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Fluid Flow

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**The difference between Fluids and other Substances.
**

Matter is primarily found in three forms: solids, liquids and gases. Gases and liquids together are

called fluids. The molecules of a solid are usually mutually closer than those of a fluid. The

attractive forces between the molecules of a solid are so large that a solid tends to retain its shape.

This is not the case for a fluid, where the attractive forces between the molecules are smaller.

There are plastic solids, which flow under the proper circumstances, and even metals may flow

under high pressures. On the other hand there are certain viscous fluids liquids that do not flow

readily and is easy to confuse them with plastic solids. The distinction is that any fluid, no matter

how viscous will yield in time to the slightest stress. But a solid, no matter how plastic, requires a

certain magnitude of stress to be exerted before it will flow. Also when the shape of a solid is

altered by external forces, the tangential stresses between adjacent particles tend to restore the

body to its original configuration. With a fluid, these tangential stresses depend on the velocity of

deformation and vanish as the velocity approaches zero. When motion ceases, the tangential

stresses disappear and the fluid does not regain its original shape.

Properties of fluids:

**Density, Specific weight, specific volume and specific gravity: The density of a fluid is its
**

mass per unit volume, while the specific weight is the weight per unit volume. They are

related as g = r g. The specific volume n is the volume occupied by a unit mass of fluid.

Specific volume is the reciprocal of density. n = 1/ r. Specific gravity s of a liquid is the ratio

of its density to the density of water at a standard temperature. Engineers use 60 0F as this

temperature. Specific gravity of a gas is the ratio of its density to the density of hydrogen or

air at some specified temperature and pressure.

**Compressible and incompressible fluids: Fluids may be either of a constant or variable
**

density. There is nothing like an incompressible fluid, but the term is applied to those fluids

whose density changes negligibly with pressure. Liquids are ordinarily considered

incompressible fluids, but sound travels through them demonstrating that they are elastic.

**Compressibility: This is defined as the change in volume due to change in pressure. It is
**

inversely proportional to its volume modulus of elasticity, also known as bulk modulus. The

bulk modulus is analogous to the modulus of elasticity of solids; however for fluids it is

defined on a volume basis.

**Vapour pressure of liquids: As all liquids tends to evaporate or vaporize, which they do by
**

projecting molecules into the space above their surfaces. The pressure exerted by the

molecules increases till some of the molecules start re-entering the liquid. This pressure is

called the vapour pressure.

Viscosity Viscosity: The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its resistance to shear or angular deformation. This equation does not take the frictional losses in the pipe into account. . This can also be written as P1 + (1/2) r v12 + Z1 = P2 + (1/2) r v22 + Z2 where the subscripts 1 and 2 denote any two positions. Viscosity of a fluid can be expressed in two ways: Kinematic viscosity Dynamic viscosity Viscosities of liquids decrease with temperature increases but are unaffected by pressure changes. viscosity of a fluid is that property which determines the amount of resistance to a shearing force. Fluid flow in a pipe The fluid flow in a pipe is governed by the following equation: dp + r vdv + dZ = 0 where P is the pressure. This equation is called Euler's equation and it implies that at different points in the pipe the energy of the fluid is constant. Integrating the equation. P + (1/2)r v2 + Z = C C is any arbitrary constant. It is due primarily to interaction between fluid molecules. This decides that as temperature increases the viscosities of all liquids decrease and those of all gases increase. r is the density and Z is the head of the fluid. The friction forces in fluid flow result from cohesion and momentum interchange between molecules in the fluid. In other words.

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