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ADVOCACY AND NEGOTIATION: A PROCESS FOR CHANGING

INSTITUTIONAL AND GOVERNMENTAL POLICIES 1997 (5-B
edition)
by
John Ruthrauff
Tania Palencia
Rob Everts
edited by Elizabeth Zechmeister
CONTACT: John Ruthrauff
Center for Democratic Education
8403 Colesvilee Rd., Suite 720
Silver Spring, MD 20910-3368 USA
Tel. 301-589-9383
Fax: 301-589-3505
email. cfepp@aol.com
Copyright 1997 by the Center for Democratic Education

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Executive Summary
Definition of Advocacy
Background
Goal
Power Analysis
Objectives
Strategies
Activities
Tools for Advocacy
Letter Writing
Meetings with Key Actor
Demonstrations
Negotiations
Case Study #1: Influencing a World Bank Consultative Group Meetings: Guatemala
Case Study #2: Influencing a Social Investment Fund: Jamaica
Case Study #3: Influencing a Domestic Violence Act: Belize
Center for Democratic Education

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Advocacy, lobbying, and negotiation are actions which organizations and individuals take to
exert pressure for changes in a specific policy or behavior of a government, an organization,
or possibly a single individual. This article presents a summary of the elements to be taken

into account in the design of an advocacy campaign for non- governmental, popular, and
community based organizations.
1. DEFINITION OF THE GOAL: First one must choose and define a problem or target for
the campaign. This should be a specific issue which members of an advocacy campaign wish
to change -- a policy or behavior which is the focus of the campaign. It is vitally important to
have a very specific and narrow focus for the campaign. It is also essential that all groups in
an advocacy campaign alliance are in agreement with the selection and definition of the target
of the campaign. The goal is a statement of the desired change in the long term, generally over
several years.
2. POWER ANALYSIS: A power analysis is a breakdown of who makes decisions concerning
the goal and how these decisions are made. It is an analysis of the principal actors who can
influence or make decisions about the goal -- allies and opponents. The allies and opponents
examined in the power analysis should be only those actors with influence over the specific
goal selected for the advocacy campaign. A power analysis focuses on understanding the
networks and relationships between persons and key institutions. It is important to identify
who makes decisions on the goal. Relationships and interconnections between actors are also
key. After completing a power analysis it is important to review the goal to determine if it is
possible to achieve.
3. OBJECTIVES: It is necessary to develop several (3-5) objectives for the short term (1 to 18
months) which lead to the goal. Definitions of the objectives should be clear and limited.
Objectives are statements of the desired changes in behavior or policy in the short term which
directly contribute to reaching the goal. Obtaining objectives can be considered minicampaigns.
4. STRATEGY: A strategy is developed to influence the principal actors of the power analysis
who can make or influence changes related to the objectives of the campaign. A strategy
includes gaining access to influence advisors to the key actors. A strategy should include a
variety of resources, for example: reports of experts, peer pressure and moral arguments from
churches and others, the media, and direct advocacy and negotiation by leaders and
participants in the campaign. It is important to have proposals to change policies, not just to
criticize them. It is also important to take into account the general political atmosphere,
including considerations of institutional and personal security.
5. ACTIVITIES: These are the vehicles to achieve the strategy. Activities should increase the
pressure or reduce the forces of opposition to achieve objectives. Not all activities are equally
useful. Activities chosen should produce the greatest pressure for achieving objectives in the
short and long term.
6. EVALUATION: Each activity, action, or campaign should be evaluated immediately
following its completion -- how to improve the strategy for the next activity or campaign. The
evaluation should focus on impact (Did the activity lead toward the goal?), leadership (Were
the leaders prepared? How did they respond in the situation?), and logistics (Were materials
adequate, people in the correct locations, etc.?).

DEFINITION OF ADVOCACY

A decision making process needs to be established which is open and democratic yet sufficiently rapid to be able to respond to changing situations. Advocacy is a process which involves education and training of participants and new leaders on the substantive issues as well as on lobbying methods and leadership skills.In this manual advocacy. lobbying. or international donors. social investment funds. As a result. Is a process in which it is possible to involve various organizations and individuals. 11. 10. Campaigns are accountable to the base they represent. These can be. 5. Advocacy:       Is a process to force changes in institutional or governmental policies and behaviors. 12. 7. This means that the same people should work with the same target organizations over a period of time. race and class. to know the principal causes which impede work. 6. Is a process which requires proposals for changes and does not only criticize. Small scale gains are needed before attempting larger scale victories. Is a process in which groups of citizens establish the right to change their societies by changing the institutions which control the society. the Inter-American Development Bank. 2. To achieve changes it is essential to have the ability to solidly focus energy and resources on a very narrow issue. not isolated events. begin with an executive summary. Alliances with international NGOs can also be very useful. Written material is necessary to carry out advocacy campaigns. 4. 3. the United Nations Development Program or the United States Agency for International Development. It is not necessary for all groups involved in an alliance to agree on all the other issues addressed by their organizations. Alliances with other organizations which support the same specific issue are key. such as. the members of the alliance. Groups need to select issues for advocacy which are most important to them. Is a fundamental process in a truly democratic society. and to establish priority solutions. ethnicity. . Reports must be brief. Well researched and accurate reports are essential for this process. for example. Advocacy. the World Bank. it is not useful to frequently change the persons involved with direct advocacy activities. Campaigns should work to model the values and principles for which the campaign is striving. lobbying and negotiation have the same definition: actions which organizations and individuals use to exert pressure for changes in a specific policy or behavior of a government or institution. and contain carefully researched information. Is a process which is open and public. and negotiation are processes. It is necessary to know the reality in which the campaign is operating. In advocacy campaigns it is useful to establish relationships with the individuals to be influenced. The development of new leaders is key to successful campaigns. At the beginning of a campaign it is necessary to work on objectives for very specific and limited changes which can be readily achieved. Anecdotal evidence is subject to the accusation that it has no value because it is subjective. 8. 9. Principles of Advocacy: 1. not just anecdotal reports which can be ignored by key actors for lacking a valid methodology. Campaign leadership should reflect the diversity of the membership including gender.

the desired goal. The following is a list of these norms: 1. 2. It is important to understand the selected issue and to have enough information on it to be able to argue consistently. At the same time. because it is this base group which provides the necessary political force in an advocacy campaign. and demagoguery. timely decisions. and since advocacy is such an important process. advocacy is a fundamental and long term process within democratic societies in which groups of citizens have the right to influence political institutions. If actual results vary from projections. 4. . and community based organizations. lobbying. the strategies to be carried out. Finally. popular.first. The various results of actions taken should be evaluated and weighed against what was projected. advocacy work must follow a rhythm which is often different from that of the base group. o the responsibility of informing and training themselves in order to fulfill the division of labor. and negotiation strategy for non-governmental. Advocacy participants should be prepared to get into intensive and extensive work. A work plan should be developed which contains a clear definition of the advocacy topic. The following is a summary of elements to be considered in the design of an advocacy. advocacy campaigns are fluid and do not follow the exact path designed by the advocates. who are the persons who share directly in the benefits of their advocacy work. and second. This is important for two reasons -.BACKGROUND In its broadest sense advocacy brings together associative groups and individuals to influence the design. centralization. immediate steps should be taken to correct this imbalance. and o the ability and efficiency to make rapid. that is. o an explicit division of labor so that actions do not become centralized. As a result. Participants in advocacy campaigns should have a clear idea of whose interests are defended by their work. execution. 3. Both rhythms must be synchronized to avoid competition for organizational resources. o the responsibility of reporting and achieving consensus with the base groups or associates they represent. They should assume that this is a collective task in which it is necessary to have: o a democratic leadership recognized by the group. it should follow certain norms in order to be effective. Groups involved should identify the issue for which advocacy will be carried out. The faster these corrective actions are taken. the objectives to bring about the goal. the more probability exists that the desired goal will be reached. and a chronology of activities which are sufficient to bring about the desired result. the power analysis. and change in the policies and behavior of institutions which have power over them. 5.

to understand the power structure of the target institution. It is important to understand which are the persons and institutions who want to change current policy and which want to maintain that policy. such as:     Is the goal specific or is it subject to a variety of interpretations? Is the goal reachable? In what time period can the goal be reached? Are sufficient resources (financial and human) available to reach it? POWER ANALYSIS The power analysis is a breakdown of those individuals who make decisions within the institution or entity which is the subject of the campaign. it is important to identify the actors who make decisions regarding the goal of the campaign. Look for the power available to the alliance's members. The goal should be clear. It is important that the goal be attainable. before too many resources have been spent on a loosing campaign. Surrounding this key actor are the other actors who can influence the key actor and their relationship to each other. Within these relationships and connections the power analysis should also identify the persons and institutions which have influence over or provide advice to the actors being studied. but can generally be determined. participative brainstorming followed by debate and by a process of refining and prioritizing resulting ideas. and may have influence over the achievement or blockage of the desired changes within a specific issue. racial. and limited. its decision making methods. It is useful to establish the goal by open. If this is the case the alliance needs to decide if it wants to continue working on the campaign as a "symbolic campaign" or "educational campaign" where they do not expect to win any significant victories. this is the time for a campaign to select a more realistic goal. These actors may be supporters or opponents of a particular policy. Is the goal achievable given the power analysis? Does the alliance have sufficient power to win significant victories in the campaign? The power analysis may show that the goal selected by the alliance is impossible to achieve. Be aware of the gender. understandable. It is dangerous to continue working on a campaign with no chance of . Additionally. The power structure of a government or an international organization is complicated. the timing of its decisions. before undertaking an advocacy campaign. The "power map" should include both opponents and allies to the campaign. certain key points should be kept in mind. Upon completing the power analysis it is important for the alliance to revisit the goal. At the center of the "map" is the most important actor controlling the attainment of your goal.THE GOAL The goal is a statement of desired changes in the long term. It is useful to construct a "power map" or diagram of the key actors who can influence the goal of the campaign. A power analysis also focuses on the networks and relationships between key persons and institutions and how to influence them. For the selection of a goal. and ethnic dimensions of the situation. It is necessary. Look for patterns in relationships between key actors. It is important to clearly determine the fundamental goal of any type of project to be carried out. and its objectives. However. class.

or can they be obtained. clear. it is recommended that three to five be selected which are clear. If members of a campaign are not aware of the impossibility of achieving victories they will become discouraged and either withdraw from the campaign and/or refuse to join a future campaign. In summary. and thus bring about the desired change. and then select the most important. Additionally. OBJECTIVES Objectives are statements of the changes in behavior or policies during the short or medium term which will contribute to reaching the goal. resources. A few key points for the selection of objectives are:      They should be specific. It is extremely important to focus on a few of the most important objectives. These mini-campaigns are useful for the development of experience and skills by the leaders and participants in the overall campaign. for example. "raise sufficient funds to implement the campaign. The influences to which principal actors are subject. In other words. They should be analyzed in terms of time for implementation. A strategy should be the result of the power analysis and focus on an objective of the campaign. The actors who have influence over a change in policy or behavior. What is the agenda or schedule for decisions? Revisit the goal after the power analysis to be sure it is achievable.to mount a mini-campaign. The forces or actors which are pushing for a change in policy or behavior. understandable and which help to directly reach the goal. and understandable. for the implementation of the campaign? To achieve each objective it is generally necessary to develop a strategy and activities -. prioritize the ideas. Are funds available. and opportunities for change have been identified. A final point in terms of fund raising: since it is important to have monies for the implementation of these projects. it is advisable that one of the objectives indicate. in comparison with others. Key decision making times. While there can be many objectives. The objectives should be determined as is the goal: gather many ideas. They should be attainable. Objectives must be carefully analyzed and questioned in order to select those which meet the above criteria. Care should be exercised to select objectives which contribute to reaching the goal. it is necessary for a power analysis to identify:       The forces or actors which maintain the policy or behavior.victory if the members of the alliance have not agreed to a symbolic or educational campaign. They should contribute to achieving the goal. a strategy should: . we must be certain that obstacles." STRATEGIES Strategies refer to the way in which we plan to influence the principal actors identified in the power analysis.

A strategy should include a variety of resources. In addition it is useful to gain support from the media in order to increase pressure for change as well as to bring the topic to public light. such as:       Expert reports and opinions.    Identify allies and opponents who can influence the outcome. involve public opinion makers and public figures. There are a variety of types of activities which follow from a strategy: . Finally. it is necessary to have direct contacts between the authorities and the participants in the campaign. It is important to determine if one has the capacity of carrying out these tasks. Generally. The first step is to list activities. lobbying. to the power analysis? Can it be completed within the limits of the campaign's resources and allies. Tasks are the actions which are carried out while tactics are the means and opportunities to carry out actions. In establishing strategies it is also important to keep an open mind and avoid prejudices. including considerations of personal and institutional security. Realize that it may be possible to change the perception of the goal and objectives in order to reduce opposition to them. arrange for pressure from the base and. Pressure from peers. The communications media. Work to reduce the influence of opponents. it is necessary to take into account the general political situation. and other sources. other governments and international financial institutions. if possible. The following is a list of key questions for developing an adequate strategy: *Does the strategy relate to at least one of the objectives?    Does it respond. and negotiation from participants. The selection of necessary actions is often defined in the definition of the strategy. It is important to have proposals for change and not simply to criticize. churches. possibly. Every subject of analysis is unique and different from others. and thus achieve the desired objectives of the advocacy campaign. Identify advisors to key actors. at least partially. as a result strategies should not be imitations of others. Moral arguments from community leaders. Pressure from allies including. Does it make use of the campaign's strengths and exploit the weakness of your opponents? ACTIVITIES Activities are the tasks and tactics to be put into practice in order to implement the strategy. although others should be studied for possible lessons. It is from the strategy that the answers come to the question of how to achieve the objectives and from which follows a list of tasks to be carried out. answering the questions of which and how many activities can be carried out. Within these strategies it is necessary to influence advisors. and Direct advocacy.

help them to identify with the campaign. This section will outline the use of a number of possible tools. articles.Political: These are related to the power analysis and focus on achieving the goal and objectives. 1. They include pressuring politicians and staff through direct meetings. petitions. The author(s) should be comfortable with anything in the letter being made public. Once a list of possible tasks has been identified. meetings. letters. it is necessary to define certain points: who will carry out these activities. and which are the most urgent activities with the highest priority. Documents and materials can be attached to the letter but the letter should be short and to the point. You should never make threats in a letter. and which low priority? Which activities can be carried out simultaneously? Who is the target of the activity? Who will carry out the activity? How long will it take to carry out the activity? Where will the activity be carried out? How should the activity be evaluated? TOOLS FOR ADVOCACY Each campaign will require a variety of activities or tools for advocating the changes necessary to achieve the goal and/or objectives. travel expenses. it is important to answer a number of questions:        Which activities are priority. Administrative: These include correspondence. secretarial tasks. Be brief. etc. Organizational: This includes workshops to keep the base up to date. Try to mention .. In order to achieve clarity. Dissemination: This includes the communications media. photocopies. demonstrations. press conferences. The tone of the letter should be firm but courteous. After a brief introductory paragraph the letter should clearly state the purpose or point of the communication. etc. increase its members. Letter Writing Letter writing is a basic tool for communicating a point or position of an alliance. The letter should be no more than one or two pages. Economic: These include developing the resources necessary to carry out the campaign. Letters should have a number of characteristics. communications. and phone and fax calls. how long will they take. which secondary. etc. Tools should also be appropriate to the knowledge and skills of the participants. paid announcements. and coordination with allies. etc. or sent to an opponent. Tools need to be adjusted for the appropriate local culture and social base. published in a newspaper.

vigils. The following items need to be planned:         The key points to be raised in the meeting. etc). Leaders should reflect the makeup of the constituency of the alliance including women and indigenous peoples. be very carefully planned. or USAID representatives. It is often useful to send copies of the letter (cc:) to other influential actors. This may be a report to be issued at a certain date or a follow-up meeting to review progress.something which you agree with the recipient of the letter. more effective activities. If after a power analysis. or mass gathering is the most effective form of pressure it needs to be very carefully planned and executed. All signers of the letter should receive a copy. These take a great deal of resources and effort but may be ignored by the key actors you are trying to influence. if you have an appointment with the Minister of Natural Resources and he/she sends an aide do you refuse to meet with him/her and insist on a meeting with the minister or hold the meeting and/or request a further meeting with the minister. . public address system. It is important that the letters have correct spelling and punctuation. face to face meetings with the key actors you are trying to influence. They can be a drain on an alliance's resources and thereby prevent you from conducting other. sanitary facilities. Any points agreed to in the meeting should be confirmed in writing. setting objectives. and be part of an overall strategy. Demonstrations/ Vigils Demonstrations. or mass gatherings of supporters for pressuring a government or organization should be used only occasionally. Who will speak for the alliance in the meeting. Meetings with Key Actors Any advocacy campaign will usually entail direct. vigil . for example: the World Bank. Meetings need to have some method of accountability and follow-up. The selection of speakers and other public leaders for the demonstration. The position of the alliance on topics expected to be addressed in the meeting. Inter-American Development Bank. Points that need to be considered include:       The specific target of the demonstration. for example unruliness or law breaking on the part of the demonstrators. Always keep a copy of the letter. The need for media coverage for a successful demonstration. 2. and developing a strategy a demonstration. 3. Agreements or positions acceptable to the delegation. The number of demonstrators necessary to make an impact. The logistical requirements necessary to transport and supply the demonstrators (food. For example. housing. Remember that you can't control how the media reports the demonstration and they may accentuate negative aspects. It is important that members of the alliance have representatives in public positions. It may be very difficult to arrange for a meeting with a key actor and therefore each meeting needs to be carefully planned. Permits needed to conduct a legal demonstration. How decisions will be made DURING the meeting. Contingencies need to be planned for.

discipline in the negotiating team. It is possible. and clear roles for its members. the CG meetings without an invitation from their government. 4. the World Bank prepares an economic analysis of the applicant country. In June 1995 the World Bank hosted Consultative Group meetings on Guatemala. established leadership. These meetings are extremely important for civil society because they set the framework for loans and donations to the country for the following three to five years. It is important to remember that a negotiation is a give and take. Negotiations During an advocacy campaign it is expected that an alliance will need to enter negotiations with key actors. The team should be willing to caucus if it is unsure of the next steps or how to respond to an offer. An alliance needs to present itself in the negotiations in a manner which will build its power -. The team needs to have a clear focus. An alliance needs to enter negotiations with the understanding that it will not be able to obtain its full position -. for NGOs to have input into the meetings by preparing a position paper for presentation to governments and to multi-lateral financial institutions prior to the Consultative Group meeting. and presentation of positions.it will need to compromise on some of its points. It is useful to know what their position will be and to understand what their interest is in negotiating.this includes the composition of the negotiating team. Prior to the meeting. however. It is important for the alliance to decide several key points prior to starting negotiations:       When beginning negotiations an alliance should ask for the best possible results it desires but be clear on fall back positions and on the minimum agreement it will accept. The physical security of the demonstrators both during the demonstration and traveling to and from the demonstration site need to be considered. or observe. dress. The negotiating team needs to have as much information as possible on who is serving on the opposing team. El Salvador and Nicaragua. A negotiating team needs to be selected with representatives from the key organizations from an alliance. CASE STUDY #1 Influencing a World Bank Consultative Group Meeting: Guatemala Introduction Each year the World Bank hosts 20 to 25 Consultative Group (CG) meetings in Paris to allow donor countries and multi-lateral development institutions to meet with a single applicant country from the Third World. The team should NEVER argue or disagree with each other in front of the opposition. and the applicant country presents their economic analysis and projects for which it is seeking international financial assistance. . Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are not permitted to participate in. timing. The team needs to know if it can negotiate a final position or if it needs to bring the best offer back to the membership of an alliance.

It provided speakers and contacts for the Guatemalan workshop on the Consultative Group meeting. It provided feedback to the Guatemalan organizations on the process. and Assistance was provided to the Technical Team on the development of an advocacy strategy. established to represent local Guatemalan organizations in the process. The purpose of the U. NGOs was organized in Washington. organizations. Briefing documents on the CG meeting were distributed in Guatemala. This CG meeting was postponed and subsequently linked to the signing of the Guatemalan peace accords. The case study will examine the development and implementation of an advocacy strategy by Guatemalan organizations to influence the international donors attending the CG meeting. Working Group was to develop support for Guatemalan organizations in their efforts to have input into the Consultative Group meeting. Guatemala Campaign 1994 In the winter of 1994 the World Bank announced plans to host a Guatemala Consultative Group meeting in June of that year. . In July 1994 a Working Group of U. Meetings were held with the Technical Team. the United States. It provided ideas and served as a sounding board for advocacy strategies. and their advocacy strategy. An "informal" (non-pledging) Consultative Group meeting on Guatemalan was held in June 1995. This alliance of US organizations was key to the success of the campaign and brought together individuals with experience on Consultative Group meetings. Each trip (which totalled nine during the 15 months leading up to the June 1995 CG meeting) involved a variety of activities:     Individual meetings were held with NGO leaders concerned about the Consultative Group meeting. It developed and implemented the idea of a sign-on letter. In the spring of 1994 the Director of the Center for Democratic Education began a series of visits to Guatemala designed to assist the local organizations to more clearly understand the role of Consultative Group meetings. In April several non-governmental organizations in Guatemala approached the Director of the Center for Democratic Education (Center) and requested assistance in their preparation for the World Bank Consultative Group (CG) meeting on Guatemala. and Europe prior to the World Bank Guatemala Consultative Group meeting of June 1995.This is a case study of work undertaken by NGOs in Guatemala. DC by the Center for Democratic Education under the auspices of the Economic Issues Task Force of the Latin American Working Group. It will examine the development of a core group of Guatemalan non-governmental organizations who organized to respond to the government's position as well as the international support work.S.S. The alliance provided a number of key resources to the process:      It pooled the knowledge of CG meetings from a dozen U. their position paper. Canada. The Center provided information and technical assistance to local organizations as they prepared for the CG meeting.S.

During 1994 donor countries and multi-lateral development agencies organized an informal secretariat in Guatemala to coordinate preparations for the meeting. The Deputy Director of the U. COMG (Consejo de Organizaciones Mayas de Guatemala). 1995 During the early months of 1995 the Guatemala Technical Team expanded to include three additional NGO federations who were members of Forum of NGO Coordinations (Foro de Coordinaciones de ONGs): ASINDES (Asociaci¢n de Entidades de Desarrollo y de Servicio No Gubernamental). The Central America office of USAID in Washington. The eradication of traditional practices that promote secrecy of the plans of the reconstruction process. DC was also very helpful in sharing information about the CG meeting. The NGO position paper included six major points :       Implementation of the MINUGUA recommendations (UN Human Rights mission to Guatemala). and Foro de ONGsy Cooperantes. Most of the secretariat work was undertaken by the UNDP which convened a number of meetings of the donor countries. A positive relationship was developed with staff of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) directing the secretariat work. In February the Technical Team drafted a fund raising proposal to European and U. The Team developed a draft position statement which was revised and focused over a period of several months. It provided the contacts and organized the Guatemalan NGO delegation to Washington. that was to become the Technical Team's advocacy strategy. Agency for International Development (USAID) was very helpful as the campaign progressed and met with members of the Technical Team in the spring.S. funders.S. Development and National Reconstruction (SEPAZ). In November two federations of NGOs began work on the CG meeting: COINDE (Council of Guatemalan Development Institutions) with 12 member organizations and CONGCOOP (Coordination of NGOs and Cooperatives for the Accompaniment of the Population Affected by the Internal Armed Conflict) with 23 member NGOs. to coordinate preparation. The strengthening of the Technical Commission created by the Accord for the Resettlement of Populations Uprooted by the Armed Conflict. This secretariat included the World Bank. including one at the ambassadorial level. This included a work plan. Just prior to the educational workshop Lutheran World Relief awarded the first grant to the campaign allowing the workshop to proceed on schedule. The creation of an Intersectoral Commission for social auditing and verifying the transparency of the implementation resources. Participation of the Civil Society in the Secretariat for Peace. Guatemala Government's commitment to providing funds for the reconstruction process. drafted by the Center. This resulted in members of the Technical Team . Subsequently both DIAKONIA of Sweden and Oxfam-UKI funded the campaign. the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) and the United Nation Development Program (UNDP).

Attended by over 50 individuals and organizations. organizations and was sent to officials prior to their meetings with the delegation. Workshop speakers included: Lisa Haugaard of the Latin American Working Group. a research center in Nicaragua. They received praise in the meetings concerning their professionalism. Departments of State and Treasury as well as a the U.S. Initially few outsiders believed that Guatemalan organizations could unite behind a combined platform. Results This first effort on the part of Guatemalan non-governmental organizations to have input into the Consultative Group meeting met with surprising success. and U. news organizations. In June the Technical Team sent a three member delegation to Washington which met with a wide range of officials at the World Bank. and a staff member of NITLAPAN. In May the Guatemala government issued an invitation to the non-governmental organizations to be observers on the government's delegation to the CG meeting. The World Bank meeting included six members of the Central America team with . The Guatemalan government refused several invitations to speak at the workshop. a UNDP official. Mayan organizations. The Civil Sector Assembly was established to assist with the peace negotiations and included: non-governmental organizations. The delegation also met with the Economic Issues Task Force of the Latin American Working Group and the Washington Office on Latin America hosted a briefing for Washington organizations and congressional staff.S. religious organizations. This was signed by almost 20 U. research organizations and universities. Agency for International Development. By the end of March the position platform had been endorsed by the Guatemalan Civil Sector Assembly which greatly broadened its backing. Since the NGOs had not been allowed input into the government's position they refused to accompany the delegation to Paris because this would imply their endorsement of the government's position. women's organizations. The position platform had been provided to participants prior to each meeting. During the visit to Washington the delegation received praise and respect for their professionalism and work in preparing their position platform. This was accomplished by March of 1995. International Monetary Fund. The Center provided background briefing papers and World Bank materials for workshop participants.S. unions and popular organizations. and small and medium sized businesses.meeting with a staff member and his presentation at a workshop on the Consultative Group meeting held by the Technical Team in March. the workshop was highly successful in mobilizing support in the civil sector for the Consultative Group meeting. organization. representatives to the Consultative Group meeting. and diligence. human rights organizations. allowing the discussions to be specific and productive. political organizations. In March the Technical Team held a workshop to orient a larger group of Guatemalan organizations to the Consultative Group meeting and to enlist their support. who had worked on the Nicaraguan CG meeting. Inter-American Development Bank. The delegation had individual meetings with each of the three U. The Latin American Working Group wrote and distributed a cover letter for the Guatemalan position paper.S. However this invitation was made following the publication of the government's position paper.

The Guatemalan NGO Technical Team developed a position platform. COINDE and CONGCOOP. Advocacy Chronology 1. o World Bank o Inter-American Development Bank o International Monetary Fund o United States government: USAID.S. 4. 3. read the key points of the Guatemalan NGO position paper during his presentation. Agency for International Development. Allies were recruited in Canada and Europe. Initially this consisted of two NGO federations.S. During the Consultative Group meeting three important events occurred:    The Guatemala government admitted that the participants in the Consultive Group meeting had been lobbied by the Guatemalan NGOs. 5.S. 2. Later additions of other NGO federations including: ASINDES (Asociaci¢n de Entidades de Desarrollo y de Servicio no Gubernamental. Plans were made for Guatemalan NGOs to present the platform to the following organizations and countries but due to a lack of time and resources the delegation did not visit them. USAID funded).S. NGO allies were recruited in the U. Mark Schneider. The head of the U. CONG (Consejo de Organizaciones Mayas de Guatemala). A funding proposal was submitted by the Guatemalan NGOs to U. The position platform was presented in Guatemala to: o Guatemalan Government o embassies whose countries would attend the CG meeting o U. The platform was presented by a Guatemalan NGO delegation to Washington. 7.the lead economist for Central America chairing the session. The meeting lasted over two hours and was ended by the Guatemalan organizations. The Latin America Working Group and Center for Democratic Education assisted with the seminar which was funded by Lutheran World Relief. Each official visited received a copy of the platform prior to their meeting. DC.S. The Guatemalan government publicly agreed to involve Guatemalan civil sector in the preparation of the government's position prior to the next Consultative Group meeting. Briefing documents were developed and distributed to Guatemalan NGOs by the Center for Democratic Education. 11. 8. 10. and Foro de ONGs y Cooperantes. The position platform was presented by Northern NGOs to: . and European funders. Agency for International Development o United Nations Development Program o Inter-American Development Bank. The Guatemalan Technical Team held an educational seminar to broaden participation and to orient local organizations to the CG meeting. State and Treasury Departments 12. 6. as well as a number of individual NGOs including the research center AVANCSO. A Technical Team of NGOs began preparing for the CG meeting. Assistant Administrator at the U. delegation. The position platform was endorsed by Guatemalan NGOs and the Civil Sector Assembly 9. The platform was translated into English.

5. The United States government wants civil society to have input into the Consultative Group meeting. 2. To present the civil society position to key actors prior to the Consultative Group meeting. Other governments that were targeted but were not approached by the Guatemalan Technical Team or Northern NGOs due to a lack of time and resources: o Spain o Sweden o Germany o France o Norway o European Union o o o o Campaign Strategy Design: Goal: To insure input into the World Bank's Guatemala Consultative Group meeting by the Guatemalan civil society.S. 2. A working group of US NGOs is developed to support the Guatemalan civil society position. Strategies: 1..United Nations Development Program Canadian government Belgium government United Kingdom representative at the World Bank 13. 4. including non-governmental and popular organizations. 3. and Europe. The position paper is presented to the Guatemalan government and foreign embassies. The Guatemalan government strongly desires a successful Consultative Group meeting. 2. Activities: 1. The position paper is endorsed by the FORO de ONGs. A draft position paper is circulated among NGOs interested in the Consultative Group meeting. To develop alliance support among the key countries and financial institutions attending the Consultative Group meeting. Power Analysis: 1. To enlist the support of international NGOs in the U. The Guatemalan government is perceived negatively by the international financial community. To enlist the support of friendly governments for the position of the civil society. 4. . 2. Objectives: 1. Canada. To develop a unified position within civil society concerning the Consultative Group meeting. The position paper is endorsed by the Civil Sector Assembly. The World Bank wants civil society input into the Consultative Group meeting. To develop a common position that alliance members can endorse. Guatemalan NGOs discuss the possibility of influencing the Consultative Group meeting. 3. 6. To form an alliance of non-governmental organizations with other sectors of the civil society. 4. 3. 3.

over 50 NGOs in the US.S. The position paper is presented to the World Bank. Epilogue In the fall of 1995 the Civil Society Assembly established a Technical Commission to prepare for the next Consultative Group meeting. .S. A second U. IMF. NGO sign-on letter was sent to the Office of Management and Budget requesting an increase in the amount of funds allocated by the U. In January 1997 the Copenhagen Initiative for Central America (CIFCA) organized a two week delegation visit to Europe for representatives of the Foro de Coordinaciones de ONG and the Civil Society Assembly.9 billion was pledged for loans and grants to Guatemala for implementation of the peace accords. London). the European Union and the Consultative Group meeting. the International Center for Human Rights and Democratic Development (Canada). and the Latin America Working Group in Washington. This training was conducted by the Center for Democratic Education. the State Department. In 1995 the Technical Commission of the Assembly asked the Center to develop an international support network. 1997 in Brussels. to implement the peace accords. In December the Foro de Coordinaciones de ONG de Guatemala published a position paper which was followed by the publishing of a position paper by the Civil Society Assembly.7. The position papers were presented to the counties and institutions attending the CG meeting. In April 1996 the Technical Commission held a three day training workshop for members of the Assembly on lobbying campaigns. During the meeting $1. A number of important events occurred during the campaign's final months: The Guatemala Civil Society Assembly and the NGO Forum agreed on a combined position statement.S. the European Union. In addition the Center for Human Rights Legal Action circulated a position paper focusing on human rights. A U. The advocacy campaign by the Civil Society Assembly and Foro de Coordinaciones de ONG resulted in a number of improvements in the U. This group met with President elect Alvaro Arz£ in January 1996 and he re-affirmed the government's commitment to involve the Civil Sector Assembly in the preparations for the next Consultative Group meeting which was held in Brussels on January 21-22.S. I DB. and Europe were enlisted to assist the campaign. Working closely with the Copenhagen Initiative for Central America (CIFCA). Departments of State and Treasury. and European countries. The Canadian Council for International Cooperation's Guatemala Working Group submitted a sign-on letter to the Canadian Foreign Minister in support of the Guatemalan positions. NGO sign-on letter was sent to the U. and USAID during a Guatemala Civil Society delegation visit. Prior to the Consultative Group meeting the Foro de Coordinaciones de ONG and the Assembly issued a combined position paper. and U.S.S. position as well as impacting on Canada. a Copenhagen Initiative for Central America member (the Central America Human Rights Committee. Agency for International Development. and the Treasury Department supporting the Guatemalan positions vis-a-vis the Consultative Group meeting. 1997. Canada. The Inter-American Development Bank hosted the Guatemala Consultative Group meeting January 21-22. and the Washington Office on Latin America (WOLA). the Canadian Council for International Co-operation (CCIC).

or public health services and public education in the rural areas. pledged $260 million over four years. Increasing tax revenues by 50%.A Latin America Working Group delegation met with a Guatemala government delegation and with Mark Schneider. pension programs. planned for the establishment of a Social Investment Fund (SIF). CIFCA also sponsored a Guatemala civil society delegation to Europe for two weeks. Stacy Rhodes (U.S. Increasing expenditures in health and education by 50%. position focused on:      Establishing a Justice Strengthening Commission to improve the access to and functioning of the judicial system. AID-Guatemala). The CIFCA delegation visited France. Spain.S. CASE STUDY #2: Influencing a Social Investment Fund: Jamaica Background For the past several years the Jamaican government.S. assistance program is premised on the successful implementation of the institutional and policy reforms in the substantive accords. U. The primary activity of a social investment fund is to make grants for small investment projects of infrastructure and equipment in the areas of health. Enacting an Organic Law for the national civilian police.: unemployment assistance. . This is up from the original $19 million commitment for 1997. and Liliana Ayalde (U. 1996. electrification. This meeting was primarily for the four COPMAGUA members. CIFCA (Copenhagen Initiative for Central America) published a research paper on the impact of European Union funding in Guatemala. AID Assistant Administrator for Latin America and head of the U. e. Delegation. La Pol¡tica de Cooperaci¢n de la Uni¢n Europea Hacia Guatemala: Un an lisis preliminar. joined the delegation for a number of meetings. AID-Central America).S. and community development. Social investment funds are a partial response to the deepening of extreme poverty in Latin America and the Caribbean which lacks any substantial "social safety nets".S. with the assistance of the World Bank. drinking water and sanitation. In Brussels a meeting was held for the delegation with Mark Schneider. The US position improved significantly during 1996: The U. and Belgium to present their position to governments and NGOs. Mark Schneider agreed that they should meet again in six months with Stacy Rhodes for an assessment of the implementation of the accords. The delegation included two members from the Civil Society Assembly and two from the NGO Forum. the Netherlands. subject to Congressional action.S. Germany. education. an alliance of 175 Mayan organizations. Three additional members from COPMAGUA.g.S. Social investment funds were created in response to the debt crisis in Latin America as a part of economic structural adjustment policies implemented under the direction of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund. The U. Signing an upper credit tranche (Stand-by) arrangement with the International Monetary Fund. environment. The U. and in so doing improve the living conditions of the country's poor.

In 1996 the Jamaican government established a Social Investment Fund (SIF) with the support of the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank. and that they be selected by the NGO community. Jamaica requested the Center's assistance. The World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank supported the concept of NGO representatives on the SIF Board. In April 1996 the Director of the Center for Democratic Education visited Jamaica for an initial round of meetings with federations of NGOs and community based organizations and international financial institutions. with the Planning Institute of Jamaica (a government agency). The immediate nature of key decisions by the Jamaican government and the . During these meetings it became clear that several federations of NGOs and community based organizations wanted to develop a campaign to influence the Social Investment Fund. between December 1995 and May 1996 the NGO community was not been involved in the process of designing the Jamaican Social Investment Fund. The Jamaican NGO Council decided to launch a campaign to insure that several members of the SIF Board of Directors represented the NGO community. 3. 4. The Jamaican government needed to appoint the Social Investment Fund Board of Directors prior to final negotiations. in March 1996 the Social Action Center of Kingston. Because of this work. The Jamaican government was in the process (in May) of circulating a list of potential members of the Board of Directors of the Social Investment Fund but had not finalized the board list. hosted a three day workshop to introduce non-governmental and community based organizations to social investment funds and to obtain their input into the design of the Jamaican Social Investment Fund. This began a short (five month) campaign to have NGO representatives included on the Board of the Jamaican Social Investment Fund. The World Bank planned to hold final negotiations and approval of the Jamaican Social Investment Fund loan within two to three months. The Jamaican NGO Council decided to launch a campaign to insure that several members of the SIF Board of Directors represented the NGO community. 2. despite their presence at this workshop. Chronology of Events In December 1995 the World Bank. Several NGOs invited the Center for Democratic Education to assist in a campaign to increase the NGOs' influence over the Social Investment Fund. Advice was requested to help Jamaican non-governmental and community based organizations develop influence over the operations of the Jamaican Social Investment Fund. However. The Center's Director also met with representatives at the World Bank and Inter-American Development Bank responsible for the Jamaican Social Investment Fund. The Jamaican NGO community had been involved in a World Bank sponsored workshop on the SIF in December 1995 but felt that they were not having sufficient input into the design of the Fund's operation. The federations established the Jamaican NGO Council in early 1996. The Center for Democratic Education (Center) had conducted intensive investigations of the social investment funds in El Salvador and Guatemala. The bank staff were very helpful and informative and during these meetings four key points of information were provided: 1.

the Jamaican mission of the World Bank had established a reputation for encouraging participation of civil society in bank projects. Power Analysis: Key points in the power analysis included: 1. After some difficulty in reaching Dr. In particular. a meeting was held in late May. Results In July the Jamaican Cabinet approved a Social Investment Fund Board of seven individuals. James Wolfinsohn. the World Bank. Hughes] as a matter of urgency. the Inter-American Development Bank. the Ambassador from the Netherlands. 5. The World Bank and Inter-American Development Bank support the inclusion of NGO representatives on the Board. Davies will need to clear the selection of the Board with the Prime Minister. Omar Davies. had given clear public messages of support for participation of NGOs and civil society in bank projects. from the NGO community one of them nominated by the Jamaican NGO Council (almost 30% of the Board). 3. Campaign Strategy Design Goal: To establish a formal role for non-governmental and community based organizations in the governance of the Jamaican Social Investment Fund. Dr.. The Board of Directors of the Jamaican Social Investment Fund are formally appointed by the Minister of Finance and Planning. Dr. The World Bank and Inter-American Development Bank have a great deal of influence over the planning and implementation of the SIF operations.. Hughes. Dr. 2. The Planning Institute of Jamaica and the Jamaican Social Investment Fund were represented by Dr. Wesley Hughes. This influence will . It is the first time in Latin America and the Caribbean that NGOs have been permitted to nominate board members for a social investment fund. The Planning Institute of Jamaica will undertake the work of screening and developing a list of candidates for the board. 6." Copies of the letter were sent to the office of the Prime Minister. This action represented a major victory for the new Jamaican NGO Council. Planning Institute of Jamaica and three staff. 4. The Council met and decided to nominate nine individuals for one third of the positions on the Board.. The letter proposed that the Council "submit a representative slate of suitable NGO Sector candidates from which the Government could appoint a minimum of a third of the JSIF Board.World Bank required the NGOs to move rapidly to influence the selection of the SIF Board of Directors. Hughes agreed that the Jamaican NGO Council could submit three names for the Social Investment Fund Board. The Jamaican NGO Council met in early May and drafted a letter to Dr. Wesley Hughes. the Minister of Finance and Planning. Director of the Planning Institute of Jamaica (PIOJ) which is part of the Ministry of Finance and Planning. This meeting included four representatives from the Jamaican NGO Council. and the British High Commission." The letter also stated that the Council "would therefore like to meet with you [Dr. including two representatives. Director. The President of the World Bank.

there was a chance that the government would select an NGO representative for the Board. 8. To make the appointment of an NGO representative without NGO input unacceptable. Objectives: 1. 3. Obtain the endorsement of the Jamaican NGO Council for the position of nominating individuals to the SIF Board. 5. however. 7. 4. Send copies of the Jamaican government letter to the World Bank.decrease following the approval by the World Bank and Inter-American Development Bank's Boards of Executive Directors of the Jamaican Social Investment Fund loan. 3. This would change the perception of the goal of the Jamaican NGO Council and make it more acceptable to the government and the World Bank. To win the support of the World Bank for the Jamaican NGO Council's position. 3. The Jamaican government desired to be seen as open to input from the NGO community and civil society in general. Activities: 1. In fact. 2. To rapidly implement the campaign. and other key institutions. 2. in other words too closely aligned to the government to represent the NGO community. Send the Jamaican government a letter to state their position to nominate 1/3 of the Board. Meet with the Director of the Planning Institute of Jamaica to press for the Jamaican NGO Council's position. To win the right to select one third (1/3) of the Board of Directors of the Social Investment Fund. Meet with representatives of the World bank and the Inter-American Development Bank to press for the Jamaican NGO Council position. Strategies: 1. without NGO input. To win the support of the Inter-American Development Bank for the Jamaican NGO Council's position. CASE STUDY #3 Influencing a Domestic Violence Act: Belize Background . the Inter-American Development Bank. If the Jamaican government selected an NGO representative without input from the NGO community the selected NGO would be perceived to be "in the government's pocket". To utilize the World Bank's position of involving NGOs and the civil society in bank projects to support the goal. 2.

Additionally. those named to the House of Representatives Committee on the Domestic Violence Act. The Women Against Violence Organization (WAV) in Belize played a significant role in helping Belize to develop its priority list by making strong arguments in favor of addressing domestic violence as a number one concern for women in Belize. To create an awareness of the dynamics of domestic violence. at the time. These models. 4. These graphic murders created a further sense of urgency in passing the Domestic Violence Act. Power Analysis: The people who had the power to pass the proposed Act into law were the Ministers in the Cabinet. To create an awareness of what is included in the model legislation on domestic violence. Objectives: 1. To mobilize national support for the proposed Domestic Violence Act. there was a need for each country to prioritize this list of legislation and work at passing them into local laws one at a time. 4. and gave examples of frustration with the lack of local institutional support for victims of domestic violence. Strategies: 1. were therefore named as significant in determining the success or failure of the campaign. because they all addressed issues of major concern to women in the region (for example. To ensure national input into the content of the proposed Domestic Violence Act. Since in Belize the ruling party in the government rewards selective women who are avid campaigners and loyal party supporters by appointing them to the National Women's Commission. To generate financial support for the domestic violence campaign. such as loyal party supporters. The people with direct access to these Ministers. 5. saturated with stories of murders resulting from unchecked cases of domestic violence. however. Because of limited resources. 3. and in particular. 3. consequently convincing the Department of Women's Affairs (DWA) to name domestic violence as the first of the six gender campaigns to be conducted. domestic violence and sexual harassment). Research Public Awareness Campaign Networking Official representations at key meetings of the Bill .In February of 1991. 2. six model legislations were tabled at a Caribbean Economic Community (CARICOM) Ministers meeting held in Belize. 2. this group was considered important in developing an effective strategy for passing the Domestic Violence Act. WAV turned the public's attention to the media which was. Campaign Strategy Design Goal: Passing a Belize Domestic Violence Act acceptable to the Belize women's community and the Women Against Violence Organization (WAV). created the impetus for developing gender focused campaigns. They made presentations on the prevalence of domestic violence cases nationwide.

At times personal agendas can influence the outcome of a campaign. 4. along with the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). This study will inform the next phase of the campaign which includes follow-up action to make the Act as effective as possible. if any. These results will be used to decide what adjustments. Visit Schools C. 2. One of the trouble spots already identified is the lack of systematization and documentation of cases presented to medical personnel and the police. The public awareness campaign on the dynamics of domestic violence and on the contents of the act are ongoing. through the Department of Women's Affairs. are needed in the application of the Act. 3. has been monitoring the effectiveness of the Domestic Violence Act. Having international and regional support for the campaign is important. A governmental body involved in an advocacy campaign may cause difficulties for the public officers involved.Example of an Activity Work Plan:    Objectives Activities Tasks o Who responsible o When Resources needed Create an awareness of the dynamics of domestic violence A. . Develop a one minute ad on domestic violence  Meet with UNICEF to discuss funding Department of Women's Affairs (DWA)  Draft script DWA  Select actors DWA  Hire technicians to produce ad DWA  Meet with media personnel to discuss free airtime DWA  Send tape to all media houses DWA  Monitor viewing schedule DWA B. Visit NGOs Evaluation: No formal evaluation was held. A pilot study of how the Act has worked in Orange Walk has been completed. Lessons Learned: 1. however the Department of Women's Affairs. Networking with non-governmental bodies is an important aspect of an advocacy campaign. or in the content of the Act itself.

The Center maintains a small staff in the Washington DC area and has part-time Associates based in Guatemala.S. government. The Center responds to requests from organizational leaders in Central America and the Caribbean for information and assistance on influencing the policies and programs of the World Bank and Inter-American Development Bank. and non-profit organizations. Jamaica. This support enables organizations to analyze and respond more effectively to the economic and social policies which Central American and Caribbean governments are implementing in order to obtain World Bank and Inter-American Development Bank loans. policy makers. The Center provides information and training in the design and implementation of advocacy campaigns to non-governmental. Inter-American Development Bank. It receives no funds from the World Bank. and Belize. The Center receives funding from private foundations. El Salvador. individuals.S. and churches in the United States and Europe. or the U. . popular. Nicaragua.Center for Democratic Education The Center for Democratic Education was founded in 1986 for the purpose of educating the U. Jamaica. public about the economic and political conditions in Central America. and community based organizations in Guatemala. In 1993 the Multi-lateral Development Bank Reform Project was established by the Center in response to requests for assistance from non-governmental and popular organizational leaders in Central America. Information is also provided in the United States to the public. and Belize.