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International Journal of Innovations in Engineering and Management, Vol. 1; No.

1: ISSN: 2319-3344

Social Responsibility of Management Education – Challenges and
Opportunities
Dr. Hiranmoy Roy, Dr. Arvind Kumar Jain and Dr. R Jayaraj
Assistant Professor, College of Management and Economic Studies, UPES, Dehradun
Email: h.roy10@gmail.com, hiranmoy@ddn.upes.ac.in, akjain@ddn.upes.ac.in, rjayaraj@ddn.upes.ac.in

Abstract: Modern management education has no clear ethical and social responsibility goalposts. This is now
imperative to analyze how to teach and inculcate among managent students and professionals about business ethics
and social responsibility as it is important to influence and shape their thinking. Thus helping them to become more
ethically sensitive and socially responsible is an important responsibility of the present management
education/institutes. This paper propose to analyze the effect of management education, (including past and present
managent education) on society as many organizations now believe that ethics, social responsibility and sustainable
practices are important to the long run success of the institutions. Business Schools must have higher responsibility
of positive social change and formulate corporate strategy to bring social progress. This paper also seeks to analyze
the challenges faced by business Schools in this regard as quality business practices and management education
have become critical factors in determining nation’s competitiveness and thus having larger implication.
Keywords: Management education, Business ethics, Social responsibility, Social progress, Competitiveness
JEL Classification Code: I20, I21, I29, M14
Accepted On: 27.10.2012

1. Introduction
The practice of management has always reflected
the times and social conditions, so now we are
seeing organizations responding to technology
breakthroughs and developing Web-based
operations. These new business models reflect
today’s reality, information can be shared and
exchanged instantaneously anywhere on the
planet. Every organization has to be aware of the
fact that it must build its organizational division
that is flexible and innovative; it recognizes that it
is not always easy to implement new ideas.
The history of management practice is filled with
examples of evolutions and revolutions in
implementing new ideas about how organizations
should be managed. Here we shall look at the brief
history of management as to how it evolved, how
the principles were formulated and it mainly about
the steady march towards decentralization.
Knowledge of management history can help us
understand today’s management theory and
practice. We shall determine the origins of many
contemporary management concepts and see how
www.gtia.co.in

they have evolved to reflect the changing needs of
organizations and society as a whole. An insight
on the important trends and issues that managers
are currently facing in order to link the past with
the future shall be highlighted and shall also
express that the field of management is still
evolving.
The modern definition of management is defined
as “Management is organization and coordination
of the activities of an enterprise in accordance with
certain policies and in achievement of clearly
defined objectives”. According to the management
guru, Peter Drucker, the basic task of a
management is twofold: marketing and
innovation. Difficulties arise in tracing the history
of management. Some see it (by definition) as a
late modern (in the sense of late modernity)
conceptualization. On those terms it cannot have a
pre-modern history, only harbingers (such
as stewards). Others, however, detect management
like thought back to Sumerian traders and to the
builders of the pyramids of ancient Egypt. Slaveowners through the centuries faced the problems
of exploiting / motivating a dependent but
sometimes
unenthusiastic
or
recalcitrant

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However.. She described management as philosophy. 1: ISSN: 2319-3344 workforce. coordinating. From this perspective. However. controlling. Business leaders are ranked by their personal wealth. The questions and thoughts reflected upon in this writing are focused on social responsibility. and the integration of ethical thinking in business schools curriculums. No. Perhaps some analysis and reflections are needed for a self-analysis of business education and its curricula. wrote on the topic in the early twentieth century.whether in business. defined management as "the art of getting things done through people". Heron [1] also said that cognitive moral development is one of the important critical personal characteristics influencing the whole ethical decision making process. sports. The business of business is business only as said by Milton Friedman the Nobel Laureate. Mary Parker Follett. management education. did not feel compelled to face the issues of management systematically. The concept of ‘responsibility’ underlying business management techniques taught in Business Schools is too self-centered. given their small scale. Looking back in the history of management we see that the same principles which are currently in practice regarding management had been formulated a long time ago. Another way of thinking. faculty and students must have some intense questions as to what caused these banking. The early writings have created a background of works that assisted in the modern management theories. Business Ethics Responsibility and Social Business schools and business education prepare students to learn the basics of thinking critically. Real leader requires moral compass. but many pre-industrial enterprises. Other measures of goodness like ethics and social responsibility seem to fade in comparison.gtia. One of the important questions before the Business Schools today is to look sincerely i.. and business schools by the salaries their graduates obtain. [2].co. countries by their GDP.e. 1. planning and control. Vol. The social order . The Economist described recent economic meltdown (2008-09) as ‘fraud infested downturn’. communicating effectively and managing small and large enterprises so that they can serve society in a successful and socially responsible manner. companies by their share holder’s value. considers management to consist of six functions: forecasting. They are not supposed to follow the narrow goals of creating more wealth for themselves and their corporations. if anything to help managers build their internal moral compasses [3]. The Pre-twentieth-century events played particularly significant roles in promoting the study of management. “We also know that the ethics can be taught. Turnley and Mudwick [6] said that. He was one of the most influential contributors to modern concepts of management. Moreover. Frenchman Henri Fayol. A basic flaw in the modern management philosophy is the ideologically –rooted limitation on the responsibility of the business leaders who are expected to focus persistently on growth and profits of their business. to improve the world for everyone. and the educational programmes that integrate the study of ethical theory with its practical application can be highly effective. organizing. according to Newbaum et al. arts or education – is conquered by those who make more money. the school administration.International Journal of Innovations in Engineering and Management. commanding. innovations such as the spread of Arabic numerals (5th to 15th centuries) and the codification of double-entry book-keeping provided tools for management assessment. The means to create wealth is more important than end. finance and real estate’s scandals? What caused business and economy to this situation specifically in the context of US? James Rost pointed out that education is the most important determinant of cognitive moral development and ethical maturity. “Prior research suggests that ethics instruction has the potential to make people less likely to engage in unethical behavior. planning. recently business schools and their graduates seem to be a target for many critics as they link the ethical lapses of senior executives to major scandals that have partially led to the financial challenges that the world is facing today. And also the Business Schools do very little. As we all know that the purpose of business is to generate maximum returns for its owners and 7 . www.in 2.

Literature Review Management students come from diversified cultures.in “manage ethics” by communicating about ethics and values on a regular basis and by holding organization members accountable for ethical conduct.gtia. Business students in the future must magnify the possibility of their analysis in order to embrace their calculations which shall determine the consequence of the action on businessmen and private owners and primarily the influence on the society. It is not right or correct just to function within the epistle of law. The argument done by various authors on business ethics and social responsibility suggests that the core teaching problems have been neglected.co. In order to be a globalised citizen and to actually understand what this term really stands for in today’s modern day society we need to understand the Ethics first. backgrounds and statures with a certain confidence in what ethics and responsibility depict but forget its real essence and fall in the pit of ego centered motives. Vol. it has a major drawback of morally validating an action that causes pain or sufferings to the minority groups. 1. Thus. The criticism has been about businesses seeing value creation only in terms of achieving shortterm. Though the concept of Utilitarianism is very broad and uncluttered ethical theory based which illustrates wholesomeness of pleasure or pain. The students who shall be the managers of the future should be varying of the ethical theory concept and understand as to how important it is for their well-being. the ends do justify the means. business ethics and social responsibility they display a fair chance to better their brand and over the time higher profitability. at least pursuant to this ethical theory. and so the students are taught. One of the best methods to become successful for any organization is to serve and help the local community and its employees to lead better lives. They must also www. Executives become moral managers by recognizing and accepting their responsibility for acting as ethical role models. The need for this particular study is to be correctly understood as the global management has a lot of criticisms of the business patterns adopted lately. and so is the world view of unpinning all the 8 . Kant derived a test called the Categorical Imperative (a formal ethical test) which would safeguard that the action. The concept gives meaning to the ethical theory and the ends justify the means making way for the students to learn. but also because it is tied to how leaders behave and the impact that has on a company culture as well as society 3.International Journal of Innovations in Engineering and Management. But as philosophers have varied views so did the German philosopher who thought that the idea of the ethical theory of morally legitimizing pain and distress of anyone is utterly disgraceful and wrong. The piece of management education reform that involves the role of ethics has added importance not only because trust in business has fallen so far. Adding value is the key element and what is more important here is adding values to management education. No. either in the classroom or boardroom. the mean so as to ensure its veracity. The theory reveals that the students are primarily used to one crucial characteristic that is foreseeing and then measuring and weighing the consequences of an action so he should carry a broader view observing all aspects. So therefore should the business pursue all activities that enhance profitability and increase the value of the business for the owners and / or shareholders? This very purpose can be achieved on a higher proportion when the business behaves in a socially responsible and ethical manner. unsustainable results and how business schools prepare future leaders predate the financial meltdown due to ignorance of following the business ethics which would have help them sustain. The crisis simply made it more obvious that business as usual isn’t working. The above derivation comes from the Utilitarianism theory of Jeremy Bentham. Looking at management in 2020. that is. there is a varied capacity of growth and strong structured blocks but which depends upon the action taken and greater responsiveness to reaction as one famously said that ‘Action is Greater Than Apathy’. By examining each and every decision they make based on profitability. Ethics can be expressed as social concept which caters to morals. 1: ISSN: 2319-3344 shareholders. (17481823) [4] that is based on the writings of Bentham and Mill who were famous English Philosophers. He consequently professed that the consequences of action should be ignored in ethics and the main focus should be on its form.

• Misusing CSR. consumers of both developed and developing countries are becoming more aware of the environmental and social implications of their day-to-day consumer decisions. These measures may more commonly be used for research. and Management’s fundamental goal is to increase value for its shareholders and not any single stakeholder such as solely the socially responsible. The authors now consider that the proposed world-view leads to moral ethics-friendly worldview. various measures related to individual values. not just the making of strategy [26].in requires it to integrate social issues into all dimensions of the business. Many organizations are subject to national regulation of CSR in certain specific geographic areas and at a global level the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). but they can also serve instructional purposes.co. CSR is a voluntary corporate action. an organization should identify emerging trends and develop coherent organization-wide responses—an approach that www. 1. Critics were pointed out that winning a CSR award deflects how they are against a socially irresponsible outlook of selling products that cause so much known damage to health. to get on the path of World Development it is important to materialize the all possible Human Capital. The main findings of the literature survey are shown in a nutshel in Table 1. the organizations have more power in decision-making of organizations. beyond research usage. the International Labor Organization (ILO) and the United Nations (UN) have all attempted to regulate framework of CSR through some CSR. McKinsey [25] developed a model of CSR as shown in Figure 1 and which conducted a survey from eighty-four percent of the executives around the world who agreed that their organizations should pursue not only shareholder value but also broader contributions to the public good. It needs to go beyond simple compliance with domestic regulations and laws. For research in business and professional ethics. It lacks formal regulation. offer potential for instructional purposes. ethics attitudes and moral reasoning exist and are being increasingly applied. Knowledge of the characteristics and limitations of the values and ethics-related measures allows better selections of possible supplements to traditional instructional methods for business educators [7]. • Ethical consumerism. But who really wins? If there is a benefit to society. Because of the voluntary nature and the lack of formal regulation of CSR. • Abuse the power of CSR. and some consideration of its implications [5]. To improve. Criticisms on Responsibility Businesses Present Social Models for Milton Friedman wrote that one and only social responsibility of business. No. Some organizations whose very existence is considered to be socially irresponsible are being recognized for performing some socially responsible acts.International Journal of Innovations in Engineering and Management. Most acknowledged that their organizations could handle sociopolitical issues more successfully. After the industrialization and globalization. 9 . is this outweighed by losses to society in other areas of the organization’s operation and by gains the corporation is able to make as a result? • Lack of formal Regulation. which was attacked after it won a United Nations Environment Program/ Sustainability reporting award for its annual social report. 1: ISSN: 2319-3344 management education. Vol. which can be optimized if they are educated. Organizations are given liberty to shape and define corporate social responsibility as they deem fit which is increasing the risk of opportunity for abuse of power. is to increase profits for shareholders in his famous 1970’s article in The New York Times Magazine. They never mind that the socially irresponsible behaviors substantially overwhelm the few socially responsible acts. The organizations make profits and society benefits. Many of these measures. as well. In simple words. Their purchasing decisions are related to their environmental and ethical concerns. Though reports with much more extensive details concerning particular values and ethics-related measures are available for academicians willing to invest time and study. British American Tobacco. We cannot be sure how far these CSR models will be suitable for any business. the author has been unable to find a basic summary in the business and professional ethics literature [6]. which in many cases is doubtful.gtia. 4.

1: ISSN: 2319-3344 Table.in 10 . No.1 Studies of Social Responsibility on businesses www.International Journal of Innovations in Engineering and Management.co. Vol.gtia. 1.

forestry. economic liberalism.gtia. Challenges of Management root of the economic crisis…and these have not been adequately addressed by business schools: Education’s Business Ethics misaligned incentive programs (incentive systems that rewarded short-term gain took precedence over People in management education compete with those designed for long-term value creation). Tyco. No. hence the need for learning normative values and rules in human behavior [27]. or agency theory to students. education and legal systems. but on how the theoretical foundations of business school education may be linked to ethical lapses and scandals involving managers who have been subjected to business school training” [29] The critics argue that business school faculty members teach such concepts as transaction-based economics. One of the identified emerging issues and apart from other management issues is incorporating Business Ethics & Social Responsibility. Jacobs discussed three failures of sound business practices which he says is at the 5. WorldCom.co. “many of the recent discussions of business schools have centered not on the good their graduates do. The rises of CSR training inside corporations are not done which is required by government regulation and it is another driver credited with changing the behavior and culture of corporations. and other such firms [28].: Increase the focus on under managed sectors such as cooperatives. McKinsey model of CSR (Source: The McKinsey Quarterly. Critics claim that management education focuses too much on the achievement of the bottom-line at all costs and that this indoctrination has led to unethical behaviors and scandals associated with Enron. www. suppliers. and/or vendors. Drexler. Chart Focus Newsletter.in 11 .International Journal of Innovations in Engineering and Management. According to Neubaum. urban management. viz. Pagell. Dec. Jacobs explained during this tough economy that fingers are increasingly being pointed at the academic institutions that educated those who got us into this mess. 1: ISSN: 2319-3344 Figure 1. 1. which focus on short-term profits even if this comes at a cost of damaging long-term opportunities and relationships with customers. McKee-Ryan. each other from across the globe with diverse understanding the responsibility and obligation of Ethics training. The review has also indicated that management education in globe faces is neglecting the areas of social responsibility and business ethics as they think it is of little or no relevance. rural development. Vol. The aim of such training is to help employees make ethical decisions when the answers are unclear. 2006) • cultural orientations. The Management Education Review Committee suggested the following steps for strengthening management education [28]. infrastructure. Tullberg believes that humans are built with the capacity to cheat and manipulate. and Larson .

known for the crowded and competitive arena. The world of management do CSR (corporate social responsibility) than to education to debate whether it’s business or integrate high ethical standards throughout the business schools that lead the way when it comes to organization. mentioning a company in the U. but yet mix and channel of Leaders from Both Business it doesn’t pay its suppliers on time. individually and collectively Each of the organizations mentioned above has combined to formulate a broader business school initiative under a set of Principles of Responsible Management Education (PRME). a school must be agile. Business ethics can be handled through the right wonderful things it does for the community. Doing the former is no responsive to the marketplace. “It is easier to and Business Schools. 1: ISSN: 2319-3344 corporate boards. and doing things ethically. which addresses a wide range of ways that business schools can demonstrate leadership in the broadlyDirections and Opportunities for Business Ethics defined area of social responsibility. they also teach students about value creation by maintaining a healthy relationship with their suppliers. colleagues. and having an apparent and enforceable system of accountability [30]. quality and responds to the needs of makes a distinction between doing ethical things the marketplace. Vol.in 12 . Yet. Role of Business Leaders accomplishments”. new and improving practices. which now is a very substitute for doing things ethically. Pepsico’s chairman and stakeholders. government entities. Social responsibility is a prime example of the need for complementary leadership from both business and business schools. education. As such it becomes imperative that academics focus on the state of business schools. The culture of each school heavily influences what the faculty and staff actually focus on. Fundamental shifts in strategy. And the institutional culture of each school is heavily influenced by their top leaders.” www. etc. 1. In order to respond to the needs of (like philanthropy and environmental activities) and the market. but one very good and practical purpose is how we run the company. and the like must be driven quickly into business and management curricula. and ethics since all graduates will eventually end up in the workplace where they will face a challenging and competitive work environment. unions. schools can voluntarily accept and report on an established set of principles. efforts to develop socially responsible and sustainable business. many ways to Management in May 2010 that “performance with measure quality. and lead. rigorous and independent business and management insights that abstract from the experience of any single company and integrate theory across multiple disciplines are needed to enhance business and management practice. he says.co. including the Dean. department chairs and program level directors. for the long-term sustainability of their success. Research Director at key is to create programs and courses that possess the Institute of Business Ethics in London says it is in-depth focus on business ethics and social the inconsistencies that often trip a company up. efficiency. No. This dichotomy would suggest that studies are needed to see if business schools are in fact driven to more toward revenues and profits or are they more focused on the long-term success of their graduates.K. obviously. The A thought by Simon Webley. new ideas. A principal purpose of a management education to create value – for the students.” as that approach is a very short-sighted one. While business school curricula do teach scientific research. and value is “simply” quality divided CEO told students at Yale’s School of by cost! There are. & Social Responsibility: “Ethical business leaders recognize people as capable of great 6. accuracy.International Journal of Innovations in Engineering and Management. operations management.” She approach is to demonstrate how successful the explained that “Performance with purpose is about school’s students have been. deliver great performance. Management education worldwide has already begun to take action. flexible.gtia. or practices. he responsibility. the school and all the school’s Conferring to Indra Nooyi. and economic theories. Under this framework. The answer should be both. Management education must respond to. Yet a school needs how you can intimately link what a company can students to begin with! A school should not just do with what the needs of society are and together lower standards to increase the number of students. approaches.

International Journal of Innovations in Engineering and Management. a professional group for corporate compliance officers. "University donors began asking how to create structures that will train students to be leaders who make the right decisions. Education in this field occurs at several levels. understand and manage the external environment. McElhaney says it was the serial corporate scandals that spurred academia and employers to get on board. It is also sponsored by the Ethics and Compliance Officer Association." she says [31]. Loyola Marymount University (LMU) has developed an invitational intercollegiate business ethics case competition which attracts international participation. No. ethical and financial dimensions of problems. design production and distribution systems.” says Thomas White. Paul Stillman School of Business Seton Hall University for 10 years. and teaching students to have a socially responsible mindset with decision-making skills that look beyond short-term benefits. theories. W. who created the competition. “Every decision you make in business generally occurs when you are under pressure. manage financial. Going beyond the basics.a defining part of the culture at the Haas School is its commitment to teaching and exploring ethical and social responsibilities of business. without all the information or time you like. 6.in educational center offering innovative courses. control its own performance in terms of the financial balance sheet. and is coming up again at a time when there is crisis fatigue as well as examples of successful companies with a value proposition that puts a priority on social good. Conclusion and Suggestions An organization that have a collective goals. The current set of learning goals specifies six broad areas of competencies incorporated in all MBA core courses: Understand markets and customers. MBA and undergraduate teams make presentations showing their understanding of the legal. and getting more so. manage strategically. executive director of the Center for Responsible Business at Haas [31]. having its boundaries.co.” The success of business education reform has many champions. legal or ethical issues. whose members serve as judges. here is a description of how some quite different universities combine theory and research with robust practical learning to develop high-potential employees who understand and embrace corporate social responsibility and business ethics. and manage ethically with social responsibility [31]. with the greatest activity in the latter. Business education from recent past is emerging as one of the prominent sector in business not having a vision to earn profits but also have a concern for social responsibility hence the model that the Business education is adopting is 13 . separating from the environment designed to deliver goods or services to the customers can be classified as business. In response to the demands of the 21st century marketplace and the need to stay in step with peers. The etymology of "business" relates to the state of being busy either as an individual or society as a whole. Business education typically prepares students for an occupation in business or businessrelated fields. doing commercially viable and profitable work where as the business education largely focus on creating Business leaders." says Jo Mackness. Vol. which are as sophisticated and complex as any financial problem. 1: ISSN: 2319-3344 To help students practice integrating ethics into the decision-making mix. This is accomplished through cuttingedge research and bringing real world consulting challenges into the classroom. and in the midst of competing factors – usually financial. “There needs to be more emphasis on ethics education in MBA programs (however. companies continue to seek the help of business schools in redefining what it means to be socially responsible. including secondary education and higher or university education. human and information resources. In contrast to Business. and processes of business.gtia. professor and director of the Center for Ethics and Business. University of California-Berkeley . 1. Noting that students were interested in ethics long before the collapse of Enron. In Haas School of Business. it is done) because individuals need more technical ability in recognizing and resolving ethical issues. corporate social responsibility has been considered essential knowledge in the MBA program at the Stillman School at Seton Hall in South Orange. Business education involves in imparting students the fundamentals. New Jersy. "About 40 percent of the graduate students come to Berkeley specifically because of its reputation as a premier CSR www.

1988. Education and World Development in 19901999: A General View and Challenges for the Near Future. 19th March [4] Cavico. No.. 2006. We must offer courses that introduce frameworks that may help in resolving ethical business and managerial problems. The present CSR models may be fit for business but not for business education. While many Management schools are already deeply involved in renewing and reinvigorating their commitment to ethics in business education. but business schools can—and want to—equip their students to be ethical and successful managers and leaders. Thomas.E..International Journal of Innovations in Engineering and Management. We must strengthen ethics components of our curricula in all disciplines to emphasize the importance of individual integrity and corporate responsibility to business success. The sense of social responsibility on the business leaders cannot be imbibed at the later stage of their higher education but same can be made felt from base level of education hence forth making the individuals feel socially responsible for the society at large. research agendas. Business Education and its Relationship to Students Personal Philosopies and Moral Attitudes towards Profits: Empirical Response to Critics. pp. and seminars and workshops that bring executives to campus to focus on the link between leadership and values. pp. business education and business ethics. While the task force does not prescribe a particular curriculum or course. Massachusetts: Pitman Publishing Inc. Doctoral Dissertation. Frazier. pp. There are education societies in India that are shouldering the social responsibilities as corporate organization does by imparting education free of cost to the members of the society. assessment processes. it recommends that followers of management education encourage its member and their faculties to renew and revitalize their commitment to ethical responsibility at both the individual and organizational levels. Journal of Business Ethics Vol. investing their earnings for their enhancement and diversification.C.. 2001. 9-24 [3] Maira. Journal of Accounting Research. G Baharuddin. 14 .273277 [7] Ingram R.in the commitment of business schools. Journal of Academic and Business Ethics. Schools should be encouraged to demonstrate this commitment throughout their academic programs. The task force recommends that management education should support and encourage a renaissance in business ethics and social responsibility exercise its leadership role to ensure www. 2009. Academy of Management Learning and Education. July. 18. Nova Southeastern University [2] Neubaum.co. Vol. Vol. No. Aguayo E and Guisan M. K. 614 .1. No. We must work to build a community of scholars and students in which ethical principles are not platitudes. Arun (2009).622 [8] Freeman R. et al. 4. W. 8. pp-101-110 [6] Payne S. Why there is a necessity of a separate Social Responsibility Model for Management Education? The Management education should shoulder the social responsibilities for the upliftment of not only the society but Nation at large. The Economic Times. 1. “Environmental Performance and Corporate Disclosure”. [5] Exposito P.gtia. vol. By doing so the job of the education societies does not get restricted but they should look beyond and create business leaders those can shoulder the social responsibilities further and contributes towards the nation. As it has lot of criticisms and gaps there is a necessarily a separate model for Business Education (Social Responsibility of Educational Organizations. An Examination of the Moral Development and Ehical Decision Making of Information Technology Professionls. Values and Ethics-Related Measures for Management Education. 1983. SREO) that can decipher Business from Education as Business. L. but reality. and outreach activities. courses that lay out the larger societal context in which business operates.O. J Frank and Mujtaba. Reorienting Business Leadership. Strategic Management: A stakeholder Approach. The State of business schools. social responsibility and continuous improvement are as important in this field as in any other. 1984. D. Vol. 1: ISSN: 2319-3344 “Not-for Profits”. 2009. “Making the world a better place” isn’t the exclusive province of business schools. References: [1] Heron. 2. 1-16. 7.

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