Taiwan Research Report 2011

Introduction ................................................................................................................ 1
Research and Collaboration in Taiwan.......................................................................... 3

Methodology ............................................................................................... 3
Research Productivity and Impacts ............................................................... 5
Performance by Fields of Research ............................................................... 9
Benchmarking against Leading Scientific Nations and Six Asian Nations ..... 11
Main Collaborating Countries and Institutions ........................................... 24

Conclusions ............................................................................................................... 26


The onset of the knowledge economy
has led to a gradual shift in the
Taiwanese government’s S&T policy

industrial innovation, the government
has implemented the national-scale
Technology Development Programs

from the “efficiency-driven approach,”
which focuses on steady growth of
existing technologies towards the
“innovation-driven approach,” which

(TDPs) for effective coordination of R&D
resources in resolving major social
problems and issues that Taiwanese
citizens face in their basic living needs.

emphasizes on the development of new
technologies. With the
innovation-driven approach, Taiwan has

Since 2010, six major TDPs have been
launched in networking and
communications, smart electronics

been devoted to integrating various
resources and establishing a

systems, nanotechnology, energy,
biomedicine, and digital collections and

comprehensive knowledge base for its
development needs in innovation
exploration. This is different from the
“bottom-up” model driven by dispersing

digital learning. Among them, the
National Biomedicine Technology
Development Program is made to
integrate resources of two previous

resources in the past but needs a
“top-down” approach directed by
government to develop innovative
growth strategies.

national programs and coordinate with
the new launched Diamond Action Plan
for Biotech Take off. Based on the
achievements of the previous program
for System on Chip (SoC) Development,

The Taiwanese government envisions
the country to be a world leader in
“green” technology and smart lifestyles
by 2020, according to the R.O.C. White

the National Program for Intelligent
Electronics (NPIE) is developed to
promote Taiwan’s R&D capabilities in
the fields of automotive electronics,

Paper on Science and Technology
(2011 – 2014). The main strategies
include actively identifying new
opportunities for Taiwan in economic
development, enhancing domestic

“green” energy electronics, and “3C”
(Computing, Communications and
Consumer electronics), and lead
Taiwanese semiconductor industry
towards a greater focus on

demand and export performance of
Taiwanese products, and encouraging
private-sector investment to expand job
opportunities in Taiwan. To drive

cross-industry applications. The National
Science and Technology Program for
Energy is made to have effective use of
clean coal technology, carbon capture

Taiwanese government scientists to undertake research abroad at the world’s leading research institutes in these fields. such as Burnishing Program and Dragon Gate program. 2 . To accelerate the talent development of Taiwanese researchers. which targets on research excellence and aims to enable Taiwan to cultivate world-class There are attempts to build up advanced research facilities and attract eminent researchers to undertake research in Taiwan.and carbon storage. the National Science Council (NSC) of Taiwan implements several additional This report is to examine Taiwan’s academic capabilities and development trends. the NSC encourages the establishment of international research centers in Taiwan. It uses comprehensive. scholars in scientific fields within the next ten years. Moreover. the later program is made to identify key research areas that Taiwan needs to focus on and sponsor outstanding Taiwanese overall national carbon dioxide emissions by 2050. along with smart power grid and meter reading Taiwanese scholars and encourage them to participate in international academic technology in Taiwan. The specific goal is to improve nuclear energy technology and offshore wind power generation technology to reduce at least 5% of the organizations and activities. In terms of basic scientific research development. The former program aims to identify outstanding foundations that Taiwan has built up in terms of its R&D capabilities. all-round statistical data to demonstrate the programs. has been keen to implement the Academic Summit Program.

as well as to the U. Thomson Reuters indexes approximately 10. of the extent to which scientific research in Taiwan is on a par with other countries. and Essential Science Indicators (ESI). Methodology The report is based on the databases provided by Thomson Reuters. The contents of these databases range over 180 countries. this report compares Taiwan to India. 3 . Department of Health.. the U. Accounting and Statistics. South Korea. the Statistical Office.500 international scholarly journals. providing an extensive source of various analysis indicators used to explore the output status of these subject categories (see Table 2). Executive Yuan. The demographic data of these major countries are sourced from the World Bank website.Research and Collaboration in Taiwan I. Japan and Singapore (which are collectively referred to as “the Six Asian Nations”). including the Web of Science (WoS). and Canada. Other socioeconomic data related to Taiwan are collected from the websites of the Department of Statistics. Australia. general Space Science In addition. Germany. Table 1 The 22 Fields Used in this Report Agricultural Sciences Biology & Biochemistry Chemistry Clinical Medicine Computer Science Economics & Business Engineering Environment/Ecology Geosciences Immunology Materials Science Mathematics Microbiology Molecular Biology & Genetics Multidisciplinary Neuroscience & Behavior Pharmacology & Toxicology Physics Plant & Animal Science Psychiatry/Psychology Social Sciences. and of the state of collaboration among universities and research institutions. which have produced significant quantities of academic research papers. The examination of these analytical data help us better understand the academic R&D capabilities in Taiwan. China. and the Directorate General of Budget. National Science Indicators (NSI). which are classified into 22 fields (see Table 1) and 249 subject categories.. France.K.S. Ministry of Education.

A value greater than1 indicates that the country has more academic output in a particular field than the global average. The number of highly-cited papers (i. The number of co-authored papers shows the intensity of research collaboration among countries and among institutions. a value of less than 1 indicates that the impact of the country is lower than the global average in that field. The higher the number of co-authored papers. A value greater than 1 indicates that the impact of the country’s research output in that field is higher than the global average. If the value is greater than 5% for a given country. Activity Index (AI) The ratio of the share of a given field in the output of a given country to the share of the same field in the world total output. 4 .e. The Relative Specialization Index (RSI) is used to analyze the characteristics of the research “topology” of individual countries. Number of Co-authored Papers (co-authorship between two countries or two institutions) The number of papers co-authored by different countries or by different institutions. no matter how many authors from the same country or same institutions are shown in that paper.Table 2 The Indicators Used in this Report Indicator Calculation Method Number of papers Proportion of highly cited papers to all academic papers by a given country (top 1% and top 5%) The types of documents include articles. The Activity Index (AI) indicates how active a given country is in a particular academic field. A RSI value of 0 indicates that the share of all papers produced in that country that relate to that particular field is exactly the same as the global average. Significance Denotes the academic output of individual countries and individual research institutions The number of highly-cited papers that a country produces as a percentage of all academic papers produced by that country can be taken to represent that country’s ability to produce cutting-edge research. Each paper is counted for once. Relative Specialization Index (RSI) RSI= Relative Citation Impact The impact of papers from a particular country in a particular field is divided by the average impact for all papers in that field. a RSI value of less than 0 indicates that the research undertaken in that country is less concentrated in that particular field than is the case for the world as a whole. it is indicated that that country produced high quality research papers more than the world average. Use of data for the top 1% of most highly cited papers employs an even more rigorous definition of what constitutes high-quality research. reviews. the greater the intensity of research collaboration. A RSI value greater than 0 indicates that that the research undertaken in that country is more concentrated in that particular field than is the case for the world as a whole. papers that are among the top 1% or top 5% most cited papers worldwide) is divided by the total number of papers by a given country. a value smaller than 1 indicates output in that field lower than the global average. Take the 5% level as an example. and notes. The Relative Citation Impact shows that the impact of a county in a given field relative to that of the world. The RSI is a value between –1 and 1.

5 .000 papers a year and had climbed to over 20. Research Productivity and Impacts Taiwan has been making steady progress in academic research over the past three decades. other countries. Singapore and India have all seen significant growth in the volume. We.S. 1 Volume of publications compared to 1991=100 In the early 1990s. looking only at the absolute number of papers from a given country may lead to an overestimation of that nation’s real research performance. where the index equals 100. this figure has risen to over 23.000 by 2008 (see Table 3). In 1981. By 2001. has remained more or less flat in the number of papers. including South Korea. while Japan and the U. Taiwan produced only a few thousand academic papers a year.II. As Figure 1 shows. Fig. Although the number is still lagged behind that of other developed nations. China. only 537 academic papers were published by Taiwanese authors.05% of the world’s research output. therefore. the ongoing increase in the volume shows a continuing rise in Taiwan’s research capability. but by 2010. which takes up 2. this figure had risen to over 10. As the volume of publications included in the Thomson Reuters databases tends to increase steadily over time. taking 1991 as the baseline year. examine relative growth in the number of papers for a country.000.

226 37.500 238.074 16. higher than the figures for Asia as a whole (7.49%).474 1.372 53.564 8.546 67.786 56.932 13.581 75.135 78.649 17.125 300.686 2.292 31.414 230.522 46.759 1992 4.753 53.029 3. the European Union (3.813 259.395 1996 7.503 70. Figure 3 shows that over the past 20 years the average growth rate for Taiwan has been in excess of 11%.957 22.790 2010 23.674 24.511 15. South Korea and India) has continued to see steady growth.095 49.736 15.140 15.745 1993 4.531 17.516 22.272 71.66%).766 28.627 86.036 256.671 15.97%).654 31.396 80.101 65.225 54.102 38.374 4.397 38. 1981-2010 An increasing trend is shown in the analysis of research productivity in 5-year windows from 1991 to 2010.892 11.206 29.967 62.970 88.448 53.398 65.553 19.175 21.158 2.225 21.601 33.742 43.811 39.Table 3 Volume of annual publications by country. 1991 – 2010 Taiwan China India Japan Singapore South Korea Australia Canada France Germany UK USA 1991 3.127 70.157 74. Standard Version.505 68.877 69.056 89.978 90.411 257.215 850 1.793 6.623 6.521 5.870 81.752 58.822 41.669 72.686 48.519 62.697 40.120 79.396 69.528 1.094 80.306 46.406 240.759 19.776 63.219 59.339 Source: National Science Indicators on Diskette.472 331.099 2001 11.794 307.471 4.623 45.780 76.061 18.224 305.291 53.281 8.249 12.765 73.542 52.733 73.648 27.002 15.738 34. China has posted dramatic growth in the most recent five-year period.804 73.607 8.632 29.161 262.004 330.746 35.406 257.874 28.176 40.078 15.963 83.441 2.486 89.746 90.031 16.225 69.126 20.469 64.618 61.016 260.213 2008 22.480 14.362 29.202 264.115 13.466 3.816 1995 7.649 48.128 47.892 37.187 65. while Japan has tended to fall off in recent years.065 67.249 67.087 15.702 33.384 3.016 6.382 29.109 48. There has thus been a gradual.881 22.408 1999 9.538 72.600 73.251 37.324 86.822 62.861 18.330 15.270 71.720 2009 24.647 4.465 48.448 36.516 38.012 283.446 19.711 72.715 134.367 16.666 10.732 20.459 5.070 33.167 27.705 56.386 33.079 50.028 7.913 54.157 2.869 54.963 33.216 18.386 53.317 34.310 10.150 47.694 2.359 2000 9.407 39.325 2007 18.602 27. 6 .156 63.247 2006 17.093 80.775 255.303 45.191 1998 8.138 15.104 34.106 75.594 7.481 26.423 26.088 24.819 33.267 16.279 267.448 21.634 13.963 2005 16.249 1994 6.333 2004 13.150 34.487 80.315 127.998 21.797 1997 8.712 49.410 2003 13.790 38.915 271. and the world as a whole (3.390 8. Taiwan (along with Singapore.685 335.235 47.119 73.566 52.289 44.179 1.731 36.181 71.653 67. steady increase in the prominence of Taiwanese academic research on the global stage.073 22.248 45.000 2002 11.550 67.551 34.778 79.784 77. As Figure 2 illustrates.652 30.640 54.636 113.393 55.538 6.904 21.545 48.

1991 – 2010 Taiwan’s research productivity is rather outstanding if a country’s demographic scale is taken into consideration in the analysis. In 2010.Fig. Taiwan scores an upward trend by an 7 . while there are only less than 2% growth in population. 1991 – 2010 Fig. 3 Annual Growth Rate by country and region. Taiwan had a total population of approximately 23. and produced a total of 23.024 papers per million people.715 academic papers. The increase in Taiwan’s productivity is thus largely attributable to an increase in the average number of papers produced per person. indicating an average output of 1. rather than to the population size. Japan (570) and China (93). Taiwan has achieved 32% growth rate in the number of papers.16 million people. The figure is higher than that of South Korea (788). 2 Volume of publications by country and region in 5-year windows. See Figure 4. From 2006 to 2010.

As Figures 5 shows. over the periods of 1996-2000 and 2001-2005. yet it remains growing the number throughout the periods. 5/6 The share of top 5 and top 1% highly cited papers for the Six Asian Nations. and South Korea. it is indicated that Taiwan held a relatively small share of highly cited papers.annual growth rate of 7. compared to other Asian countries. Both Taiwan and Singapore can fairly claim to be bona fide Asian “knowledge economies. in terms of top 5% highly cited papers. Japan. (1. Taiwan did not have outstanding performance in the share of top 1% highly cited papers. Taiwan lagged behind Singapore. on a par with Singapore but higher than the U.S. although it exceeded South Korea in 2006-2010. A similar finding is also observed in Figure 6. 1991-2010 8 .24%). 4 Published papers per population. 2006-2010 In the analysis of top level research.” Fig.8% in average. Fig.

earth sciences.III. this report employs the Relative Specialization Index (RSI) to analyze the country’s research output from 2006 to 2010. 7 RSI by fields for Taiwan. which is the characteristic pattern of European and North American countries. Fig. physics (0. with a concentration on clinical medicine and biomedical research. which is commonly seen in developing nations and countries that are heavily dependent on their natural resources (including Australia and South Africa).39). materials science (0. Performance by Fields of Research In order to develop an in-depth picture of Taiwan’s research focuses. and space sciences. with a concentration on engineering and chemistry. and economics (0.21). with a concentration on physics and chemistry. The share of Taiwan’s total output in economics & business is higher than the global average. engineering (0. four basic patterns in research profile can be identified with the analysis of RSI: Type 1: Western Model. 2006-2010 9 . where there is a concentration on biology. a model which is typical not only of Japan but also for other developed Asian economies. Type 2: Characteristic pattern of former socialist economies in transition (such as China). Type 4: Japanese Model.41).13). Figure 7 shows that Taiwan is relatively concentrated in computer science (0. Taiwan’s publication profile can be identified as the Type 4 in Glanzel’s classification scheme. With the focus on engineering and engineering-related fields. It is also found that Taiwan has remarkable research performance in the field of economics & business. According to Glanzel (2000).11). Type 3: Bioenvironmental Model. over the past year of 2006-2010.

01 55.438 16 No. with the world ranking at 9th place in computer science and in engineering.21 15 1. In the comparison between the periods of 2001-2005 and 2006-2010. and social science. the rapid growth rates of 191.410 12.544 11 12.23 8.65 1.47 16 19 18 18 10 1. The high performance in these fields is closely linked to the impressive development of the information and communications technology (ICT) sector in Taiwan.121 1.07 11 2.76 9 4.01% and 180.17 62. Taiwan is strong in engineering.812 13 779 16 8.43 54.054 10 4.959 2006-2010 Global Share of Ranking papers 9 4. As it presents. In natural sciences.67% are found in economics & business.493 1.37 62. and natural sciences.796 2.6 14 1.308 17 1.48 13 2.67 36.126 20.86 74.61 180. where it ranks 13th and 16th in the world.Table 4 shows the top ten fields where Taiwan accounted for the largest shares of publications in the world from 2006 to 2010.86 Growth Rate (%) 72. of papers 6.768 107.259 2. Table 4 Top ten fields for Taiwan with largest shares of publications in the world Subject Areas Computer science Engineering Materials science Economics & business Physics Social sciences Pharmacology & toxicology Chemistry Physics Clinical medicine All fields 2001-2005 No.995 7. respectable performance in both physics and chemistry.78 1.267 12. Taiwan has maintained a steady.158 66. respectively.389 18. of Global papers Ranking 3.112 21 1. and 10th place in materials science.928 3.57 69.53 10 3.01 191.58 1.090 11.99 .375 16 17 18 16 32.

49%).48%).86% 1.90% 6.48% 14.54% 8.549 papers.09% 0. Singapore emphasizes on engineering (17.26% 5. physics (12.64% 1.47% India 177.35% 12.30% 1.49% 1.64% 4.24% South Korea 168.98%). which aggregately account for 48.53% 2.25% 2.69% 2.55% 17.27% 2.18% 4.01% 0.31% 3.47% 1.11% 20.66%).54% 1. general Plant & Animal Science Mathematics Economics & Business Geosciences Environment/Ecology Pharmacology & Toxicology Molecular Biology & Genetics Agricultural Sciences Neuroscience & Behavior Psychiatry/Psychology Microbiology Space Science Immunology Multidisciplinary Taiwan 107.IV.208 10.49% 1.27% 3.24% 1.53% 5.02% 3. Table 5 shows the share of a country’s research output by subject fields in the Six Asian Nations from 2006 to2010.549 17. Japan concentrated in clinical medicine (20.07%). and materials science.76% 7.58%).74% 13.99%).73% 2.43% 1. clinical medicine.32% 0.12% 1.66% 12. physics (15.74% 0.67% 0.49% 1.55%).74% 0. which together accounted for 56. Of the 177.05% 1.22% 2.815 papers during the period.96%).29%) and engineering (11.04% 0.49% 1.78% 1.57% 1. physics (13.11% 1.48% 2.82% 1.66% 3.92% 5.68% 0.60% 1.88%).86% 1.56% of the total of 107.82% 0.99% 9.22% 2.01% 1.08% 0. accounted for 59.01% 2. Table 5 The share of a country’s research output by fields.70% 5. 2006-2010 Field Total Publications Engineering Clinical Medicine Physics Chemistry Materials Science Computer Science Biology & Biochemistry Social Sciences.87% 0.61% 3.10% 0.07% 10.82% a total of 38.35%) and chemistry (12.49%).11% 2.77% 3. physics (14. Benchmarking against Leading Scientific Nations and Six Asian Nations This section benchmarks Taiwan against leading scientific nations by the indicator of share of a country’s research output by fields.83% 1. chemistry. Generally Asian countries are strong in engineering.84%).48%).67% of its total of 381.181 papers.17% 0.79% 0.58% 21. Similarly South Korea focuses on clinical medicine (16.15% 7. China produced a total of 538.56% 15.09% 1.71% 3.49% 7.56% Singapore 38.40% 1.58% 1.46% 1.54%).48% 12.25% 2.91% 2.348 papers and 48.04% 10. physics (11.08% 2.70% 2.04%) and chemistry (10. clinical medicine (17.54% 2. and engineering (10.18% 1.43% 1.76% 2.15% 0. 54.07% 1.15% 0.88% 11.06% 11 .28% 1.29% 22.9% among them are related to chemistry (22.31% 1.38% 1. Taiwan focuses on the research of engineering (19.54% 1.76% 0.97% 0. engineering (13.52% 4.348 11.11% 4.74%).79%).91% of them are in chemistry (21.208 papers produced by India. clinical medicine (10.12% 0.815 13.15%).84% 15.76% 0.49% 10.97% 0.41% 3.88% China 548.51% 3.79% 13.53% 16. physics.96% 8. clinical medicine (15. chemistry (13.53%) and chemistry (12.36% 0.04% 6.375 papers in these four fields.18% 1.181 8.69% 5.92% of its total of 168.91% 0.74% Japan 381.96% 1.77% 0.23% 1.86% 4.52% 2.375 19. aggregating 59.98% 13.50% 2.11% 1.30% 0.62% 0.01% 1.90%) and physics (13.

followed by China and India. Canada (1.42).19) have a significantly higher level of impact than the Asian nations. 8 Note: y Relative citation impact by countries.28). South Korea (0. Japan has had the relative high RCI value of 0.99) have the highest RCI values among the six Asian Nations. (1. Figure 8 illustrates the RCI for Taiwan and the selected countries over the five-year period of 2006-2010.K German Canada France Australia Singapore Japan South Taiwan China India Korea A. U.Relative citation impact This section benchmarks Taiwan against leading scientific nations by the indicator of Relative Citation Impact (RCI). 12 .07) and Japan (0. (1.72). compared to the global average. Singapore has shown a significant increase of its RCI value from 0.99 close to the global average and been retaining steady growth trend. the RCI in these countries has tended to rise steadily over the past twenty years. Germany (1. It is addressed to examine the level of impact that Taiwan is able to exert through its academic research.S.K. Fig.33). South Korea and Taiwan are approximately at the same level in RCI. the U. Singapore (1. 2006-2010. Taiwan (0.46).07 in . Figure 9 indicates the changes of the RCI values for the six Asian Nations between 1991 and 2010. Among them.74) and China (0. the red line denotes the global average. Overall. The arts & humanities field and multidisciplinary field were excluded from the calculations due to the small number of papers. France (1.23) and Australia (1.S.70) are approximately at the same level. bringing Singapore as the only country with RCI value higher than the global average during the investigated time periods. It shows that generally the giant countries including the U. 2006 – 2010 (Global average = 1) Relative citation impact is calculated using field-normalized citation rates (including self-citation).69 in 2001-2005 to 1. U.

while South Korea and Japan were relatively stable in this field. 1991-2010 This report zooms in the RCI values for Taiwan and the Six Asian Nations in 21 fields. and got an even higher RCI of 1. 10 Relative Citation Impact for the Six Asian Nations in Agricultural Sciences.Relative citation impact Fig.28 in the latest period of 2006-2010. Relative citation impact Agricultural Sciences Taiwan China India Japan Singapore South Korea Fig. Singapore is characterized by its outstanding performance in quality rather than quantity in this field. China also made a progress in the same period. See Figure 10. Singapore shows a notable trend in RCI with the values higher than the global average. and there is a general upward trend since 1991. Taiwan has reached the global average level since the period of 2001-2005. 13 . except India. This can be accounted for the nation’s small number of papers in Agricultural Sciences. have the RCI values near or more than the global average. 1991-2010 Almost all the selected Asian countries. 9 Global average China India Japan Singapore South Korea Taiwan Relative Citation Impact for the Six Asian Nations by periods.

Overall.Relative citation impact Biology and Biochemistry Taiwan China India Japan Singapore South Korea Fig. yet show a significant growth trend over the investigated periods.7 in this period. similar with South Korea. but was exceeded by Singapore with the value of 1. had a RCI value of around 0.29 in 2006-2010. as Figure 12 shows. Singapore and Japan plays a leading role in biology and biochemistry.89 in the most current period. The value is very close to the global average. Relatively China and India have lower RCI than other countries.9 in chemistry in the period of 2006-2010.08 in the period of 2006-2010. 1991-2010 Figure 11 indicates that among the six nations. Taiwan. higher than the global average. 12 Relative Citation Impact for the Six Asian Nations in Chemistry. 1991-2010 Taiwan and South Korea got a similar RCI value of 0. Relative citation impact Chemistry Taiwan China India Japan Singapore South Korea Fig. there has been a steady rise in the quality of research by the six Asian nations in biology and biochemistry. while Japan has shown a steady increase in this area. Singapore has the highest RCI values of 1. reaching to the level of 0. Japan and Singapore are the top two in this field – Japan kept its leading position throughout the first three periods. 14 . 11 Relative Citation Impact for the Six Asian Nations in Biology and Biochemistry.

79. The value almost reached to the global average in 2006-2010.76 in the latest period. 1991-2010 Over the past twenty years. 1991-2010 Taiwan has a significantly rising value of RCI in the computer science field in the recent years. Taiwan shows a steady increase in the value and reached to 0. Similar trend is observed in South Korea in this field. See Figure 13. 13 Relative Citation Impact for the Six Asian Nations in the Clinical Medicine. In the same period. Relative citation impact Computer Science Fig. 15 .02 among the six Asian nations in the most recent five-year period. while Japan consistently retain in the top in the first three periods. Only Singapore exceeded the value of 1 in 2006-2010. 14 Taiwan China India Japan Singapore South Korea Relative Citation Impact for the Six Asian Nations in Computer Science. Singapore has shown strong growth. with reaching to a highest value of 1. the six Asian nations have low RCI values relative to the global average in clinical medicine. as it is illustrated in Figure 14. China also showed a significant growth trend.Relative citation impact Clinical Medicine Taiwan China India Japan Singapore South Korea Fig. with a rising value of RCI to 0.

and reached 1. See Figure 15. Taiwan. India and South Korea had shown the decreasing value in the first and last three periods. Singapore and China both showed a significant increase in the value of RCI throughout the investigated periods. Relative citation impact Engineering Fig. Its RCI value rose above the global average in the period of 2001-2005. except Japan. 15 Relative Citation Impact for the Six Asian Nations in Economics & Business. yet their RCI values were still higher than that of Taiwan. Singapore exceeded China in 2006-2010 and presented the highest RIC value among the six countries. Although lagging behind China in 2006-2000 and 2001-2005. See Figure 16. 1991-2010 In economics & business. with the values approaching the global average in the most recent five-year period. An increasing pattern is observed in all the investigated nations. Singapore has displayed the most notable performance in the field of engineering. respectively.29 in 2006-2010. China and India showed particularly pronounced growth. 16 . in spite of the dip in the period of 2001-2005.Relative citation impact Economics & Business Taiwan China India Japan Singapore South Korea Fig. 16 Taiwan China India Japan Singapore South Korea Relative Citation Impact for the Six Asian Nations in Engineering. 1991-2010 Of the six Asian nations. Taiwan had a gradual growth trend.

32 in the period of 1991-1995 to 1. 18 Taiwan China India Japan Singapore South Korea Relative Citation Impact for the Six Asian Nations in Geosciences. and South Korea showed a relatively steady pattern in this field. Taiwan. The values fluctuated over time. Japan grew modestly and remained its leading position among the Asian countries. 1991-2010 As Figure 18 shows. See Figure 17. 17 . 17 Taiwan China India Japan Singapore South Korea Relative Citation Impact for the Six Asian Nations in Environment/Ecology.Relative citation impact Environment/Ecology Fig. Its RCI has risen from 0. Its indicator value rose steadily to reach 0. Relative citation impact Geosciences Fig. China. and Singapore are relatively unstable in this field. China. surpassed only by Japan over the past decades. 1991-2010 Singapore has displayed a significant growth rate in research in environment and ecology. Taiwan exhibited the second highest RCI in geosciences.29 in the period of 2006-2010. South Korea.88 in the period of 2001-2005.

1991-2010 Among the six Asian nations. Taiwan showed a decreasing pattern in this field. Japan has the highest RCI value in immunology throughout the investigated periods. Singapore exhabited very dramatical growth in this area. 19 Relative Citation Impact for the Six Asian Nations in Immunology. Taiwan and South Korea have similar growth trend and almost reach the global average in the latest years. 20 Taiwan China India Japan Singapore South Korea Relative Citation Impact for the Six Asian Nations in Materials Science. South Korea made significatnt progress as well. 18 . as Figure 19 shows. As Figure 20 shows.96 between the most recent two periods.Relative citation impact Immunology Taiwan China India Japan Singapore South Korea Fig.49 to 0. with most of the six having RCI values of around or above 0. On the contrary. It held the smallest RCI value among the six countries in the beginning but went into top three countries in the later period.8 over the resent two periods of time. Relative citation impact Materials Science Fig. Singapore posted dramtic growth from 0. It has reached above the global average since the period of 2001-2005. 1991-2010 Generally Asian countries had outstanding performance in the field of materials science.

Meanwhile.Relative citation impact Mathematics Taiwan China India Japan Singapore South Korea Fig. 1991-2010 Sinapore held a leading postion in reserch impact among the peer Asian nations in microbiology. Relative citation impact Microbiology Taiwan China India Japan Singapore South Korea Fig.6 in the period of 2006-2010. 1991-2010 Figure 21 indicates that Taiwan has shown a stead increases of its research impact in mathematics. 21 Relative Citation Impact for the Six Asian Nations in Mathematics. Taiwan. and China presented the RCI values between 0.8 (except in the period of 1996-2000). In the preiod of 2006-2010. It had a small RCI value lower than 0. While it has remained the RCI value of over 0. other countries including Japan. 19 . 22 Relative Citation Impact for the Six Asian Nations in Microbiology.8. Taiwan alsmost reached the global average in RCI.2 in the period of 1991-1995 but then increased the value to near 0. only behind Signapore and China among the Six Asian Nations. Singapore showed a small dip inspite of its great strides among the first three periods. South Korea has posted strong growth in this field.6 and 0.

20 . 23 Relative Citation Impact for the Six Asian Nations in Molecular Biology & Genetics. and remained the level of 1. while Japan presented a steady increase in this indicator over the periods.7 in the period of 2006-2010. 24 Taiwan China India Japan Singapore South Korea Relative Citation Impact for the Six Asian Nations in Neuroscience & Behavior.32 in the period of 1996-2000. Relative citation impact Neuroscience & Behavior Fig. all of the Asian nations held a RCI value below the global average in molecular biology and genetics throughout the periods. Singapore had the RCI value of above the global average in the most recent period. Singapore showed the value of 1.17 in the most recent period. 1991-2010 Singapore and Japan have remarkable impact in the field of neuroscience & behavior. as Figure 24 illustrates. See Figure 23. Taiwan and South Korea both had a relative citation impact of around 0. 1991-2010 Except Singapore. Taiwan and China are similar not only in the feature of values but also in growth pattern. Japan exhibited the second highest values among the six countries in this field and continues the growing trend over the decades.Relative citation impact Molecular Biology & Genetics Taiwan China India Japan Singapore South Korea Fig.

Japan plays a leading role in physics. and India all presented a steady growth trend in the indicator. South Korea. For the rest of five countries. See Figure 26. 25 Relative Citation Impact for the Six Asian Nations in Pharmacology & Toxicology.Relative citation impact Pharmacology &Toxicology Taiwan China India Japan Singapore South Korea Fig. Taiwan and China maintained a steady increase throughout the periods. 1991-2010 Among the Asian countries. Relative citation impact Physics Taiwan China India Japan Singapore South Korea Fig.6 in the period of 1991-1995 and then reached 0. 21 .8 by the period of 2006-2010. all of them have made great progress in the past decases. 1991-2010 All of the six Asian nations have increased their impact in reasearch of pharmacology & toxicology. with relative high RCI values. while South Korea and India showed a dip in the most recent period. See Figure 25. Taiwan had the RCI value smaller than 0. China. Singapore showed a dramatic increase over the past decades. 26 Relative Citation Impact for the Six Asian Nations in Physics.

South Korea and China all received the values close to the global average. Yet Taiwan failed to maintain its advantage and has been seen the subsequent decrease of its RCI level. Taiwan. both Taiwan and South Korea showed an increase in their research impact in this field. See Figure 27. Singapore and Japan performed the best in plant & animal science. Despite the dip in 1996-2000. Until around 2000. 27 Relative Citation Impact for the Six Asian Nations in Plant & Animal Science.Relative citation impact Plant & Animal Science Taiwan China India Japan Singapore South Korea Fig. Meanwhile. 1991-2010 Of the six Asian nations. South Korea has remained at around the level of 0. 28 Relative Citation Impact for the Six Asian Nations in Psychiatry/Psychology. Relative citation impact Psychiatry/Psychology Taiwan China India Japan Singapore South Korea Fig. They both held the RCI values higher than the global average in the period of 2001-2006. China remains the level similar to Taiwan and South Korea. In the same period. 1991-2010 The RCI of the six Asian nations in the field of psychiatry/psychology is as shown in Figure 28.8. 22 .

respectively. and India presented significant growth rate over time. 1991-2010 Asian countries have relatively low impact on the world’s research in social science. Taiwan.Relative citation impact Social Sciences Fig. South Korea and Taiwan are both in the top three countries. Japan has the highest research impact in space science. 1991-2010 Among the six Asian nations. in the most recent period. 30 Relative Citation Impact for the Six Asian Nations in Space Science. Except Singapore. as Figure 29 indicates.8 in the indicator in the most recent period. See Figure 30. 23 . It has steadily rising RCI values since the period of 1996-2000 and remained above the global average for the past ten years. Relative citation impact Space Science Taiwan China India Japan Singapore South Korea Fig. Both Taiwan and China achieved near to 0. none of the six Asian nations reached the value of the global average in this field over the investigated periods. 29 Taiwan China India Japan Singapore South Korea Relative Citation Impact for the Six Asian Nations in Social Sciences.83. Even so. China.93 and 0. with the values at 0.

47% 5 Canada 441 0. 5. The growing trend has been observed not only in the number of co-authored papers between Taiwan and these Asian countries but also in their share of Taiwan’s research outputs. of Co-authored % of Taiwan’s Papers Total Output U.524 3..70% 13 India 218 0. the University of Illinois.64% South Korea 1.26% 7 France 304 0.05% 1. China and India. Taiwan has increased its connections with other Asian nations. 1. universities including the University of California at Los Angeles. Harvard University and Johns Hopkins University are most popular collaborating institutions to Taiwan. See Table 6.46% Switzerland 823 0. 13.86% 12 Australia 232 0.035 0.74% China 4.K.58% India 1.56% Australia 1.43% Japan 3.V Main Collaborating Countries and Institutions Researchers in Taiwan tend to have frequent collaborations with colleagues from high technology countries and neighboring countries.49% Italy 839 0. such as South Korea.61% Table 7 shows the academic institutions with which Taiwan collaborates most frequently between 1996 and 2000.. 24 .K.50% Russia 1.06% 10 Switzerland 241 0.770 1.S.495 1.40% 6 U. Over the last years.276 1. 391 0.S. Among them.76% 682 1.A. Japan and China.05% 11 Russia 239 0.348 2. of Co-authored % of Taiwan’s Papers Total Output U.297 11.68% 14 Singapore 169 0.395 11.24% 8 Italy 274 0.681 1.36% Singapore 737 0. followed by the U.A.34% 2 Japan 827 3 China 4 Country No.82% Canada 1. U.S. Germany and Canada.287 1.78% Germany 481 1.51% France 1.93% Germany 1. The most popular countries to Taiwan are the U. Table 6 Main Collaborating Countries for Taiwan 1996-2000 Rank Country 1 2006-2010 No.01% U.517 1.S.07% 9 South Korea 268 0.259 1.K.

49% 4 MIT USA 255 USA 5 6 7 UnivCalif Los Angeles Harvard Univ Johns Hopkins Univ No.43% Seoul NatlUniv Korea 565 0. South Korea and Japan. The institution-level analysis indicates that the Chinese Academy of Sciences.41% Univ Michigan USA 519 0.54% 2 Purdue Univ USA 275 0.48% USA 242 0. an increase of collaborations can be seen between Taiwan and other Asian countries.47% USA 229 0.48% Univ Tokyo Japan 597 0.They remained in the top 10 collaborating institutions for Taiwan over the investigated periods of 1996-2000 and 2006-2010. of Rank Organization Country Co-authored Papers % of total Taiwan 1 Univ Michigan USA 310 0. Table 7 Taiwan’s Main Co-authoring Overseas Institutions for Academic Research Papers 1996-2000 2006-2010 No.41% Ohio State Univ USA 509 0. Nevertheless.53% Univ Illinois USA 613 0.41% Source: Web of Science 25 .44% Harvard Univ USA 582 0.51% 3 Univ Illinois USA 270 0.40% SungkyunkwanUniv Korea 494 0. such as China.42% 10 Univ Wisconsin USA 192 0.45% UnivCalif Los Angeles 8 IstNazlFisNucl Italy 206 0. of Organization Country Co-authored Papers Chinese AcadSci % of total Taiwan China 729 0.41% Johns Hopkins Univ USA 539 0. the University of Tokyo and Seoul National University are the most popular Asian institutions for Taiwan in research collaboration.51% 0. It indicates the effects of shared cultural backgrounds and similar interests of research focuses.61% USA 643 0.43% 9 Univ Bologna Italy 193 0.50% 247 0.

this report is made to provide a comprehensive overview of Taiwan’s research performance in terms of the quantity and quality of research output.K. Taiwan has made great progress in research output. the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Another finding worth to note is that Taiwan has showed its interest in economic studies. pursuing a similar strategy that can be observed in other Asian countries. and academic institutions should share the common aim of developing Taiwan to be a knowledge-centric “innovative economy. Taiwan is on the track towards a high activity index and a high relative citation index in the diagrams of all fields. Taiwan frequently collaborates with advanced countries. The government. and the global average. Japan and China. To sum up. Germany and Canada. Overall. South Korea and India.. the University of Tokyo and the Seoul National University are the top three in terms of the number of co-authored papers with Taiwan.024 papers per year for every million people in Taiwan.05% of research output of the world. with an annual growth rate of over 11% in average. With an emphasis on engineering and the natural sciences. Taiwan has thus shown its success in establishing itself as a significant force in academic research. Taiwan accounted for 2.. There is a trend that it has increasingly collaborated with Asian countries including China. Among the collaborating institutions within Asia.” 26 . and neighboring countries. industry. There is an attempt to reveal Taiwan’s capabilities and strengths in research and provide an alternative perspective for the government to develop a long-term strategy in R&D and industrial investment. Taiwan continues its strengths in information and communications technology (ICT) sector. representing a figure of 1. the U. which is superior to South Korea.Conclusions Over the past twenty years. The value is higher than that for Asia as a whole. There are relatively strong connections between Taiwan and these institutions in research. As of 2010. such as Japan and China. the European Union. with a higher value than the global average in the field.S. such as the U.

p. National Science Council. Scientometrics. Science in Scandinavia: A Bibliometric Approach. 27 . White Paper on Science and Technology (2011 to 2014 editions) REIST-2 (1997). 2014).References Glänzel. Brussels. W. Second Edition. 2013. European Commission. EUR 17639. The European Report on Science and Technology Indicators 1997. 121-150. 2012. Executive Yuan (2011. (2000). 48 (2).

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