of the skill and talent
required for the future job. Similarly when we transfer an employee to another branch the job must be
very similar to what he has done before. To take these decisions we collect information from job analysis.
6. Career path planning :Many companies have not taken up career planning for their employees. This is done to prevent the
employee from leaving the company. When we plan the future career of the employee, information will
be collected from job analysis. Hence job analysis becomes important or advantageous.
7. Labour relations :When companies plan to add extra duties or delete certain duties from a job, they require the help of job
analysis, when this activity is systematically done using job analysis the number of problems with union
members reduce and labour relations improve.
8. Health and safety :Most companies prepare their own health and safety, plans and programs based on job analysis. From the
job analysis company identifies the risk factor on the job and based on the risk factor safety equipments
are provided.
9. Acceptance of job offer :When a person is given an offer/appointment letter the duties to be performed by him are clearly
mentioned in it, this information is collected from job analysis, which is why job analysis becomes
1. Job description
2. Job specification
JOB DESCRIPTION:- it is an organized factual statement of job contents in the form of duties and
responsibilities of a specific job. The preparation of job description is very important before a vacancy is
advertised. It tells in brief the nature and type of job. This type of document is descriptive in nature and it
constitutes all those facts which are related to a job such as :

Title/ Designation of job and location in the concern.

The nature of duties and operations to be performed in that job.
The nature of authority- responsibility relationships.
Necessary qualifications that are required for job.
Relationship of that job with other jobs in a concern.

6. The provision of physical and working condition or the work environment required in
performance of that job.
1. It helps the supervisors in assigning work to the subordinates so that he can guide and monitor
their performances.
2. It helps in recruitment and selection procedures.
3. It assists in manpower planning.
4. It is also helpful in performance appraisal.
5. It is helpful in job evaluation in order to decide about rate of remuneration for a specific job.
6. It also helps in chalking out training and development programmes.

JOB SPECIFICATION :- It is a statement which tells us minimum acceptable human qualities which
helps to perform a job. Job specification translates the job description into human qualifications so that a
job can be performed in a better manner. Job specification helps in hiring an appropriate person for an
appropriate position. The contents are :

Job title and designation

Educational qualifications for that title
Physical and other related attributes
Physique and mental health
Special attributes and abilities
Maturity and dependability
Relationship of that job with other jobs in a concern.

Advantages of Job Specification


It is helpful in preliminary screening in the selection procedure.

It helps in giving due justification to each job.
It also helps in designing training and development programmes.
It helps the supervisors for counseling and monitoring performance of employees.
It helps in job evaluation.
It helps the management to take decisions regarding promotion, transfers and giving extra
benefits to the employees.

JOB ANALYSIS METHODS :1. Observation Method: A job analyst observes an employee and records all his performed and nonperformed task, fulfilled and un-fulfilled responsibilities and duties, methods, ways and skills used by him
or her to perform various duties and his or her mental or emotional ability to handle challenges and risks.
However, it seems one of the easiest methods to analyze a specific job but truth is that it is the most
difficult one. Why? Lets Discover.
It is due to the fact that every person has his own way of observing things. Different people think different
and interpret the findings in different ways. Therefore, the process may involve personal biasness or likes
and dislikes and may not produce genuine results. This error can be avoided by proper training of job
analyst or whoever will be conducting the job analysis process.
This particular method includes three techniques: direct observation, Work Methods Analysis and
Critical Incident Technique. The first method includes direct observation and recording of behaviour of an
employee in different situations. The second involves the study of time and motion and is specially used

for assembly-line or factory workers. The third one is about identifying the work behaviours that result in
2. Interview Method: In this method, an employee is interviewed so that he or she comes up with their
own working styles, problems faced by them, use of particular skills and techniques while performing
their job and insecurities and fears about their careers.
This method helps interviewer know what exactly an employee thinks about his or her own job and
responsibilities involved in it. It involves analysis of job by employee himself. In order to generate honest
and true feedback or collect genuine data, questions asked during the interview should be carefully
decided. And to avoid errors, it is always good to interview more than one individual to get a pool of
responses. Then it can be generalized and used for the whole group.
3. Questionnaire Method: Another commonly used job analysis method is getting the questionnaires
filled from employees, their superiors and managers. However, this method also suffers from personal
biasness. A great care should be takes while framing questions for different grades of employees.
In order to get the true job-related info, management should effectively communicate it to the staff that
data collected will be used for their own good. It is very important to ensure them that it wont be used
against them in anyway. If it is not done properly, it will be a sheer wastage of time, money and human
4. Checklists: It is more similar to questionnaire but the response sheet contains fewer subjective
judgments and tends to be either yes or no variety. Preparation of checklist is a challenging job itself.
5. Technical Conference: Here a conference of supervisors is used. The analysts initiate the discussions
providing job details. However this method lacks accuracy.
6. Diary Methods: In this method jobholder is required to note down their activities day by day in their
diary. If done faithfully this technique is accurate and eliminates errors caused by memory lapses etc.

Definition of Recruitment: Finding and Attracting Applications
Recruitment is the Process of finding and attracting capable applicants for employment. The Process
begins when new recruits are sought and ends when their applications are submitted. The result is a pool
of application from which new employees are selected.
Recruitment is understood as the process of searching for and obtaining applicants for jobs, from among
them the right people can be selected. Though theoretically recruitment process is said to end with the
receipt of applications, in practice the activity extends to the screening of applications so as to eliminate
those who are not qualified for the job.
1. It reviews the list of objectives of the company and tries to achieve them by promoting the company in
the minds of public.
2. It forecasts how many people will be required in the company.
3. It enables the company to advertise itself and attract talented people.
4. It provides different opportunities to procure human resource.
IMPORTANCE OF RECRUITMENT: 1. Determine the present and future requirements in conjunction with personnel planning and job analysis
2. Increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost
3. Help increase success rate of selection process by reducing number of under-qualified or over-qualified
4. Reduce the probability that job applicants once selected would leave shortly
5. Meet legal and social obligations
6. Identify and prepare potential job applicants
7. Evaluate effectiveness of various recruitment techniques and sources for job applicants.

METHODS OF RECRUITMENT/SOURCES:Recruitment is a process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs
Companies can adopt different methods of recruitment for selecting people in the company. These
methods are

1. Internal sources
2. External sources

1. Promotion

1. Management consultant

2. Departmental exam

2. Employment agency

3. Transfer

3. Campus recruitment

4. Retirement

4. News paper advertisement

5. Internal advertisement

5. Internet advertisement

6. Employee recommendation

6. Walk in interview

INTERNAL SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT:Internal sources of recruitment refer to obtaining people for job from inside the company. There are
different methods of internal recruitment
1. Promotion :Companies can give promotion to existing employees. This method of recruitment saves a lot of time,
money and efforts because the company does not have to train the existing employee. Since the employee
has already worked with the company. He is familiar with the working culture and working style. It is a
method of encouraging efficient workers.
2. Departmental exam :This method is used by government departments to select employees for higher level posts. The
advertisement is put up on the notice board of the department. People who are interested must send their
application to the HR department and appear for the exam. Successful candidates are given the higher
level job. The method ensures proper selection and impartiality.
3. Transfer :Many companies adopt transfer as a method of recruitment. The idea is to select talented personnel from
other branches of the company and transfer them to branches where there is shortage of people.
4. Retirement :Many companies call back personnel who have already retired from the organization. This is a temporary
measure. The method is beneficial because it gives a sense of pride to the retired when he is called back
and helps the organization to reduce recruitment selection and training cost.
5. Internal advertisement:In this method vacancies in a particular branch are advertised in the notice board. People who are
interested are asked to apply for the job. The method helps in obtaining people who are ready to shift to

another branch of the same company and it is also beneficial to people who want to shift to another

6. Employee recommendation:In this method employees are asked to recommend people for jobs. Since the employee is aware of the
working conditions inside the company he will suggest people who can adjust to the situation. The
company is benefited because it will obtain.

1. Internal methods are time saving.

2. No separate induction program is required.
3. The method increases loyalty and reduces labour turnover.
4. This method is less expensive.

1. There is no opportunity to get new talent in this method.

2. The method involves selecting people from those available in the company so there is limited scope for
3. There are chances of biased and partiality.
4. Chances of employee discontent are very high.

EXTERNAL METHODS/SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT:External sources of recruitment refer to methods of recruitment to obtain people from outside the
company. These methods are
1. Management consultant:Management consultant helps the company by providing them with managerial personnel, when the
company is on the look out for entry level management trainees and middle level managers. They
generally approach management consultants.
2. Employment agencies:Companies may give a contract to employment agencies that search, interview and obtain the required
number of people. The method can be used to obtain lower level and middle level staff.
3. Campus recruitment:When companies are in search of fresh graduates or new talent they opt for campus recruitment.
Companies approach colleges, management, technical institutes, make a presentation about the company
and the job and invite applications. Interested candidates who have applied are made to go through a
series of selection test and interview before final selection.
4. News paper advertisement:This is one of the oldest and most popular methods of recruitment. Advertisements for the job are given in
leading news papers; the details of the job and salary are also mentioned. Candidates are given a contact
address where their applications must be sent and are asked to send their applications within a specified
time limit. The method has maximum reach and most preferred among all other methods of recruitment.
5. Internet advertisement:With increasing importance to internet, companies and candidates have started using the internet as
medium of advertisement and search for jobs. There are various job sites like and etc. candidates can also post their profiles on these sites. This method is growing in

6. Walk in interview:Another method of recruitment which is gaining importance is the walk in interview method. An
advertisement about the location and time of walk in interview is given in the news paper. Candidates
require to directly appearing for the interview and have to bring a copy of their C.V. with them. This
method is very popular among B.P.O and call centers.
Advantages of external recruitment
1. There is influx of new talent in the method.
2. The method encourages more and more competition.
3. There is lesser chance of partiality through this method.
4. If options like campus recruitment have been exercised we get a chance to employ fresh graduates, thus
increasing employment.
Disadvantages of external recruitment
1. The method is costly because it involves recruitment cost, selection, training cost.
2. The method is time consuming.
3. The method reduces loyalty to the company.


Demand and Supply (Specific Skills)
Unemployment Rate (Area-wise)
Labor Market Conditions
Political and Legal Environment (Reservations, Labor laws)
Internal Factors
Recruitment Policy (Internal Hiring or External Hiring?)
Human Resource Planning (Planning of resources required)
Size of the Organization (Bigger the size lesser the recruitment problems)
Growth and Expansion Plans
Recruitment Planning
Number of contacts
Types of contacts
Recruitment Strategy Development
Make or Buy Employees
Technological Sophistication
Where to look
How to look
Internal Recruitment (Source 1)
Present employees
Employee referrals
Transfers & Promotions
Former Employees
Previous Applicants

Evaluation of Internal Recruitment

External Recruitment (Source 2)
Professionals or Trade Associations
Employment Exchanges
Campus Recruitment
Walk-ins Interviews
Displaced Persons
Radio & Television
Acquisitions & Mergers
Evaluation of External Recruitment
Source activation
Screening of Applications
Evaluation and Cost Control
Salary Cost
Management & Professional Time spent
Advertisement Cost
Producing Supporting literature
Recruitment Overheads and Expenses
Cost of Overtime and Outsourcing
Consultants fees
Evaluation of Recruitment Process
Return rate of applications sent out
Suitable Candidates for selection
Retention and Performance of selected candidates
Recruitment Cost
Time lapsed data
Image projection

EMPLOYEE SELECTION:Employee Selection is the process of putting right men on right job. It is a procedure of matching
organizational requirements with the skills and qualifications of people. Effective selection can be done
only when there is effective matching. By selecting best candidate for the required job, the organization
will get quality performance of employees. Moreover, organization will face less of absenteeism and
employee turnover problems. By selecting right candidate for the required job, organization will also save
time and money. Proper screening of candidates takes place during selection procedure. All the potential
candidates who apply for the given job are tested.
But selection must be differentiated from recruitment, though these are two phases of employment
process. Recruitment is considered to be a positive process as it motivates more of candidates to apply for
the job. It creates a pool of applicants. It is just sourcing of data. While selection is a negative process as
the inappropriate candidates are rejected here. Recruitment precedes selection in staffing process.

Selection involves choosing the best candidate with best abilities, skills and knowledge for the required

The Employee selection Process takes place in following order:1. Preliminary Interviews- It is used to eliminate those candidates who do not meet the minimum
eligibility criteria laid down by the organization. The skills, academic and family background,
competencies and interests of the candidate are examined during preliminary interview.
Preliminary interviews are less formalized and planned than the final interviews. The candidates
are given a brief up about the company and the job profile; and it is also examined how much the
candidate knows about the company. Preliminary interviews are also called screening interviews.
2. Application blanks- The candidates who clear the preliminary interview are required to fill
application blank. It contains data record of the candidates such as details about age,
qualifications, reason for leaving previous job, experience, etc.
3. Written Tests- Various written tests conducted during selection procedure are aptitude test,
intelligence test, reasoning test, personality test, etc. These tests are used to objectively assess the
potential candidate. They should not be biased.
4. Employment Interviews- It is a one to one interaction between the interviewer and the potential
candidate. It is used to find whether the candidate is best suited for the required job or not. But
such interviews consume time and money both. Moreover the competencies of the candidate
cannot be judged. Such interviews may be biased at times. Such interviews should be conducted
properly. No distractions should be there in room. There should be an honest communication
between candidate and interviewer.
5. Medical examination- Medical tests are conducted to ensure physical fitness of the potential
employee. It will decrease chances of employee absenteeism.
6. Reference check - A reference check is made about the candidate selected and then finally he is
appointed by giving a formal appointment letter.
7. Final approval: - The shortlisted candidates by the department are finally approved by the
executives of the concerned department. Employment is offered in the form of appointment letter
mentioning the post, the rank, the grade, the date by which the candidate should join and other
terms and conditions in brief.

SOCIALIZATION:Socialization in the workplace is important to establishing a sense of community and a workplace culture
where people are motivated. The socialization process typically begins during the first few days of
employment when initial assimilation takes place. Strong workplace culture evolves over time with
ongoing socialization effects.
Socialization process or HR Orientation is often informal, informal can mean poorly planned and
haphazard. Socialization or HR orientation can be divided into three phases:





a. Pre-arrival Stage:
This stage explicitly recognizes that each individual arrives with a set of organizational values, attitudes,
and expectations. For instance, in many jobs, particularly high skilled and managerial jobs, new members
will have undergone a considerable degree of prior socialization in training and in school. Pre-arrival
socialization, however, goes beyond the specific job. The selection process is used in most organizations
to inform perspective employees about the organization as whole. In addition, of course, interviews in the
selection process also act to ensure the inclusion of the "right type" determining those who will fit in.
Indeed, the ability of the individuals to present the appropriate face during the selection process
determines their ability to move into the organization in the first place. Thus success depends upon the
degree to which aspiring members have correctly anticipated the expectations and desires of those in the
organization in charge of selection.
b. Encounter Stage:

Upon entry into the organization, new members enter the encounter stage. Here the individuals confront
the possible dichotomy between their expectations about their jobs, their coworkers, their supervisors, and
the organization in general and reality. If expectations prove to have been more or less accurate, the
encounter state merely provides a reaffirmation of the perceptions generated earlier. However, this is
often not the case. Where expectation and reality differ; new employees must undergo socialization that
will detach them from their previous assumption and replace these with the organization's pivotal
standards. Socialization, however, cannot solve all the expectation differences. At the extreme, some new
members may become totally disillusioned with the actualities of their jobs and resign. It is hoped that
proper selection would significantly reduce this latter occurrence.

c. Metamorphosis Stage:
Finally the new member must workout any problems discovered during the encounter stage. This may
mean going through changes. Hence the last stage is termed as metamorphosis stage. Metamorphosis is
complete as is the socialization process when new members have become comfortable with the
organization and their work teams. In this situation they will have internalized the norms of the
organization and their coworkers; and they understand and accept these norms. New members will feel
accepted by their peers as trusted and valued individuals. They will have gained an understanding of the
organizational system- not only their own tasks but the rules, procedures and informally accepted
practices as well. Finally they will know how they are going to be evaluated. They will know what is
expected of them and what constitutes a good job. Consequently, successful metamorphosis should have
positive effect on a new employees productivity and the employee's commitment to the organization, and
should reduce the likelihood that the employee will leave the organization any time soon.

Purposes of Socialization
Socialization formats are unique to each firm. However, some basic purposes include emphasizing these
areas: the employment situation (job, department, and company), company policies and rules,
compensation and benefits, corporate culture, team membership, employee development, dealing with
change, and socialization.
a. The Employment Situation
A basic purpose, from the firm's viewpoint, is to have the new employee become productive as quickly as
possible. Therefore, specific information about performing the job may be provided at an early point in
b. Company Policies and Rules
Every job within an organization must be performed considering the guidelines and constraints provided
by policies and rules. Employees must have an understanding of these to permit a smooth transition to the
c. Compensation and Benefits
Employees will have a special interest in obtaining information about the reward system. Although this
information is usually provided during the recruitment and selection process, a review of the data is
appropriate during Socialization.
d. Corporate Culture
The firm's culture reflects, in effect, how we do things around here. This relates to everything from the
way employees dress to the way they talk.
e. Team Membership
A new employee's ability and willingness to work in teams is most likely determined before he or she is

hired. In Socialization, the importance of becoming a valued member of the company team may be
f. Employee Development
Employees should know exactly what is expected of them and what is required by the firm for
advancement in the job or via promotion.
g. Dealing With Change
Employees at all levels must learn to effectively deal with change in order to survive in their jobs. The
best way individuals can be prepared for change is to continually develop and expand their skills.
h. Socialization
In order to reduce the anxiety that new employees may experience, attempts should be made to integrate


Definition 1: Planned Introduction
It is a Planned Introduction of employees to their jobs, their co-workers and the
organization per se.
Orientation conveys 4 types of information:
1. Daily Work Routine
2. Organization Profile
3. Importance of Jobs to the organization
4. Detailed Orientation Presentations
Purpose of Orientation
1. To make new employees feel at home in new environment
2. To remove their anxiety about new workplace
3. To remove their inadequacies about new peers
4. To remove worries about their job performance
5. To provide them job information, environment
Types of Orientation Programs
1. Formal or Informal
2. Individual or Group
3. Serial or Disjunctive
Prerequisites of Effective Orientation Program
1. Prepare for receiving new employee
2. Determine information new employee wants to know
3. Determine how to present information
4. Completion of Paperwork
Problems of Orientations
1. Busy or Untrained supervisor
2. Too much information
3. Overloaded with paperwork
4. Given menial tasks and discourage interests
5. Demanding tasks where failure chances are high
6. Employee thrown into action soon
7. Wrong perceptions of employees
What is the difference between induction and orientation?
Induction referred to formal training programs that an employee had to complete before
they could start work
Orientation was the informal information giving that made the recruit aware of the comfort
issues - where the facilities are, what time lunch is and so forth.
How long should the induction process take?

It starts when the job ad is written, continues through the selection process and is not
complete until the new team member is comfortable as a full contributor to the
organization's goals.
The first hour on day one is a critical component - signing on, issuing keys and passwords,
explaining no go zones, emergency procedures, meeting the people that you will interact
with all have to be done immediately. Until they are done the newcomer is on the payroll,
but is not employed.
After that it is a matter of just in time training - expanding the content as new duties are

We only employ new people one at a time - how can we induct them?
There are some issues, which cannot wait - they vary according to your situation. Perhaps a
buddy system on the job may be the best way to deal with these. Other subjects may be
incorporated with refresher training for current staff, or handled as participant in an outside
program. Perhaps some can wait until there are groups of people who have started in the
last few months.
This may take some creative thinking, but the answer is quite simple - until the new people
are integrated then they are less useful. The math is often amazingly simple - not taking the
time to train consumes more time than the training would.

Manpower Training and Development

Definition of Training & Development: Improve performance
Training & Development is any attempt to improve current or future employee performance by
increasing an employees ability to perform through learning, usually by changing the employees attitude
or increasing his or her skills and knowledge.
MEANING OF TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT: Training: Training refers to the process of imparting specific skills. An employee undergoing training is
presumed to have had some formal education. No training program is complete without an element of
education. Hence we can say that Training is offered to operatives.
Development: Development means those learning opportunities designed to help employees to grow.
Development is not primarily skills oriented. Instead it provides the general knowledge and attitudes,
which will be helpful to employers in higher positions. Efforts towards development often depend on
personal drive and ambition. Development activities such as those supplied by management development
programs are generally voluntary in nature. Development provides knowledge about business
environment, management principles and techniques, human relations, specific industry analysis and the
like is useful for better management of a company.
Objectives of (MDP) Management Development Programs OR
Advantages of Development 1. Making them
Result oriented
Sensitive to environment

Understand use of power

2. Creating self awareness
3. Develop inspiring leadership styles
4. Instill zest for excellence
5. Teach them about effective communication
6. To subordinate their functional loyalties to the interests of the organization

Difference between Training and Development

Training is skills focused
Training is presumed to have a formal education
Training needs depend upon lack or deficiency in skills
Trainings are generally need based
Training is a narrower concept focused on job related
Training may not include development
Training is aimed at improving job related efficiency and

Development is creating learning abilities
Development is not education dependent
Development depends on personal drive and
Development is voluntary
Development is a broader concept focused on
personality development
Development aims
at overall personal
effectiveness including job efficiencies

What are the Training Inputs?

Problem Solving Skills
Decision Making
Attitudinal Changes
Importance of Training & Development
Helps remove performance deficiencies in employees
Greater stability, flexibility and capacity for growth in an organization
Accidents, scraps and damages to machinery can be avoided
Serves as effective source of recruitment
It is an investment in HR with a promise of better returns in future
Reduces dissatisfaction, absenteeism, complaints and turnover of employees
Need of Training
Individual level
Diagnosis of present problems and future challenges
Improve individual performance or fix up performance deficiency
Improve skills or knowledge or any other problem
To anticipate future skill-needs and prepare employee to handle more challenging tasks
To prepare for possible job transfers
To face any change in organization strategy at group levels
When new products and services are launched
To avoid scraps and accident rates

Identification of Training Needs (Methods)

Individual Training Needs Identification
1. Performance Appraisals
2. Interviews
3. Questionnaires
4. Attitude Surveys
5. Training Progress Feedback
6. Work Sampling
7. Rating Scales

Group Level Training Needs Identification

1. Organizational Goals and Objectives
2. Personnel / Skills Inventories
3. Organizational Climate Indices
4. Efficiency Indices
5. Exit Interviews
6. MBO / Work Planning Systems
7. Quality Circles
8. Customer Satisfaction Survey
9. Analysis of Current and Anticipated Changes
Benefits of Training Needs Identification
1. Trainers can be informed about the broader needs in advance
2. Trainers Perception Gaps can be reduced between employees and their supervisors
3. Trainers can design course inputs closer to the specific needs of the participants
4. Diagnosis of causes of performance deficiencies can be done
Methods of Training
On the Job Trainings: These methods are generally applied on the workplace while
employees is actually working. Following are the on-the-job methods.
Advantages of On-the-Job Training:
It is directly in the context of job
It is often informal
It is most effective because it is learning by experience
It is least expensive
Trainees are highly motivated
It is free from artificial classroom situations
Disadvantages of On-the-Job Training:
Trainer may not be experienced enough to train
It is not systematically organized
Poorly conducted programs may create safety hazards.
1. Job Rotation: In this method, usually employees are put on different jobs turn by turn
where they learn all sorts of jobs of various departments. The objective is to give a
comprehensive awareness about the jobs of different departments. Advantage employee
gets to know how his own and other departments also function. Interdepartmental
coordination can be improved, instills team spirit. Disadvantage It may become too much
for an employee to learn. It is not focused on employees own job responsibilities. Employees
basic talents may remain under utilized.

2. Job Coaching: An experienced employee can give a verbal presentation to explain the
nitty-grittys of the job.
3. Job Instruction: It may consist an instruction or directions to perform a particular task
or a function. It may be in the form of orders or steps to perform a task.
4. Apprenticeships: Generally fresh graduates are put under the experienced employee to
learn the functions of job.
5. Internships and Assistantships: An intern or an assistants are recruited to perform a
specific time-bound jobs or projects during their education. It may consist a part of their
educational courses.
Off the Job Trainings: These are used away from work places while employees are not
working like classroom trainings, seminars etc. Following are the off-the-job methods;

Advantages of Off-the-Job Training:

Trainers are usually experienced enough to train
It is systematically organized
Efficiently created programs may add lot of value
Disadvantages of Off-the-Job Training:
It is not directly in the context of job
It is often formal
It is not based on experience
It is least expensive
Trainees may not be highly motivated
It is more artificial in nature
Off the Job Training Methods
1. Classroom Lectures: It is a verbal lecture presentation by an instructor to a large
audience. Advantage It can be used for large groups. Cost per trainee is low.
Disadvantages Low popularity. It is not learning by practice. It is One-way communication.
No authentic feedback mechanism. Likely to boredom.
2. Audio-Visual: It can be done using Films, Televisions, Video, and Presentations etc.
Advantages Wide range of realistic examples, quality control possible,. Disadvantages
One-way communication, No feedback mechanism. No flexibility for different audience.
3. Simulation: creating a real life situation for decision-making and understanding the
actual job conditions give it. Following are some of the simulation methods of trainings
a. Case Studies: It is a written description of an actual situation and trainer is supposed to
analyze and give his conclusions in writing. The cases are generally based on actual
organizational situations. It is an ideal method to promote decision-making abilities within
the constraints of limited data.
b. Role Plays: Here trainees assume the part of the specific personalities in a case study
and enact it in front of the audience. It is more emotional orientation and improves
interpersonal relationships. Attitudinal change is another result. These are generally used in
c. Sensitivity Trainings: This is more from the point of view of behavioral assessment,
under different circumstances how an individual will behave himself and towards others.
There is no preplanned agenda and it is instant. Advantages increased ability to
empathize, listening skills, openness, tolerance, and conflict resolution skills. Disadvantage
Participants may resort to their old habits after the training.
4. Programmed Instructions: Provided in the form of blocks either in book or a teaching
machine using questions and Feedbacks without the intervention of trainer. Advantages
Self paced, trainees can progress at their own speed, strong motivation for repeat learning,
material is structured and self-contained. Disadvantages Scope for learning is less; cost of
books, manuals or machinery is expensive.

5. Computer Aided Instructions: It is extension of PI method, by using computers.

Advantages Provides accountabilities, modifiable to technological innovations, flexible to
time. Disadvantages High cost.
6. Laboratory Training
Barriers to Effective Training:
1. Lack of Management commitment
2. Inadequate Training budget
3. Education degrees lack skills
4. Large scale poaching of trained staff
5. Non-coordination from workers due to downsizing trends
6. Employers and B Schools operating distantly
7. Unions influence

How To Make Training Effective?

1. Management Commitment
2. Training & Business Strategies Integration
3. Comprehensive and Systematic Approach
4. Continuous and Ongoing approach
5. Promoting Learning as Fundamental Value
6. Creations of effective training evaluation system

Definition 1: Systematic Evaluation
It is a systematic evaluation of an individual with respect to performance on the job and
individuals potential for development.
Definition 2: Formal System, Reasons and Measures of future performance
It is formal, structured system of measuring, evaluating job related behaviors and
outcomes to discover reasons of performance and how to perform effectively in future so
that employee, organization and society all benefits.
Meaning of Performance Appraisals
Performance Appraisals is the assessment of individuals performance in a systematic way. It
is a developmental tool used for all round development of the employee and the
organization. The performance is measured against such factors as job knowledge, quality
and quantity of output, initiative, leadership abilities, supervision, dependability, cooperation, judgment, versatility and health. Assessment should be confined to past as well
as potential performance also. The second definition is more focused on behaviors as a part
of assessment because behaviors do affect job results.

Performance Appraisals and

Job Analysis Relationship Job
Describe the work and personnel
requirement of a particular job.

Performance Standards

Translate job requirements

into levels of acceptable or
unacceptable performance

Objectives of Performance Appraisals

Use of Performance Appraisals
1. Promotions

Performance Appraisals

Describe the job relevant

strengths and weaknesses
of each individual.


Training and Development
Compensation reviews
Competency building
Improve communication
Evaluation of HR Programs
Feedback & Grievances

Performance Appraisal Process

1. Objectives definition of appraisal
2. Job expectations establishment
3. Design an appraisal program
4. Appraise the performance
5. Performance Interviews
6. Use data for appropriate purposes
7. Identify opportunities variables
8. Using social processes, physical processes, human and computer assistance
Goals of Performance Appraisals:General Goals
Developmental Use

Administrative Decisions / Uses

Organizational Maintenance


Specific Goals
Individual needs
Performance feedback
Transfers and Placements
Strengths and Development needs
Retention / Termination
Lay offs
Poor Performers identification
HR Planning
Training Needs
Organizational Goal achievements
Goal Identification
HR Systems Evaluation
Reinforcement of organizational needs
Validation Research
For HR Decisions
Legal Requirements


Numerous methods have been devised to measure the quantity and quality of performance
appraisals. Each of the methods is effective for some purposes for some organizations only.
None should be dismissed or accepted as appropriate except as they relate to the particular
needs of the organization or an employee.
Broadly all methods of appraisals can be divided into two different categories.
Past Oriented Methods

Future Oriented Methods

Past Oriented Methods

1. Rating Scales: Rating scales consists of several numerical scales representing job
related performance criterions such as dependability, initiative, output, attendance, attitude
etc. Each scales ranges from excellent to poor. The total numerical scores are computed and
final conclusions are derived. Advantages Adaptability, easy to use, low cost, every type of
job can be evaluated, large number of employees covered, no formal training required.
Disadvantages Raters biases
2. Checklist: Under this method, checklist of statements of traits of employee in the form
of Yes or No based questions is prepared. Here the rater only does the reporting or checking
and HR department does the actual evaluation. Advantages economy, ease of
administration, limited training required, standardization. Disadvantages Raters biases,
use of improper weighs by HR, does not allow rater to give relative ratings
3. Forced Choice Method: The series of statements arranged in the blocks of two or more
are given and the rater indicates which statement is true or false. The rater is forced to
make a choice. HR department does actual assessment. Advantages Absence of personal
biases because of forced choice. Disadvantages Statements may be wrongly framed.
4. Forced Distribution Method: here employees are clustered around a high point on a
rating scale. Rater is compelled to distribute the employees on all points on the scale. It is
assumed that the performance is conformed to normal distribution. Advantages Eliminates
Disadvantages Assumption of normal distribution, unrealistic, errors of central tendency.
5. Critical Incidents Method: The approach is focused on certain critical behaviors of
employee that makes all the difference in the performance. Supervisors as and when they
occur record such incidents. Advantages Evaluations are based on actual job behaviors,
ratings are supported by descriptions, feedback is easy, reduces recency biases, chances of
subordinate improvement are high. Disadvantages Negative incidents can be prioritized,
forgetting incidents, overly close supervision; feedback may be too much and may appear to
be punishment.
6. Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales: statements of effective and ineffective
behaviors determine the points. They are said to be behaviorally anchored. The rater is
supposed to say, which behavior describes the employee performance. Advantages helps
overcome rating errors. Disadvantages Suffers from distortions inherent in most rating
7. Field Review Method: This is an appraisal done by someone outside employees own
department usually from corporate or HR department. Advantages Useful for managerial
level promotions, when comparable information is needed, Disadvantages Outsider is
generally not familiar with employees work environment, Observation of actual behaviors
not possible.
8. Performance Tests & Observations: This is based on the test of knowledge or skills.
The tests may be written or an actual presentation of skills. Tests must be reliable and
validated to be useful. Advantage Tests may be apt to measure potential more than actual
performance. Disadvantages Tests may suffer if costs of test development or
administration are high.
9. Confidential Records: Mostly used by government departments, however its application
in industry is not ruled out. Here the report is given in the form of Annual Confidentiality
Report (ACR) and may record ratings with respect to following items; attendance, self
expression, team work, leadership, initiative, technical ability, reasoning ability, originality

and resourcefulness etc. The system is highly secretive and confidential. Feedback to the
assessee is given only in case of an adverse entry. Disadvantage is that it is highly
subjective and ratings can be manipulated because the evaluations are linked to HR actions
like promotions etc.
10. Essay Method: In this method the rater writes down the employee description in detail
within a number of broad categories like, overall impression of performance, promoteability
of employee, existing capabilities and qualifications of performing jobs, strengths and
weaknesses and training needs of the employee. Advantage It is extremely useful in filing
information gaps about the employees that often occur in a better-structured checklist.
Disadvantages It its highly dependent upon the writing skills of rater and most of them
are not good writers. They may get confused success depends on the memory power of
11. Cost Accounting Method: Here performance is evaluated from the monetary returns
yields to his or her organization. Cost to keep employee, and benefit the organization
derives is ascertained. Hence it is more dependent upon cost and benefit analysis.
12.Comparative Evaluation Method (Ranking & Paired Comparisons): These are
collection of different methods that compare performance with that of other co-workers. The
usual techniques used may be ranking methods and paired comparison method.
Ranking Methods: Superior ranks his worker based on merit, from best to worst.
However how best and why best are not elaborated in this method. It is easy to administer
and explanation.
Paired Comparison Methods: In this method each employee is rated with another
employee in the form of pairs. The number of comparisons may be calculated with the help
of a formula as under.

Future Oriented Methods

1. Management By Objectives: It means management by objectives and the performance
is rated against the achievement of objectives stated by the management. MBO process
goes as under.
Establish goals and desired outcomes for each subordinate
Setting performance standards
Comparison of actual goals with goals attained by the employee
Establish new goals and new strategies for goals not achieved in previous year.
Advantage It is more useful for managerial positions.
Disadvantages Not applicable to all jobs, allocation of merit pay may result in setting
short-term goals rather than important and long-term goals etc.
2. Psychological Appraisals: These appraisals are more directed to assess employees
potential for future performance rather than the past one. It is done in the form of in-depth
interviews, psychological tests, and discussion with supervisors and review of other
evaluations. It is more focused on employees emotional, intellectual, and motivational and
other personal characteristics affecting his performance. This approach is slow and costly
and may be useful for bright young members who may have considerable potential.
However quality of these appraisals largely depends upon the skills of psychologists who
perform the evaluation.
3. Assessment Centers: This technique was first developed in USA and UK in 1943. An
assessment center is a central location where managers may come together to have their
participation in job related exercises evaluated by trained observers. It is more focused on
observation of behaviors across a series of select exercises or work samples. Assessees are
requested to participate in in-basket exercises, work groups, computer simulations, role
playing and other similar activities which require same attributes for successful performance

in actual job. The characteristics assessed in assessment center can be assertiveness,

persuasive ability, communicating ability, planning and organizational ability, self confidence,
resistance to stress, energy level, decision making, sensitivity to feelings, administrative
ability, creativity and mental alertness etc. Disadvantages Costs of employees traveling
and lodging, psychologists, ratings strongly influenced by assessees inter-personal skills.
Solid performers may feel suffocated in simulated situations. Those who are not selected for
this also may get affected.
Advantages well-conducted assessment center can achieve better forecasts of future
performance and progress than other methods of appraisals. Also reliability, content validity
and predictive ability are said to be high in assessment centers. The tests also make sure
that the wrong people are not hired or promoted. Finally it clearly defines the criteria for
selection and promotion.

4. 360-Degree Feedback: It is a technique which is systematic collection of performance

data on an individual group, derived from a number of stakeholders like immediate
supervisors, team members, customers, peers and self. In fact anyone who has useful
information on how an employee does a job may be one of the appraisers. This technique is
highly useful in terms of broader perspective, greater self-development and multi-source
feedback is useful. 360-degree appraisals are useful to measure inter-personal skills,
customer satisfaction and team building skills. However on the negative side, receiving
feedback from multiple sources can be intimidating, threatening etc. Multiple raters may be
less adept at providing balanced and objective feedback.

Compensation management
Compensation management plays vital role in a business organization. Since, among four Ms, i.e
Men, Material, Machine and Money, Men has been most important factor, it is impossible to
imagine a business process without Men.
Land, Labor, Capital and Organization are four major factors of production. Every factor
contributes to the process of production/business. It expects return from the business process
such as Rent is the return expected by the Landlord. Similarly Capitalist expects Interest and
organizers i.e. Entrepreneur expects profits. The labour expects wages from the process.
It is evident that other factors are in-human factors and as such labour plays vital role in bringing
about the process of production/business in motion. The other factors being human, has
expectations, emotions, ambitions and egos. Labour therefore expects to have fair share in the
business/production process.
Advantages of Fair Compensation System:
1. Therefore a fair compensation system is a must for every business organization. The fair
compensation system will help in the following:
2. If an ideal compensation system is designed, it will have positive impact on the efficiency
and results produced by workmen.
3. Such system will encourage the normal worker to perform better and achieve the
standards fixed.
4. this system will encourage the process of job evaluation. It will also help in setting up an
ideal job evaluation, which will have transparency, and the standards fixing would be
more realistic and achievable.

5. Such a system would be well defined and uniform. It will be apply to all the levels of the
organization as a general system.
6. The system would be simple and flexible so that every worker/recipient would be able to
compute his own compensation receivable.
7. Such system would be easy to implement, so that it would not penalize the workers for
the reasons beyond their control and would not result in exploitation of workers.
8. It will raise the morale, efficiency and cooperation among the workers. It, being just and
fair would provide satisfaction to the workers.
9. Such system would help management in complying with the various labor acts.
10. Such system would also bring about amicable settlement of disputes between the
workmen union and management.
11. The system would embody itself the principle of equal work equal wages.
Encouragement for those who perform better and opportunities for those who wish to

A job evaluation is a systematic way of determining the value/worth of a job in relation to other
jobs in an organization. It tries to make a systematic comparison between jobs to assess their
relative worth for the purpose of establishing a rational pay structure.
Job evaluation needs to be differentiated from job analysis. Job analysis is a systematic way of
gathering information about a job. Every job evaluation method requires at least some basic job
analysis in order to provide factual information about the jobs concerned. Thus, job evaluation
begins with job analysis and ends at that point where the worth of a job is ascertained for
achieving pay equity between jobs.
CHARACTERISTICS:The purpose of job evaluation is to produce a defensive ranking of jobs on which a rational and
acceptable pay structure can be built. The important features of job evaluation may be
summarized thus:
1. It tries to assess jobs, not people.
2. The standards of job evaluation are relative, not absolute.
3. The basic information on which job evaluations are made is obtained from job analysis.
4. Job evaluations are carried out by groups, not by individuals.
5. Some degree of subjectivity is always present in job evaluation.
6. Job evaluation does not fix pay scales, but merely provides a basis for evaluating a
rational wage structure.

Process of job evaluation

The process of job evaluation involves the following steps:
Gaining acceptance: Before undertaking job evaluation, top management must explain the aims)
and uses of the programme to theemployees and unions. To elaborate the programme further, oral
presentations could be made. Letters, booklets could be used to classify all relevant aspects of the
job evaluation programme.

Creating job evaluation committee: It is not possible for a single person to evaluate all the key
jobs in an organisation. Usually a job evaluation committee consisting of experienced employees,
union representatives and HR experts is created to set the ball rolling.
Finding the jobs to be evaluated: Every job need not be evaluated. This may be too taxing and
costly. Certain key jobs in each department may be identified. While picking up the jobs, care
must be taken to ensure that they represent the type of work performed in that department.
Analysing and preparing job description: This requires the preparation of a job description and
also an analysis of job needs for successful performance .
Selecting the method of evaluation: The most important method of evaluating the jobs must be
identified now, keeping the job factors as well as organisational demands in mind.
Classifying jobs: The relative worth of various jobs in an organisation may be found out after
arranging jobs in order of importance using criteria such as skill requirements, experience needed,
under which conditions job is performed, type of responsibilities to be shouldered, degree
of supervision needed, the amount of stress caused by the job, etc. Weights can be assigned to
each such factor. When we finally add all the weights, the worth of a job is determined. The
points may then be converted into monetary values.

Installing the programme

Once the evaluation process is over and a plan of action is ready, management must explain it to
employees and put it into operation.

The pay offs from job evaluation may be stated thus:
It tries to link pay with the requirements of the job.
It offers a systematic procedure for determining the relative worth of jobs. Jobs are
ranked on the basis of rational criteria such as skill, education, experience,
responsibilities, hazards, etc., and are priced accordingly.
An equitable wage structure is a natural outcome of job evaluation. An unbiased job
evaluation tends to eliminate salary inequities by placing jobs having similar
requirements in the same salary range.
Employees as well as unions participate as members of job evaluation committee while
determining rate grades for different jobs. This helps in solving wage
related grievances quickly.
Job evaluation, when conducted properly and with care, helps in the evaluation of new
It points out possibilities of more appropriate use of the plant's labour force by indicating
jobs that need more or less skilled workers than those who are manning these jobs

Job evaluation methods

There are three basic methods of job evaluation: (1) ranking, (2) classification, (3) factor
comparison. While many variations of these methods exist in practice, the three basic approaches
are described here.
Ranking method
Perhaps the simplest method of job evaluation is the ranking method. According to this method,
jobs are arranged from highest to lowest, in order of their value or merit to the organization. Jobs

can also be arranged according to the relative difficulty in performing them. The jobs are
examined as a whole rather than on the basis of important factors in the job; the job at the top of
the list has the highest value and obviously the job at the bottom of the list will have the lowest
value. Jobs are usually ranked in each department and then the department rankings are
combined to develop an organizational ranking. The variation in payment of salaries depends on
the variation of the nature of the job performed by the employees. The ranking method is simple
to understand and practice and it is best suited for a small organisation. Its simplicity however
works to its disadvantage in big organisations because rankings are difficult to develop in a large,
complex organisation. Moreover, this kind of ranking is highly subjective in nature and may
offend many employees. Therefore, a more scientific and fruitful way of job evaluation is called
Classification method
According to this method, a predetermined number of job groups or job classes are established
and jobs are assigned to these classifications. This method places groups of jobs into job classes
or job grades. Separate classes may include office, clerical, managerial, personnel, etc. Following
is a brief description of such a classification in an office.
Class I - Executives: Further classification under this category may be Office Manager,
Deputy office manager, Office superintendent, Departmental supervisor, etc.
Class II - Skilled workers: Under this category may come the Purchasing assistant,
Cashier, Receipts clerk, etc.
Class III - Semiskilled workers: Under this category may come Stenotypists, Machineoperators, Switchboard operator etc.
Class IV - Unskilled workers: This category comprises Daftaris [clarification needed], File clerks,
Office boys, etc.
The job classification method is less subjective when compared to the earlier ranking method.
The system is very easy to understand and acceptable to almost all employees without hesitation.
One strong point in favour of the method is that it takes into account all the factors that a job
comprises. This system can be effectively used for a variety of jobs. The weaknesses of the job
classification method are:
Even when the requirements of different jobs differ, they may be combined into a single
category, depending on the status a job carries.
It is difficult to write all-inclusive descriptions of a grade.
The method oversimplifies sharp differences between different jobs and different grades.
When individual job descriptions and grade descriptions do not match well, the
evaluators have the tendency to classify the job using their subjective judgements.
Factor comparison method
A more systematic and scientific method of job evaluation is the factor comparison method.
Though it is the most complex method of all, it is consistent and appreciable. Under this method,
instead of ranking complete jobs, each job is ranked according to a series of factors. These
factors include mental effort, physical effort, skill needed, responsibility, supervisory
responsibility, working conditions and other such factors (for instance, know-how, problem
solving abilities, accountability, etc.). Pay will be assigned in this method by comparing the
weights of the factors required for each job, i.e., the present wages paid for key jobs may be
divided among the factors weighted by importance (the most important factor, for instance,
mental effort, receives the highest weight). In other words, wages are assigned to the job in
comparison to its ranking on each job factor.
The steps involved in factor comparison method may be briefly stated thus:

Select key jobs (say 15 to 20), representing wage/salary levels across the organisation.
The selected jobs must represent as many departments as possible.
Find the factors in terms of which the jobs are evaluated (such as skill, mental effort,
responsibility, physical effort, working conditions, etc.).
Rank the selected jobs under each factor (by each and every member of the job
evaluation committee) independently.
Assign money value to each level of each factor (example: consider problem solving is
one of the factors, what level of problem solving is required {basic, intermediate or
advance}) and determine the wage rates for each key job.
The wage rate for a job is apportioned along the identified factors.
All other jobs are compared with the list of key jobs and wage rates are determined.

An example of how the factor comparison method works is given below:

After the wage rate for a job is distributed along the identified and ranked factors, all other jobs
in the department are compared in terms of each factor. Suppose the job of a 'painter' is found to
be similar electrician in skill (15), fitter in mental effort (10), welder in physical effort (12)
cleaner in responsibility! (6) and labourer in working conditions (4). The wage rate for this job
would be (15+10+12+6+4) is47.j

Point method
This method is widely used currently. Here, jobs are expressed in terms of key factors. Points are
assigned to each factor after prioritizing each factor in order of importance. The points are
summed up to determine the wage rate for the job. Jobs with similar point totals are placed in
similar pay grades. The procedure involved may be explained thus:
1. Select key jobs. Identify the factors common to all the identified jobs such as skill, effort,
responsibility, etc.
2. Divide each major factor into a number of sub factors. Each sub factor is defined and
expressed clearly in the order of importance, preferably along a scale.
The most frequent factors employed in point systems are (i) Skill (key factor); Education and
training required, Breadth/depth of experience required, Social skills required, Problem-solving
skills, Degree of discretion/use of judgment, Creative thinking (ii) Responsibility/Accountability:
Breadth of responsibility, Specialized responsibility, Complexity of the work, Degree of freedom
to act, Number and nature of subordinate staff, Extent of accountability for equipment/plant,
Extent of accountability for product/materials; (iii) Effort: Mental demands of a job, Physical
demands of a job, Degree of potential stress
The educational requirements (sub factor) under the skill (key factor) may be expressed thus in
the order of importance.
3. Find the maximum number of points assigned to each job (after adding up the point values
of all sub-factors of such a job).
This would help in finding the relative worth of a job. For instance, the maximum points
assigned to an officer's job in a bank come to 540. The manager's job, after adding up key factors
+ sub factors points, may be getting a point value of say 650 from the job evaluation committee.
This job is now priced at a higher level.
4, once the worth of a job in terms of total points is expressed, the points are converted into
money values keeping in view the hourly/daily wage rates. A wage survey is usually undertaken
to collect wage rates of certain key jobs in the organization.

Quality of work life:Quality of work life can be defined as the environment at the work place provided to the people on the
job. QWL programs is the another dimension in which employers has the responsibility to provide
congenial environment i.e excellent working conditions where people can perform excellent work also
their health as well as economic health of the organization is also met. The quality of personal life is
always reflected in professional life and vice versa. Now a day to retain the employees in the organization
providing healthy QWL is the key factor. In earlier times QWL means only job enrichment. In addition to
improving the work system, QWL programs usually emphasize on development of employee skills, the
reduction of occupational stress and the development of more co-operative labor-management relations.

The components of Quality of Work Life may vary from organization to organization, individual to
individual but some of the basic components are
1. Free communications open communication in the organization with the co- workers is the vital factor
that ensures good quality of work life. It leads to more of informal communication between co-workers
and subordinates during the rest hours of the organization.
2. Reward system reward is related to monetary or non monetary rewards eg- incentives, movie tickets,
family health insurance, sponsoring the education of children etc.any kind of reward given to the
employee promotes good quality of work life.
3. Employee job security - job security is the one vital element to get maximum productivity from the
employee, the employee should feel secured regarding the job.
4. Career growth the organization should provide career growth to the employee i.e promotion,
authority with responsibility ,hike in the salary to retain the talented employee.

5. Workers participation in decision making of the organization employees should be encouraged to take
participate actively in the decision making body of the organization so that should feel that we are also of
some value to the employers. They will be more loyal, commited towards the organization.
6. Opportunities- organizations should provide some basic opportunities to their employees eg. Research,
training sessions based on increase of skills and knowledge. These kinds of organizations are required
than the vice versa.
7. Stress level stress level should not be in proportion to the work life. Higher the stress level poor is the
quality of work life, lower is the stress level higher is the quality of work life.

Measures to improve the quality of work life are

1. Flexibility on job flexibility on job means flexible working hours, no fixed working hours, different
time intervals etc. By this flexibility in the job can be introduced.
2. Job enrichment job enrichment focuses on designing the job in such a way that becomes more
interesting and challenging so that it satisfies the higher level needs.
3. Secured job security of job should be provided to the employee to make him feel committed and loyal
to the organization
4. Grievance handling - the disciplinary procedure, grievance procedures, promotions, and transfer
matters should be handled with of justice, fair and equity.
5. Participative Management - Employees should be allowed to participate in management participative
schemes which may be of several types. The most sophisticated among them is quality circle.

Work-life balance :There is no agreed definition of work-life balance but it does appear that the right balance for one person
may differ from the next. Balance is achieved in different ways for different people and has a different
purpose for people. Some people do it to balance their caring responsibilities for children with work,
while others want more time to themselves, engaging in leisure activities. Work-life balance, in its
broadest sense, is defined as a satisfactory level of involvement or fit between the multiple roles in a
persons life (Hudson, 2005).
Peoples perception of work-life balance is very subjective, as reflected by various descriptions of worklife balance by employees:
A good balance is a four-day workweek. This allows me to get all the stuff (groceries, laundry,
cleaning) done in one day and still have two to do what I want.
If the dream job has stress within in tolerable / manageable limits, then I will have achieved a Work Life balance.
For me, a good work-life balance means something simple: to work to support my life, and not the
other way around. I dont want to use my life to support my work, I want to use my work so I can live my
life in the way I want it. If I can do this, then I have good work-life balance
Work-life balance for any one person is having the right combination of participation in paid work
(defined by hours and working conditions) and other aspects of their lives. This combination will change
as people move through life and have changing responsibilities and commitments in their work and
personal lives.

Ten Essential Management Actions for Creating Work Life Balance

1. Positive Work life Balance thinking treating staff as adults who are balancing their work
commitments with their family/personal responsibilities, and being positive about making changes to
create a more flexible workplace in all aspects of employee relations. The importance of modelling best
practice work life balance from the top cannot be underestimated.
2. Work Life Balance policy have a clear policy statement which announces that the WA Health is
committed to providing a flexible responsive workplace, which enables all employees to balance work
and family/personal responsibilities, which is incorporated into core values statements and corporate
plans, and supported by policy guidelines outlining what that means for everyone in the workplace.
3. Work Life Balance employer - WA Health be promoted as an employer who respects and cares
about its employees, who recognises that they will have family and personal responsibilities, and who
provides flexiblebilities. Factors shown to impact the most upon staff trying to balance work and life
include required hours of work, a lack of flexibility in being able to alter their working hours, time off or
leave arrangements, a lack of access to suitable childcare arrangements, and undue stresses and tensions
in the workplace which make working life more difficult and/or even unpleasant.
4. Awareness of entitlements - increase awareness of employees entitlements to access flexible working
arrangements, and what assistance and services are available to them directly or by referral.
4. Work Life Balance survey conduct a survey to identify staff needs in balancing work and
family/ personal life responsibilities, current awareness of flexible work options, and suitability
of current working arrangements. Incorporate results into the human resource management plan
and staff work planning arrangements.
6. Implement flexible work practices this will provide greater flexibility to all employees, including
supervisors, managers and other senior staff, and will ensure flexible working hours schedules, rosters
and leave arrangements to accommodate their family and personal responsibilities, without detriment or
7. Willingness to pilot or trial initiatives all managers and supervisors to demonstrate commitment to
creating a flexible workplace that supports work life balance by considering employees needs and
requests, and be willing to pilot or trial new initiatives and implement more flexible working
8. Management accountability managers to be responsible and accountable for implementing work
life balance arrangements, reducing staff turnover rates and increasing retention rates in their work area.
Managers to be made accountable for decisions to refuse employees requests for more flexible working
arrangements. Retention & attractions strategies.
9. Management Training training and development programs for managers should include human
resource management skills, the benefits of creating work life balance, and how to manage a more
flexible workforce.
10. Pre-exit interviews pre-exit interviews that include questions such as whether difficulties in
balancing work and family/personal responsibilities were a contributing factor to the employee leaving, to
be conducted prior to the employee leaving. This data to be collated analysed and reported to senior
management. Where possible, alternative working arrangements should be offered to assist employees
remain with a better work life balance.

Work stress:Definition of work stress

Stress can hit anyone at any level of the business and recent research shows that work related stress is
widespread and is not confined to particular sectors, jobs or industries. HSE's formal definition of work
related stress is:
"The adverse reaction people have to excessive pressures or other types of demand placed on them
at work."
Stress is not an illness it is a state. However, if stress becomes too excessive and prolonged, mental and
physical illness may develop.
Well-designed, organised and managed work is generally good for us but when insufficient attention to
job design, work organisation and management has taken place, it can result in Work related stress.
Work related stress develops because a person is unable to cope with the demands being placed on them.
Stress, including work related stress, can be a significant cause of illness and is known to be linked with
high levels of sickness absence, staff turnover and other issues such as more errors.
There is a difference between pressure and stress. Pressure can be positive and a motivating factor, and is
often essential in a job. It can help us achieve our goals and perform better. Stress occurs when this
pressure becomes excessive. Stress is a natural reaction to too much pressure.

Causes of Work Stress

The main sources or causes of an organisational stress are :1. Career Concern : If an employee feels that he is very much behind in corporate ladder, then he
may experience stress and if he feels that there are no opportunities for self-growth he may
experience stress. Hence unfulfilled career expectations are a major source of stress.
2. Role Ambiguity: It occurs when the person does not known what he is supposed to do on the job.
His tasks and responsibilities are not clear. The employee is not sure what he is expected to do.
This creates confusion in the minds of the worker and results in stress.
3. Rotating Shifts : Stress may occur to those individuals who work in different shifts. Employees
may be expected to work in day shift for some days and then in the night shift. This may create
problems in adjusting to the shift timings, and it can affect not only personal life but also family
life of the employee.
4. Role Conflict : It takes place when different people have different expectations from a person
performing a particular role. It can also occur if the job is not as per the expectation or when a job
demands a certain type of behaviour that is against the person's moral values.
5. Occupational Demands : Some jobs are more stressful than others. Jobs that involve risk and
danger are more stressful. Research findings indicate that jobs that are more stressful usually
requires constant monitoring of equipments and devices, unpleasant physical conditions, making
decisions, etc.
6. Lack of Participation in Decision Making : Many experienced employees feel that management
should consult them on matters affecting their jobs. In reality, the superiors hardly consult the
concerned employees before taking a decision. This develops a feeling of being neglected, which
may lead to stress.
7. Work Overload : Excessive work load leads to stress as it puts a person under tremendous
pressure. Work overload may take two different forms :i.
Qualitative work overload implies performing a job that is complicated or beyond the
employee's capacity.
Quantitative work overload arises when number of activities to be performed in the
prescribed time are many.
8. Work Underload : In this case, very little work or too simple work is expected on the part of the
employee. Doing less work or jobs of routine and simple nature would lead to monotony and
boredom, which can lead to stress.
9. Working Conditions : Employees may be subject to poor working conditions. It would include
poor lighting and ventilations, unhygienic sanitation facilities, excessive noise and dust, presence
of toxic gases and fumes, inadequate safety measures, etc. All these unpleasant conditions create
physiological and psychological imbalance in humans thereby causing stress.

10. Lack of Group Cohesiveness : Every group is characterised by its cohesiveness although they
differ widely in degree of cohesiveness. Individuals experience stress when there is no unity
among the members of work group. There is mistrust, jealously, frequent quarrels, etc., in groups
and this lead to stress to employees.
11. Interpersonal and Intergroup Conflict : Interpersonal and intergroup conflict takes place due to
differences in perceptions, attitudes, values and beliefs between two or more individuals and
groups. Such conflicts can be a source of stress to group members.
12. Organisational Changes : When changes occur, people have to adapt to those changes and this
may cause stress. Stress is higher when changes are major or unusual like transfer or adaption of
new technology.
13. Lack of Social Support : When individuals believe that they have the friendship and support of
others at work, their ability to cope with the effects of stress increases. If this kind of social
support is not available then an employee experiences more stress.

Reducing Stress at Work

1. Improve your time management and organization skills.
Of the many things you can to in this area the best ones include getting a to do list that works,
learning to say "no", asking for help when you need it, and stop setting unrealistic goals for
2. Relax and breathe deeply.
Whether you are feeling overwhelmed by the amount or work you have to do or if someone is "in
your face", a good thing to do is to "breathe through your nose". You can't get as worked up if you
force yourself to breathe through your nose. Your body simply can't maintain the same level of
energy without that extra oxygen you get when breathing through your mouth.

3. Take more breaks from your work.

Even a five-minute break will help. Get away from your desk. Go for a walk - outside is better,
but up two flights of stairs and back down is good too. Getting more exercise in general will help
you reduce your overall stress levels and that will make it easier to reduce your stress level at
4. Lighten up.
Smile more. We all know laughter reduces stress. You will be amazed at how much more pleasant
the people around you are when you make an effort to be pleasant yourself.
5. Learn to listen better.
Rather than getting upset when others disagree with you, listen actively and find the areas of
agreement. Be assertive and stand up for yourself, but don't be rigid.
6. Fix your environment.
Make whatever adjustments you need to the lighting, temperature, noise level, and other
controllable factors in your office.
7. Don't sweat the small stuff.
Realize that there are some things that just aren't worth worrying about and there are some things
you just can't change. Don't waste time stressing over the things in either category.
8. Get more sleep.
This is another of the things you can do to reduce your overall stress that will have benefits at the
office as well. In addition to reducing your stress, it will increase your energy level and your
ability to concentrate.
9. Find a mentor
If not a mentor, a friend will do. Having someone to talk to can take a lot of stress off you.
10. Spend more time with optimistic people.

Negative people will pull you down to their level. Choose to work with people who have a
positive attitude instead.

COUNSELLING:Counselling is a process through which one person helps another by purposeful conversation in an
understanding atmosphere. It seeks to establish a helping relationship in which the one counseled can
express their thoughts and feelings in such a way as to clarify their own situation, come to terms with
some new experience, see their difficulty more objectively, and so face their problem with less anxiety
and tension. Its basic purpose is to assist the individual to make their own decision from among the
choices available to them. (British Association for Counselling, Rugby 1989)
Counselling is discussion of an employees problem that usually has an emotional content to it, in order to
help the employee cope with the situation better. Counselling seeks to improve employees mental health.
People feel comfortable about themselves and about other people and are able to meet the demands of life
when they are in good mental health.

Why is Counseling Needed?

"HR initiatives only look at the organizational perspective, but the well being of the workforce depends
just as much on the individual's well being. And stress, from home or from the routine of work affects not
just the individual, but the workplace in turn," says Dr Samir Parikh, consultant psychiatrist at Max

Objectives of Counseling
According to Eisenberg & Delaney, the aims of Counseling are as follows:
1. Understanding self
2. Making impersonal decisions
3. Setting achievable goals which enhance growth.
4. Planning in the present to bring about desired future.
5. Effective solutions to personal and interpersonal problems.
6. Coping with difficult situations.
7. Controlling self defeating emotions.
8. Acquiring effective transaction skills.
9. Acquiring 'positive self-regard' and a sense of optimism about one's own ability to satisfy one's basic
When to counsel?
An employee should be counseled when he or she has personal problems that affect job performance.
Some signs of a troubled employee include
Sudden change of behavior

Increased accidents
Increased fatigue
Excessive drinking
Reduced production
Difficulty in absorbing training
The traits of a good counselor
The set of attitudes required for an efficient counsellor are:
Respect i.e. High esteem for human dignity, recognition of a person's freedom & rights and faith in
human potential to grow.
Sincerity, authenticity.
Non-judgmental approach towards the counselee.
The set of skills required for an efficient counsellor are:
Decency skills i.e. social etiquettes, warm manners
Excellent communication skills which also include non-verbal communication and listening skills
Maintaining confidentiality

The Counseling Process

Step 1. Describe the changed behavior. Let the employee know that the organization is concerned with
work performance. The supervisor maintains work standards by being consistent in dealing with troubled
employees. Explain in very specific terms what the employee needs to do in order to perform up to the
organization's expectations. Don't moralize. Restrict the confrontation to job performance.
Step 2. Get employee comments on the changed behavior and the reason for it. Confine any negative
comments to the employee's job performance. Don't diagnose; you are not an expert. Listen and protect
Step 3. Agree on a solution. Emphasize confidentiality. Don't be swayed or misled by emotional please,
sympathy tactics, or "hard-luck" stories. Explain that going for help does not exclude the employee from
standard disciplinary procedures and that it does not open the door for special privileges.
Step 4. Summarize and get a commitment to change. Seek commitment from the employee to meet work
standards and to get help, if necessary, with the problem.
Step 5. Follow up. Once the problem is resolved and a productive relationship is established, follow up is


Mentoring is most often defined as a professional relationship in which an experienced

person(the mentor) assists another (the mentoree) in developing specific skills and
knowledge that will enhance the less-experienced persons professional and personal
What does a mentor do?
The following are among the mentors functions:

Teaches the mentoree about a specific issue

Coaches the mentoree on a particular skill

Facilitates the mentorees growth by sharing resources and networks

Challenges the mentoree to move beyond his or her comfort zone

Creates a safe learning environment for taking risks

Focuses on the mentorees total development

Mentoring characteristics:

Takes place outside of a line manager-employee relationship, at the mutual consent of a

mentor and the person being mentored
Is career-focused or focuses on professional development that may be outside a mentorees
area of work
Relationship is personal - a mentor provides both professional and personal support
Relationship may be initiated by a mentor or created through a match initiated by the
Relationship crosses job boundaries
Relationship may last for a specific period of time (nine months to a year) in a formal
program, at which point the pair may continue in an informal mentoring relationship

Benefits of mentoring
Mentoring benefits the organization, mentors and mentorees. A successful mentoring
program benefits your organization by:

Enhancing strategic business initiatives

Encouraging retention

Reducing turnover costs

Improving productivity

Breaking down the "silo" mentality that hinders cooperation among company departments or

Elevating knowledge transfer from just getting information and to retaining the practical
experience and wisdom gained from long-term employees.
Enhancing professional development.

Linking employees with valuable knowledge and information to other employees in need of
such information

Using your own employees, instead of outside consultants, as internal experts for
professional development

Supporting the creation of a multicultural workforce by creating relationships among diverse

employees and allowing equal access to mentoring.

Creating a mentoring culture, which continuously promotes individual employee growth and

Types of Mentoring:

One-On-One Mentoring
The most common mentoring model, one-on-one mentoring matches one mentor with one
mentoree. Most people prefer this model because it allows both mentor and mentoree to develop a
personal relationship and provides individual support for the mentoree. Availability of mentors is
the only limitation.

Resource-Based Mentoring
Resource-based mentoring offers some of the same features as one-on-one mentoring. The main
difference is that mentors and mentorees are not interviewed and matched by a Mentoring Program
Manager. Instead, mentors agree to add their names to a list of available mentors from which a
mentoree can choose. It is up to the mentoree to initiate the process by asking one of the volunteer
mentors for assistance. This model typically has limited support within the organization and may
result in mismatched mentor-mentoree pairing.

Group Mentoring
Group mentoring requires a mentor to work with 4-6 mentorees at one time. The group meets once
or twice a month to discuss various topics. Combining senior and peer mentoring, the mentor and
the peers help one another learn and develop appropriate skills and knowledge.
Group mentoring is limited by the difficulty of regularly scheduling meetings for the entire group.
It also lacks the personal relationship that most people prefer in mentoring. For this reason, it is
often combined with the one-on-one model. For example, some organizations provide each
mentoree with a specific mentor. In addition, the organization offers periodic meetings in which a
senior executive meets with all of the mentors and mentorees, who then share their knowledge and

Training-Based Mentoring
This model is tied directly to a training program. A mentor is assigned to a mentoree to help that
person develop the specific skills being taught in the program. Training-based mentoring is limited,
because it focuses on the subject at hand and doesnt help the mentoree develop a broader skill set.

Executive Mentoring
This top-down model may be the most effective way to create a mentoring culture and cultivate
skills and knowledge throughout an organization. It is also an effective succession-planning tool,
because it prevents the knowledge "brain drain" that would otherwise take place when senior
management retires