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Introduction to Environmental Engineering
2. Environmental System Overview
a. Water resource Management system
b. Air resource management system
c. Solid waste management system
3. Water supply, sanitation and Wastewater Engineering
a. History & Development of water supply system, Elements of water supply system, water quantity
& quality, Characteristics of water: physical, chemical and biological parameters, standard
methods of water analyses.
b. Introduction to sanitation, technological options, storm water and sullage drainage
c. Water, Human waste and wastewater treatment plants and systems: physical, chemical and biological
systems, primary, secondary and tertiary treatment, sedimentation, coagulation, flocculation, filtration,
adsorption, ammonia removal, aeration, anaerobic and aerobic digestion, activated sludge and trickling
filter, ion exchange, lagoons, disinfection, natural treatment systems)
d. Water distribution systems, storage reservoirs and wastewater collection systems, pipe networks and
network design, sanitary sewer and storm water collection system design, basic pumps/prime movers,
urban drainage and runoff control.
4. Air Quality monitoring and pollution control engineering
a. Air quality: Definitions, characteristics and perspectives
b. Dispersion and deposition modeling of atmospheric pollutants (Eddy and Gaussian diffusion models,
Puff models, effective stack heights and spatial concentration distributions, Measurement techniques.
c. Control of pollutant particulates: collection mechanisms and efficiencies.
d. Control of gases and vapours: adsorption, absorption, combustion, incineration.
e. Control of sulphur oxides and oxides of nitrogen,
f. Air toxics, mobile sources of air pollutants, noxious pollutants, and odour control.
5. Solid waste management technology
a. Engineering design and operational aspects of waste generation, collection, storage, transfer,
processing, including composting of organic waste, treatment and disposal.
b .Engineering evaluation of: integrated waste management, solid waste characterization and
classification, reduction, reuse and recycling, resource recovery and utilization.
c. Life cycle assessment of waste, physical and chemical treatment methods and composting.
d. Landfill design and operation including: site selection, engineered sites, liners and covers, leachate
control and treatment, gas recovery and control.
What is Environmental Engineering?
EE is the study of environmental, social and economic aspects & impacts of development for decision
making, for mitigating plan of adverse impacts, and for making follow up monitoring mechanisms to secure
Scope of EE
• Who is concerned?
• What are their concerns?
• Why are they concerned?
• What is the effect of concern when changes become unacceptable?
Why EE is Important?
 To identify adverse (physical, biological, cultural & socio-economic impacts & potential
 Avoid or mitigate adverse environmental, social & cultural impacts
 Better planning
 Reduce costs
 Avoid loss of resources
What is Environment?
 In simple term, we can say the surroundings around us such as air , water, soil, dwellings, plants,
animals etc.
 Environment consists of:
- Abiotic factor : Non-living physical & chemical factors which affect the ability of living things to
survive and reproduce.
Example: Light, temperature, soil, climate, water, air ( O2, CO2), rainfall, minerals, natural disasters
- Biotic factor: Living components of the environment such as plants, animals, humans,
Natural environment
Flora & Fauna, human beings, minerals, water, land, air etc.
Man-made (Built) environment
Constructed surroundings that provide the setting for human activity such as- Building, roads, electricity,
water supply, gas etc.
Types of Environment
 Physical Environment: Topography, geology, hydrology, climate, river system, natural drainage
system, surface and groundwater qualities, air and noise qualities.
 Biological Environment: Wetland and terrestrial flora and fauna, human being, organisms
 Socio-economic Environment: Population and demographic characteristics; education; economy
and employment; water, sanitation and waste disposal facilities; health status
Environmental Factors
 Ecological : Fisheries, aquatic plants, wetlands, bushes and trees, animal, species diversity,
endangered species
 Physico-chemical : Erosion and siltation, flooding, drainage congestion, air pollution, noise
pollution, water pollution, dust, visual & landscape
 Human Interest Related and Social: Loss of agricultural land and fishing grounds, loss of
livelihood, resettlement, service facilities, public health, transport, employment, land ownership
pattern, landscape, commercial activities
Effect of environment on living being
 Air, water & land may host harmful biological & chemical agents that affect the health of human
 Environmental problems are grouped under urban, rural, industrial and natural categories.
 Urban environmental problems are air, water, noise, waste etc.
 Rural environmental problems are done through chemical fertilizers and pesticides use, forest &
wetlands converting into poor quality agricultural lands, embankment construction disrupts inflow
of sediments & nutrients, migration of fish
 Industries dump toxic chemical effluents into water body
 Natural environmental problems are arsenic poisoning, saline water intrusion, deforestation,
destruction of habitats, depletion of renewable & non-renewable resources, desertification
Environmental impacts of human activities
Urbanization: High population density, Slum development, High demand of utility services, Air, water &
land pollution, Traffic congestion, noise pollution, Ground water depletion, Large volume of solid waste
Industrialization: Air, soil & water pollution, Depletion of minerals and fossil fuel, High demand of
energy & water, Waste generation, Thermal pollution
Deforestation: Loss of habitat/ biodiversity, Changes in local ecology, Changes in micro-climate, Loss of
carbon sink, Soil erosion, Less water retention, Increased flooding
Intensive agriculture: Water, soil & air pollution, Organic waste & GHG emission, Land degradation,
Bio-accumulation of toxic substances from herbicides & pesticides, Depletion of Ground water, Loss of
soil productivity
Development projects: Conversion of forest, agricultural & wet land, Removal of human settlements,
Blockage of natural drainage/ water logging, Morphological changes of river system, Increased demand for
water, energy & transport, Destruction of unique natural features & scenic beauty