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# 1 Newtonian Mechanics....................................................

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1.1 Introduction..................................................... 8
1.2 Fundamentals..................................................... 8
1.3 Space and time................................................... 9
1.4 Mass............................................................. 10
1.5 Force............................................................ 12
1.6 Work and power................................................... 12
1.7 Kinematics of a point............................................ 13
1.8 Kinetics of a particle........................................... 18
1.9 Impulse.......................................................... 19
1.10 Kinetic energy.................................................. 20
1.11 Potential energy................................................ 20
1.12 Corioliss theorem.............................................. 21
1.13 Newtons laws for a group of particles.......................... 22
1.14 Conservation of momentum........................................ 24
1.15 Energy for a group of particles................................. 24
1.16 The principle of virtual work................................... 25
1.17 DAlemberts principle.......................................... 26
2 Lagranges Equations................................................... 28
2.1 Introduction..................................................... 28
2.2 Generalized co-ordinates......................................... 30
2.3 Proof of Lagranges equations.................................... 32
2.4 The dissipation function......................................... 34
2.5 Kinetic energy................................................... 36
2.6 Conservation laws................................................ 38
2.7 Hamiltons equations............................................. 40
2.8 Rotating frame of reference and velocity-dependent potentials.... 42
2.9 Moving co-ordinates.............................................. 46
2.10 Non-holonomic systems........................................... 48
2.11 Lagranges equations for impulsive forces....................... 50
3 Hamiltons Principle................................................... 53
3.1 Introduction..................................................... 53
3.2 Derivation of Hamiltons principle............................... 54
3.3 Application of Hamiltons principle.............................. 56
3.4 Lagranges equations derived from Hamiltons principle........... 58
3.5 Illustrative example............................................. 59
4 Rigid Body Motion in Three Dimensions.................................. 62
4.1 Introduction..................................................... 62
4.2 Rotation......................................................... 62
4.3 Angular velocity................................................. 65
4.4 Kinetics of a rigid body......................................... 66
4.5 Moment of inertia................................................ 68
4.6 Eulers equation for rigid body motion........................... 71
4.7 Kinetic energy of a rigid body................................... 72
4.8 Torque-free motion of a rigid body............................... 74
4.9 Stability of torque-free motion.................................. 79
4.10 Eulers angles.................................................. 82
4.11 The symmetrical body............................................ 83
4.12 Forced precession............................................... 87
4.13 Epilogue........................................................ 90
5 Dynamics of Vehicles................................................... 92
5.1 Introduction..................................................... 92
5.2 Gravitational potential.......................................... 92
5.3 The two-body problem............................................. 95
5.4 The central force problem........................................ 97
5.5 Satellite motion.................................................100
5.6 Effects of oblateness............................................107
5.7 Rocket in free space.............................................110
5.8 Non-spherical satellite..........................................113
5.9 Spinning satellite...............................................114

## 5.10 De-spinning of satellites.......................................114

5.11 Stability of aircraft...........................................116
5.12 Stability of a road vehicle.....................................125
6 Impact and One-Dimensional Wave Propagation............................132
6.1 Introduction.....................................................132
6.2 The one-dimensional wave.........................................132
6.3 Longitudinal waves in an elastic prismatic bar...................135
6.4 Reflection and transmission at a boundary........................137
6.5 Momentum and energy in a pulse...................................139
6.6 Impact of two bars...............................................140
6.7 Constant force applied to a long bar.............................143
6.8 The effect of local deformation on pulse shape...................145
6.9 Prediction of pulse shape during impact of two bars..............148
6.10 Impact of a rigid mass on an elastic bar........................152
6.11 Dispersive waves................................................156
6.12 Waves in a uniform beam.........................................162
6.13 Waves in periodic structures....................................168
6.14 Waves in a helical spring.......................................170
7 Waves in a Three-Dimensional Elastic Solid.............................179
7.1 Introduction.....................................................179
7.2 Strain...........................................................179
7.3 Stress...........................................................183
7.4 Elastic constants................................................184
7.5 Equations of motion..............................................185
7.6 Wave equation for an elastic solid...............................186
7.7 Plane strain.....................................................191
7.8 Reflection at a plane surface....................................193
7.9 Surface waves (Rayleigh waves)...................................196
7.10 Conclusion......................................................199
8 Robot Arm Dynamics.....................................................201
8.1 Introduction.....................................................201
8.2 Typical arrangements.............................................201
8.3 Kinematics of robot arms.........................................204
8.4 Kinetics of a robot arm..........................................230
9 Relativity.............................................................242
9.1 Introduction.....................................................242
9.2 The foundations of the special theory of relativity..............242
9.3 Time dilation and proper time....................................247
9.4 Simultaneity.....................................................248
9.5 The Doppler effect...............................................249
9.6 Velocity.........................................................253
9.7 The twin paradox.................................................256
9.8 Conservation of momentum.........................................257
9.9 Relativistic force...............................................259
9.10 Impact of two particles.........................................261
9.11 The relativistic Lagrangian.....................................263
9.12 Conclusion......................................................265
Problems.................................................................268
Appendix 1 - Vectors, Tensors and Matrices...............................279
Appendix 2 - Analytical Dynamics.........................................288
Appendix 3 - Curvilinear Co-ordinate Systems.............................295
Bibliography.............................................................304
Index....................................................................306