Enhancing Perforation Productivity Without

Initial Underbalance….A Novel Technique
A PURETM Gun System
“Perforating for Ultimate Reservoir Exploitation”

Ian Walton
Larry Behrmann
Perforating Research
Schlumberger Reservoir Completions

Current Paradigm

• Overbalanced perforating is damaging.

Schlumberger Private

• Perforating underbalance is the technique of choice
for maximizing productivity.

Perforating Strong Rock
damaged
zone

• perforating creates a low-permeability damaged zone around
the perf tunnel
• perforating underbalance helps remove the damage

Schlumberger Private

debris

(Minimized by post-perforation injection. • Mobile fines that plug pores during production. only important where injection is required.Three Sources of Damage • Crushed zone reduced permeability.) • Fractured rock debris in perforation tunnel.) . (Removed by late time surge flow.) Schlumberger Private (Minimized by shooting underbalanced.

permeability) and effective stress and maybe on rate of drawdown.Crushed Zone Damage Removal • How much underbalance do we need? • How much underbalance do we get? Depends on ……. Schlumberger Private Depends on rock properties (strength.. .

Schlumberger Private • Shot under downhole conditions at Schlumberger’s Productivity Enhancement Research Facility (PERF) in Rosharon Texas.Laboratory Tests • Standard Berea sandstone cores (200 md). .

Sim ulated wellbore with wellbore fluid 3. Shooting Plate Schlumberger Private 2 . Confining cham ber with confining fluid (K erosene) 2. Sim ulated reservoir rock sam ples 6. 30 gallon accum ulator with pre-determ ined gas pre-charge 5. G un with the shaped charge 8. Core sam ple with pore pressure and pore fluid 4. 5 gallon accum ulator 10. PCB gauges 12. M icrom eter valve 11. Shooting leads 9. Differential pressure gauges 7.Single-shot Tests (PERF) 10 DP 8 7 3 1 9 6 DP 12 4 5 11 Figure 2A: Experim ental set-up 1.

049 .304 CFE = 0.61 Kc/K=0.307 CFE = 0.70 Kc/K=0.Choose The Best Perforation? All tests at 1000 psi underbalance Schlumberger Private Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 CFE = 0.235 Test 4 CFE = 0.69 Kc/K=0.21 Kc/K=0.

psi 2000 500 0 Test 3 -500 Test 1 -1000 Test 2 -1500 -2000 0 0.2 Time.4 1.4 0.6 1. sec 1.8 1 1.6 0.8 2 .Perforation Dynamics Initial underbalance = 1000 psi 1500 1000 Test 4 Schlumberger Private Differential Pressure.2 0.

Schlumberger Private • Post perforation wellbore dynamics critical.Static Underbalance Does Not Provide Sufficient Information • What magnitude and rate of transient underbalance determine perforation cleanup? • Need to identify and then control the parameters that influence the dynamics. .

41 Kc/K=0.24 Kc/K=0.09 CFE = 0.92 Kc/K=0.Choose The Best Perforation? Tests shot at 500 psi overbalance Schlumberger Private Test 7 Test 8 Test 9 CFE = 0.19 .79 CFE = 0.

9 1 .8 0. psi 2500 1000 Test 9 500 0 Test 8 -500 -1000 Test 7 -1500 -2000 -2500 0 0. sec 0.7 Time.Perforation Dynamics 2000 Initial overbalance = 500 psi 1500 Schlumberger Private Differential Pressure.4 0.1 0.5 0.2 0.3 0.6 0.

but ….Overbalanced Perforating • It can also be very damaging.. . Schlumberger Private • Overbalanced perforating can produce very productive perforations..

Well Underbalance liquid Schlumberger Private Initial wellbore pressure < pore pressure .

Well Overbalance liquid Schlumberger Private Initial wellbore pressure > pore pressure .

Gun Overbalance g a s liquid Schlumberger Private d e t Detonation gas pressure in the gun > Initial wellbore pressure .

01 dp= 4000 psi Schlumberger Private V .Wellbore Compressibility dp = c -1 dV/V V-dV p c=2.5 10-6 psi-1 p+dp If dV/V=0.

Gun Underbalance g a s liquid Schlumberger Private d e t Detonation gas pressure in the gun < Initial wellbore pressure .

2 Time.8 2 .6 1.2 0.4 0.6 0.4 1.Perforation Dynamics Initial underbalance = 1000 psi 1500 1000 Test 4 Schlumberger Private Differential Pressure. psi 2000 500 0 Test 3 -500 Test 1 -1000 Test 2 -1500 -2000 0 0. sec 1.8 1 1.

3 0. sec 0.1 0. psi 2500 1000 Test 9 500 0 Test 8 -500 -1000 Test 7 -1500 -2000 -2500 0 0.2 0.6 0.9 1 .4 0.7 Time.8 0.Perforation Dynamics 2000 Initial overbalance = 500 psi 1500 Schlumberger Private Differential Pressure.5 0.

• The complete wellbore.Perforating Cleanup • Perforation damage/cleanup determined by wellbore dynamics. Schlumberger Private • Over/Underbalanced perforating can produce clean perforations as well as damaged perforations. reservoir and gun characteristics must be evaluated to determine the optimum perforating systems/process to minimize perforation damage. .

high underbalance: required low wellbore pressure (500 psi). – Test 2: 500 psi OB. low productivity.low permeability. • SLB performed two perforation-flow tests (oil): – Test 1: 4000 psi UB. Schlumberger Private • Client proposed solution . acidization required to bring wells on.More Tests • Client problem . . hard rock.

6 0.3 0 .7 0 .9 1 .5 Time. 0. psi 2000 1000 0 -1 0 0 0 -2 0 0 0 -3 0 0 0 -4 0 0 0 -5 0 0 0 0 0.Laboratory Test Results 5000 Te s t 1 4 0 0 0 p s i U n d e r-b a la n c e Te s t 2 5 0 0 p s i O ve r-b a la n c e TR U S T 4000 Schlumberger Private 3000 Pressure.8 0.1 0. sec.2 0.4 0.

Stable PI. • Test 2: Single shot skin = 0.Laboratory Test Results Fines continually reduced productivity.17 (CFE=0.56). .79 (CFE=0. Schlumberger Private • Test 1: Single shot skin = 3.24).

no packer. One well depleted. • Results.required modification of gun system.nipple in string might have created problems. six horizontal wells: SPE 77364 • Zero skins. . • Modest underbalance (400 psi) .Field Results • Two options: • Option two chosen . eliminated $150K acid jobs on four wells. first well had operational issues.required use of a packer. Schlumberger Private • Overbalance .

61 CFE = 0.5 CFE = 0.64 CFE = >1 Schlumberger Private -1000 psi .More Lab Tests Gas @ Residual Brine Saturation overbalance 500 psi 1000 psi 1500 psi 2000 psi underbalance underbalance underbalance underbalance -1000 psi overbalance PURETM CFE = 0.56 CFE = 0.59 CFE = 0.

3 0.2 0.6 0.5 Time (sec) 0.4 0.8 Schlumberger Private 10000 .1 0.CT7-28 (Conventional @ 2000 psi u/b) Pressure (psi) 8000 6000 Pore 4000 SWB 2000 0 0 0.7 0.

5 Time (sec) 0.7 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.8 Schlumberger Private Pressure (psi) 10000 .CT7-30 (PURE @ 1000 psi o/b) 8000 6000 Pore 4000 SWB 2000 0 0 0.1 0.6 0.

Schlumberger Private CT7CT7-28 Conventional CT7CT7-30 PURE 2000 psi u/b 1000 psi o/b .

• Permeability 0. • Initial overbalance = 3000 psi.5 md. . • Permanent completion.5 – 1. Schlumberger Private • Reservoir pressure ~3050 psi. • Production exceeded expectations at 5. 2-7/8 guns @ 4 spf. Weber formation. • All previous wells required acid stimulation to produce.5mmcfd without acid stimulation. 264 ft.More PURETM Field Tests Anadarko tight gas well.

4.More PURETM Field Tests GOM oil well • Reservoir pressure ~ 5200 psi. . 40 ft. Schlumberger Private • Permanent completion. • Minimum initial underbalance <500 psi. • Meet production expectations assuming zero formation and perforation skin.72 HSD guns with MAXR.

3 after repeated acid flush/ injection/ production cycles 2.More PURETM Field Tests Caspian Carbonate: hard.4 before kill. 2. tight. 1000 psi initial ub using PURE (3000 psi dynamic ub). Conventional ob with mud in the wellbore. killed with mud skin=1. .2 after cleanup (production) • Field results – Perforated close to balance using PURE design with mud in hole – Excellent productivity Schlumberger Private 1. oil • Laboratory Tests skin= 25 after perf.

• Effectiveness in gas wells with gas in wellbore. . no lab data? • Effectiveness in gas wells. no lab data? Schlumberger Private – Model shows a potential dynamic underbalance of 80% of reservoir pressure. limited lab data.A Few Questions? • Effectiveness in low pressure wells. – A recent PURE test gave a CFE > 1 versus positive skins when perforated conventionally from a static 500 psi overbalanced to 2000 psi underbalance.

Schlumberger Private • Need to analyze the wellbore dynamics during and immediately after perforating. • Need data on gas and low pressure wells (gas and liquid in well). • Need to identify and control the parameters that influence the dynamics. • Need to translate the lab results to field application. .Summary • Static underbalance is not enough to determine perforation cleanup.

Publications SPE 71642 Laboratory Experiments Provide New Insights into Underbalanced Perforating • SPE 77364 New Underbalanced Perforating Technique Increases Completion Efficiency and Eliminates Costly Acid Stimulation Schlumberger Private • .