You are on page 1of 10


5. Coordination the ability to use the body parts and senses

together to produce smooth efficient movement
6. Power the product of strength and speed

LESSON 1: Physical Fitness Test

Physical Fitness Testing is an important component of physical

Part I Assessment of Health-Related Components of

Physical Fitness
A. Measurement of Body Composition
Body Mass Index (BMI) refers to the measurement of ones
weight relative to his or her height. It is an indicator of total
body fat which is related to the risk of disease and death.
Body Mass (in
Body Mass
Height (in meter
Index(BMI) =
30 kg
30 kg
= 1.44 m = 20.83 (Normal)
Less than 15
15.0 18.5
18.5 24.9
25.0 29.9
30.0 40.0
Greater than 40
Morbidly Obese
1. Body Mass it is the amount of matter in a body.
2. Stature (height) the measurement from the base of the foot
to the top of the head of a person.
B. Muscular Strength and Endurance Test
1. Partial Curl-ups measures the strength and endurance of the
abdominal muscles.
2. Trunk Lift test the strength and flexibility of the back
extensor muscles.
3. 90 Push-ups measures the strength and endurance of the
arms and chest muscles.
C. Flexibility Tests
This is the ability of the muscles to move at a normal range.
1. Sit-and-Reach measure the flexibility of the hamstring
muscles (back of the thigh) and to some degree, the lower
2. Shoulder Stretch measures the flexibility of the shoulder
D. Physiological Fitness Test
1. 1-kilometer Run/Walk measures the ability of your heart,
lungs, circulatory system, and the muscles to transport and
utilize oxygen during physical activity.

The ultimate goal of physical education is to develop you physically,

mentally, socially, psychologically, and spiritually to help you live a
healthy, useful, happy, and productive life.
Dr. Aparicio H. Mequi consultant for physical fitness, said that
Physical Fitness Testing is not an end in itself. It is part of the process
to create educated Filipino citizenry that is acutely aware of the
importance of holistic wellness fitness of body, mind and spirit.
Physical Fitness is the ability to function efficiently and effectively,
to enjoy leisure, to be healthy, to resist disease, and to cope with
emergency situations.
A physically fit individual possesses cardiovascular endurance which
pertains to the heart and vascular systems capacity to transport
Physical Fitness Component
Health Related
1. Body Composition relative percentage of body fat
compared with lean body mass
2. Muscular Strength the amount of force that can be
produced by a single contraction of a muscle
3. Muscular endurance the ability of a muscle group to
continue muscle contraction over a length of time
4. Flexibility the ability to use ones joints fully in a normal
range of motion
5. Cardiovascular Endurance the ability of the circulatory
system to supply oxygen to working muscles during

Skill Related
1. Speed the ability to perform a movement or cover a
certain distance in a short period of time
2. Reaction Time the amount of time it takes to move once
you realize the need to act
3. Agility the ability to change the position of ones body
quickly and to control ones body movements
4. Balance the ability to maintain equilibrium while
stationary or moving

Part II Sports Talent Component

A. Anthropometric Measurement
1. Sitting Height it is the vertical distance from the sitting
surface to the vertex (top) of the head. It is the length of the
trunk, neck, head, and buttocks.
2. Arm Span the horizontal distance between the tips of the
middle fingers with the arms extended laterally at shoulder
B. Muscular Power Test
1. Standing Long Jump measures the power of the leg
2. Basketball Pass measures your upper body strength and
power, and your ability to exert a forceful movement utilizing
the muscles of the arms and the upper body.
3. 50-meter Sprint to measure your running speed.



strengthens bones.
reduces fatigue at the end of the day.
enhances work, recreation, and performance.
improves posture and body mechanics.

Psychological Benefits of Exercise

1. Stress reduction Exercise makes one more emotionally
stable, promotes greater confidence, and improves self-worth.
2. Feeling of well-being Exercise enhances potentials, reduces
depression, makes one more efficient when working, and
produces a feeling of accomplishment.
Intellectual Benefits of Exercise
1. It improves ones cognitive functioning.
2. It reduces the risk of developing dementia (mental and
cognitive impairment).
3. It reverses alcohol-induced brain damage.

Lesson 2: Fitness Awareness

The choice of physical activity will depend on the following factors:
1. Your age
2. Weather
3. Time of day available for exercise
4. Availability of funds for special equipment
5. Opportunity for combining exercise with recreational
6. Your preference
Exercise is a pleasant diversion from routine and also relieves

Facts and Fallacies on Health, Fitness, and Exercise

1. Fallacy: Skipping meals will help you lose weight.
Fact: When you skip meals, your body fights back by slowing
down your metabolism (the rate at which you burn calories).
You will lose weight more efficiently if you eat several small
meals a day rather than one or two large ones.
2. Fallacy: All fat is bad for you.
Fact: Fat is the main fuel of the body. Unsaturated fats
contained in foods like nuts, avocados, and fish are essential
fats needed by the body. They also help build hormones and
3. Fallacy: Exercise can turn fat into muscles.
Fact: Muscle and fat are two different kinds of tissues and one
can never turn into the other.
4. Fallacy: Healthy young individuals do not require physical
Fact: When the body is active, muscles are improved while
body fat is reduced. Through inactivity, both young adults and
adolescents will lose the health advantage.
5. Fallacy: If there is no pain during exercise, there is no gain.
Fact: Exercise should not cause physical agony. It is
unnecessary to work out to the point of experiencing severe
pain. Moderate soreness is to be expected if the body has not
been working specific muscles. When exercise becomes
painful, it is a sign to cease overexertion.
6. Fallacy: The more you sweat, the more you lose body fat.

Benefits of Exercise
Exercise is a very personal matter, and it is dependent on the
individuals objective. It also promotes health and improves ones
quality of life.
Overexercising must be strictly avoided. The danger signals that
indicate that the activity is too strenuous are:
1. heart beating rapidly for more than 10 minutes after exercise;
2. feeling unusually tired the following day; and
3. experiencing muscle soreness.
Physical Benefits of Exercise
1. it develops muscular strength, endurance, flexibility, and
enhances proper growth of bones.
2. It improves blood circulation and efficiency of the lungs to
supply oxygen.
3. It improves the functioning of body tissues.
4. It helps control body weight and develops firmer body

Fact: sweating is dependent on humidity and temperature. In

cold countries, you do not sweat profusely, but you still utilize
your body fat for energy.
7. Fallacy: As long as people work out on a regular basis, they
can eat whatever they desire.
Fact: A regular exercise and a balanced diet go hand in hand.
8. Fallacy: Getting in shape requires having a membership in a
Fact: Shaping up does not require membership in a health
club or going to a gym. Choose an enjoyable physical activity
like walking, jogging, biking, playing tennis, swimming, roller
blading, or other safe, healthful activities that can inspire
your body to be in motion.

2. During stretching exercises, apply a smooth, constant

pressure. Students should stretch to the point of discomfort,
then back off slightly and hold the position. Avoid bouncing to
further the range or motion because it actually decreases the
level of flexibility. Stretching exercises must be done in a
controlled, slow, and sustained manner.
3. If forward flexion is done from a sitting position in an effort to
touch the toes, bend from the hips, not the waist.
4. Avoid straight-leg raises from a supine position because this
may strain the lower back.
5. Avoid deep knee bends (full-squat) because they may
damage the knee joints. It is much more beneficial to flex the
knee joint to 90 degrees and then extend the joint.
6. Do not hyperextend the knees in stretching exercises
performed from a standing position. The knee joint should be
relaxed rather than locked. In all stretching activities, one
must judge their own range of motion. Expecting all students
to be able to touch their toes is an unrealistic goal,
particularly in the early stages of exercising.
7. Use caution when placing stress on the neck. Examples of
activities gin which caution should be used are the inverted
bicycle, wrestlers bridge, and the sit-up performed with the
hands behind the head. Most of these activities can be
avoided or workloads can be carefully adjusted to the
capacity of the individual.

Other Facts about Physical Fitness

1. While exercising, you should wear light clothing and, whether
or not you feel the need, drink ample amount of liquid.
2. To avoid muscle cramps, increase your fruit intake,
particularly bananas. Be sure to drink plenty of fluids before,
during, and after exercising.
3. Begin with a short, low intensity workout. Short, high intensity
workouts will not achieve aerobic conditioning and may lead
to excessive fatigue and injury.
4. Plain water is the best fluid to take for replenishment during
exercise, rather than beverages with sugar in them.
5. Salt tablets cause nausea, vomiting, and gastric distress.
Excess salt increases load in the kidneys and without
adequate fluid intake, as state of dehydration can be
Potentially harmful exercises are those that have the potential to
cause an individual musculoskeletal injury (e.g., a muscle or
ligament strain). These potentially harmful exercises may induce or
aggravate a medical condition.

Lesson 3: Developing a Personal Fitness Program Plan

To guide you properly in designing and developing your fitness plan,
the following step-by-step procedure will guide you in the creation of
an exercise program that is right for you (Kusinitz and Fine, 1983).
I. Set Goals
In setting your goals, ask yourself, What do I want from my
fitness program? you should know how to develop different
types of goals general and specific, long term and short term.
General or long term goals might include lowering your risk of
contracting chronic disease, improving posture, having more
energy, and improving the fir of your clothes. It is a good idea to
also develop some specific, short-term goals based on
measurable factors. Having specific goals will allow you to track
your progress and enjoy the measurable changes brought about
by your fitness program.
II. Select Activities
It is usually best to include exercises to develop each of the
health-related components of fitness.
1. Cardio-respiratory Endurance At least three 20-minute
bouts of continuous aerobic rhythmic exercises each

Below are considerations for exercising safely (Pangrazi and Darst,

1. For developing abdominal strength, use the sit-up with the
knees bent instead of the straight-leg-sit-up. When the legs
are bent at the knee, the abdominal muscles are isolated
from the psoas muscle group (muscle from vertebral bodies).
This concentrates development on the abdominals rather
than on the lower back area, and avoids development of an
excessive lower back curve. Sit-ups should be performed with
a smooth curling movement with the chin touched. This
prevents the common bouncing and jerking motions.

week. Aerobic conditioning activities include brisk walking,

jogging, swimming, cycling, and rope jumping.
2. Muscular Strength A minimum of two 20-minute sessions
per week that include exercises for all the major muscle
groups. Lifting weights is the most effective way to
increase strength.
3. Muscular Endurance At least three 30-minute sessions
each week that include exercises such as calisthenics,
push-ups, sit-ups, pull-ups, and weight training for all the
major muscle groups.
4. Flexibility 10 to 12 minutes of daily stretching exercises
performed slowly, without a bouncing motion. This can be
done after the warm-up or during the cool-down.
5. Healthy Body Composition combining a sensible diet and
a program of regular exercise, including cardio-respiratory
endurance exercises to burn calories and resistance
training to build muscle mass.
Consider the following factors in making your choices of
Fun and interest
Your current skill and fitness level
Time and convenience
Special health needs
III. Set a Target Frequency, Intensity, and Time (Duration)
for Each Activity
The next step is to apply the FITT principle and set a starting
frequency, intensity, and time (duration) for each type of activity
you have chosen.
Cardio-respiratory Endurance Exercise An appropriate
frequency for this is 3 to 5 times per week. For intensity,
determine your target heart rate zone. Your target total
workout time (duration) should be about 20 to 60 minutes,
depending on the intensity of the activity.
Muscular Strength and Endurance Training A frequency
of 2 to 3 days per week for strength training is
recommended. For intensity, choose a weight that is
heavy enough to fatigue your muscles and will allow you
to still complete the number of repetitions with proper
Flexibility Training Stretches should be performed for all
major muscle groups at least 2 to 3 days per week. For
each exercise, stretch to the point of slight tension or mild
discomfort and hold the stretch for 10 to 30 seconds; do
at least 4 repetitions of each exercise.

IV. Set Up a System of Mini Goals and Rewards

Break your specific goals into several steps and set target date
for each step. Reaching a series of small goals is more satisfying
than working toward a single, more challenging goal that may
take months to achieve. Realistic goals, broken into achievable
mini goals, can boost your chances of success.
V. Include Lifestyle Physical Activity in Your Program
Your daily physical activities play an important part in having a
fit and well lifestyle. As such, you should also consider your daily
routine when you develop your fitness program plan.
VI. Develop Tools for Monitoring Your Progress
A record that tracks your daily progress will help remind you of
your ongoing commitment to your program and give you a
sense of accomplishment. If you have specific, measurable
goals, you can graph your weekly or monthly progress toward
your goal.
VII. Make a Commitment
The final step in planning your program is to make a
commitment by signing a contract. Keep your contract in a
visible spot to remind you of your commitment.


Lesson 4: Recreation: Concept and Importance

Recreation is the use of time in a creative way, and in many ways, a
therapeutic refreshment of ones body or mind.
The following are the best times for recreation:
1. weekends
2. holidays
3. special occasions such as anniversaries and birthdays
Characteristics of Recreation
1. It occurs in an unobligated time.
2. It has no simple form.
3. It involves activity.
4. It is determined by motivation.
5. It involves voluntary participation.
6. It is universally sought and practiced.
7. It has by-products.
8. It gives satisfaction.
Importance of Recreation
1. Physical health A large part of recreation is physical in
nature, like some forms of games, sports, and dances that are
essential to physical fitness.

2. Psychological health Leisure and recreation can relax and

recharge the overworked individual.
3. Social well-being Recreation can be a source of happiness
and satisfaction.
4. Emotional stability People who balance work and recreation
find their life fulfilling and their existence meaningful.
5. Occupational Recreational activities usually translate into
monetary benefits for people engaged in business.
Scope of Recreation
The scope of recreation is wide enough to cover the many activities
which an individual may freely choose from. These activities may be
performed either indoors or outdoors. Below are some of the
1. Games and Sports
a. Playing basketball
b. Playing volleyball
c. Playing chess
d. Playing badminton
e. Playing scrabble
f. Playing dominoes
g. Playing card games like Uno
h. Playing billiards
2. Music Activities
a. Listening to music through the radio/cassette/VCDs
b. Karaoke singing
c. Videoke singing
d. Playing musical instrument
3. Technology-based Activities
a. Internet surfing
b. Internet chatting
c. Texting
d. Playing at the arcade
e. Computer games
4. Fitness Activities
a. Fitness walking
b. Jogging
c. Biking
5. Arts and Crafts Activities
a. Drawing
b. Cross-stitching
c. Cooking
6. Nature and Outdoor Activities
a. Camping
b. Going to parks
c. Nature tripping
d. Hiking

e. Swimming
f. Mountain climbing
7. Special Events
a. Attending social events
b. Going to discos
c. Attending parties
d. Dining out
e. Clubbing
8. Mental, Linguistic, and Literary Activities
a. Reading pocketbooks
b. Reading magazines
c. Reading newspaper
d. Reading books
e. Reading comics
9. Commercial and Home Entertainment Activities
a. Watching movies at movie house
b. Watching movies at home through VCDs and DVDs
c. Watching television
10. Cultural Activities
a. Watching free cultural shows (CCP, Paco Park, Puerto Real,
Fort Santiago)
b. Watching tourism activities (WOW Philippines activities and
presentations, Intramuros, etc.)
11. Miscellaneous Hobbies
a. Spending time ones hangout (tambayan)
b. Window shopping
c. Strolling at the mall
d. Playing with pets
e. Hanging out with friends
f. Chatting with friends
g. Chatting with friends over the phone
Agencies for Recreation
There are different agencies which can provide variety of recreation
facilities, activities, and programs that meet peoples recreational
Agencies providing recreation may be grouped into the following:
1. Public or Government Agencies created and administered by
the national/local government for public use.
2. Voluntary Agencies supported primarily by private funds
which render community services; they are non-exclusive
groups which extend recreational opportunities even to nonmembers.
3. Private Agencies these comprise the innumerable clubs and
associations organized primarily for the benefit of their
members and in which membership is on a selective basis.

4. Commercial Agencies these include many business

organizations which cater to the public demand for leisure
and for the agencies own profit.

a. The Knapsack it is a large bag with shoulder straps. It is

made in various lengths and depths and is about as wide as
the back. Some have pockets inside or outside, or both, for
small items.
b. Pack Frame or pack boards can be made or bought in
different styles. For carrying uncomfortably-shaped loads,
pack frames are the best because they cannot touch your
c. Pack Basket can be made from bamboo, rattan, and other
local materials. They have shoulder straps attached. They
can be made in various styles.
d. Improvised Packs hikers can easily improvise packs when
the need for them arises and there is none on hand. Sacks
and bags or even pillow cases and blankets will serve the

Lesson 5: Hiking: An Enjoyable Outdoor Activity

Hiking is an outdoor activity which consists of walking in natural
environments like hiking trails.
A day hike refers to a hike that can be completed in a single day. In
hikes that require an overnight camp, the term backpacking is used.
Preparing for a Hike
1. Clothing and Equipment one must be prepared with clothing
suitable for the weather and equipped for an eight-kilometer
a. Clothing is the most important item in outdoor work. The
clothes must be strong and tough. These should be fit them
loosely to allow for easy movement of their arms and legs.
b. Equipment
Here are the following materials that a hiker needs:
- matches in a waterproof case
- pack
- water purifier tablets
- drinking cup
- cooking gear
- eating utensils
- food in food bags
- extra socks
- knife
- compass
- map
- candle
- first aid kit
- toilet paper
- about 20 feet of cord
- fishing hooks and lines
- axe or bolo
- some candy
- pencils and paper
- small flashlight with batteries (plus spare batteries)
- poncho or raincoat
- whetstone
- notebook
2. Packs no matter how heavy the pack may be, it should not
cause discomfort.
There are three types of packs:

Safety Precautions
Safety and Permit During the hike, follow the necessary rules and
safety measures to avoid possible danger. Never join the group
without your parents consent. Securing the schools permission is
also important since it is part of your P.E. class activity. A P.E. teacher
or someone older (a guide) can join in your hiking activity.
Some Tips on Hiking
1. Your pace must fit the slowest member of the group.
2. Short rests at short intervals are better than long rests at
longer intervals.
3. Avoid making your stride too long or too short.
4. Point your toes straight ahead to cover more ground with
fewer steps and to avoid becoming tired easily.
5. On even ground, come down lightly on your heel, lean forward,
and push up with your toes.
Lesson 6: Orienteering: A Challenging Outdoor Adventure
Orienteering is a challenging outdoor adventure activity that
combines cross country running and the ability to read a map and
use a compass. It is the sport form of land navigation in which
participants use a map and compass to navigate between
checkpoints along unfamiliar course.
Brief Historical Background of Orienteering
Orienteering began when human, seeking new horizons, first
ventured from their familiar environs into an unmapped world.
Organized orienteering, however, is a relatively new addition to the
sports world, particularly in the United States.

The participants in this activity have to be competitive yet

cooperative since they are engaged in a wide range of commitment
and challenge.

The following are main components of the orienteering

1. Base Plate the Plexiglass rectangle under the compass
itself or protractor and serves two purpose: measures
distance using the scale (in millimeters or inches) on the
edges and assists the orienteer in determining a course of
2. Compass Housing mounted on the base plate and
appears as a basic watch compass. It must rotate freely
on the protractor and should have a transparent bottom.
3. Direction-of-travel Arrow the only arrow on the base
plate, located in the center of the long end of the
4. Orienteering or North Arrow is drawn at the bottom of
the compass housing. This arrow is flanked by a series of
parallel lines termed orienteering lines.
5. Magnetic Needle suspended in the compass housing is a
freely rotating, floating needle that points to magnetic
north when not influenced by nearby iron objects.
6. Strap a necessary part of any compass. A slip knot at
the end provides the best protection in the event of a fall.

1. Gain the basic skills of land navigation using a map and a
2. Improve ones physical fitness
3. Learn to be self-reliant in the outdoors
4. Acquire an increased awareness of the environment
1. Maps serves as the primary tool for navigation to the
participant and can yield an enormous amount of information.
The most common maps used for orienteering are topo
(topographic) maps. It is a type of map characterized by largescale detail and quantitative representation of relief, usually
using contour line in modern mapping.
Topographic maps contain the following information:
a. Location each map has a title describing a location and
contains longitude and latitude coordinates that locate the
area on earths surface.
b. Date must be up-to-date.
c. Distance every map depicts a portion of the earth
surface in reduced form. The ratio describing the amount
of this reduction is called scale. A graphic scale is usually
included on the maps border.
d. Direction the top border of topographical maps
represents the northerly direction, or geographic north. In
either case, the righthand border is east, the bottom is
south, and the lefthand border is west.
e. Elevation this is shown by contour lines in the form of
concentric rings. The distance between each contour line,
termed the contour interval, represents a vertical change
in elevation of terrain.
f. Natural Terrain Features example of such features are
bodies of water, including lakes, streams, swamps, cliffs,
woods, and fields.
g. Other features houses, roads, bridges, and power lines
are among the other features symbolically displayed on
the map.
2. Compass serves to supplement and confirm information given
on the map. The most commonly used compass in orienteering
is the protractor compass. The protractor compass has a
rectangular base plate that serves as a protractor and assists in
determining direction of travel.

There are different types of compasses as follows:

1. Plain watch compass appears as a pocket watch and is
suitable for general travel that requires limited accuracy.
2. Wrist compass has a wrist band, allowing the wearer free use
of both hands.
3. Lensatic compass also called the army or the prismatic
compass, it features excellent sighting devices but is lacking a
protractor base, so it cannot be used to take a compass
4. Mirror compass similar to an orienteering compass, but it
also has a sighting device that uses a mirror for added
precision. It is used for course setting, map-making, and
Basic Orienteering Techniques
Map Reading remember to keep the map oriented, that is,
keep the top facing north regardless of your direction of travel.
Fold the map to a readable, holdable size. Visualize the terrain
through which you will soon be passing.
Travel by Compass below are the procedures in taking a
compass bearing:
1. Establishing direction
2. Setting the north-south lines
3. Running the bearing





words intra, meaning within and murus which means wall. Thus,
intramural activities are held within the school for the students.


There are several activities that are significant in running a

successful school sports intramural as follows:
A. Pre-game Activities
Prepare the list of sports events to be played.
List the available facilities and equipment.
Prepare the entry forms for the participants.
Prepare the different forms to be used in each event.
Prepare the guidelines for the participating teams.
Prepare the format for the team gallery.
B. Putting up an organizational structure that will serve as the
leaders in running school sports intramurals
General Manager heads and organizes the intramural
Athletic Manager assists the General Manager, especially
in managing the sports competition
Technical Officials officiate during each sports event
Tournament Managers assist the Athletic Manager in
running the different sports events
Tournament Coordinators prepare ground facilities and
equipment before the schedule of games
Recorders keep all official records and results
C. Officiating Officials these are the game officials who will
handle the different games.
1. A good officiating official should possess the following
Complete knowledge of the rules
Sufficient game experience
Physical fitness
Good judgement
2. The following are the officials and their roles in the
different events:
2.1. Basketball
2.1.1. Referee
Administers a jump ball at the center to start
each half
Calls fouls and other violations committed by
the players

Lesson 7: Organization and Management of Sports

Management plays a vital role in the pursuit of excellence, success,
victory, power, and contentment. It is the process by which key
personnel provide leadership so that an organization can function
efficiently and effectively in achieving the goals for which it exists. It
involves different functions such as:
Planning designing or identifying the method to be used in
managing an activity.
Motivating stimulating the desire and willingness of everyone
to work harmoniously and effectively.
Organizing implementing the plan in a systematic way.
Staffing or Tasking includes assigning tasks to willing and
qualified people.
Leading supervising all personnel involved in the program.
Controlling the measurement and correction of performance
in order to make sure that objectives and plans are
Below are some of the different sports committees and their
Finance and Resources raises funds for the expenses of all
the committees and prepares statements of account at the
end of the meet.
Program and Invitation prepares the program of activities
and invitations and sends them to all concerned in due time.
Peace and Order provides and maintains round-the-clock
general order and security in all the venues.
Physical Facilities prepares the necessary facilities and
venues needed in the sports events.
Equipment make sure that the equipment for the sports
events are available, in good working condition, and
distributed before the competitions.
Prizes and Awards prepare medals, trophies, plaques,
certificates, etc., and awards to be given to the winners.
Technical Committee investigate and decides on all protests,
appeals, or violations regarding the conduct of the games.
Lesson 8: School Sports Intramurals
A school sports intramural event is and athletic competition within
the four walls of your school. The word intramural comes from the

Makes the final decision after consultation

with the umpire and table officials regarding
calls and other violations
2.1.2. Scorer
Keeps the list of players
Records the score, fouls, timeouts, and
substitutions in the game
2.1.3. Assistant Scorer
Manages the scoreboard
2.1.4. Time Keeper
Keeps the record of playing time and time of
2.2. Volleyball
2.2.1. First Referee
Starts the game with a toss coin and ends it
with a handshake
Calls violations committed by the players
2.2.2. Second Referee
Checks the following violations
- Penetration into the opponents court
- Positional faults of the receiving teams
- Faulty contact with the net
- Blocking by back-row player and the
libero (a player specialized in defensive
skills and cannot block or attack the ball
when it is entirely above the net height)
Signs the scoresheet
2.2.3. Line Judges
Call if the ball was touched by a player of the
defending team before going out of the court
Check on the positioning of the foot of the
State whether the ball lands in or out of the
2.2.4. Scorer
Sounds the buzzer to give signals
Registers the data of the match and teams
Records starting line-ups of each team, the
points scored, time outs, substitutions, final
result, and signs the scoresheet
2.3. Football
2.3.1. Referee
Starts the kick-off between the two teams

Warns and penalizes players who violate

football rules
2.3.2. Linesman
Calls whether the ball is in or out of the
2.4. Chess
2.4.1. Arbiter
Decides which player wins, loses, or scores a
2.5. Baseball/Softball
2.5.1. Chief Umpire
Shouts play ball at the start of the game
Calls strike or out, fair or foul ball,
out or safe
Calls other violations like strike out, fly out,
and put out
2.5.2. Base Umpire
Rules safe or out at their respective bases
2.5.3. Scorer
Keeps the record of the players and teams
Lesson 9:

Single and Double Elimination Types of

One of the most important tasks in staging a sports competition is
scheduling. Among several factors to be considered in determining
the types of tournament to be used are:
Availability of facilities and equipment
Number of days for the tournament
Officiating officials
There are many things to consider in selecting a type of tournament
the activities, the number of competitors, and the available time
and space.
Single Elimination determines the winner by eliminating the
loser in every match until there is one team left. This is best used
in games with body or physical contact like boxing and
taekwondo. Also called the knock-out system.
where G number of games
N number of teams

After knowing the number of games to be played, determine the

number of teams to play in the first round through determining
the number of byes first. Bye entitles a team to advance to the
next round without playing.
Bye = P - N
where P least power of 2 higher than N
N number of entries



Compute the number of games using the formula in a single

elimination tournament.
2. Determine the number of byes and distribute them evenly in
the upper and lower brackets.
3. Pairing of teams should be done through the drawing of lots.
Double Elimination a team should be defeated twice before it is
declared out of the competition.