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PAKAMUT- The Original Filipino Fighting System of Stick, Knife and Hand to Hand Fighting As Taught by Master Felix Roiles The Level 1 Basic Fighting Arts Manual By Master Felix Roiles & Guro Marc Lawrence
Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. The PAKAMUT Story 3. The Master Felix Roiles story 4. Basic Principles of Pakamut 5. The Stick & its Purpose 6. Basic Stance Concepts 7. Basic Footwork and The 10 stances 8. Single Stick Grips & Types of Strikes 9. Striking Patterns for Long Range 10. Striking Patterns for Medium Range 11. Blocks and Blocking the Ten Basic Blocks 12. Counter Strikes the Ten Counter Strikes 13. Hand Checking and Counter Checking 14. Disarming Your Opponent 15. Physical Conditioning Concepts and Practice 16. Knife Fighting Concepts and Practice 17. Empty Hands Concepts and Practice 18. Building Your Own Backyard/Garage Studio

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Introduction to PAKAMUT This native fighting art covers all of the ranges of fighting; these being- long (lagyo) range, medium (tungatunga) range and close (haduul) quarter combat as well as Layog o Bugno (wrestle or fight). This is done with a single or double stick (pangtusok), knife (Baraw), sword (Pimote) and other impact weapons (bunal) that were in existence long time before the arrival of the Spaniards. The PAKAMUT fighting system is based on practicality. It is simple as learning your ABC’s. It uses the triangle as a principle for its foot-works, striking patterns and defensive positions. The principles apply to long range, medium range and close range fighting. The triangle concept fighting system is used with stick, knife and empty hands techniques. These training principles uses exercises and drills to incorporate the lessons into practical moves.

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The PAKAMUT Story This was written from the conversations with Master Felix Roiles and Guro Marc Lawrence. This is the personal recollection of Master Felix Roiles in his words from the oral traditions passed along from his grandfather. Master Felix Roiles is the fourth son of his family and by tradition by raised by his grandfather to carry on the old ways. PAKAMUT is the father of the modern versions of the Filipino fighting systems. PAKAMUT is the Indigenous Filipino Art of fighting in the Mactan Island in the province of the Cebu,Philippines. Pangamot as it is called in the south portion of the island due to the accent of the Visayan people in the south. This fighting system was practiced and used by the native warriors against their enemies in the neighboring Island. It was tested against foreign invaders like those lead by the late Ferdinand Magellan. During this famous battle of Mactan that took place on April 27, 1521. The native warriors under Datu Lapu-Lapu defeated the invading forces under Ferdinand Magellan. It was repeatedly tested in battle against the invading forces of the Spanish. So crushing was the defeat that the Spanish forces did not return for over 50 years!

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Finally Datu Lapu-Lapu, his defenders and their families left the island of Mactan and went to island of Segbu (Cebu) and settled in the better mountainous area for defense. These people were originally fishermen became farmers in the mountains. The well known first Filipino Hero Datu Lapu-Lapu was believed to be an expert in PAKAMUT and had been taught by his father who is the part of the Sri Visayan Empire of ancient Malay in the 13th century. Datu LapuLapu’s father was taught this as part of his training to fight their enemies from the neighboring islands. Datu LapuLapu had trained his men to fight in battles against his enemies long before his battle with Ferdinand Magellan. It is said that Datu Lapu-Lapu’s father, Datu Mangal, was responsible for bringing the art of fighting with a stick to Mactan Island. Datu Lapu-Lapu’s primary reason for training his men to fight in battle was because of the rivalry with Rajah Humabon, the son of Bantug Lumay. Datu Lapu-Lapu accused Rajah Humabon of stealing a portion of his father’s land, mainly the sea area between the Mactan Island and Cebu.
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These techniques have been passed on to the descendants of Datu Lapu-Lapu and his followers. It was used during WW-II by Master Felix Roiles family members in the fight against the invading Imperial Japanese. Master Felix’s great uncle used it, armed only with a Bolo to defeat four armed (1 with Katana sword and the others with rifles) Imperial Japanese soldiers who were trying to capture two downed American Flyers. His great uncle not only killed the Imperial soldiers and got both American Flyers to safety. It still is sacred art today. It is practiced by people of this region in the remote mountains in the Island of Segbu (Cebu). About Master Felix Roiles

Master Felix Roiles is two-time world champion in full contact stick fighting Master Felix’s mission is to impart his knowledge to all races to understand and learn the Filipino Arts and culture,

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the value of the hidden treasures in the Philippine Island in the art of fighting. His method of teaching is very easy to learn like A, B, C, and D or as it said in Visayan- A-BA-KA-DA. Is it not necessary to do a lot of physical, cardio vascular exercise like in other martial art disciplines, his system is direct and to the point. Once the students learn the basic principles and techniques it develops into the higher degree and level of physical and mental alertness. Our practitioner learns how to react and protect themselves and their love-ones in any situation. Be a part and be proud of our hidden treasure of the Philippines Island........... ………….MABUHAY………….

Basic Principles of the PAKAMUT System PAKAMUT was designed to be simple to learn. The fighting system was originally used to train fellow villagers in a short period of time for combat against other island villages and foreign invaders. There was no time or reason to teach flashy techniques or train only those with special abilities. The people had to become proficient quickly or perish in battle. The fighting system is based upon natural body movements (body mechanics’) that have been proven effective and could be easily taught were the ones used. Datu Lapu-Lapu’s people depended on this fighting system’s effectiveness and simplicity for their survival. This is the philosophy of simplicity is still used today and is the underlying base of the PAKAMUT fight system.
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The Stick & its Purpose The stick is a training tool, as well as weapon at the same time. The stick is just a poor man’s training tool that trains the user for the motions of a blade and empty hands (hand to hand) fighting. The strikes and blocks motion of stick fighting translates to blade or to the knife or to empty hands.

The fighting system is based on the triangle principle. The ranges of striking are based on triangles. The far side being long range, next is medium range and then close range. The foot work, blocking, striking and empty hands are all based on triangle movements. The center of the body is also based on this for good fighting balance. To build a strong house you must have good foundation. Footwork is critical to all fighting systems; good foot work equals good body mechanics. Good body mechanics equals a good foundation. Basic Foundation Concepts The body position- the back leg is straight and the front leg is slightly bent at the knee. Your weight is even to both legs at all times. When striking your opponent, your body must rotate with your arms to make a powerful strike. You must rotate on the balls of your feet at the same time as the
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upper body. When your body rotates your front leg straightens and becomes the back. The back leg becomes the front and is now slightly bent. The upper body moves with the lower body and arms at the same time. Salutation Salutation is a sign of respect showing your sincerity and loyalty to the tribes (balangay) where you belong. Also it signify the respect to the teacher, older brothers and sisters, uncles, auntie and people older than you and of course yourself. In doing so you commit you self to abide the code of ethics and conduct. Salutations Salutation or to salute and show respect is called yukbo. This is done at start of each practice and at the end of each practice. There are two types of salutation: Formal & Natural Bowing. Formal Salutation Formal bowing salutation is the higher way of respect by kneeling in front of a person. Shown are the steps for Formal Bowing.

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Step# 1

Step #2

Step # 3

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Step # 4

Step# 5 Natural Bowing Natural bowing salutation can be rendered as respect to brothers and sisters or fellow men.

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Natural bowing is done as follows: Bringing your left foot to the right. Your stick is in your right hand, bring it up to your heart level. Bow while keeping your eyes level.

Basic Footwork Forward Stance Forward stance is the ready position is the right foot forward, left foot back but foot is facing forward. Weight is even to both legs. This allows for quick side to side motion unlike the traditional “L” stance that is strong but does not allow for side to side motions.

Forward Stance

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Back Stance Back stance is a ready position facing forward which the front leg weight about 30% and the back leg about 70%. This allows the practitioner to move quickly and deliver either a kick or defense.

Back Stance Cat Stance Cat stance is a stance ready position both legs close each other, the front will toe only touch the ground good for evading the attack but can also be a good offensive stance.

Cat Stance
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Hawk Stance A ready position which the strong leg behind the weak leg and both legs bended. This kind of stance is also a good offensive and defensive move.

Hawk Stance Diagonal Stance Then Diagonal Stance is done like the readyposition except you’re at an angle of about 70 degrees to your opponent. The weight is even to both legs. The Deep Diagonal stance is done like the ready-position except you are at an angle of about 70 degrees to your opponent. Stick Grips There are four traditional grips found in stick fighting. In PAKAMUT the stick is held in the right hand at spacing of four fingers up from the bottom of the stick. It can also be held in the left hand the same. This grip allows you to butt strike and disarm along with a hard strike. Grip #1 is an overlapping thumb grip. This the first grip of choice in PAKAMUT Grip # 2 is a under thumb grip.
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Grip # 3 is a side thumb grip. Grip # 4 is a reverse overlapping thumb grip. Stick Grips

The proper gripping point is measured at 4 fingers up from the bottom. Use your left hand to measure up four fingers, and then put your right hand on the stick. Use an overlapping grip as shown.

Overlapping Grip

Side Thumb Grip

Under Thumb Grip

Reverse Overlapping Grip
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Types of Strikes The striking is done by one of three areas of the stick depending upon the type of strike. Strikes are blade type. The tip strike (the last 3 inches) is used to deliver the most energy. The blade portion (middle section) is used for (media) medium strike or a parrying block. The butt (under your grip) is used for butt strikes and disarms. The tip is most effective. Basic Strikes are liner in pattern. Intermediate are linier, then curving/redirecting. Advanced strikes are curving thenshort redirecting circular strikes. Your sparring pattern is the same as your fighting/training pattern for medium and long range fighting.

Striking Patterns for Long Range Single Stick Fighting The long range basic striking pattern is based on a 6 strike system. The six strikes is easy pattern to remember. The saying is that you must de-fang the snake first! This covers the first two strikes. If it can not move it can not strike. This covers the second two. If it can not breathe it cannot fight! This explains the last two.

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Strike #1 is downward across the weapon hand. This can be done to either the right or left hand.

Strike #2 is upward across the weapon hand. This can be done to either the right or left hand. This can be done to either the right or left hand.

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Strike #3 is upward across the body from the right hip to the left shoulder-collar bone. This can be done to either the right or left hand.

Strike #4 is downward across the body from left shoulder collar bone to the right hip. This can be done to either the right or left hand.
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Strike #5 is across the bottom of the ribs from right to left. This can be done to either the right or left hand.

Strike #6 is across the bottom of the ribs from left to right. This can be done to either the right or left hand.

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Striking Patterns for Medium Range Single Stick Single Stick Fighting The medium range basic sticking pattern is based on a 10 strike system. Ten strikes are easy to remember as you have ten fingers!

Strike #1 is downward/across to the right shoulder/ collar bone.

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Strike #2 is downward/across to the left shoulder/collar bone.

Strike #3 is across the body to right hip.

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Strike #4 is across the body to left hip.

Strike #5 is downward/across to the right knee.

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Strike #6 is downward/across to the left knee.

Strike #7 is upward/across to the right elbow.

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Strike #8 is upward/across to left elbow.

Strike #9 is downward to the right side of the face

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Strike #10 is downward to the left side of the face.

Blocks and Blocking Overview The ability to block is as important as the ability to hit! Anybody can hit but not everybody can block because they are not trained to. Learn to block quickly and counter strike. First learn to get in the ready position quickly. The stick is in the right (strong or dominate) hand at angle to makes up one side of the triangle. Left (weak) hand (checking hand) is ready to check at an angle to makes the other side of the triangle. Your palm edge should be against the stick so you do not get struck by the recoil of your opponent’s strike. Your hip is squared up makes the third. Your stick should never be further than the width of your hand spread wide, away
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from your body. This allows you to have efficiency in motion a critical concept in the PAKAMUT. Blocks Always start in the ready position. Your stick is in your strong hand, grip is four fingers width up from the bottom. Your left palm edge should be against the stick so you do not get struck by the recoil of your opponent’s strike. Your stick should be about the width of your hand spread wide from your body for quick blocking.

Block #1 is to your right side to block for strike #1 to the shoulder.

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Block # 2 is to the left side to block for Strike #2 to the shoulder.

Block #3 is to right side to block for Strike #3 to the bottom of the ribs/hip area.
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Block #4 is to the left side to block for Strike #4 to the bottom of the rib/hip area.

Block #5 is to the right knee to block for Strike #5.

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Block #6 is to the left knee to block for Strike #6.

Block # 7 is to the left elbow to block for Strike #7.

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Block # 8 is to the right elbow to block for Strike #8.

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Block # 9 is a block above the right side of your head to block for strike #9.

Block # 10 is block above the left side of your head to block for strike #10. Additional blocks that are useful for certain attacks; straight low block for low kicks to hip or groin, reinforced wrist roof block- for blocking hits to head and allowing a rapid counter strike.

Counter Strikes Counter strikes are done two ways. First is by blocking then counter striking. The second is a parrying block with redirection. Pakamut counter strike principle is simple. It is this, just do the reverse of the strike that your opponent is doing. Remember that counter striking in Pakamut is a pattern

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system not always rigid fixed body point system. Remember to attack the weapon hand! 1. Counter strike #1 for strike #1 is strike #2 2. Counter strike #2 for strike #2 is strike #1 3. Counter strike #3 for strike #3 is strike #4 4. Counter strike #4 for strike #4 is strike #3 5. Counter strike # 5 for strike # 5 is a modified downward strike #6 at the inside of the elbow. 6. Counter strike #6 for strike #6 is a modified downward strike #5 at the inside of the elbow. 7. Counter strike # 7 for strike # 7 is strike #8 8. Counter strike #8 for strike #8 is strike #7 9. Counter strike #9 for strike # 9 is strike #10 10. Counter strike #10 for strike 10 is strike #9

Hand Checking & Check-Counter Checking Hand checking is an important part of blocking. While blocking, you check your opponent’s weapon hand with just enough pressure to stop motion. Check the weapon and the hand at the same time. Two fingers to the weapon and two to the hand. If you can not check the hand like catching an egg. Then you counter strike. For all blocks on the left side of the body it is for forehand strike. For all blocks on the right side, it for a backhand strike. Passing needs to be done sometimes to clear the weapon to counter strike. This is done by checking the weapon hand, then giving it a quick downward push/slap, then counter striking at the same time checking the weapon hand again.

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This is done by checking the weapon hand, then giving it a quick downward push/slap, then counter striking at the same time checking the weapon hand again.

Disarming Your Opponent Snaking Disarm Snaking disarms are done on either side of the body. The method for disarm is different for weapon hand side (right) compared to the checking hand side (left). With all disarms to be effective, first you must block the incoming hit (use blocks # 1-10 first accordingly). Weapon hand side-The disarm method must be done in two moves to be effective. Step 1 Block the hit with your
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weapon. Step 2 Check the weapon hand. Step 3 Snake quickly your weapon hand until you are wrist to wrist with your stick up; apply pressure to push your opponent’s wrist outward. Step 4 Rotate your body away in circular motion at the same time strike your opponents weapon forearm with a hammer fist or elbow. Disarms #1, 3, 5, 7, &9 are done with corresponding blocks.

Weapon hand side Checking hand side- The disarm method must be done in two moves to be effective. Step1 Block the hit with your weapon. Step 2 Check the weapon hand. Step 3 Snake quickly your checking hand until you are wrist to wrist with your fist is thumbs up; apply pressure to push your opponent’s wrist outward. Step 4 Rotate your body away in circular motion at the same time strike your opponents weapon forearm with the butt of your stick or elbow. Disarms #2, 4, 6, 8 &10 are done with corresponding blocks

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Checking hand side Special Notes: Strikes 5&6 are below the waist, for the disarm method to work; the weapon hand must be brought up at least your mid -chest to work correctly.

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Strikes 9 &10 are at the top of the head, the opponent’s weapon hand must be brought down at least mid-chest area to work correctly.

Physical Conditioning Concepts Stretching Exercises Stretching is probably the most important thing for keeping your body safe from injury during exercise. Stretching is done in the following order; head/neck, arms, shoulders, hips, knees, feet and then legs. 1. Head/neck rotation done slowly 10 times to the right and 10 times to the left. 2. Arm rotation with small circles, medium circles then big circles 10 times forward and then backward 10 times. Arms out and palms up. 3. Arm/shoulder stretch with right upper arm in to the body and hold for 10 seconds then the right upper arm backward and hold for 10 seconds.
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4. Arm/shoulder stretch with left upper arm in to the body and hold for 10 seconds then the left upper arm backward and hold for 10 seconds. 5. Forearm Rotation - Forearm rotation right side with medium circles 10 times forward and then 10 times backward. 6. Forearm Rotation - Forearm rotation left side with medium circles 10 times forward and then 10 times backward. 7. Wrist Rotation - Wrist rotation right side with medium circles 10 times forward and then 10 times backward. 8. Wrist Rotation - Wrist rotation right then left side with medium circles 10 times forward and then 10 times backward. 9. Forearm Stretch Palm Down- Forearm stretch left & right side- palm down arm straight and hold for 10 seconds. 10. Forearm Stretch Palm up-Forearm stretch left & right side- palm up arm straight and hold for 10 seconds. 11. Top Forearm Stretch-Top forearm stretch left & right side palm sideway arm straight and hold for 10 seconds. 12. Finger spread- fingers spread wide, arms straight out, palms down hold for 10 seconds and then rest 5 seconds. Repeat 3 more times. 13. Shoulder pulls- both arms behind your back at your belt line, grab your wrist and pull down with your head straight. Do this for both your left & right side. 14. Hip Rotations- Hip rotations are done with your hands on your hips feet together. Rotate clockwise 10 times then 10 times counter clockwise. 15. Knee Rotations- Knee rotations are done with your knees bent and your hands on your knees. Rotate clockwise 10 times then 10 times counter clockwise.
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16. Ankle Rotations- hole diggers- Weight on the left leg. With the right leg belt slightly and with the right foot tip rotate around 10 times forward and 10 tips backward. Weight on the right leg. With the left leg belt slightly and with the left foot tip rotate around 10 times forward and 10 tips backward. 17. Toe touching & back stretch- Feet shoulder width apart touch your toes and hold for 10 seconds, Next come up and lean back as far with your hands on your hips and hold for 10 seconds. Then come back up to the start position. Repeat this 3 times. 18. Side stretches- Feet are shoulder width apart, put you left arm behind your back, lean sideways to the left with your right arm over your head. Hold for 10 seconds. Now come up and put right arm behind your back lean sideways to the right with your left arm over your head. Hold for 10 seconds. Repeat this 3 times. 19. Lunge stretch- Bend your right knee and extend your left leg behind you with your left leg as straight as possible, now get as low as possible with your arms and hand out to your sides. Hold for 10 seconds. Now come up slightly and switch to your left knee bent and extend your right leg behind you with your right leg as straight as possible, now get as low as possible with your arms and hand out to the sides. Hold for 10 seconds. Repeat this 3 times. Jumping Jacks with Your Stick Regular jumping jacks are modified to use your stick to help build your stamina. Start with your feet together and both your hands on your stick at your waist. Bring both feet out to at least two shoulder widths out and the stick raised above your head. Bring your feet together and both your hands on your stick back to your waist. This counts as 1-

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jumping jack, repeat this 25 times. When this gets easy use two sticks together for weight. Running and Foot Work Drills Running and jogging with a stick is done to build stamina for sparring. Start with your stick in your strong or dominate hand with a standard grip while jogging practice your strikes, blocks and parries this will teach you to move and swing a stick at the same time effectively. Practice with your strong and weak left while you jog or run. Foot-work Drills: the Rabbit-Hop single strike drill is done to build speed and stamina for medium and close range fighting. Start with the ready position, right foot forward and stick in right hand. Be on the balls of your feet with quick low hop, hop in on both feet in and strike at your target and return to the ready position and then hop out. Practice this 10 times then switch to your left. The Rabbit Hop double strike drill is done to build speed and stamina for medium and close range fighting with multiple hits. Start with the ready position, right foot forward and stick in right hand. Be on the balls of your feet with quick low hop, hop in on both feet in and strike at your target and return to the ready position and then hop out. Keep your strikes narrow not wide so that you can quickly return to the ready position. Practice this 10 times then switch to your left and right. Knife Fighting Knife Grips There are three basic grips used in knife fighting; these are called sometime by weapon names. These are ice-pick, fencing-foil grip and bolo grip. There proper names are as follows: Reverse grip (ice pick), Side Thumb (foil grip) and overlapping thumb grip (bolo grip). The under thumb grip is
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used in the islands with special shaped knife that is known as a Toloy Kilid blade or Spear-sided blade.

Reverse grip (ice pick)

Overlapping thumb grip (bolo grip)

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Side Thumb (foil grip) Knife Fighting Patterns Knife fighting patterns or strikes should be done in the same striking pattern like stick fighting. Your range for knife is must closer than stick. You must fight medium to close range with a knife. The hand is great first target so a shorten range version of the long distance is now your medium range pattern. Your medium range is now your close range striking fighting pattern. Remember that this is for a slashing pattern.

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Ready Position Medium Range Strike #1 is downward across the weapon hand. This can be done to either the right or left hand. Strike #2 is upward across the weapon hand. This can be done to either the right or left hand. Strike #3 is upward across the body from the right hip to the left shoulder-collar bone to the weapon hand. Strike #4 is downward across the body from left shoulder collar bone to the right hip to the weapon hand. Strike #5 is across the bottom of the ribs from right to left to the weapon hand. Strike #6 is across the bottom of the ribs from left to the right to the weapon hand. Close Range

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Strike #1 is downward/across to the right shoulder/ collar bone.

Strike #2 is downward/across to the left shoulder/collar bone.

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Strike #3 is across the body to right hip.

Strike #4 is across the body to left hip.

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Strike #5 is downward/across to the right knee.

Strike #6 is downward/across to the left knee.

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Strike #7 is upward/across to the right elbow.

Strike #8 is upward/across to left elbow.

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Strike #9 is downward to the right side of the face

Strike #10 is downward to the left side of the face. Blocking with Knife Blocking with knife is done similar with a stick but you must get the body out of the way of the blade. Avoidance by
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moving your body out of line is critical to keep from being stabbed by thrust from a straight on thrust attack. Block the knife by blocking your opponent’s weapon hand and forearm with your knife. Then you counter-slash your attacher’s body.

Empty Hands- Layog o Bugno (Fight or Wrestle) Striking with Empty Hands Basic empty hands is just close range fighting. Your kicks are medium to close range fighting. Basic empty hands strikes are done with the use of a hammer fist. The hand is a closed fist and the striking portion is bottom of the fist or the knuckles in cutting fashion. Your fist is the end of the club or stick and your forearm is the stick. Your other hand can do the same for fast 1,2,3 striking pattern.

Strike #1 is downward/across to the right shoulder/ collar bone or face.
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Strike #2 is downward/across to the left shoulder/collar bone.

Strike #3 is across the body to the belly or floating ribs.

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Strike #4 is across the body to the belly or floating ribs.

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Strike #5 is a kick or strike to the right leg

Strike #6 is a kick or strike to the left leg.

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Strike #7 is an inside kick to the right knee.

Strike #7 is an outside kick to the right knee

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Strike #8 is a kick to the groin or left thigh/knee.

Strike #9 is downward to the right side of the face

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Strike #10 is downward to the left side of the face

Kicks Pakamut kicks are not fancy or high kicks. They are kicks that are never above the waist! First is a simple kick, it is a front kick done with the toe of your shoe. If you are wearing no shoes or sandals, so use the ball of your foot. Lift your toes or you will break them. Remember to imagine that you are kicking through your target when your kick. Put all of your weight into it as you kick. Front kick targets are the following: Shin- This stops them in their tracks Knee- This jams the knee and they can not walk Thighs- This paralyses the thigh muscle so they can not kick. Groin- This paralyses with the most pain. Hip- this catch them coming in stops them Low round kicks are done with your body rotating with your leg to make a powerful strike. The shin bone becomes
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the stick striking the side of the knee or even just back/side of the knee. Low round kick targets are as follows: Knee- This causes the leg to buckle. Thigh- This paralyses the thigh muscle so they can not kick. These are striking points 5 &6 and 7&8 modified. Remember that Pakamut teaches striking and blocking patterns not fixed target points.

Hooks with Hands and Feet Simple hooks with your arm and hand or your foot can have dramatic effect when done correctly. Simple hooks can be done with timing to the neck or the feet. The hooking action should lead your opponent to collide with a solid object like your knee, elbow or fist. So set them up with quick 1-2. Neck Hook Remember that the head will follow the body so use a quick J wrap of the neck as you get out of the way. Pull their body toward the ground. Stand on one leg. Use your opposite knee and jam them into it as you pull them down into it.

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Reverse Neck Hook

Feet Hooking Pull their body off balance by grabbing your opponent’s foot with yours. This can be done any time your opponent’s foot is opposite of yours. While distracting your opponent with an attack to the body advance toward them and quickly hook with your right their left foot right behind the ankle and pull quickly toward them you. The hooking action should lead your opponent to collide with a solid object like your other knee, elbow or fist.

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Feet Hooking

Empty Hand Blocks Blocking is a critical skill that needs to be practiced with body movement done in conjunction with it. Just like blocking with a stick the distance your arm is the same distance. Your arm is no more than width of your hand spread with your forearm. Your hands and arms need to make a triangle at about chest height. Right foot forward, left back in the ready position, with your weight spread evenly. Blocking for empty hands is done similar with a stick but you must get the body out of the way of the jab punch or kick. Avoidance by moving your body out of line is critical to keep from being jabbed by punch or being hit by a front kick.

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Block #1 is to your right side for strike #1 to the right shoulder. Block # 2 is to your left side for strike #2 to the left shoulder.

Block #3 is to your right side for Strike #3 to the bottom of the ribs/hip area. Bring you elbow down.

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Block #4 is to your left side for strike #4 to the bottom of the rib/hip area. Bring you elbow down.

Block #5 is downward to block a front kick the right thigh to block for Strike #5. Remember to quickly J hook your opponent’s leg and pull upward!

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Block #6 is downward to block a front kick the right thigh to block for Strike #6. Remember to quickly J hook your opponent’s leg and pull upward! Block # 7 is downward to block a strike or front kick to the right knee to block for Strike #7. Remember to quickly J hook your opponent’s leg and pull upward!

Block # 8 is downward to block a front strike/ kick the left knee to block for Strike #8. Remember to quickly J hook your opponent’s leg and pull upward!

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Block # 9 is a block above the right side of your head to block for strike #9. Block # 10 is block above the left side of your head to block for strike #10. Building Your Own FMA Back Yard/Garage Studio With a bit of island ingenuity, a practitioner of Filipino Martial Arts can construct their own studio with quality training aids and weapons. A basic studio can be set up in garage, backyard or other location. I have one constructed in my backyard, another at work in a storage area. The focus of this article is for Filipino martial arts practitioner to be able set up anywhere and be able to practice their art with locally available tools and equipment. The first area should be striking aids; these are critical to a practitioner building proper skills. The first striking aid I would recommend building is the Island style tire bag for stick practice. The second striking aid I would recommend would be a freestanding punch bag.
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The second area should be striking and cutting weapons. These have two categories: sticks (Pakal and Olisi) (practice sticks, padded sparring sticks and fighting sticks and staffs are one and the other is knifes (Baraw) and swords Bolo, Kris, and Lahaut). Tire Bag for Stick Fighting Practice All of practitioners need a way to practice strikes for stick fighting. Regular kicking and punching bags do not work are expensive. My wife’s cousin's friend came up with a design for a simple one. If you can work with tools and do basic carpentry you can build your own. You will need six car tires-same size, (I used 15 inch) and six 2X2 or six 2x4 and some bolts and screws and set of 4 casters. This Tire Bag is available from KRIM, in Cebu City. Build your base first 24 X 24 inches as an X shape brace; notch them so they lock. Run a wood screw to lock them together. Flip this over drill four holes for the four caster wheels then flip it back. Now from the center of the X brace measure 7.5 inches and then bolt on your first upright. Then do the same on the opposite side, and then do the other two. It should look like and X with four fingers sticking out. I recommend through bolting but if you have to use drywall screws it will work. Construct another X brace no wider then the tires are. Now install it at knee level. Make a third X brace at 15 inches and install it about 12 inches from the top. If you want a finish put on your stain and varnish and let dry overnight. Mount your first tire on the bottom and stack the next five up. You will have about five foot 8 inches tall. Two or three students can practice stick at the same time. It will hold up to (Espada Y Daga),
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Sword and Dagger, and staff also. Only one student at a time, for edged weapons when training on it. If you are going to keep it outside drill the tire sidewalls to drain the water out.

Base view

Frame view Internal brace view

Free Standing Punching Bag Empty hands training requires a punching bag for practice unless you have a banana tree like my wife’s uncle Ray. I am not that lucky; he had one and had the kids practice punching the banana bunches till their hands were sore. He said that the green banana juice helped your sores hands feel better. I looked around at what I had to work with and with a little island ingenuity I came up with this freestanding bag system. I started with a cut-down 55-gallon plastic drum for my base. I had sacks left over concrete mix and 5-foot section of 4-inch schedule 80 PVC from my neighbor the contractor. I talked with
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relatives and came up with old foam pads. You can use old egg crate hospital matrices, old commercial shipping pads, or carpet padding. You would need a lot of carpet padding. All I needed was to assemble my project. To make the post stand up I had to make a large clamp out of scrap wood and some old bolts to stand up and center the center post up while pouring the concrete. I saw cut gaps into the wood so that the clamps did not move while pouring it. I used a torpedo level to check the center post on all four sides. I mixed the concrete in my old wheel barrel with a shovel and poured it in the half barrel. I used an old 2x4 to tamp the wet concrete down until I had all four sacks in. That was 240 pounds on concrete in the base. Yes, those who can really punch and kick will rock a little bit. I finished the surface with a bricklayer’s trowel that I got at a yard sale. I let the concrete dry with my homemade clamps in place for one week. I removed the clamps. I went to a fabric store and bought a can of foam glue. The stuff is like spaying spider webs but works great. Follow the directions on the can! Spray in on the pole first and then foam as you wrap it. This is two-person job. My older son helped me do this. Once it was completely wrapped, I had my son use some duct tape to help hold the foam in place with while the glue cured. Again this part is a two-person job, because you need four hands to do this! Two hold the foam while the other wraps it. If you do not have access to foam glue, make two small holes ¼-inch or smaller at the bottom of where to foam ends on either side. This is for nylon cord. You will need a coat hanger or wire to fish the cord back to the top. You can tie it off to hold the foam. While the glue is curing make a cover out of fabric like canvas or other heavy material. Mine came out to 18 inch wide by 36 inches long on the punching bag portion. If you cannot sew find some one who can, the duct tape does last
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long out in the sun. I cut the base flush to the concrete with saw and rough sanded the edge of the drum base at the instance of my wife. OK so it did look better when finished. But do not tell my wife she was right. I would never hear the end it.

How to Make Fighting Sticks for Practice To make a good Olisi, baston or stick, first step is the selection of material. The piece must be straight with no flaws or cracks. The preferred material is Rattan. Rattan is a palm wood. The spacing of the growth joints is very important. The closer the joints, the stronger the stick will be. Water Bamboo is grass so its strength is in the outside of the wood. If you use Water Bamboo make sure that it is from the base of the plant. The smaller the water hole in the center the stronger the stick. Look for close joints it will make a stronger stick. Hardwoods such like Hickory, Mango, Oak, etc. can make good sticks. These woods but may have flaws in the grain. Flaws can lead to failure of the stick. Do not use soft woods like Pine, Fire, Hemlock, etc. These will splinter easily when bagging or during contact drills. Stick diameters should be the correct size. Too big or too small will cause many problems in your arm! Your proper grip size is measured from the middle of your palm to the tip of your third finger. Use a paper tape measure to make the measurement.
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Stick lengths are measured from the armpit to the tip of the finger. This allows you to twirl your stick without striking the ground or yourself. The Standard length for many schools is 29 inches to 31 inches. Cut you stick to length with handsaw. Sand the ends round. With Rattan and Bamboo wood sand with the grain. Burn the ends and rub smooth. With Bamboo and Rattan be very careful to remove any branch nubs by sanding so they will not cut your hand. With joints lightly sand to smooth area. Vanish or paint to finish. I prefer to varnish as a finish this allows visual inspections. Some final thoughts; always test yours sticks on bag prior to using for training. If there is a flaw you missed it will break there away from other people. Use this information about making sticks to make some pocket sticks and sticks for the kids to practice with. Fire Hardening Fire Hardening is a method of removing moisture from wood by slowly and lightly charring it over a fire. It is the earliest methods of increasing the durability or longevity of wood is fire. Fire "hardening" is not used so much as to actually "harden the wood" as to "cauterize" the surface fibers and the resins in the wood. My Grandfather use to do it to tool handles. I still do this to my sticks to stop flowering of the ends. To make a point, like a spear, arrow, or sword, shape the wood with rasp and then use a fine pumice stone to finish it smooth. Always go with the grain of the wood. Then wet surface to raise the broken wood fibers know as whiskers by wood workers singe them off. Dry the shaped portion over the fire slowly until lightly charred to harden. This can be done with propane torch or even over BBQ if that what you have. The drier the wood or course the harder
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the point or edge. To make a strong wood blade use a hard wood as possible. Rattan is a palm not a grass like bamboo. This is type of material is strong on the outside and soft on the inside. It is pithy and required a lot of drying. It can be made very strong. How to Make Your Own Padded Sticks for Sparring Practice Well by this point you have been practicing your stick fighting and would like to spar but do not want to get injured or at least bruised up. You need to have some padded sticks for practice sparring. For kids I start with a very simple padded stick using the Pool Noodles made of heavy foam. Cut the Noodle in half and will be 24 inches. These can be used for sparring sessions they make a loud noise and make light contact. Wear safety glasses with retention straps for eye protection. These would injury your eyes if hit. So wear safety glasses. The second version is for adults and big kids. Take the Noodle and insert a piece of 3/4 inch PVC cut to length. Use duct tape to cover the ends. Using these for sparring does require eye protection and light hand protection. We would recommend a Fencing Mask and leatherwork gloves. You will feel it went hit. The third version can be made three different ways. Make one with ¾ inch PVC slipped inside standard
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gray foam pipe insulation. You make another with a dried hollow cane that grows along the river here. Cover the ends with duct tape. This type of cane fractures very quickly but you can get it free. The last of third version is made with a worn tire bagging fighting stick. Tape up with clear packing tape the flowering ends and slide it into the gray foam pipe insulation. You can cover the length with long strips of duct tape. Then seal and wrap the ends with duct tape. If you want it to last have someone who can sew to make a sleeve to go over it and put Velcro flap at the end to seal. These feel just like commercial padded sticks with the exception of the hollow cane due to the lightness. These sticks when used will require head/eye protection and hand protection. A fourth version can be made from the thin walled black plastic rods that are used now with the Halloween props. Taking the thin walled ½ inch diameter rods cut to length and then slide a section of black AC piping insulation over it. This type of insulation is more expensive. Make a fabric sleeve so it will last. These sticks when used will require head/eye protection and hand protection. These feel just like commercial padded sticks. Training Swords and Knifes for the FMA Practitioner Swords and knifes are an important part of Filipino Fighting Arts training. The cost on these can be very expensive and not all are that well made. To make good wooden sword or knife it must meet three things and these being the right size, the right wood and the right balance. The blade size must be able be wheeled by the user, most kid size blades should be about 12 inch long overall.
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The wood should be a good hard wood like mahogany, maple or other similar wood.. The grain must be strain with no knots or swirls in the grain when laid out to the sword pattern. The wooden sword or knife must be laid out evenly on the wood when shaped or the blade will wobble when swung or twirled. A well-made blade out of wood is a piece art when done correctly. To make sword the basic cutlass style blade is good starter blade to make. Other blades can be made once you have honed your wood working skills. A Kris, Lahaut or Bolo blade is more difficult to shape and finish. A basic cutlass is good sword for kids because it has hand guards to protect their knuckles. The first step is to lay out the shape of the blade on piece of cardboard or heavy card stock. Next lay out the tang of the blade from the centerline of the blade. It should be about ¾ to 1 inch wide and about 4-5 inches long. Make sure it is even or the blade will be off weight. Cut the pattern out and lay it on the piece of wood you selected for the project. For short cutlass the piece should be about 15 inches long, 3 inches wide and ½ inch thick. Trace the pattern with a pencil to the wood. Take the piece of wood and clamp it flat. Now using a coping saw carefully cut out your shape. Next take a 4 in 1 wood rasp and smooth the edges so it is flat and even. Use a strait edge to check it. Next put a bevel on one side of the cutting edge side of the blade. Next put a bevel on the other side of the cutting edge side of the blade. Now clean up the area cut out for the handle. Start with #80 grit sand paper and sand with the grain the length of the blade until all of the rough spots are gone. Next use #120 grit sand paper
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and sand with the grain the length of the blade until smooth. Next use #140 grit sand paper and sand with the grain the length of the blade until smooth again. If you are going to use this for every day practice this finish level is fine. If you want to show it off finish it with stain and varnish or just varnish Get a foam brush and give a coat of varnish. Let it dry for at least 1 day. Take some fine steel wool and slightly rough up the finish. Get another foam brush and give a coat of varnish again. To make the grip get a piece of hard wood dowel about 5 inches long and ¾ of an inch wide and cut it in half-length ways. These will make the side plates of your handle (grip) of your sword. These will be put on after you put on a hand guard. To make a hand guard get another piece of cardboard and lay out the shape of the hand guard you want, include the hole on one end to slide the bottom of the blade into. Lay the pattern on a piece of leather. An old wide leather belt is good source. Trace with a marker. Cut it out with heavy scissors & sharp knife. Cut it on an old pine board or thick cut board when using the knife. Cut slowly so you do not mess up. Take this part (leather hand guard) and slide it up the tang of the blade to bottom of the blade. Now attach the two side plates of the grip. If you glue them in place or cross dowel them or do both is your choice. If you are in a hurry you can use brad nailer instead. Attach the base of hand guard to the butt of the sword. This can be drill and screwed with two screws and washers. Again if you are in a hurry a brad nailer will do the job quick.

This same process can be used to lay out any blade shape you wish to make. To make small simple knife for practice you will need 1 ½ round hardwood dowel. A simple but nice blade can be made this way. Cut a section at 9 inches. Find
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the center of the overall length and mark it at 4 ½ inches. Next make from the tip down 4 inches. This will be your blade section. Go the end and divide it in half now your have a top centerline. Go ¼ inch from top center line both sides and mark it. Now cut lengthways twice down to the center mark at 4 inches. This will give you a ½ inch thick blade. Now cut along the center mark to your lengthways saw cuts. It will now look like a blade. Round the blade tip so it looks like knife. Put a slight bevel on the butt of the blade. Carefully put a small bevel on the top of the grip either side of the blade. To make the grip better do the following: mark three bands around the diameter at the 1, 2, and 3 inch points. Take a small round file and make grooves all the way around on these lines half the depth of the small round file. Sand and finish the knife as you see fit.

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Level 1 Training Outline 1. Understand Basic Principles of Pakamut 2. Understand the Stick & its Purpose 3. Understand and explain basic Stance Concepts 4. Demonstrate Basic Footwork and The 10 stances 5. Demonstrate Single Stick Grips & Types of Strikes 6. Demonstrate Striking Patterns for Long Range 7. Demonstrate Striking Patterns for Medium Range 8. Demonstrate Blocking with the Ten Basic Blocks 9. Demonstrate the Counter Strikes the Ten Counter Strikes 10. Demonstrate the Hand Checking and Counter Checking 11. Demonstrate the Disarming Your Opponent-Snaking 12. Demonstrate Physical Conditioning Concepts and Practices 13. Demonstrate the Knife Fighting Concepts and Practices 14. Demonstrate Empty Hands Concepts and Practices

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From more information go to:www.pakamut-fmatorrance.com

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