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109.

Semiconductor Devices

Module 3

Texts and References:


1. Streetman & Banerjee : Solid State Electronic Devices, 6/e, PHI
2. S.M.Sze: Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 3/e, Wiley Eastern
3. V. Suresh Babu: Solid State Devices & Technology, Sanguine, Bangalore, 2005.

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109. Semiconductor Devices

Module 3

Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT):


BJT is a three terminal device and the terminals are: emitter (E), base (B) and collector
(C).
Two types of BJT are:
1. npn
2. pnp
In npn BJT, two n regions are separated by a p region. The structure and symbol of npn
BJT is shown below:

In pnp BJT, two p regions are separated by a n region. The structure and symbol of pnp
BJT is shown below:

The emitter region is typically medium in area and heavily doped, base region is small in
area and lightly doped and collector region is large in area and moderately doped.
BJT has two junctions named emitter-base junction and
Question:
collector-base junction. So the device is called bipolar
Part A
junction transistor.
What are the different modes of
Modes of operation:
operation of BJT?
BJT can operate in different modes according to the biasing
of two junctions. They are:
Biasing
Modes of
Emitter-Base Collector-Base Applications
operation
junction
junction
Forward active
Forward bias
Reverse bias
Amplifier
Inverse active
Reverse bias
Forward bias
Attenuator
Forward
Forward bias
Forward bias
Switch
saturation
(VEB > VCB)
Inverse
Forward bias
Forward bias
Switch
saturation
(VEB < VCB)
Cut-off
Reverse bias
Reverse bias
Switch
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109. Semiconductor Devices


Current components and terminal currents in BJT:
Consider the forward active mode of a pnp BJT. i.e.
emitter-base junction under forward biased and
collector-base junction under reverse biased,
The current components in pnp BJT is as shown below:

Module 3

Question:
Part B
Draw the current components in
BJT.

The different current components in BJT and its reasons are:


IpE Emitter current due to injection of hole from
Question:
emitter to base.
Part B
InE Emitter current due to injection of electron
List the current components in
from base to emitter.
BJT. How they are related to
IrB Base current due to recombination of carriers terminal currents?
in base.
IpC Collector current due to injection of holes from emitter to collector through
base.
ICBO Reverse saturation current in reverse biased collector-base junction, when
emitter-base junction is open. This current is due to minority carriers and is also
called leakage current in collector-base junction.
There is also terminal currents and its relationship with current components are:
Emitter current IE = IpE + InE
Collector current IC = IpC + ICBO
Base current IB = IrB + InE ICBO
For a transistor, current flowing towards the device is +ve, otherwise it is ve. So for
pnp BJT IE is +ve, IB is ve (since most of the current is due to IrB) and IC is also ve.
npn BJT is symmetry of pnp, so its IE is -ve, IB and IC is +ve.
The voltage drop and terminal currents in both BJT are shown:

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109. Semiconductor Devices

Module 3

Basic performance parameters of BJT


The most important parameters in BJT are:
1. Common-base current gain
2. Common-emitter current gain
Two other parameters which defines and are:
1. Emitter injection efficiency
2. Base transportation factor T
Emitter injection efficiency
It defines that how many carriers are injecting from
emitter to base. For pnp, it is the ratio of emitter current
due to holes injected from emitter to base to the total
emitter current.
It can be expressed as

Question:
Part A
Define injection efficiency and
transport factor of a BJT.

=
+

This shows that, to achieve maximum injection efficiency,

should be minimum.

This can be achieved by keeping the emitter doping concentration maximum with
respect to base doping concentration.
Base transport factor
It defines that how many carriers are transporting from emitter to collector through base. For
pnp, it is the ratio of collector current due to hole to the emitter current due to hole.
It can be expressed as

We can express = + , then

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109. Semiconductor Devices

Module 3

This shows that, to achieve maximum transport factor,

should be minimum. This

can be achieved by reducing doping concentration in base and reducing width of base.
Common-base current gain
This is defined as ratio of collector current and emitter
Question:
current, when base is common for other two terminals.
Part A
This current gain may be ac or dc and can be expressed
Define and of a BJT.
as,
dc current gain

We can express

= +
=
Then

But IC >> ICBO, then

---(1)

ac current gain (out of syllabus topic)

( )
=

ICBO is not a function of IE, then

( )

And

---(2)

This shows that for a good transistor, common-base current gain must be close to
unity.

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109. Semiconductor Devices

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Relationship between common-base current gain, injection efficiency and transport factor
Let M is the multiplication factor in collector-base
Question:
junction during the Avalanche breakdown of reverse
Part B
biasing. Then M is given by
Give the relationship between

basic performance parameters
=

of BJT.

We have


---(3)

---(4)

=
=

---(5)

Using (5)

Put this to (4)

= ---(6)

This shows that current gain can be improved by increasing injection factor and
transport factor.
Common-emitter current gain
It is defined as the ratio between collector current and base current when emitter is
common for other two terminals. This also has ac and dc current gain.
It can be expressed by
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109. Semiconductor Devices

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---(7)

Relationship between and

We have =

Then

= ---(8)

Base current IB = IrB + InE ICBO ---(9)


But = +

=
Substituting to (9)

= +
= + ( + )
= ---(10)
(Since = + and = + )

Using =

and substituting (8) and (10)

=
=
=

= ---(11)
This shows that, for a good BJT is infinity. In practical it is very high.
and of a BJT can be improved by increasing the emitter injection efficiency and
base transport factor.

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109. Semiconductor Devices

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Problem:
The following parameters are given for an npn transistor. InE = -5mA, IpE = -0.01mA,
InC = -4.99mA, IpC = -0.001mA. Determine T, , , , IB, IC and IE.
Solution:
For pnp transistor,

Then for npn transistor,

=
= .

.
+
+

For npn transistor,

Then for npn transistor,

= + . = .

=
=
=

= .
.
+
.
We have

=
Assume M = 1,

= . . = .

We have

.
=
=
.
For pnp transistor, IE = IpE + InE
Then for npn, IE = InE + IpE = -5 0.01 = -5.01mA
For pnp transistor IC = IpC + ICBO
Then for npn, IC = -(InC + ICBO)
ICBO is given as IpC = -0.001mA
Then IC = ( 4.99 0.001) = +4.991mA

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109. Semiconductor Devices

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For pnp transistor IB = IrB + InE ICBO


Then for npn, IB = (IrB + IpE ICBO)
IrB = 0.01mA
IB = ( 0.01 0.01 + 0.001) =0.019mA
Doping profile of BJT:
For maintaining high injection efficiency and transport
Question:
factor, emitter region should be heavily doped and base
Part A
region should be lightly doped and narrow width.
What are the doping and
For improving switching speed and reduce parasitic dimensional requirements of
capacitance, collector resistance should be as low as emitter, base and collector
possible. For that collector doping must be as high as region of a BJT?
possible.
If heavily doped collector region is used, under low reverse biasing of collector-base
junction, the depletion layer penetrates more on base region. This reduces the
effective width of base.
The complete penetration of depletion layer into the base region is called punch
through and is similar to breakdown.
During punch through, collector-base voltage loses control over the collector current.
To avoid the punch through, collector doping must be less than that of base. But this
reduces the switching speed and increases power dissipation.
To overcome this situation, collector doping near to base is kept lower than base
doping and collector doping away from base is kept higher than the base doping.
A practical doping profile for pnp BJT is shown below:

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109. Semiconductor Devices

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Question:
Part B
Energy band diagram of BJT
The energy band diagram of pnp BJT
under isolation, equilibrium, forward active
and saturation region are shown below:

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Plot the energy band diagram


and potential distribution of pnp
transistor in active region.
(April 2014)

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109. Semiconductor Devices

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Potential distribution in pnp BJT under equilibrium and forward active modes:
Equlibrium

Forward active mode

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109. Semiconductor Devices

Module 3

Question:
Part A

Draw the energy band diagram of npn BJT. (April 2014)

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109. Semiconductor Devices

Module 3

Minority carrier distribution in pnp BJT


This is helpful to determine terminal currents of BJT in terms of physical dimensions.
The minority carrier distribution of pnp BJT in saturation mode is shown below:

Different components used are:

nE0 equilibrium electron concentration in emitter and =


pB0 equilibrium hole concentration in base and =

nC0 equilibrium electron concentration in collector and =

nE concentration of electron injected from base to emitter at xE = 0


pE concentration of hole injected from emitter to base at x = 0
pC concentration of hole injected from collector to base at x = WB
nC concentration of electron injected from base to collector at xC = 0
We know that the excess carrier in pn junction is

= (

Using this,

=
=
=
=

---(1)

---(2)

---(3)

---(4)

The minority carrier distribution in base region is almost linear, because the current flow in
base region during saturation mode is only due to diffusion of carriers, not recombination.

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109. Semiconductor Devices

Module 3

Terminal current in terms of physical dimensions:


Consider pnp BJT and assume:
1. Areas of cross-sections of all regions are same.
2. Two junctions are abrupt.
3. Doping concentrations in all regions are uniform.
4. Minority carrier currents in neutral region are due to
diffusion.
5. Low level injection of carriers.
6. BJT is in steady-state condition.
7. Current flow is only in one-dimension.
8. No generation and recombination in depletion regions.
Apply continuity equation in base region for hole injection,
()
()
= ---(1)

The solution of (1) is

Question:
Part B
Derive expressions for IC, IE
and IB of an pnp BJT

---(2)

Apply boundary conditions


= ,

=
= , =
Then (2) becomes,

= +
= + ---(3)
And

---(4)

To find unknown constants C1 and C2



Multiply (3) by

(3) becomes
= + ---(5)
And (4) (5) becomes
= ( )
Then

---(6)

Substituting (6) to (3)

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109. Semiconductor Devices

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= +

=
=

()

(( )

---(7)

(( )

() ) + (


() )
(
+

+ ( ) ()

Substituting (6) and (7) to (2) gives



=

+
=

)
)

---(8)

The hole diffusion current in base is

=
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---(9)
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109. Semiconductor Devices

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Substituting (2) to (9)

---(10)

At x = 0,

=
=

---(11)

Substituting (6) and (7) to (11) gives


+
=

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109. Semiconductor Devices

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---(12)

At x = WB

=
Using (10)

+
=


+
=

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109. Semiconductor Devices

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---(13)

Similarly

---(14)
---(15)

Then terminal current

= +
Using (12) and (14)

Substituting (1), (2) and (3)

---(16)

In general

=
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---(17)
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Where

is reverse saturation current of emitter-base junction with collector-base is short circuited


and

---(18)

is reverse saturation current of collector-base junction with emitter-base is short circuited


and is reverse current gain when emitter-base junction is reverse biased and collector-base
junction is forward biased

---(19)

The terminal current

= +
Using (13) and (15)

Substituting (2), (3) and (4)

()

= ---(21)
Where is forward current gain when emitter-base junction is forward biased and
collector-base junction is reverse biased.

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The other terminal current

=
DC parameters in terms of physical dimensions:
Consider pnp BJT in forward active mode. Emitter injection efficiency

Using (12) and (14)

In forward active mode,

Then

If WB << Lp,

If WE << LnE,

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109. Semiconductor Devices

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Then


And

()

Base transportation factor

Using (12) and (13)

In forward active mode of BJT,

=
Then

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109. Semiconductor Devices

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If WB << Lp,

Since

1
1 + 2
2

Then

()

Let M = 1,

=
Using (22) and (23)


+
+

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()

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And

=
Using (24)

When

and

()

Problem:
1. A Si npn BJT has pB = 1s and pB = 440 cm2/V-s. Determine WB so that the transport
factor is 0.995 at T = 300K. Assume WB << Lp.
Solution:
If WB << Lp base transport factor

We have

=
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= . = . /

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109. Semiconductor Devices

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. = .

Then

. =

+
.

+
=
.
.

= .
.

= .
.
= . . = .
= .

2. Consider the following parameters of npn BJT at 300K:


Emitter
Base
19
-3
Doping
10 cm
1016 cm-3
Width
2m
1m
Minority
carrier
0.01s
0.06s
lifetime
Mobility
p = 350 cm2/V-s
n = 1250 cm2/V-s
Find , T, and .
Solution:
For npn BJT

Collector
1015cm-3
5m
1s
p = 450 cm2/V-s

=
+

=
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= . = . /

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109. Semiconductor Devices

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=
= . = . /

=
=
= =
= =

.
+

= .

For npn

= . . = .
=

= .

Assume M = 1

= = . . = .
=

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.
=
=
.

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109. Semiconductor Devices

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Ebers-Moll model of BJT:


This is a large signal model of BJT and is useful to obtain the
characteristics of BJT.
Consider the two diode equivalent circuit of pnp BJT:

Question:
Part B
Draw Ebers-Moll model of pnp
BJT and write the Ebers-Moll
equations. Explain the term
involved.

We have terminal current equations

()

()

In general

()

()

These equations are referred as Ebers-Moll equations


The Ebers-Moll model of pnp BJT using (3) and (4) is shown below:

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109. Semiconductor Devices

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Relationship between IES and ICS:

= =

Definition of ICBO and IEBO:


ICBO is reverse saturation current in collector-base junction, when emitter is open, i.e
IE = 0.
IEBO is reverse saturation current in collector-base junction, when collector is open, i.e
IC = 0.
Relationship between IES and IEBO, ICS and ICBO:
Question:
Take
Part B
=
Derive relationship between IES
and IEBO
()
Multiply (1) by

Question:
Part B
Derive relationship between ICS
and ICBO

()

Take

()

Add (2) and (3)

+ =

= +

()

When IE = 0

=
=

()

Where

=
()

Similarly

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()

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109. Semiconductor Devices

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Problem:
Prove the relations
a) = +
b) = + ( + )
Solution
a) For pnp BJT, we know that = + ()
When
= , =
Then = ()
By definition
i.e

()

From (1), =
Then (3) becomes

= +

Hence proved.

b) We have = + ()
Take = + ()
Substitute (1) to (2)

= + +
= +
= +

=
+

()

We know

Then (3) becomes


Hence proved.

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= + = +

= + +

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109. Semiconductor Devices

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Question:
Part B
Plot the minority carrier distribution in pnp BJT in
a) forward active mode b) saturation mode c) cutoff mode e) inverse active mode
Minority carrier distribution of pnp BJT in different operating modes:

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109. Semiconductor Devices

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Real BJT:
Consider the following non-idealities for a practical BJT:
1. Carrier recombination in emitter-base junction.
2. Drift in base region.
3. Effects of variation of VCB on terminal currents.
4. Avalanche multiplication in collector-base junction.
5. Resistance of the base region.
6. Non-ideal structure.
7. Kirk effect.
Effect due to recombination in emitter-base junction
Considering the recombination in emitter-base junction, the emitter current consists that
component also and is given by

()

Where

is depletion layer width of emitter-base junction

is carrier life time in emitter-base junction

Then emitter injection efficiency becomes

+ +

IR term reduces , especially is Si and GaAs BJTs at or below room temperatures.


If VEB and IC are increased, becomes negligible and term increases with IC.

Effect of drift in base region


Uniform doping is not practical in base region. Typically
Question:
doping concentration Nd(x) varies exponentially within base
Part B
region.
Explain the effect of non The variation of this doping concentration creates a built-in uniform doping in base
electric field from emitter to collector (for pnp BJT).
region of BJT.
The electric field adds a drift component to the transport of
hole from emitter to collector.
At equilibrium, the drift and diffusion current balances and current in base In(x) = 0. i.e,

Then built-in electric field

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109. Semiconductor Devices

=
=
=

Module 3


()

()

()

This shows that the built-in electric field is positive directed from emitter to collector.
This electric field helps transport of holes across the base region from emitter to collector
and transit time is reduced.
The reduction in transit time of electron (in npn) or hole (in pnp) is useful for BJT in high
frequency applications.
Effect of bias to collector-base junction (Early effect or base width modulation)
The effective width (WB) of base region is the difference between the total base width
(WB0) and the depletion layer width of collector-base junction into the base region. This
is as shown below:

Then

()

We know that

Substituting to (1)

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109. Semiconductor Devices

Module 3

()
+

Question:
This shows that the effective width of base region decreases
Part A
with increase in reverse-bias on the collector-base junction. What is base width
This effect is called base width modulation or Early effect.
modulation? (April
Due to Early effect, reverse bias of collector-base junction
2014)
increases IC and IE increases.
Increase in VCB, decreases WB and which increase the slope of minority carrier
distribution in base region. Increase in slope results increase in IpE and IpC.

When width of base is reduced, following effects will occur on BJT:


1. Increase IE and IC
Question:
2. Decrease IB (due to decrease in recombination in base
Part A
region)
What is Early effect? What
3. Increases T
are the effects on IC, IE, IB,
4. Increase and
and of BJT?

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109. Semiconductor Devices

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Punch through effect:


When VCB increases, depletion layer of collector-base region penetrates more into the
base region and the effective width of base decreases and become zero at a collector-base
reverse bias voltage called punch-through voltage (VPT).
Usually Avalanche breakdown occur only after this.
Question:
Using (2)
Part B
What is meant by punch
through in a BJT? How is it
avoided?

+
+
+ =

, then

Typically

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+
=

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109. Semiconductor Devices

Module 3

Avalanche multiplication in collector-base junction


Avalanche multiplication takes place in the reverse biased collector-base depletion
region, when VCB is very high.
Then of BJT increases causes increase in IC for a given IE.
The current entering collector-base depletion layer is IpC, current reaching collector is IC.
Also IC = IpC + ICBO, then multiplication factor
+
=
(1)

Avalanche multiplication factor is also given by

=
()

Where n lies between 2 and 7


For low VCB, M is unity.

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109. Semiconductor Devices

Module 3

Problem:
Question:
Part B

A Si npn bipolar transistor has NdC = 1018cm-3, NaB = 1015cm-3and WB =


1m. Determine the punch through voltage. (April 2014)
Solution:
We can write effective width of npn BJT collector-base junction

+
+


+ =

= .
= .


+
=

.
. .

= . . = .
Resistance of base region and emitter crowding
In real structure of BJT base region has large in area comparing to emitter and the
resistance of base is distributed over this region. This is shown below:

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109. Semiconductor Devices

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The effective resistance of base depends on the doping


Question:
concentration of base and its geometry. So this resistance is
Part A
also called base spreading resistance rB.
What is meant by emitter
Due this resistance, the applied voltage is modified as
crowding?
VEB VEB - IB rB and VCB VCB - IB rB
Then the carrier flow between emitter and collector is not through center and is through
the peripheral sides of emitter. This is called emitter crowding.

Static V-I characteristics of BJT


There are three configurations for characteristics of BJT. They are:
1. Common-Base (CB) configuration
Base is common to both input and output.
2. Common-Emitter (CE) configuration
Emitter is common to both input and output
3. Common-Collector (CC) configuration
Collector is common to both input and output
CB configuration:
The circuit arrangement of pnp BJT in CB configuration is shown below:

Here the input current is IE (+ve), input voltage is VEB (+ve), output current is IC (-ve) and
output voltage is VCB (-ve).

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109. Semiconductor Devices

Module 3

Input characteristics of CB configuration


It is the plot of input current IE as a function of input voltage
VEB with output voltage VCB held constant.
By Ebers-Moll equation,

When collector-base region is under reverse biased, VCB < 0V

Then the plot of input characteristics under different VCB is


shown below:

Question:
Part B
Plot the input and output
characteristics of a pnp
transistor in common-base
configuration and explain?
Marks different operating
regions.
Question:
Part A

Draw the input


characteristics of a
pnp transistor in
common base
configuration.
(October 2014)

The shape of this characteristic is similar to pn junction diode, but increasing reverse bias
VCB shifts the characteristics to left side.
When VCB increases, reduce base width cause an increase in IE. i.e is the reason for shift
of the curve to left.
This shift is also the consequence of Early effect.
Output characteristics of CB configuration
It is the plot of output current IC as a function of output voltage VCB with input current IE
held constant.
Consider the equation

= +
= +

()

When IE = 0, and VCB 0 (collector-base reverse bias voltage),

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109. Semiconductor Devices

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= ()

IC is constant.
When IE > 0, and VCB 0,

= ()

IC remains constant, if IE is constant.


When VCB > 0 (collector-base junction forward biased), IC decreases due to injection of
holes from collector to base. For a finite VCB, collector current becomes zero and using
(1)

= +

=

=


=
()

Then the output characteristics of CB configuration is as shown below:

For IE = 0, VEB should be 0 (emitter-base reverse bias) and VCB 0 (collector-base


reverse bias), that region is labeled as cutoff region. Here IC 0, for IE = -ICEO.
For IE > 0, VEB > 0 (emitter-base forward bias) and VCB > 0 (collector-base forward bias),
that region is labeled as saturation region. Here IC linearly increases with increase in IE.
For IE > 0, VEB > 0 (emitter-base forward bias) and VCB 0 (collector-base reverse bias),
that region is labeled as active region. Here IC = - IE.

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109. Semiconductor Devices

Module 3

Question:
Part A

Draw the input characteristics of an npn transistor in


common base configuration. (April 2014)
Solution:
For npn BJT in CB configuration, input voltage VEB (-ve), input current IE (-ve), output voltage
VCB (+ve).
Input characteristics is plot of IE as a function of VEB by keeping VCB constant.

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109. Semiconductor Devices

Module 3

CE configuration:
The circuit arrangement of pnp BJT in
configuration is shown below:

CE

Question:
Part B

Explain the
characteristics of
transistor in CE
configuration. (April
2014)

Here the input current IB (-ve), input voltage VBE (-ve), output current IC (-ve) and output
voltage VCE (-ve).
Input characteristics of CE configuration
It is the plot of input current IB as a function of input voltage VBE with output voltage VCE
held constant.
Consider Ebers-Moll equations,

=
=

= +

()

In this configuration VCE = VCB + VBE,


then VCB = VCE VBE
If VCE VBE , VCB 0, and collector-base junction becomes reverse biased. Then (1)
becomes

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+ +

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109. Semiconductor Devices

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Then the plot of input characteristics of CE configuration is shown below:

The shape of the characteristics is similar to pn junction diode, but if VCE increases
reverse bias, the curve shift to right side.
When VCE increases vely, VCB also increases vely and collector-base junction becomes
more reverse biased. This results base width modulation and causes increase in T, then
base current IB decreases for a given VBE.
Due to this the curve shifts right side when VCE increases vely.
Output characteristics of CE configuration
It is the plot of output current IC as a function of output voltage VCE with input current IB
held constant.
We have VCE = VCB + VBE,
VBE = VCE VCB
When VCE = 0, VCB = VBE = VEB
i.e collector-base and emitter-base junctions are equally biased. Under this condition, the
injection of carrier from both junctions are equal and there is no current flow in collector
and IC = 0.
When VCE increases vely, VCB also increase vely cause an increase in collector current
IC. Further increase in VCE cause Early effect results an increase in IC for a given IB. Here
IC is not constant like CB due to the Early effect.
IB can be increased by increasing VBE. Increasing IB reduce the resistance between
collector and emitter cause more injection of carrier into base. This results an increase in
IC.
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109. Semiconductor Devices

Module 3

Consider the equation

= + +

When IB = 0, i.e.

= +

Where ICEO is current between emitter and collector when


Question:
base is open. It is (1+) times more than ICBO. With reverse
Part A
biased collector-base junction, electron drifts from collector to
What is ICEO?
base and it accumulates there produces a small forward bias
on the emitter-base junction cause an injection of holes from emitter to base. This results
the current ICEO
The plot of output characteristics for CE configuration is shown below:

For IB = 0, VBE 0, therefore VEB 0 (emitter-base junction reverse biased) and VCE 0,
VCB = VCE - VBE
VCB = VCE + VEB 0 (collector-base junction reverse biased).
This region is labeled as cutoff region. Here |IC| = ICEO.
For IB < 0, VBE < 0, therefore VEB > 0 (emitter-base junction forward biased) and if VCE
varies from 0 to -VBE, VCB will be VBE to 0 (collector-base junction forward biased). This
region is labeled as saturation region. Here IC increases linearly with increase in VCE.
For IB < 0, VBE < 0, therefore VEB > 0 (emitter-base junction forward biased) and if VCE <
-VBE, VCB < 0 (collector-base junction reverse biased). This region is labeled as active
region. Here |IC| IB.

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109. Semiconductor Devices

Module 3

Effect of base width modulation and Avalanche breakdown in CE configuration:


When VCB increases, IC increases due to injection of
Question:
carriers in base region.
Part B
In CE configuration, IC in active region increases due to
Explain Early effect in CE
Early effect.
configuration. What is Early
For higher value of VCE, the slope also increases due to voltage?
Avalanche multiplication in collector-base junction.
The effect of base width modulation in output characteristics of CE configuration is
shown below:

IC increases due the reduction in base width as VCB increases. It is given by

Where VA is called Early voltage.


For a well designed BJT punch through is avoided. So the maximum value of VCB is
decided by Avalanche breakdown.
The relation between Avalanche breakdown in CB and CB is

Where breakdown voltage in CE when base is is open, is breakdown


voltage in CB when emitter is open and n varies from 2 to 7.

This shows that >>


The effect of Avalanche breakdown in output characteristics of CE configuration is
shown below:

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109. Semiconductor Devices

Module 3

Field Effect Transistors (FET):


These transistors are work on the principle of field effect. It
Question:
uses the transverse electric field to control longitudinal
Part A
current flow between two terminals.
What is meant by field effect
The current flow in these devices is only due the majority transistor?
carriers only. So these are unipolar devices.
Due to the absence of minority carriers, there is no generation/recombination process
involved in the conduction.
FETs are less temperature dependence and more immune to radiation.
The fabrication of FETs is simpler than BJTs and they
Question:
occupy less area only.
Part A
Due to the high noise immune, they are applicable as high
1. What are the advantages of
frequency amplifiers in satellite communication. They are FETs over BJTs?
also suitable for operational amplifiers, instrumentation 2. List the applications of FETs.
amplifiers etc. because of the high input resistance. Due the
small occupancy are, they are suitable for constructing microprocessors, memory chips
etc.
Different types of FETs are:
Question:
1. Junction FET (JFET):
Part A
2. Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET (MOSFET): Field
How are FETs classified?
effect is obtained by metal-oxide semiconductor
interface.
Junction FET (JFET):
In this FET, field effect is obtained by the pn junction.
There are two types of JFET:
1. n-channel JFET
2. p-channel JFET
A simplified structure of a n-channel JFET is shown below:

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Question:
Part A
Explain the fabrication of JFET.

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109. Semiconductor Devices

Module 3

It consists of a lightly doped n-region sandwiched between two p+ regions. The middle n
region is called channel of the JFET and the p+ regions form gate. (In case of p-channel
JFET, p-channel and n+ gates are there.)
One end of the channel is designated as source (S) and other end as drain (D). These are
interchangeable terminals. For n-channel JFET, terminal to which higher potential is
applied acts as drain.
The drain collects the charge carriers emitted from the source through the channel.
The gate (G) terminal controls the flow of current through the channel.
The symbol of FET is:

The real structure of single gate n-channel JFET is shown below:

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109. Semiconductor Devices

Module 3

Principle of operation of JFET:


Consider the simplified schematic structure of dual gate nchannel JFET as shown below:

Question:
Part B
Explain the working of
an n-channel JFET.
(October 2014)

Let the channel thickness is 2a, channel width Z, channel length L, W0 depletion layer
width of gate to channel junction on both side under thermal equilibrium and Nd doping
concentration of channel.
The resistance of the channel with no bias (VGS = 0,
Question:
VDS = 0) or under equilibrium is given by
Part B

Derive
expression
for
=
=
()

equilibrium conductance of the


Conductivity of the channel
channel of JFET.

= ()
Area of cross section of the channel

= ()
Substituting (3) and (2) into (1)

=
()

or conductance of the channel


=
()

Depletion layer width of the channel at equilibrium is


=

()

Where V0 is built-in potential of gate to channel junction.


The resistance of the channel can be varied by varying the gate voltage. So the gate
terminal acts as a control terminal.

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109. Semiconductor Devices

Module 3

When reverse bias on the gate increase, depletion layer extends more into the channel.
Then effective channel thickness and channel cross section area reduces, cause decrease
in channel conductance.
Changing conductance of channel by gate voltage is called conductance modulation.
When a drain to source voltage VDS is applied, the drift current through the channel ID
and is governed by Ohms law. i.e =

The channel resistance R can be controlled by gate voltage VGS. It also changes according
to VDS.
Drain characteristics of JFET:
It is the plot of drain current ID as a function of drain to
Question:
source voltage VDS keeping gate to source voltage VGS
constant.
Part B
Case 1: If VGS = 0, VDS = 0, R = R0 and ID = 0
Draw and explain the

drain characteristics of
an n-channel JFET.
(April 2014)
Hint: Answer each case and
draw drain characteristics.
Dont answer pinch-off voltage
derivation.

Case 2: If VGS = 0, 0 < VDS < V0, for small VDS change in R is negligible, so it is almost
close to R0. Then ID increase linearly with increase in VDS. This portion of drain
characteristics is called linear region or ohmic region. This is shown below:

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109. Semiconductor Devices

Module 3

Case 3: If VGS = 0, V0 < VDS < VD(sat), as VDS increases voltage drop in the channel
gradually increase from source to drain. Also the reverse bias between gate and channel
gradually increases from source end to drain end. Then the depletion layer width also
gradually increases from source end to drain end. This increase R of the channel. When
channel resistance increase with VDS, the slope of the characteristics decreases and the
situation is shown below:

Case 4: If VGS = 0, VDS = VD(sat), the depletion layers at the


drain end of the channel meet together and reduce the
effective width of the channel thickness to zero. This
condition is called pinch-off and voltage between drain and
gate pn junction at pinch-off is called pinch-off voltage Vp.
Consider the following arrangement,

Then = +
At pinch-off, VDS = VD(sat) + V0, VDG = Vp, then

() + = +
= () + ()
But Vp is independent of VDS or VGS.
At pinch-off the depletion width equals half width of
channel. i.e. W = a. Then

Question:
Part A
Define a) pinch-off voltage b)
saturation voltage of JFET.

Question:
Part A
Write the expression for pinchoff voltage interms of a) doping
concentration and channel
thickness b) saturation voltage
and gate to source voltage

Since Vp >> Vo
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109. Semiconductor Devices

Module 3

=
()

This shows that the pinch-off voltage is unique for a given JFET and is depends on the
channel doping and channel width. If doping concentration or channel width increases
pinch-off voltage increases.
At pinch-off, ID becomes constant and is denoted as ID(sat) as shown below:

Case 5: If VGS = 0, VDS > VD(sat) , more portion of channel width becomes pinch-off and
current flow in longitudinal direction and remain constant. This is shown below:

Case 6: If VGS = 0, VDS is higher value, the reverse biased gate channel junction
breakdown due to Avalanche multiplication. Then ID increases uncontrollable.
The drain characteristics for VGS = 0 is shown below:

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109. Semiconductor Devices

Module 3

Case 7: If VGS < 0 (increases reverse bias), increase depletion width and channel
resistance. This reduces the slope of the characteristics in ohmic region. This also reduces
VD(sat) and ID(sat). With increase in VDS and VGS (reverse bias), Avalanche breakdown
occurs also decrease. Then the complete drain characteristics of JFET is shown below:

From this characteristics, an important parameter for JFET is dynamic drain resistance rD
and is given by

()

The value of VGS at which channel gets completely depleted is called cut-off voltage or
threshold voltage Vth of JFET.

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109. Semiconductor Devices

Module 3

Transfer characteristics of JFET:


It is the plot of the drain current ID as a function of gate to source voltage VGS by
keeping VDS as constant.
At a constant VDS, if reverse bias between gate and source is increase, ID will
decrease as shown below:

The drain current is maximum when VGS = 0 due to minimum channel resistance and
it reduces to zero when VGS = VGS(cut-off), where VGS(cut-off) is given by

() =

The slope of the transfer characteristics gives a parameter called transconductance gm


and is given by

()

Static I-V characteristics, current equation and device parameters:


To derive static I-V characteristics, consider the following assumptions:
1. Mobility of channel remains constant.
2. The gate and channel are uniformly doped.
3. The length of the channel L is large compared to its thickness 2a.
4. Applied VDS VD(sat)

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109. Semiconductor Devices

Module 3

Consider the cross sectional view of JFET with direction current and variation of
depletion layer along the channel.

The current through the channel is given by

= ()
Where A(x) is area of cross section of the channel at distance x, is the channel

conductivity and is the electric field at x in the channel.


Area of cross section

= ()
Depletion width in the channel along x-axis,

+ + ()

Where + + () represents the reverse bias between channel and gate at


distance x. VGS is always ve, otherwise input resistance of JFET becomes low. Then

+ ()

=
Then

+ ()
()

The conductivity of the channel is

= ()

Electric field

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()

()

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109. Semiconductor Devices

Module 3

Substituting (3), (4) and (5) into (1),

()
+ ()

()
+ ()

= =

+ ()
()

Integrating both sides,

+ ()
()

+ ()

+ ()

()

()

+ ()

()

+ ()

()

+ ()

()

+ ()

()

(Neglecting W0 in G0)

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109. Semiconductor Devices

+ ()
()

+ ()
()

=
=

Module 3

()

This is the current equation for JFET.

Threshold voltage, Vth:


It is the voltage applied to gate to completely deplete the channel or reduce the channel
thickness to zero. This results ID = 0.
It is given by

= ()
Drain current at saturation, ID(sat):
It is the drain current at VDS = VD(sat), and is given by

() = +

Question:
Part A
Express the equation for a) Vth )
b) ID(sat) c) Channel conductance
d) Transconductance.

()

Where

= () +
Channel conductance, gD:
It can define as

()

It is given by

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109. Semiconductor Devices

Module 3

()

In ohmic region, 0< VDS<V0, then VDS << V0-VGS, then

()

Transconductance, gm:
It can define as

()

At pinch-off, VDS = VD(sat), then

=
=

+ ()

+ +

()

It is given as

()

(4) and (6) are identical, i.e. gD = gm or gD in linear region is same as gm in saturation
region (below pinch-off region).

Drain current relation with VGS:


The relationship between saturation drain current and different values of VGS is given by

() =

Where IDSS is short-circuit drain saturation current, i.e. saturation current with VGS = 0

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109. Semiconductor Devices

Module 3

Problem:
An n-channel Si JFET at 300K has width Z = 1mm, channel thickness on one side a = 1m,
channel length L = 25m, channel doping Nd = 1016 cm-3 and the gate doping is 1019cm-3.
Determine: a) contact potential b) pinch-off voltage c) current at VGS = - 2 V, VDS = 3V and
d) saturation current at VGS = -2V using theoretical and approximate expressions. Take n =
1100cm2/V-s.
Solution:
a)
b)

= .

.
..

= .

= .

c) Gate to channel voltage VGC = VDS + V0 - VGS = 3 + 0.877 (-2) = 5.877V


And VGC < VP, Then transistor is in saturation region and

.
=
=


= .

= . .

.
.

. ()

= .

d) () = + +

= . . . . + .

.+
.

= .
Approximate value

() =

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109. Semiconductor Devices

Module 3

.
= . . . . + .

.
= .

() = .
+
= .
.

Real JFET:
The characteristics of real JFET are:
1. Channel length modulation: Ideally drain current is
Question:
constant after pinch-off, but really it increases slightly
Part A
with VDS after pinch-off.
What is meant by channel
The effective length of channel decreases after pinch- length modulation in JFET?
off, then the channel conductance G0 increases. This
shows that conductance of channel is modulated by the variation in effective length
by VDS. This is called channel length modulation. Due to this ID increases with
increase in VDS after pinch-off.
2. High field effects: The electric field along the channel is very high, if the channel is
short. The velocity of electron at high electric field has saturation, then mobility of
electron decreases with increase in electric field. Then there is a reduction in
conductance of the channel and ID for a given VDS.
3. Breakdown: In JFET, gate channel junction is always reverse biased. Then for large
values of VDS may cause Avalanche breakdown of the junction. For more ve values
of VGS, the breakdown occurs at the smaller values of VDS.
4. Temperature effects: With increase in temperature the
Question:
mobility of carriers decreases due to increase in
Part A
scattering by lattice vibration. This leads to reduction in
What is the effect of increase in
ID with rise in temperature.
temperature on JFET drain
current?

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109. Semiconductor Devices

Module 3

Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) Systems:


MOS capacitors and MOSFET are charge coupled devices.
MOS capacitor is a two terminal device and may be considered as a MOS diode.
MOSFET is a FET, which make use of MOS capacitor for modulate channel
conductance.
MOSFET are superior to BJTs due to many factors, some are: high scale of integration,
high gain-bandwidth product. MOSFET are always considered for applications in high
speed digital circuits, high density ICs etc.
MOS Capacitors:
A two terminal metal oxide semiconductor system is used as a MOS capacitor (or MOS
diode).
The structure of a metal (Al) oxide (SiO2) semiconductor
Question:
(p-type Si) capacitor is shown below:
Part A
Draw the simplified structure of
MOS capacitor.

An ideal MOS capacitor have:


1. Equal work function for metal and semiconductor
2. Oxide acts as a perfect insulator and no trapped charges, no defects and no interface
states.
The capacitance per unit area of MOS capacitor is given by

Where is permittivity of oxide and tox is thickness of oxide.

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109. Semiconductor Devices

Module 3

Energy band diagram of MOS capacitor:


To draw the energy band diagram of MOS capacitor consider the following tips:
1. At equilibrium Fermi level is a common horizontal line
2. When biasing voltage is applied, Fermi level on the semiconductor side moves up or
down relative to that of semiconductor.
3. The conduction band and valence band of oxide bends in the direction of electric
field.
4. With any bias, the relative positions of EC, EV, and Ei remain unchanged with respect
to oxide conduction band edge at the interface.
The equilibrium energy band diagram of a MOS capacitor is shown below:
Question:
Part B
Draw the energy band diagram
of MOS capacitor under
a) Equlibrium b) Accumulation
c) Depeltion d) Inversion
e) Strong Inversion

In MOS capacitor, there is no current flow from metal to semiconductor or


semiconductor to metal under any bias.
Case 1 (VG < 0 or accumulation):
When a negative voltage is applied to the metal with respect to semiconductor (V G < 0),
+ve charges are induced on the semiconductor.
The induced charges accumulate near the oxide-semiconductor interface. Then there is a
increase in hole concentration near the interface.

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109. Semiconductor Devices

Module 3

The change in carrier concentration near the interface causes a bending of energy band at
the interface. Then the energy band diagram of MOS capacitor under VG < 0 (called
accumulation) is as shown below:

The semiconductor outside the accumulation region remains neutral. When VG increases
vely, the Fermi-level on the semiconductor side shifts downward by qVG.
Under this condition, the effective capacitance of MOS capacitor is the series
combination of oxide capacitance and capacitance of accumulation layer.
The accumulation layer is very thin, so its capacitance is very high, then the effective
capacitance is same as Cox.
Case 2 (VG > 0, or depletion):
When a small +ve voltage is applied to the metal with respect to semiconductor (V G > 0),
-ve charges are introduced in p-type semiconductor,
The ve charges moves towards metal-semiconductor interface and they recombine with
holes. Then depletion layer formed near the interface.
The energy band diagram for this bias voltage is shown below:

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109. Semiconductor Devices

Module 3

Fermi-level of semiconductor due to the bias shifts upward by qVG.


The bending of energy band near the interface in the depletion region. Then the effective
capacitance of the MOS capacitor is the series combination of oxide capacitance C ox and
the depletion layer capacitance CD. It is given by

(All capacitance are in F/cm2)


The charge per unit area in semiconductor in the depletion layer is given by
=
Where W is width of depletion layer and is given by
=

And is called surface potential and is given by

Where Eib is intrinsic level in the bulk semiconductor and Eis is intrinsic level at the
surface of interface.
Case 3 (VG >> 0 or inversion) :
When VG is increased to high value, Fermi-level on the semiconductor move upside and
band bends downside. Then the Fermi-level at the interface lies above the intrinsic level.
This result inversion of interface surface and is called inversion.
The inversion of surface is due to the attraction of electrons towards the surface, and the
concentration of electrons near the interface becomes more than hole.
Then the thin region in which electron concentration exceeds hole concentration is called
inversion layer. This is shown below:

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109. Semiconductor Devices

Module 3

Once inversion occurs, further increase in VG cause only increase in inversion layer
charge.
The thickness of inversion layer is very small compared to W.
The total charge in the semiconductor under this condition is given by

= +
=

Where is charge per unit area of electrons in the inversion layer, Wm maximum
width of depletion layer and QDm is maximum value of the charge per unit area of
depletion layer.
Further increase in VG cause the intrinsic level at the interface surface goes below the
Fermi-level by an amount equal to or above of the Fermi-level at the bulk semiconductor.
Then electron concentration at the interface surface become equal to hole concentration
in the bulk. This is called strong inversion. This is shown below:

Fermi-potential is defined by

= ()

It depends on the semiconductor doping concentration.


Surface potential

Under strong inversion

=
or

= ()
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109. Semiconductor Devices

Module 3

From (2), =
Substituting into (3)

= + ()
From (1), =
Then (4) becomes

= +
= +
=
= ()

This shows that under strong inversion, surface potential is twice of Fermi potential. And
highly concentration of electrons is present in the surface.
Relation of charge densities:
We have carrier concentration under equilibrium,
=
=
Here hole concentration
=
= ()
Where Fermi potential

Here electron concentration

()

=
()

The electron concentration in the surface of p-type semiconductor is given by


=
But

= ( )( )
= ( )+( )
Then

= +
=
= ()
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109. Semiconductor Devices

Under thermal equilibrium,


then

Module 3

and increase in
electron concentration. When = , = . At
this point inversion starts and when > , electron
Increasing VG causes increase in

concentration in the surface exceeds ni (i.e. ns > ni). Then


surface semiconductor inverted.

At strong inversion

= ,
=

Question:
Part A
What is the value of surface
potential of a MOS capacitor
under a) at the inversion b)
strong inversion?

i.e minority carrier concentration at the interface is same as majority carrier concentration
in the bulk semiconductor.
After strong inversion, a small increase in VG causes only a large increase in nS only, not
in W.

C-V characteristics of MOS capacitor:


In MOS device, capacitance varies according to applied bias voltage V G. When a voltage
VG is applied to gate (Metal), a part of it drops in oxide and reminder in semiconductor.
Then

= + ()

Where Vox is voltage across oxide.


By definition of oxide capacitance,

()

We have =
Then (1) becomes

+ ()

When VG changes, Qs and S changes, then differentiating (3) w.r.t VG


+


=
+
()

=

Let capacitance per unit area of the MOS device is defined as

=
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( )
=
()

Page 64

109. Semiconductor Devices

Module 3

Let semiconductor capacitance is defined as

()

Substituting (5) and (6), (4) becomes

=
+

=
+


=
()
+

This shows that oxide capacitance and semiconductor capacitance are in series. C ox is
always constant and Cs is dependent on bias.
At accumulation (VG < 0), C = CG and at depletion (0 < VG
Question:
< Vth), CS = CD. CD decreases with increase in VG due to
Part B
increase in depletion width.
At strong inversion, depletion width remains constant and Draw and explain the
C-V characteristics of
CS will constant.
The equivalent capacitance of MOS devices is shown an ideal MOS
below:
capacitor. (October

2014)

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109. Semiconductor Devices

Module 3

The C-V characteristics of MOS device is shown below:

If capacitance is measured at high frequency signal, the inversion layer didnt respond
with the gate voltage. The Cs effect is negligible and CD is effective. When VG < 0
(accumulation), C = Cox and is constant. When VG > 0 (depletion), CD decreases and
C CD and varies with VG. When VG >> 0 (inversion and strong inversion), CD goes to
minimum and constant, since depletion width is also constant. Then C = Cmin.
At low frequency, depletion layer width is almost constant and CD is negligible. The net
capacitance is decided by inversion layer capacitance CS and Cox. When VG < 0
(accumulation), C = Cox and is constant. When VG > 0 (depletion), Cs decreases and
C CS and varies with VG. When VG >> 0 (inversion and strong inversion), CS goes to
high and is more than Cox, then C = Cox.

Threshold voltage of MOS capacitor:


It is the voltage required to introduce strong inversion in
the semiconductor.
It is VG at strong inversion. Then

Question:
Part B
Define threshold voltage of
ideal MOS capacitor.

= +

=
+

At inversion,

= =
=

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109. Semiconductor Devices

Module 3

=
Then

= ()
Substituting (2) to (1)

+ ()

This shows that threshold voltage of MOS devices is inversely proportional to oxide
capacitance.
Problems:
1. For a MOS capacitor formed on p-type Si substrate doped with Na = 5x1016cm-3,
determine the surface potential required to make the surface: a) intrinsic b) at strong
inversion.
Solution:
a) At inversion (intrinsic), =

= .

= .
b) At strong inversion =

= . = .

2. A Si MOS structure at 300K is characterized by Na = 4x1014cm-3, tox = 0.1m. Oxide is


idea. The metal is brought to a potential of +1V with respect to semiconductor rox = 3.9.
a) Does inversion occur? b) Calculate voltage across oxide.
Solution:
If VG > Vth inversion occurs. Given that VG = 1V.
We have

= .
= .

.
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109. Semiconductor Devices

Module 3

. .
=
=
=
= . /

. . . .
.

+ .

= .
a) Given VG > Vth, then strong inversion occurs.
b) At strong inversion = = . = .

= +
= = . = .
Real MOS systems:
Real MOS devices have:
1. Work function difference of metal and semiconductor
2. Oxide and interface charges
3. Change in Vth due to the different work functions.

Question:
Part B
What are the non-idealities in a
real MOS capacitor? How do
they change flat band voltage
and threshold voltage?

Typically work function q of metal (Al) is less than

Question:
that of semiconductor. Therefore at equilibrium, there is a
Part A
bend in conduction bands of interface at equilibrium. So to What is meant by flat band
obtain flat band a negative voltage must be applied at VG voltage?
and is referred as flat band voltage VFB.
There will be lot of charges in oxide layer and will affect oxide-semiconductor interface.
Different charges are:
1. Ionic charges Presence of Alkali ions like Na+ shifts
Question:
the threshold voltage.
Part A
2. Fixed oxide charges These charges located in oxide
What are the different charges
as a sheet of +ve charge near Si-SiO2 interface.
present in the oxide? How do
3. Interface charges These charges present in Si-SiO2 they affect the threshold of
interface due to the sudden termination of MOS system?
semiconductor at the interface.
4. Trapped charges Oxide may contain trapped charges within the defects present in
the oxide.
Due to the flat band voltage, the modified threshold voltage is given by

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