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A Written Analysis of a Case

Submitted to



School of Business Management

Cagayan de Oro City

In Partial Fulfilment
of the Requirements for the Course
(Strategic Management)


Second Semester, 2014-2015

Facts of the Case

Garuda Indonesia is an airline company owned by the Indonesian Government.

The airline has been vastly developed since being established in 1950. Remarkable
growth has been achieved mainly due to the fact that in the early years there was
minimal competition in the airline industry in Indonesia. Being the first Indonesian
airline, Garuda Indonesia monopolised the commercial air transportation services. This
situation allowed more than reasonable company performance for many years.
However, since the government introduction of an open domestic airline
industry in 1990, Garuda Indonesia started to face difficulties. Garuda competed
against a number of private airlines, which possessed expansive strategies in
developing routes as well as increasing the number of aircraft. The performance of
Garuda Indonesia gradually decreased to a low when operational profit and cash flow
reached negative figures during the period 1993 to 1997. Further, the seat load factor
and on time performance were also worsening.
On January 6, 1988, the company elected a new president, Mr. Mohammad
Soeparno. Upon the inherited difficulties and poor management of the previous
administrators, current operational plans were established. These plans were subdivided
into three classifications - marketing, operations and finance.
In marketing, the company improved the sales by better designing souvenirs,
expanding wine list on international flights, resumption of serving snacks and soft drinks
on short domestic flights, promoting executive class, changing of logo and whole livery

and introducing Visit Indonesia Air Pass with three different packages. Also the
following are integrated to enhance the operation system; owning 77 aircrafts, in-flight
immigration inspection on Tokyo-Jakarta Bali flights, the agreement with Continental
Airlines, and the process of purchasing tickets by using American Express cards. Lastly,
the company extended the financial condition through leasing training facilities to other
airline companies then recorded a net income of 300 million rupiah from its activities.

A. Minor:
1. Garudas lack of competitiveness in service aircraft technology, computer and
communication technology.
2. Heavy debt burden resulting to high interest payments, consequently low
operating income.
3. Inheritance of a weak system from prior administration.
4. Cost disadvantage in almost all operational aspects.
5. Poor asset management.

B. Major:
1. Whether to formulate new policies or to continue using existing policies.
2. Long-chain bureaucratic decision-making structure inherent in being a stateowned enterprise.

3. Exhaustion of the companys and the Government of Indonesias offshore

borrowing capacity to support further growth.

Main Problem:
In what way can Garuda Indonesia increase its operational success in order to
gain back its good reputation in the industry is it by formulating new set of policies or
by continuing proven-and-tested existing policies?

Alternative Solutions
A. Minor Problems:
All of the minor problems stemmed from inheriting the weaknesses of the past
administration. Garudas lack of competitiveness in service aircraft technology,
computer and communication technology could be addressed by raising more capital
through its acquired subsidiaries enough to update its technology as it was lagging
behind most of the airline companies. But, since they are heavily burdened with debt
with high interest payments each year, and with the income from its subsidiaries with
its own slight income, this solution may not materialize. Merging with other private
airlines with the support of the Government will be an aggressive yet practical
Since most of the development needed to improve the operations of the airlines is
hindered by the heavy debt burden, it would be advisable for the company in

cooperation with its sole owner the Government of Indonesia to try to have a
meeting with its creditors proposing a debt restructuring to ease its debt burden to be
able for the company to start its improvement.
Cost disadvantages and poor asset management were among the weaknesses
inherited from past management. Policies need to be formulated regarding utilization
of their assets well enough to maximize its worth to profits and minimization of costs.
An insignificant income in its first income after years of losses could be higher if it
were not for these cost inefficiencies.
System overhaul is needed for the company changing its operating system,
training of employees and updating technology - in order to be competitive.

B. Major Problems:
If Mr. Soeparno were to continue using the existing policies, it might bring about
desirable effects since these policies are already proven effective since there were
used by the previous administration which yield the first profits after years of losses.
If he were to formulate new set of policies, scrapping out the policies used by the
prior administration, it might not still be the best policies needed to improve the
company. The right approach in formulating policies would be having an active and
intensive assessment of the weaknesses of the existing policies and improving it.
Also, decision making in Garuda is a more tedious process compared with most
private airlines. Decisions have to go through a long chain of bureaucratic procedures

as it is a state-owned enterprise. Full privatization would be an alternative solution

than staying being a state-owned enterprise. If Garuda would be a private enterprise,
its decisions would not have to go through vigorous bureaucratic procedures. Hence,
decision-making would be easier and faster and consequently, success of the
company would be fast approaching.
But all of these developments need to be financed. Financing all of these is a nearto-impossible situation. The company as well as the Government have exhausted their
capacity to borrow offshore and theyre earning less than they need to capitalize. As
mentioned above, this could be addressed by merging with other private airlines to
raise capital needed for the company to finance all of its desired developments.
Issuing stock and bonds to the public would be also a feasible alternative but not for
this time as it has a bad reputation in the airline industry.

Main Problem:
Objectives in this case are needed to guide ones answer to the problem and this is
to establish a policy which could change the companys bad reputation by the end of the
quarter, to be more professional in commercial air transport by the end of the year and
also to increase the financial condition by reaching at most 10% profit before tax. With
these objectives, the company can become one of the worlds top 10 airline company and
gain back its reputation they once had decades ago.
There are three possible courses of action where assured conditions might be
accomplished although coupled with disadvantages. The first one is to continue the

previous successful policies which the company can be supported financially from the
government and generate profit but probable government interference may occur. The
company can also formulate new set of policies, then recover and improve certain areas
with the low cost but high quality of services. However, limited funds might be available,
as well as time, and the government may not approve thereof. Another alternative
solution would be privatization. From this, the matters apprehended after are improved;
decision-making, profit-sharing, and approval for future proposals. In addition, there
would be potential investors and the company would assert maturity and independence.

The best solution for the problem is for Garuda Indonesia to fully privatize after
analysing the alternatives. This solution could screen up loopholes and improve previous
policy then take the opportunity to come up with a more effective promotional strategy in
order to endorse to prospective customers their airline. Unlike choosing the second
alternative, there might be a slow growth rate and ineffective implementation of new
policies that could result to low operational output. While in the first alternative, the
enterprise might not have a room for improvement and may affect its operation.
Also, by fully privatizing, Garuda would be able formulate new policies that best
suits for the company comes easier. Second, they can now enforce decisions for itself for
the advancement of the company. Third, the company would be able to raise capital on its
own through its subsidiaries or issuing new stock or bonds. Fourth, given the capital they
have obtained, they would be able to overhaul their entire operating system. Aircraft

technology and communication technology could be updated and their ticketing and
reservation system could then be in computerized structure. Employees should also be
trained in order for Garuda to overcome their poor pre-flight, in flight and post-flight
services. Fifth, through formulation of new policies regarding its costs and asset
utilization, Garuda will be able to reduce cost and manage its assets effectively and
To be able to achieve this plan, the company should conduct a meeting with the
government regarding the plan and prepare a written contract of agreement. After that, a
presentation of a business plan is created to attract potential investors. In addition, an
expansion of business operations would also be good by establishing business relation
with other international airlines and make a network with related industry to strengthen
marketing strategies. Furthermore, a self-analysis every now and then could
accommodate the companys prosperity and resiliency.