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Points to take note

Phase 1: Simulation and meet the 5 constraints
Phase 2: optimisation -> in term of cost while meeting the constraints.
Find out the variables that are affecting the cost significantly. Plot that -> do cost
Use heater and cooler instead of heat exchanger.
Phase 3: heat integration, cost calculation, cost of reactor. Don’t use Table 3
unless you are unable to find other equations. Find better cost equation.
Commonly ask questions:
1. Find out why use distillation column, why not liquid- liquid extractor ? Can we
use other technique? Comment on it.
2. Under Design and method : want flow chart -> like what steps. Want logical
Flowchart -> use shortcut column -> got the reflux ratio -> details of distillation
column from the operating designs then proceed to describe type of trays used
-> how many trays.
-> reactor (given is PFR) -> comment on it. Is it packed or fluidised? Series
or parallel or combination?
3. Sizing of column/ reactor : Don’t use from hysys. Reactor volume given but
Diameter , length  need to calculate for it!!
* Also need to calculate cool and heater area! Not taken from hysys.
*Compressor and pump cost equation not given. Need to find.
4. Must include pressure drop. Find out the recommended pressure drop
(Heuristic) and reason for using that pressure drop. ** Heater and cooler must
have pressure drop.
5. Find out the fluid package for the column.
6. Reactor pressure = 40 bar, can change this pressure as long as we meet the
7. Need to do mass balance.
8. Column is 2 bar: experimental data can use with data for 1 bar
9. Most groups use 4 reactors. If increase B/E ratio, it is ok to use 2-3 reacotrs.
But in phase 2, cant do ratio 1.5-2 -> changing B/E ratio for phase 1 is not a
solution. B/E ratio at 1.5 must be met for phase 1.
10. if using 4 reactors, how many interstage cooling do we have? 3? Try to use
lesser number of interstage cooling -> lower capital cost.

18. In phase 2: 1. can bubble if it is in vapour phase. Optimisation -> identify the design variable -> find out the dominant (variable that impact cost significantly) and local (number fo stages of the distillation column) Etc . At the end how to combine? Option 1. choose input (a) for styrene plant is Temperature. Vary each one of the variables abit to see which cost goes down. 12. How many reactors and interstage cooling? . can cool down ethylene before mixing? No. don’t need to consider insulation thickness. 17. Around 3-4 design dominant variables. Go find out more about it -> effect of number of tubes. Reactor length and diameter (L/D ratio). Reactor aspect ratio heuristic to satisfy Need extensive E journal and txtbk reading. Check conversion across reactor length-> 10 m is too long. fixed the opt temp . (b) next dominant variable – reactor vol. more reactors . Or do it in a cycle. reactor configuration. Reactor number of tube is fix at one for each bed. Add into the additional discussion in the report. 15. 16. 14. 2. vary tempt within design range and find the opt tmpt.Etc don’t have to cool reactor outlet if the temperature is still within range (170220) still ok for next reactor inlet. Mixing: cool first then mix with ethylene or mix first with ethylene then cool? Aim to cool down asap (faster). Combine all. check cost. then vary the reactor vol. by plotting vol against cost. Option 2. 11. smaller reactor Vol each think about reactor Vol -> same vol ? or different? 13. Prepare costing flow -> spreadsheet -> find out the cost equation.