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INK MADE FROM TEA BAGS

Presented to the High School Department of


College of San Benildo Rizal
Sumulong Highway, Antipolo City

An Investigatory Project in Partial Fulfillment


of the Requirements in
Science and Technology 9

Prepared by:
Macalinao, Charles Adam
Navarro, Faisal Edwin B.
Pineda, Anton Christ A.
Benavidez, Chrislen Mae B.
Peralta, Patricia Jasmin C.

Submitted to:
Ms. Renne Carla Collado

January 2015

Abstract
The researchers started their research with only two goals; that is to
build and understand an electric motor. In the process of doing so, the
researchers found several problems to solve. The questions are: 1. Will the
motor move slower if it used a lower voltage; And lastly, 2. Will the
electromagnet go hotter as the motor run in time;
To be fully able to understand how an electric motor works, the
researchers needed to know their capacities, thus using common materials
such as scraps and materials in their respective homes. The researchers had
to limit themselves to two set ups: 1. with a 1.5 volts battery; and 2. with a
3.0 volts battery. Before proceeding to building an electric motor, the
researchers had to start with the basics, the history of the electric motor.
Continuous production of electricity was first discovered in year 1800 by
Allessandro Volta, using a stack of silver and zinc plates. Year 1820, Oersted
finds the generation of a magnetic field by electric currents by observation of
the deflection of a compass needle. Ever since the discovery of the magnetic
field, scientists continuously experimented on how to put it to good use until
1834, Thomas Davenport of Vermont developed the first real electric motor.
Since the creation of the first real electric motor, trolleys, trains, even cars

were made. Years after the two-phase system was invented then a later,
newer model came called the three-phase system.
The researchers used the following materials: copper wire, aluminum
sheet, 1.5 volts battery, 3.0 volts battery, cork, magnets, needle, metal nail,
and wood. To assemble, what they did was to wrap the nail with tape and
covered it with wire, put it on a piece of wood, screwed it in place. They stick
the needle in the middle of the cork and made sure it came out on the other
center of the cork; they attached the magnets with repelling sides on the
cork. They put the stator and rotor together with the electromagnet as close
as possible to the permanent magnets on the rotor. Lastly they connect both
of the wires from the electromagnet to the battery and tested the product.
The results are that the researchers product is a success for an
average electric motor. The size had huge difference and the speed of the
researchers product is 900RPM. The materials used by the researchers
compared to the actual motor are more common but almost the same
materials were used

Acknowledgements
The researchers wish to extend their sincerest appreciation to the
following people who helped make this research. To their Chemistry teacher,
Ms Renne Carla Collado for teaching them the fundamental of research and
investigatory writing. To the school library, Wikipedia.org and various
websites needed for providing the necessary information regarding the
project.

The researchers are also indebted to the Montenegro family for

supporting the researchers financial aid and to their guidance and support in
making the project.
And lastly, to God, for his gift of wisdom and understanding to the
researchers and for answering their prayers in their times of need.

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Table of Contents
Chapter 1:
Introduction
.1
1. The Problem and Its
Background1
2. Objectives of the
Study...
2
3. Significance of the
Study...2
4. Scope and
Limitations
3
Chapter 2: Conceptual Framework

5. Review of Related
Literature.4
6. Conceptual
Framework
.7
7. Definition of
Terms
..8
Chapter 3:
Methodology
...9
Chapter 4: Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of
Data..13
8. Presentation of
Data
13
9. Analysis and Interpretation of
Data15
Chapter 5: Conclusion , Recommendation, and
Bibliography..16
Appendices.19
iii

Chapter 1 Introduction
Problem and its Background
Electric motor is used to convert electrical energy into mechanical
energy. Most electric motors operate through interaction of magnetic fields
and current carrying conductors to generate force.
Electric motors have been a part of our modern society. The appliances
that we used in our home have electric motor inside such as hair dryer,
electric fan, exhaust fan, dishwasher, clothes washer, humidifier, aircondition, heater, refrigerator and many more. It also used in electric
transportation like electrified train, subways, elevators and escalators.
Before, electric motor equipment in factories may have been run with steam,
compressed air or with big belts that drew power from rotating shafts near
the ceiling. It was dangerous and noisy. Now, with the invention of electric
motor, our lives become easier and more comfortable.
Electric motors applied in agriculture eliminated human and animal muscle
power from such tasks as handling grain or pumping water. Household uses
of electric motors reduced heavy labor in the home and made higher
standards of convenience, comfort and safety possible. Today, electric
motors consume more than half of all electric energy produced.

In our project, by using some scrap materials, we will go to build a simple


electric motor. To be able to understand how electric motor works.
1

Objective of the Study


The researchers study aims to know if they can build and understand
how an electric motor works. The researchers want to know if their electric
motor be efficient compared to a regular electric motor. While doing this, the
researchers will try to answer the following questions: 1. Will the motor move
slower if it used a lower voltage battery?
2. Can the electromagnet go hotter as the motor run in time?

Significance of the Study


This investigatory project aims to the people who wishes learn more
about engineering. Especially those who studies electromagnetism. They can
benefit from this because they can properly see how the motor and its
necessary parts make the electric motor work.

Scope and Limitation


The purpose of this study is to see if the researchers can
successfully make a fully operational electric motor. If the motor failed, the
researchers will find try to find the source of the problem and see if the
researchers can fix it. The research will only limit itself to only a simple motor
and not going too in depth. The researchers will limit themselves to use
materials that can come from scrap or anything that can be found in their
house.
The researchers will limit themselves to 2 set ups
*One: with a 1.5v battery
*Two: with a 3.0v battery

Chapter 2 Conceptual Framework


Review of Related Literature
For

the

first

time

in

year

1800,

Allessandro Volta produces

continuous electrical power from a stack of silver and zinc plates . During
1820, Hans Christian Oersted finds the generation of a magnetic field by
electric currents by observation of the deflection of a compass needle. This
was the first time a mechanical movement was caused by an electric current.
A vertically suspended wire moves in a circular orbit around a magnet.
William Sturgeon invents the electromagnet, a coil of wires with an iron
core

to

enhance

the

magnetic

1826. Michael Faraday discovers

and

field

during

investigates

1825

to

electromagnetic

induction, i.e. the generation of an electric current due to a varying magnetic


field. Faraday lays the foundation for the development of the electric
generator. In the early years of electrical engineering it was strictly
distinguished

between

the

magnetic-electro

machines,

i.e.

electric

generators, and electro-magnetic machines, i.e. electric motors. Heinrich


Friedrich Emil Lenz (German) found the "law of reciprocity of the magnetoelectric and electromagnetic phenomena", i.e. the reversibility of electric
generator and motor. His scientific text is recited at the end of 1833 at
the St.

Petersburg

Academy

of

Sciences and

published

in

1834

in

Poggendorff's Annalen der Physik und Chemie.

His ideas are slowly becoming commonplace, especially in 1838 after


several reports of successful reversal experiments. In 1834, Thomas
Davenport of Vermont developed the first real electric motor ('real' meaning
powerful

enough

to

do

task)

although Joseph

Henry and Michael

Faraday created early motion devices using electromagnetic fields. The early
"motors" created spinning disks or levers that rocked back and forth. These
devices could not do any work for humankind but were important for leading
the way to better motors in the future. Davenport's various motors were able
to run a model trolley on a circular track and other tasks. The trolley later
turned out to be the first important application of electric power (it was not
the light bulb). Electric trolleys were finally built 30 years after Davenport's
death in the 1850s. Trolleys and the connected power systems were very
expensive to build but transported millions of people to work in the 1880s.

Until the growth of the power grid in the 1890s most people (middle and low
classes) even in cities did not have the electric light in the home. For more
detail on the earliest motors read our pages on Joseph Henry and Thomas
Davenport. Robert Davidson also developed electric motors since 1837. He
made several drives for a lathe and model vehicles. In 1839 Davidson
manages the construction of the first electrically powered car. Friedrich
von Hefner-Alteneck, a close associate of Werner Siemens, begins with the
development of the anchor drum motor during 1872. He wraps wire
completely around a cylinder-shaped anchor. Thus the double-T anchor
machine is improved and can now also produce a smooth DC voltage. In
1875 he gets the problem of eddy currents under control by using iron wires
instead of solid iron for the magnetic core.
5

In 1887 Nikola Tesla files the first patents for a two-phase AC system
with four electric power lines, which consists of a generator, a transmission
system and a multi-phase motor. Friedrich August Haselwander from
Offenburg/Baden is the first one with the idea to use a three-phase
alternating current system in July 1887.

Dobrovolsky is the first to realize, that a three-phase system


connected in star or delta requires only three lines and thus is less expensive
than even a two-phase system. In August 1889 he receives a patent on the
invention of the three-legged three-phase transformer. This is the beginning
of the world wide success of the three-phase alternating current system.
Under

the

leadership

of

Dolivo-Dobrowolsky and

together

with

the Maschinenfabrik Oerlikon and its chief engineer Charles E.L. Brown,
the AEG builds the first three-phase electric power transmission line in 1891
over 175 km from Lauffen to Frankfurt am Main, which later reached a
remarkable efficiency of 96%. The line could deliver up to 220 kW output
power and was operated at voltages up to 25 kV. Five years later
in late 1896, the first U.S. american electric power line is inaugurated. Built
by Tesla and Westinghouse it leads from the Niagara Falls to Buffalo, NY
over a distance of 22 miles (35 km). This line is also a three-phase system,
which Tesla has learned to appreciate in the meantime. However, three
individual single-phase transformers were used at both ends of the line as
the advantageous three-legged transformer construction had been patented
by Dobrovolsky. The Niagara Falls line can deliver an output power up to 750
kW at voltages up to 11 kV.
6

INPUT

Conceptual Framework

Materials:
Piece of wood
Long nail
Spool of copper wire
Magnets
Wine cork
2 1.5v Battery

PROCESS
Wrap nail with wire
Glue magnets into
cork
Stick the needle into
the cork
Attach everythin
into a piece of wood

OUTPUT
Electric
Motor

Definition of Terms

Magnetic Field - is a field produced by moving electric charges, by electric


fields that vary in time, and by the 'intrinsic' magnetic field of elementary
particles associated with the spin of the particle
Stator - is the stationary part of a rotor system, found in an electric
generator, electric motor and biological rotors
Rotor - the non-stationary part of an alternator or electric motor, operating
with a stationary element called the stator
Magnet - is a material or object that produces a magnetic field
Three-phase System using three alternating voltages of the same frequency
Two-phase System using two alternating voltages of the same frequency

Chapter 3 Methodology

Materials to build the motor:

Three pieces of magnet.

Spool of copper wire

A cork from a bottle of wine or champagne

Needle or wire. It must be longer than the cork.

Two 1.5 volts battery

Tape. Electrical is advised, but scotch or masking tape is fine.

Long nail for electromagnet.

Piece of wood for the base

Metal screw

Scrap of wood and aluminium sheet as a bracket

Procedures
1.Take a nail and wrap it with tape to make a layer about 1/2" (12mm)
thick in diameter at the distance of 1 2" (3-5cm) from the head of the
nail. (FIG A)

2. Use most of the spool of wire to wrap around the area between the
thick layer of tape and the head of the nail. (Cut and leave a piece of wire
about 10" (25cm) long you will need it later). Tape the ends of the coil to
the same layer of tape leaving open ends of wire about 10" (25cm) long.
Remove about 1 1/2" (4cm) of the insulation from the wire tips with a
sharp knife.

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3. Put the open end of the nail to a small piece of wood and screw it to
make sure it will not move.

4. Take the cork and stick the needle or wire through the center on one
side and make sure that it comes out in the center as well. (FIG B)

5. Find the same poles on the magnets and mark them. Same poles
(North North, or South South) repel, while different poles attract. Find
two repelling sides they should face outside. Glue the magnets to the
opposite sides of the cork. It really does not matter if North or South poles
are facing up as long as they are the same. (FIG C)

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6. Take the 10" (25cm) piece of wire (see step #2) and remove about 1
1/2" (4cm) of insulation off both ends. Wind one bare end tightly around
an outside contact of the magnetic switch. (FIG D)
7. Put the stator (the electromagnet on the base) and the rotor (the cork
with

the

needle

and

attached

magnets)

together.

Position

the

electromagnet as close as possible to the permanent magnets on the


rotor.
8. Before connecting everything together connect both wires from the
electromagnet to the battery. If the electromagnet doesnt repel the
permanent magnets away, switch the wires. When it repels, disconnect
one wire and connect it to the magnetic switch. Connect the other end of
the magnetic switch to the battery.

12

Chapter 4 Results and Discussion


The researchers tested the efficiency of their product vs a standard dc
motors. The researchers gathered its speed, size, complexity and volts
required to run. The researchers did this by collecting various data and
getting its mean.
Speed
The researchers checked the speed of their motor by marking the cork
with a marker and with the help of a cameras high frame shot, the
researchers video recorded the motor in only 1 second. Slowing the video,
the researchers counted the number of times the cork rotated and multiplied
it by 60 (to make it in minutes) the result was 900 rpm.
The researchers motor

900 rpm

Regular motor (size 130)

1000 up to 20000 rpm

Size
The researchers motor
Regular motor (size 130)

225cm x 180cm x 40cm


27.5mm x 20mm x 15mm

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Complexity (In terms of materials rarity)


The researchers
motor
Magnets
Magnet Wire
Cork
Needle
Batteries
Nail
Wood Plank
Nail

RARITY

Regular

motor RARITY

(DC)
Magnets
Cast Iron
Copper
Laminated Steel
Copper Segments
Carbon Structure

Uncommon
Common
Common
Uncommon
Rare
Very Rare

Voltage

Regular Motor

Voltage

low
max

(DC)
1.5v
3v-12v
100v

low
average
max

Common
Common
Common
Common
Common
Common
Common
Common

Voltage Required to Run


The researchers
motor
1.5v
3.0v

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Higher voltage makes the motor runs faster.


1.5 volts battery ------- the cork rotates slower
3.0 volts battery ------- the cork rotates faster
Electromagnet becomes hotter as the motor runs.

Analysis of Data
The researchers tested their electric motor to see if it is as effective as
the electric motors found in the market. To do this, the researchers made a
side by side comparison of its characteristics: size, speed, complexity and
voltage requirement. From the given tables above, one can see that the
researchers electric motor is up to par with the standards of a regular
electric motor in terms of speed and voltage required. But the researchers
electric motor is too big compared to a regular one.
And also, the researchers were able to answer its 2 questions, low
voltage makes the motor rotate slower than of high voltage. Lastly, the
electromagnet goes hotter as time goes by. This is due to the current in the
coiled wire interact with nail that makes it electromagnet.

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Chapter 5 Summary, Conclusion and


Recommendation
Summary
The researchers have seen that their electric motor is effective in
replicating the characteristics of a regular electric motor. And one can make
it out of only scrap materials found normally at home.

Conclusion
With that in mind, the researchers can finally conclude that building a
simple electric motor can be done. Also, one can learn how an electric motor
works just by building one

Recommendation
Due to past results of testing, the researchers recommend using a
thick copper wire. Because thin wires might subject to breaking. Also, the
researchers recommend finding a cork that has the right size to prevent
shaping it to fit.

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Bibliography
Wisegeek.org
Wikipedia.org
Adafruit.com
Itp.nyu.edu
Allelectronics.com
Baldor.com
Wikihow.com
Micromo.com
Answers.yahoo.com
Edisontechcenter.org
Eti.kit.edu
Clear.rice.edu

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Appendices

Copper Wire

Aluminum Sheet

1.5v Battery

Cork with Magnet

18

Needle

Piece of Wood

Metal Nail

Magnet

19

E. Motor

Side View

FIG A

20

FIG B

FIG C

FIG D
21