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Advances in

Water Quality Control

AdvancesinWaterQualityControl
GailKrantzberg,AysegulTanik,JosS.AntunesdoCarmo,
AntoniusIndarto,AlpaslanEkda

Scientific Reseach Publishing, USA


2010

ADVANCESINWATERQUALITYCONTROL

Publishedby
ScientificResearchPublishing,Inc.
ISBN:9781935068082
http://www.scirp.org

Copyright2010byScientificResearchPublishing,Inc.,USA.
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BiographyofChiefEditors
Gail Krantzberg is a Professor and Director of the Dofasco Centre for Engineering and Public Policy in the
SchoolofEngineeringatMcMasterUniversityofferingCanadasfirstMastersDegreeinEngineeringandPublic
Policy. Gail completed her M.Sc. and Ph.D. at the University of Toronto in environmental science and fresh
waters.SheworkedfortheOntarioMinistryofEnvironmentfrom1988to2001,asCoordinatorofRemedial
ActionPlanandGreatLakesPrograms,andSeniorPolicyAdvisoronGreatLakes.Sheisapastpresidentofthe
InternationalAssociationofGreatLakesResearch.Dr.KrantzbergwastheDirectoroftheGreatLakesRegional
OfficeoftheInternationalJointCommissionfrom2001to2005.Shehasauthoredmorethan100scientificand
policyarticlesonissuespertainingtoecosystemqualityandsustainabilityandisafrequentspeakertomedia
andthepublic.

AysegulTanikisaFullProfessoratIstanbulTechnicalUniversity(ITU)inTurkey.SheobtainedherB.Sc.degreein
Chemical Engineering (1981) and M.Sc. Degree(1984) in Environmental Engineering from BogaziciUniversity,
Istanbul.Betweenyears19811983,sheworkedasachemicalengineerintheIndustrialDevelopmentBankof
TurkeyandasaResearchAssistantatBogaziciUniversityduring19831984.HerPh.D.isinEnvironmentalEngi
neering(1991)andshegotherdegreefromITU,FacultyofCivilEngineering,DepartmentofEnvironmentalEn
gineeringwhereshehasbeenamemberofteachingstaffsince1992.ShehasbecomeAssociateProfessorin
1996 and Full Professor in 2002. She has worked as a Project and Research Engineer in various Contracting
Firmsdealingwithtreatmentofwaterandwastewaterwithintheyears19841992.Hercurrentfieldsofinter
est are; determination and management of diffuse sources of pollutants, water quality management, water
quality modeling, and integrated watershed management. She has 50 papers appearing in international SCI
journalsandmorethan50papersintheselectedinternationalproceedingsbesidesmanynationalconference
papers.

Jos Simo Antunes do Carmo received the Bachelor in Civil Engineering, University of Coimbra, Portugal in
1980, He completed the M.S. degree in Hydraulics and Water Resources, Technical University of Lisbon (IST),
Portugalin1990andPh.D.degreeinEngineeringSciences,CivilEngineeringHydraulics,UniversityofCoimbra,
Portugalin1995.HeisnowanAssociateProfessor(Aggregated)inFacultyofSciencesandTechnologyofUni
versityofCoimbra,Portugalsince2005.HisResearchareaareHydrodynamics;NumericalMethods;Genera
tionandPropagationofWaves;RiverandCoastalMorphodynamics;CoastalProtection;CoastalManagement;
OilSpillsinCoastalZones;RiverFlows;WaterQualityModelling,andWastewaterTreatment.Heistanauthorof
twentytwopapersinScientificISIjournals,onebookentitledModellinginFluvialHydraulicsandEnvironment,
sevenbookchapters,aboutonehundredofcommunicationsinInternationalScientificConferences,andmore
thantwotensofleadingarticles.

Antonius Indarto received the Bachelor of Engineering degree in Chemical Engineering from the Institut
TeknologiBandung(ITB), Indonesia in2002. Hecompletedthe M.S.degree in UrbanEnvironmental Manage
mentfromtheAsianInstituteofTechnology(AIT),ThailandandPh.D.degreefromtheUniversitadeglistudidi
I

Torino,Italy.
DuringhisM.S.study,heobtainedapreciousexperienceonhowtomanageanddevelopanurbanareafrom
economic,environmental,andtechnologicalpointofview.Currently,heconductswidebroadresearchactivi
ties:1)thedevelopmentofplasmafornovelchemicalreactionsandenvironment,2)catalyticplasmareactions,
and 3) theoretical/computational study of reactions. For this research and development contribution, he re
ceivedsomeawards,suchas:1)The2009Nuclear&PlasmaSciencesSociety(NPSS)graduatestudentaward+
PhelpsContinuingEducationGrantfromNPSS;2)YoungScienceAwardoftheInternationalAssociationofCa
talysisSocieties(IACS)during14thinternationalCongressonCatalyst,Seoul,SouthKorea(2008);3)Goldmedal
byKoreaInstituteofScienceandTechnology(KIST)fortheachievementsinresearchanddevelopment(2007).
Hewrotemorethan20internationalpapersandcontributedin4bookspublication.

AlpaslanEkdalisworkingattheIstanbulTechnicalUniversityEnvironmentalEngineeringDepartment.Hegot
hisB.Sc.degreefromYldzTechnicalUniversity,EnvironmentalEngineeringDepartmentin1998.Then,hehad
completedhisM.Sc.studiesin2000atIstanbulTechnicalUniversity,InstituteofScienceandTechnology,Envi
ronmental Engineering Program. In 2000, he started his Ph. D. studies at the same program. He worked as a
visitingscientistattheUnitedStatesEnvironmentalProtectionAgency,NationalExposureResearchLaboratory,
EcosystemsResearchDivision,Athens,GAtoconductpartofhisPh.D.studiesbetweenFebruary25,2005and
February25,2006.HecompletedhisPhDentitledWaterQualityModelingofKyceizDalyanLagoonin
2008.Dr.Ekdalpublishedscientificpapersinpeerreviewednationalandinternationaljournalsandatthecon
ferencesandsymposia.Hismajorfieldsofinterestarewaterqualitymodelingandintegratedwatershedman
agement, and he has been involved in national and international research and professional projects in these
fields.

II

Preface
WATERisforsuretheonlycommonandglobalissuethatinterestsallthelivingbodiesoftheworldincluding
humans,floraandfauna.Withoutwater,survivalisnotpossible.Itisamongthemainnaturalresourcesthat
recognizesnoborders.Thetwocomponentsofwaterarenamelyqualityandquantity.Worldwaterresources
areestimatedtobe1400millionkm3;however,onlyaminorportionofthispotentialamountisusablewater.
As the amount of usable/accessible water differs from country to country, place to place, season to season,
watershortageisexperiencedinsomecountries.Itiswellknownthatwaterresourcesarenotequallydistrib
utedaccordingtopopulationdensitiesamongthecountries.Somecountrieshaveabundantwaterresources,
whereassomeotherssufferfrominadequatewater,andevenfaceseverewaterscarcityproblems. Currently,
a portion of accessible global water resources are polluted especially through humaninduced activities, and
cannolongerbeused.Anotherportionofwaterislostduringtransmissionduetolackofefficientandproper
infrastructure.Thus,pollutionofwaterresourcesleadstoserioussanitaryproblems.1/5thoftheworldspopu
lationthataccountstoapproximately1.1billionpeopleisundertheriskofwaterrelateddiseases,andmore
overeachyearmanypeopledieastheydonothavesafedrinkingwater.Themainreasonofthisfactislackof
adequateinfrastructureratherthanwaterscarcity.Forthatreason,oneoftheMillenniumDevelopmentGoals,
announcedattheUnitedNationsGeneralCouncilinyear2000,istodecreasethenumberofpeoplethatsuffer
fromcleanwateraccessby50%byyear2015.
Thesectoraldistributionofwaterconsumptionasaglobalaverageisdominatedbyagriculturalandgreen
landirrigationwithanoverallvalueof70%,followedbyindustrialuseswith22%,and8%issharedbydomestic
usesasreferredintheUNWorldWaterDevelopmentReportofyear2003.Itisforsurethatourlimitednatural
water resources are highly used in agricultural activities, and industrial development and population rise in
parallelincreasethedemandforwatertobeusedinthesesectors.Thus,wearetryingtoincreasethequantity
ofaccessiblecleanandsecurewater.Ontheotherhand,thewastewaterarisingfromtheuseofwaterisan
evenmoresignificantproblemwhentheyaredischargedintoreceivingwaterbodies.Tocopewiththisprob
lemandprotectthewellbeingofourenvironment,varioustypesofwastewatertreatmentsystems;primary,
secondary,tertiaryhavetobeinstalledforthepointsourcesofpollutants.Technologicaladvancesmakeitpos
sibletoimplementdifferenttypesofwastewatersystemstominimizetheirpollutingeffectsandmoreover,the
most recent reuse technologies enable to establish advanced systems for reusing wastewater. On onehand,
humans pollute theirenvironment through their activities and on theotherhand, they work hardand spent
timeandmoneyininstallingwastewatertreatmentplantstoprotecttheirenvironment.Theeffortsofthehu
mans in keeping their water resources clean usually become insufficient especially in developing and un
derdeveloped countries. Among the reasons, one can address the high investment and operational costs of
wastewater treatment plants, the institutional and legal constraints faced in the countries, lack of receiving
wateranddischargestandards,andlackofmonitoringandcontrolofthealreadyestablishedplants.
Inshort,maintainingtherequiredqualityofwateraccordingtotheintendedusehasnowbecomeoneofthe
important issues to be tackled with. This book on Advances in Water Quality Control emerged at this point.
Therearevariousbookswrittenworldwideonwaterquality;however,thisbookaimstoputforthandfocuson
therecentadvancesofwaterqualitycontrol.Agroupofinternationalexpertshavecometogethertowritethis
bookwhotargettopassrecentavailableknowledgeandinformationtothereaders.Thereadersandbenefici
aries varies from academicians, professional engineers and scientists, to undergraduate and graduate engi
III

neeringstudentsfromallnationsnomatterwheretheycomefrom;eitheradevelopedandadevelopingcoun
try.
Keepinginmindthephilosophyofutilizationandprotectionbalance,Chapter1referstowaterqualityre
quirementsemphasizingonthefactorsthataffectwaterquality.Thewaterqualityparametersthatneedtobe
consideredforvariouscommonbeneficialusesofwaterworldwidearementioned,andtheauthorsfocusedon
the water quality criteria, guidelines and standards inuse. As is known, standardsneed to be set by nations
basedontheirintendeduseofwaterbytakingintoaccountthesocioeconomicalstatusandpoliticalsituation.
Reuseofwaterinvarioussectorshasnowadaysbecomeanimportanttopicinthefieldofwateruse,asthis
naturalresourceisbecomingmorelimited.Chapter2isonusingthetreatedwastewaterindifferentsectors;
mainlyinagriculturalactivities.Asreferredpreviously,theshareofwaterdominatesintheagriculturalsector
andwehavetofindanalternativewaterresourcetoreducetheirrigationwaterdemandwithcleanwater.The
advancesinreusetechnologieshavemadewastewatertreatmentavailableforirrigation.Therefore,thischap
ter,afterintroducingthevarioustypesofreusesreviewstheadvancedtechnologiesusedinimplementingand
upgrading agricultural reuse systems. The recent experiences of various countries are mentioned. The man
agementofwastewaterasanewresourceofwaterisalsoreferredtoenlightenthereadersontheimportant
itemsofreusingtreatedwater.Selectionofthemosteffectiveandproperwastewatertreatmentisactuallythe
essentialpartofgeneratinganewwaterresourceaswellasprotectingthedischargeenvironments.Thus,the
fundamentalprinciplesofwastewatertreatmentarefocusedinChapter3.Thischaptercoversalltheaccept
ableanduniversallyappliedwastewatertreatmentprocessesandsystems.Anotheraspectisusingwastewater
in aquaculture. The historical background using wastewater in aquaculture, probable impacts and technical
aspectsoffishcultureisexplainedindepthinChapter4.Beyondpresentingthewastewatertreatmenttech
nologiesandreuseofwastewaterinvarioussectors,onegetsinterestedwiththeuseandapplicationofeco
nomicinstruments,selectionbetweendifferentinstrumentstocopewiththeproblemofwaterpollution.This
topiciscoveredindetailinChapter5.Moreover,financingandsustainingwastewatermanagementisanother
issuethatneedstobehighlighted.Chapter6isdevotedtothistopicofmanagementwheresustainabilityis
emphasizedasthecommonkeywordoftechnical,legislativeandsupportiveaspectsofwastewatermanage
ment.
Withinthepastfewdecades,theadvancesincomputersciencemadeavailabletheuseofmoderninforma
tiontechnologiesthatmakesourliveseasier.Chapter7issparedtotheinformationsystemsusednowadaysin
waterqualitycontrol.Emphasisisgiventotheimplementationofwaterqualitynetworksandtowaterquality
monitoringtechnology.Afterpresentingalltheimportantpointsofwaterqualitycontrol,nowwehavetoes
tablishaframeworkforwaterpollutioncontrol.ThisiscoveredinChapter8whereitisreferredthatidentifica
tion and determination of polluting sources need to be done on watershed basis. Watershed based studies
requiretheuseofcertainmodernmanagementtoolsandinstruments.Theselectionandapplicationofanap
propriate management plan for water pollution control and management alternatives form the basis of this
chapter.Therearevariousconventionalandmoderntoolsandtechniquesusedinwaterqualityinterpretation.
TheyareexplainedinChapter9indetailincludingacasestudyonapplicationofsalienttechniquestoground
waterqualityassessment.
Chapter10isonacasestudyconductedinCanadaonrevitalizationplansandimplementationaimingestab
lishmentofasuccessfulcleanupstrategy.Thelessonslearntfromtheapplicationarealsostated.Chapter11is
againonacasestudyofapollutioncontrolstrategyimplementedfordeterminingthecharacteristicsofPolya
luminumChloride(PAC)thatisusedascoagulantpreparedbybakingprocess.Chapter12concludesthebook
withalookatlowcostwastewatertreatmentprocesses.Alongwiththeconventionalwastewatertreatment
IV

processes,thenaturalbiologicaltreatmentsystemsareoverviewedinthischapterindetail.Thisbookisde
signedinawaytooverviewtherecentadvancesinwaterqualitycontrolandIhopeitwillservetoadvancethe
fieldofwaterqualitycontrolandimprovethecontrolactionsandstrategiestobeappliedbythenationsofthe
world.
Advances in Water Quality Control would not have been possible without the great efforts paid by all the
authorsandIamsuretheirvaluablecontributionsincreasethesignificanceofthebook.Iwishitwillactasa
handbookforthoseinterestedreadersonwaterqualitycontrol.Thanksgotoeachoftheinternationalauthors
whosebriefCVsareincludedattheendofeachchapter.
Lastbutnottheleast;IwouldliketopayanaffectionatetributetoMs.ShirleySongfromScientificResearch
Publishing(SRP)whohascommunicatedwithalltheauthorsallthroughoutthepreparationperiodofthebook
withpatience.

Dr.AysegulTANIK
(Onbehalfoftheauthors)
Istanbul
August11,2010

Acknowledgements
AdvancesinWaterQualityControlwouldnothavebeenpossiblewithoutthegreateffortspaidbyalltheau
thors and I am sure their valuable contributions increase the significance of the book. I wish it will act as a
handbookforthoseinterestedreadersonwaterqualitycontrol.Thanksgotoeachoftheinternationalauthors
whosebriefCVsareincludedattheendofeachchapter.
Lastbutnottheleast;IwouldliketopayanaffectionatetributetoMs.ShirleySongfromScientificResearch
Publishing(SRP)whohascommunicatedwithalltheauthorsallthroughoutthepreparationperiodofthebook
withpatience.

VII

ContentsataGlance

Biography of Chief Editors

Preface

III

Acknowledgments

VII

Chapter1Water Quality Requirements


Melike Grel, Elif Pehlivanoglu-Mantas

Chapter2Wastewater as a Resource
Aysegul Tanik

27

Chapter3Wastewater Treatment
Jos Simo Antunes Do Carmo

71

Chapter4 Wastewater Use in Aquaculture


Guangming Li

125

Chapter5 Economic Instruments


Xianjin Huang, Xingyu Zhang, Weilin Wang, Xiaowei Chuai

139

Chapter6 Financing and Sustaining Wastewater Management


Antonius Indarto

165

Chapter7 Information Systems


Rongrong Lin

181

Chapter8 Framework for Water Pollution Control


Alpaslan Ekdal

193

Chapter9 Tools and Techniques for Water Quality Interpretation


Deepesh Machiwal, Madan K. Jha

211

Chapter10 Revitalization Plans and Implementation, Collingwood Harbour, Georgian Bay,


Ontario
Gail Krantzberg

253

Chapter11 Characteristics of Polyaluminum Chloride (PAC) Coagulant Prepared by Baking


Process
Guanyun Wang, Chunlu Zhao

265

Chapter12 Low-Cost Wastewater Treatment Process-Natural Biological Treatment Systems


Zongping Wang

291

Abbreviations

311
IX

Contents

Chapter1WaterQualityRequirements
1.1. Introduction3
1.2. Water Quantity3
1.3. Water Quality5
1.4. Factors that Affect Water Quality7
1.5. Water Pollution9
1.6. Water Quality Parameters11
1.7. Beneficial Uses versus Water Quality Parameters11
1.7.1. Drinking Water11
1.7.2. Recreational Use12
1.7.3. Fisheries and Shellfish Production12
1.7.4. Irrigation13
1.7.5. Industrial Process Water14
1.8. Water Quality Criteria, Guidelines and Standards14
1.8.1. Water Quality Criteria14
1.8.2. Water Quality Guidelines15
1.8.3. Water Quality Standards15
1.9. Comparison of Water Quality Standards16
1.10. Conclusions and Recommendations22
References23
About the Authors25

Chapter2WastewaterasaResource
2.1. Introduction29
2.1.1. Potential Benefits and Risks of Using Effluent Water30
2.2. Types of Reuse31
2.2.1. Landscape Irrigation31
2.2.2. Agricultural Irrigation32
2.2.3. Recreational Use33
2.2.4. Environmental Enhancement33
2.2.5. Groundwater Recharge33
2.2.6. Industrial Reuse33
2.2.7. Other Urban Uses34
2.2.8. Other Indirect Potable Use35
2.3. Implementing or Upgrading Agricultural Reuse Systems35
2.3.1. Membrane Technology37
2.3.1.1. Membrane Filtration37
2.3.1.2. Membrane Separation38
2.3.2. Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) Technology41

XI

2.3.3. Disinfection Systems41


2.3.4. Some Recent Advances on Implementing and Upgrading Agricultural Reuse Systems44
2.3.4.1. Experiences of the European Countries44
2.3.4.2. Experiences of China46
2.3.4.3. Experiences of South Korea46
2.3.4.4. Experiences of Middle East Countries46
2.4. Management of Wastewater as a Resource47
2.4.1. Basic Principles of Wastewater Treatment for Water Reclamation48
2.4.2. Existing International Quality Standards/Regulations and Guidelines48
2.4.3. Tools for Risk Assessment54
2.4.4. Current Wastewater Reuse Potential, Policy and Public Attitudes in Various Countries56
2.4.4.1. Prevailing Situation in Some Countries57
2.5. Conclusions and Recommendations63
References64
Websites67
About the Authors69

Chapter3WastewaterTreatment
3.1. Introduction73
3.1.1. General Considerations73
3.1.2. Causes of Water Pollution73
3.1.3. Wastewater Treatment Processes and General Guidelines74
3.1.4. Water Quality75
3.2. Conventional Wastewater Treatment Processes75
3.2.1. General Considerations75
3.2.1.1. Primary Treatment78
3.2.1.2. Secondary Treatment82
3.2.1.3. Tertiary Treatment83
3.2.2. Design of the Main Treatment Plant Units88
3.2.2.1. Primary Treatment Units88
3.2.2.2. Secondary Treatment Units98
3.3. Natural Biological Treatment Systems111
3.3.1. General Considerations111
3.3.2. Lagoons and Ponds Systems112
3.3.3. Wetland Systems116
3.3.3.1. Natural Wetlands118
3.3.3.2. Constructed Wetlands118
3.4. Conclusions and Recommendations121
3.4.1. Conventional Treatment Systems122
3.4.2. Biological Treatment Systems122
References123
About the Author124

Chapter4WastewaterUseinAquaculture
4.1. Introduction127
4.1.1. Fundamental Principles in Wastewater-Fed Aquaculture127
4.1.2. Historical Overview of Wastewater-Fed Aquaculture127

XII

4.1.3. Current Wastewater-Fed Aquaculture Practice128


4.1.4. Potential Impacts on Food Safety and Human Health128
4.2. Biota in Aquaculture Ponds129
4.2.1. Functional Zones in the Pond129
4.2.2. Plant in Aquaculture System130
4.2.3. Aquaculture Fish130
4.2.4. Biological Characteristics131
4.3. Technical Aspects of Fish Culture132
4.3.1. New Evidence of Health Risks from Studies in Indonesia132
4.3.2. Stocking of Filterivorous Animals133
4.3.3. Combining Conservation with Reasonable Utilization of Hydrophytes134
4.3.4. Aquaculture-Pig Husbandry Integration135
4.4. Conclusions and Recommendations135
4.5. Acknowledgements136
References136
About the Author138

Chapter5EconomicInstruments
5.1. Introduction141
5.1.1. Survey of Water Pollution141
5.1.2. The Loss Areas by Water Pollution141
5.1.2.1. Influence of Water Pollution on Industry141
5.1.2.2. Influence of Water Pollution on Agriculture142
5.1.2.3. Influence of Water Pollution on Fishing142
5.1.2.4. Influence of Water Pollution on Ecological Landscape142
5.1.3. Calculation of the Loss by Water Pollution142
5.2. Policy and Principles143
5.2.1. Research on Methods to Solve Water Pollution in America143
5.2.2. The Research on European Policies, Laws and Rules about the Handling of Water Pollution143
5.2.3. The Research on Chinese Policies, Laws and Rules about the Handling of Water Pollution144
5.2.4. The Comparison between the Direct Governing of Water Pollution and the System of Tax144
5.3. Why Use Economic Instruments?146
5.3.1. Administrative Instruments146
5.3.2. Economic Instruments146
5.3.3. Legal Means147
5.3.4. Technical Means147
5.3.5. A Comparative Analysis of Economic Means and Administrative Means148
5.4. Applying Economic Instruments149
5.4.1. Pollution Charge150
5.4.2. Taxes, Fees and Fines150
5.4.3. The Price Mechanism for Water Resources151
5.4.4. Water Rights and Water Market151
5.4.5. Emission Permits Trading152
5.4.6. The Mechanism of Ecological Compensation152
5.5. Choosing between instruments153
5.6. Application in Developing Countries153
5.6.1. The analysis of Chinas Water Pollutions154
5.6.2. The Economic Methods Adopted by China to Treat the Water Pollutions154
5.6.3. Emission Permits Trading Practice in China156

XIII

5.7. Conclusions159
References161
About the Authors162

Chapter6FinancingandSustainingWastewaterManagement
6.1. Introduction167
6.2. The Challenges of Urban Sanitation167
6.2.1. Basic Sanitation Services for Urban Households and Its Effect168
6.2.2. Urban Waste Water Management and Pollution Control169
6.2.3. Connection between Sanitation Services and Environmental Issues170
6.3. The Financial Challenges171
6.3.1. User Charges171
6.3.2. Subsidies for Introducing Appropriate Technology172
6.4. Sustainable Waste Water Management173
6.4.1. Approaches to Sustainable Municipal Solid Waste Management174
6.4.2. Upstream Approach175
6.4.3. Downstream Approach176
6.5. Recommendations for Sustainability of WWM176
6.5.1. Technical Aspects176
6.5.2. Management Aspects177
6.5.3. Legislative Aspects177
6.5.4. Supportive Aspects178
References178
List of Acronyms and Abbreviations179
About the Author179

Chapter7InformationSystems
7.1. Introduction183
7.2. An Overall Strategy for Developing Water Quality Information Systemes183
7.3. Selection of Variables185
7.3.1. Physical Parameters185
7.3.2. Chemical Parameters185
7.3.3. Biological Parameters186
7.4. Implementing Water Quality Networks (Including Data Collection, Archiving, and Dissemination)186
7.4.1. Design of Monitoring Networks187
7.4.2. Data Collection, Archiving, and Dissemination188
7.5. Monitoring Technology189
References190
About the Author191

Chapter8FrameworkforWaterPollutionControl
8.1. Introduction195
8.2. Initial Analysis of Water Quality Problems, Setting up the Objectives197
8.3. Characterization of Existing Conditions in the Watershed197
8.4. Management Tools and Instruments198

XIV

8.4.1. Monitoring Systems199


8.4.2. Modeling200
8.4.3. Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS)201
8.5. Management Alternatives201
8.5.1. Legal and Regulatory Framework201
8.5.2. Economic Instruments202
8.5.3. Best Management Practices (BMPs)203
8.6. Choosing the Best Management Alternatives204
8.7. Action Plan for Water Pollution Control205
8.8. Implementing the Action Plan and Measuring the Progress207
8.9. Conclusions and Recommendations208
References208
About the Author210

Chapter9ToolsandTechniquesforWaterQualityInterpretation
9.1. Abstract213
9.2. Introduction213
9.3. Conventional and Modern Tools/Techniques for Water Quality Analysis214
9.3.1. Graphical Techniques214
9.3.2. Statistical Techniques219
9.3.2.1. Statistical Plots and Tests219
9.3.2.2. Time Series Analysis220
9.3.2.3. Multivariate Statistical Techniques221
9.3.3. Remote Sensing, GIS and Geostatistical Techniques224
9.3.3.1. Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques224
9.3.3.2. Geostatistical Techniques225
9.3.3.3. Water Quality Index Technique226
9.3.3.3.1. Generation of Normalized Difference Maps227
9.3.3.3.2. Generation of Rank Maps227
9.3.3.3.3. Preparation of Water Quality Index Map227
9.3.3.4. Seawater Mixing Index228
9.3.4. Modeling Techniques228
9.3.4.1. Geochemical Modeling228
9.3.4.2. Soft Computing Tools229
9.4. Application of Salient Techniques to Groundwater Quality Assessment230
9.4.1. Overview of Study Area230
9.4.2. Methodology230
9.4.3. Results and Discussion232
9.4.3.1. Geochemical Classification of Groundwater232
9.4.3.2. Spatio-Temporal Variations of Water Quality Parameters232
9.4.3.2.1. Results of Box and Whisker Plots232
9.4.3.2.2. Results of GIS Analysis234
9.4.3.3. Groundwater Quality Index Map for the Study Area238
9.4.3.4. Trends in Groundwater Quality Parameters239
9.4.3.5. Water Quality Parameters Governing Geochemical Processes241
9.4.4. Conclusions of the Case Study243
9.5. Concluding Remarks245
References245
About the Authors251

XV

Chapter10RevitalizationPlansandImplementation,CollingwoodHarbour,GeorgianBay,
Ontario
10.1. Introduction255
10.2. Successful Clean-up Strategy, Case Study: Collingwood Harbour256
10.3. Eutrophication, the Clean up Program257
10.4. Sediment Remediation258
10.5. Making it Happen: Lessons Learned259
10.5.1. Leadership259
10.5.2. Consensus on Goals260
10.5.3. Quantifiable Endpoints260
10.5.4. Ownership260
10.5.5. Respect261
10.6. Conclusions261
10.7. Acknowledgements262
References262
About the Author264

Chapter11CharacteristicsofPolyaluminumChloride(PAC)CoagulantPreparedbyBakingProcess
11.1.
11.2.
11.3.
11.4.

Abstract267
Introduction267
The Status of Water Quality Control268
Pollution Control Strategy269
11.4.1. Study on the Preparation Technics of PAC Prepared by Baking Process269
11.4.1.1. Materials269
11.4.1.2. Preparation269
11.4.1.3. Methods269
11.4.1.4. Conclusions271
11.4.2. Morphological Distribution of PACs Produced under Different Preparing Techniques272
11.4.2.1. Materials272
11.4.2.2. Preparation272
11.4.2.3. Methods273
11.4.2.4. Conclusions275
11.4.3. Coagulation Test of PACs Produced under Different Preparing Techniques275
11.4.3.1. Materials275
11.4.3.2. Preparation276
11.4.3.3. Methods276
11.4.3.4. Conclusions277
11.4.4. Coagulation Mechanism of PAC278
11.4.4.1. Materials278
11.4.4.2. Preparation278
11.4.4.3. Methods278
11.4.4.4. Conclusions287
References288
About the Authors289

Chapter12LowCostWastewaterTreatmentProcessNaturalBiologicalTreatmentSystems

XVI

12.1. Introduction293
12.2. Conventional Wastewater Treatment Processes293
12.2.1. Suspended Growth Bioreactors294
12.2.1.1. Activated Sludge294
12.2.1.2. Aerobic Digestion295
12.2.1.3. Anaerobic Contact295
12.2.1.4. Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor295
12.2.1.5. Anaerobic Digestion296
12.2.2. Attached Growth Bioreactor296
12.2.2.1. Fluidized Bed Bioreactors296
12.2.2.2. Rotating Biological Contactor296
12.2.2.3. Trickling Filter296
12.2.2.4. Packed Bed296
12.2.2.5. Anaerobic Filter296
12.3. Natural Biological Treatment Systems297
12.3.1. Land Treatment297
12.3.1.1. Technology Definition297
12.3.1.2. Types of Land Treatment Systems297
12.3.1.3. Land Treatment Mechanisms298
12.3.1.4. Development299
12.3.2. Wetland Treatment300
12.3.2.1. Technology Definition300
12.3.2.2. Types of Constructed Wetland Treatment Systems301
12.3.2.3. Constructed Wetland Treatment Mechanisms302
12.3.2.4. Development303
12.3.3. Waste Stabilization Ponds304
12.3.3.1. Technology Definition304
12.3.3.2. Types and Wise Use of Waste Stabilization Pond304
12.3.3.3. Mechanism306
12.3.3.4. Development306
12.4. Conclusions and Recommendations307
References308
About the Author309

Abbreviations311

XVII