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of Dr. Headlam's renderings approach perand rhythm, and are inspired by a
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duction, and Notes by R. D. HiCKS,
of Trinity College, Cambridge.

With Translation, IntroM.A., Fellov/ and late Lecturer

first English edition of this treatise appeared in
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1 1

BUTCHER: "Greek sance OF To-day PROFESSOR W.. . INDEX TO THE PROCEEDINGS 83 93 INTERIM REPORT OF THE PRONUNCIATION COMMITTEE ON THE PRONUNCIATION OF GREEK 95 REPORT OF THE CURRICULA COMMITTEE ON THE TEACHING OF LATIN IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS 98 . IN Syntactical MISS " • • . 1907 8 H. DAWKINS : and the Classical Renais- " : • . APPENDIX :— Address to the Italian Society for the Diffusion and Encouragement op Classical Studies .33 • " The Heritage of Unreason . ... S. Pixj^ab • . 119 Names and Addresses of Members.CONTENTS PAGE PROCEEDINGS OF THE FIFTH GENERAL MEETING:— MR. . HALE Method School at Athens MR. . MR. ... HARRISON M. .• : "The Excavations of the British WARDE FOWLER: "The 79 Decay of Roman Home Roman House" Life shown from the History op the ..53 • and the Maiden " 65 . G. E. " The • . STATEMENT OF ACCOUNTS TO DECEMBER 1907 112 3l8T. 121 161 . . .. October 19th.. W... 1907 1 Saturday. 1908 Topographical List op Members 123 Officers and Council Rules .117 . J.. ".. . . R. FridaYj October 18th..


P. the President (Mr. 1907 Friday. not result as approximate and practicable. At 2. Butcher. October 18th. in common Greek.FIFTH GENERAL MEETING. already done a great service to Classics by the resolution passed last year in favour of the restored pronunciation of Latin and the Committee . and called on Professor R. much fiercer not unimportant in the present position Teachers of Classics are now subject to it behoves competition than ever before. and the put forward. there If is any one here is frightened. not enough in these proposals to frighten a mouse.m. took the chair. errs.30 p. H. in logical sequence felt sense. CAMBRIDGE. Coxway S. It has and which is bound.) S. " The subject which I am to bring before you on behalf : of the Committee is of classical studies. 1 should . 95. of moderation. to move the adoption of the Report of the Committee on the Pronunciation of Greek. If is the present scheme. to proceed at once to the question of done so. let him consider exactly what it is " What is to be said for the present practice * The Report is printed on ? Why p. M.^ Professor Conway began by expressing the feelings of students of Cambridge who were met under the the old shelter of their old University to discuss the studies which He proceeded they loved. it errs on the side As a member of the Council said to me. that he fears. complete or it but as final. and us to lay aside every weight of prejudice custom which doth so easily beset and the effect of This Association has us.

notably in London and the south. as in the French But. of our information. but we know that the sound was nearer to the diphthong of the French /eg than to that of the English ei/e (the Here then we do the Welsh ei is an intermediate sound). a . if some teachers cannot overcome the force of habit.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 2 — you teach a boy to pronounce a Latin word right say mvsa— and then. the open vowels are rare. suddenly aslc him Why should he to pronounce it like the English moicser? pronounce the same word one way in Virgil and another Such a contradiction must puzzle the most in Homer? such inconsistency must defeat itself. "A child who has been pronouncing Latin correctly for three or four years will need next to no instruction in the For twelve years I have both in teaching Greek Greek pronunciation of new used this lessons. . such as that between Indicative and Subjunctive. difficult. e. simply because for the last three centuries the influence of the English accent has had whether reivco or tlvco is a powerful influence to change the \ owel sounds ? The two words are perfectly easy to distinguish. " With regard to 77 and ei. we cannot say exactly to what part of the palate the tongue was drawn near in producing €t . and in some parts of England. to maintain. we must wait till they If a schoolmaster feels that he cannot make use die out. The Committee do it impossible for an English schoolboy to acquire not think a correct pronunciation even of the open word mere. meant. when he begins Greek. we only ask that he will let his boys know the facts. it is In Scotland. indeed. intelligent schoolboy . In view of such the open e local is common difficulties. we can and for the sake of differences important best . and I have never failed Latin and in quoting it in boys be in doubt should Why to make myself understood. but elsewhere. we do not altogether prohibit the pronunciation of ei like the English ei/e. purely voluntary association like ours can only set forth the true sounds. still less of the w. and. correct pronunciation of Greek. though possible.

The Committee has done its best to take practical difficulties into account and I appeal to you. to introduce yet in most schools children French u from the age of six. " To confirm what I said of the importance of pronunciation. but we would rather be incorrect in Greek a little longer. now learn to pronounce the and why should they not make the same sound in Greek later on will 3 A ? subsidiary advantage be that they will no longer be perplexed by the j/ in the Latin forms of Greek words. whose literature is one of the treasures of the world. had taken it up with enthusiasm. but should like to call I the fact that this scheme general adoption. ' a ridiculous hindrance in their way. G. and the elder boys. as soon as it was introduced to them. When they have learned to pronounce Latin correctly. Last year we corrected our Latin. . RusHBROOKE. W. not to put back the clock. Your Association. quote a remark made to me the other day by a business man in Manchester ? He said. perhaps. Olave's no had been found the work of the beginners was simplified by it. " I am entirely in symIn the four or difficulty five years since its . on behalf of the Committee. A.THE PRONUNCIATION OF GREEK ** Then there h v: a difficult sound. in closing. ciation. — pathy with the idea of reform attention to . and with every change of school he was obliged to change his pronunciation may I. by settling a uniform pronunremoves the reproach that teachers of Latin do not know the subject they profess to teach. and the sounds are set is put forward for as ' approxima- down . who was called upon to second the motion. ' I have sent my boy to three schools in succession. Sonxexschein. surely we must not put for a uniform . adoption at St. that there will educational world till and correct pronunciation of Greek. " One thing is be no peace in the some reasonable scheme is adopted certain.' That is not fair to the children. wished very heartily to support it on behalf of the schools in which the restored pronunciation was in use. Do not say.' of Latin." Mr. and pass on to a far more beautiful language. Professor E.

close ^ and close In Greek.— . as in note. but we have a very great we recommend the adoption of sounds cause pupils and teachers much labour to acquire. as awdd. and &> the same sounds as we recommended for e and o in Latin. except perhaps in : irpo^arov " yS^ /3>7 " Xiycov ^aSi^et- pronounce «8?."* very successful in reconciling theory with practice not agree scientifically correct as they responsibility will Professor are. as in The open sounds do ' ' not naturally rise to the pupiPs reading the line of Kratinos o S"* 7}\Wlo<. and quite English lips rightly. Why ? European languages the long e and most modern Because in o tend to be close vowels. open. as the short e and o tend to be He does not naturally it is the other way about. From about the pronuncia- . In practice I think it sufficient if teachers and pupils use for ?. for but . the Committee does not open recommend the scientifically correct sounds. book on 27). if some conscientious persons will try to carry out our recommendations literally. It is only when 1) . In regard to e and o. the recommendation of in 'there' and 'bore'). have no compulsory powers which recommended with the sounds —and . THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 4 which for teaching purposes may be regarded as prac- tions In the main the Committee has undoubtedly been ticable. wcrrrep lips. and w come before p that we are by nature disposed to give them the open sounds e. o . the close e. because these sounds are difficult for to produce. and the question will arise whether the game is worth the candle. this point of view I feel doubtful also in his p. in ^/3&)9.'' and the close o. I and rj Conway says do to. unfortunately.g. The principle that practice has claims as well as science was recognised by our President in introducing the Report on Latin Pronunciation last year and it is emphatically endorsed by Blass Greek pronunciation (English translation. we true. Xe^w and "Api^i with the lego and res with the close and e.' prey. the Committee involves a different treatment of corresponding we should have to pronounce letters in Greek and Latin and e. &pa (as Further. namely.

tion of V as the






I shall reserve criticism till

have been considered."



Professor J.

the Committee





think that

the report of


accepted as amended in this particular, we

be in a better position towards a real and practical


In point of fact, the arguments for the



me to have been put very clearly and decisively by ProConway. The gist of his speech was that we should so

seem to

organise the reform of Greek pronunciation, that a boy

has been learning Latin already should have

when he begins Greek.

learn in pronunciation

few years the reformed Latin pronunciation

As soon

but universal.






fresh to

In the next


probably be

has happened,



obvious that the natural tendency of things will be that

Greek pronunciation

will follow

Latin pronunciation.

Is it

wise, even in order to gain additional scientific accuracy, to

put a stumbling-block





in the

way of that natural



is not so much what you can do in teaching
boys, and what they can do with their vocal organs, as what
is worth doing
and it would be a stumbling-block to the

they have a separate set of rules for the pronunciation

of these vowels in Greek.



not at

all certain

that in

new system of Latin proassigned to long e and long o are

schools \vhich have adopted the


the signs

being followed.


anglify them,

When we



if so,





that these schools

the case will be the same in Greek.




languages established, we can then proceed to make

In the meantime, the great thing





to get



Mr. F. M. CoRNFORD suggested that the restored pronunGreek should be introduced in the schools gradu-

ciation of

ally, first into

the lower forms and later into the higher, and

that, in order to encourage the schools to adopt the reform,

University teachers be asked to introduce the restored pro-

nunciation in the Michaelmas term of 1910.
to start the

new pronunciation was

to carry


only way
up through




the schools, and then


let the Universities

up a few


years hence.




E. Sandys recounted the history of Greek pronunCambridge. In 1528 Erasmus published his


dialogue between the Lion and the Bear, and from 1535 onwards the Erasmian pronunciation was gradually introduced

Cambridge by Thomas Smith, John Cheke, and Roger
Ascham, until in 1542 the Chancellor, Stephen Gardiner,
decreed a prompt return to the old Byzantine pronunciation.


This decree was rigorously enforced in 1554, but, after the
accession of Elizabeth, the Erasmian pronunciation came

into general use in England.
tion," says Sir

and the


this revived pronuncia-

Thomas Smith, "were


displayed the flower

Greek language, the variety of

of the


the grandeur of diphthongs, the





It should

and the


majesty of long

that already in

modern English pronunciation of

use in France, while the


be noticed that the old Erasmian pro-

nunciation of the vowels was the same as

the vowels



the same as that of the English vowels.


report of the Committee was welcome as practically advocating a return to the true Erasmian pronunciation, as
opposed to the present degenerate English variety of it.
" As to the report itself," Dr. Sandys proceeded, " under

the heading of Qiuintity on page 1 there is a certain infelicity in saying that the short vowels are to be distinguished

from the long vowels by prolongation. We should transpose
The long vowels should be carethe two clauses, thus
fully distinguished from the short vowels by prolongation
and not by stress.' Under the consonants, there is no sug'


gestion as to the pronunciation of
line of the last page, I notice


pronounced, and





if so,


Finally, on the last
x^o'^o<i is

mean that

whom ?

or that


in this phrase


the word


with one aspirate only.'
nounced, and








so pro-

ought to be so

the exact meaning of

Ought the word

chthonos, or ch-to7ios, or ch-t-honos



to be pronounced



" I congratulate the Committee on their caution in deferring the difficult question of accent.


the report, I think, deserves approval







far as it goes,

needs some

that the Committee will proceed

with their work, and bring


to a successful conclusion."

Mrs. Agxes Lewis drew attention to the pronunciation of

On more than one ancient inscription,
and on the very latest papyri discovered in Egypt, we find
the word yQacrtXeu? written /SacriXef?
and in every nation
the diphthong


where the everlasting Gospel has been preached, in English





then in

it is called the Evangel^ or Evangelium.
Greek alone are we not to be allowed to

Evangdion ?
The Rev. A. Sloman suggested that an appendix should
be added to the Report, saying how aspirates were propronounce


nounced at the beginning of words.
Professor R.

M. Burrows deprecated

the idea that there

should be one standard for the teacher and another for
the pupil.


was far better for the teacher to waive a

of his theoretical correctness,


the pupil could


not be

An eminent lecturer
on philology at Oxford could not account for his failure
expected to make a particular sound.
in teaching the o sounds,


he looked at his best student's

note-book and found that he had consistently written




Mr. A. B. Cook, Professor
RiDGEWAY, and Mr. A. J. F. Collins,
The Rev. W. C. Compton said that, if the Committee reconsidered its Report, he hoped that the usual pronunciation of
^ as a double consonant would be maintained. To go back
to the simple sound of z would be a loss.
The Rev. Dr. W. A. Heard said that in Scotland the
practice was to make the pronunciation of Greek and Latin
After short speeches by


as nearly alike as possible.

Schools had a very practical way

of getting rid of stumbling-blocks, and he hoped that the

recommendations of the Report would be carried out.
After some further debate, Mr. A. E. Bernays suggested

m. . illustrated by In the course of the evening short were given by Miss lantern-slides. of the University of Chicago. M.m." Fellow of Emmanuel and Director of the British School at of Excavations of the British School at Athens. Roberts. Harrison. Stewart Roberts and by the President of the Association. Fellow ^ and by Mr. the members were received by the ViceChancellor of the University (the Rev. E." 2 9 p. At Master of Gonville and Caius) and Mrs." ' ^ P. October 19th At 9. Hale. with a pianoforte accompaniment by Dr. Dawkins. Clive Carey. when the President dehvered an addi'ess on " Greek and the Classical Renaissance 'of To-day. and Mr. E. recited the parabasis of the Birds of Aristophanes." 4. 65. but that certain points be reserved for future consideration. ^ P. 83. con. W."' and Professor G.D. Harrison. House.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 8 that the Report should be referred to the Committee for reconsideration . the Association met in the Senate House. on "The J. seconded by Mr. E. read a short paper on "The Heritage of Unreason in Syntactical W. in the Hall and Combination Rooms of Gonville and Caius College and in the Master's Lodge. Warde Fowler read a short paper on " The Decay of Roman Home Life.45 p.45 a.m. and it was proposed by Professor Ridgeway. * P. illustrated by the History of the Roman 1 P. 33. and Mr. Pillar and the Maiden. and carried nem. 79. Charles Wood. R. Method. : " That the general principle embodied in the Report be approved. lectures. Newnham. S.. 53. * P. of Clare. Litt. Saturday. the Association met again in the Senate At House. on "The Athens"''.

Cambridge (11). Toronto.250. At the general meeting of October. Vice-President. pleasure of a proposal to establish a Classical Association in South Africa. Sidney Sussex and Trinity Colleges) Oxford (Exeter. Canterbury. Clare. T. . . U. 2 . Brighton. . in the near future. . . Cheltenham (2). Bromley. . Cardiff. and additional local corre- stood at about 1. the membership it now stands at about 1. H. Jesus. Hertford. Australia S. There are now altogether 48 local correJohn's Colleges). Pembroke. part in the movement. Professor Sonnexschein (Honorary Secretary) read Warren). University. .140: spondents have been appointed for Adelaide. .A. THE REPORT OF THE COUNCIL At 9 10. London. viz. and the Vice-Chancellor of the University of Oxford (Dr. Magdalene. Bradford. . . Jesus.S. . Australia Columbia Winchester . 1906. Vassar College. the Report of the Council for 1907. London Kensington field Green Sheffield Oxford (10) Wimbledon Leeds Liverpool Windsor Adelaide. . U.— .30 the minutes of the last General Meeting were Apologies for absence from the meeting were taken as read. .A. . . at Aberystwith Bangor Bedford College. as follows "The much Council has satisfaction in : reporting that the increase in the number of members and the progress of the Association's work in various directions indicate that the Association is full of life and vigour and may safely look forward to a period of continued prosperity in the future. . spondents. " The Council has been glad to hear that the movement for creating a Classical Association for Ireland has progress considerable to lead to a successful congratulates made during the past year and promises issue the scholars. King's. and representative of very it varied who have taken a leading The Council has also heard with educational interests in Ireland.S. Queen's and St. " The membership of the two Local Branches of Manchester and Birmingham has increased. Upper Canada College. New. received from Sir Archibald Geikie. Dublin (2). Merton. Rangoon . Cambridge (Christ's. EngleGalway King's College. S.



" Last year the Association petitioned the Universities of

Oxford and Cambridge ' to take into consideration the aboHtion of the separate Greek Grammar paper at Responsions
and the Previous Examination respectively, and the substitution for


of an easy paper in unprepared translation.'


University of Cambridge has abolished the separate paper

on Greek and Latin Grammar, and the questions in Grammar
now included in the papers on the set books or in the


equivalent paper, and are such as arise from or are suggested

by the passages given

for translation.

(Grace of the Senate,

The Hebdomadal Council of the
January 17th, 1907.)
University of Oxford has accepted the principle of the
petition of the Classical Association and has drafted a



— that



say, providing that


in the Greek and Latin languages in Re-


sponsions shall consist of translation of unprepared passages


into English, together with questions on

will very shortly

" Special


This statute

out of the passages selected for translation.

be brought before the University.


tour to Italy and

were offered to members for an Easter

Rome; but owing

to the circumstances

that the University vacations and the public school holidays

availed themselves of them.
have been quite satisfied with their
gratefully appreciated the assistance and information which
Dr. Ashby, the Director, and other officials of the British

at different times, only a comparatively small

School at Rome placed at their disposal.
" About the same time the newly founded Italian Society,
which corresponds to the Classical Association, held its second







sympathy and

congratulation, written by Dr. Postgate, was presented by

Dr. Ashby and appreciatively received.^
" The Executive Committee of the Manchester Branch has


remains of the


century, only six feet

below the present surface, on an unoccupied

This address


site in

printed on p. 117.

the centre



of Manchester, and this aroused great local interest. The
sum of ^£450 to complete the excavation and publish the
results was raised at a public meeting called by the Lord

Mayor of Manchester, and the volume is to appear in January.
"The Balance Sheet for the year ending December 31st, 1906,
was printed in the




volume of Proceedings (pp. 66 and 67)



submitted for approval.


corresponding Balance

Meanknow that the

be ready at the end of the present year.^

will be satisfactory to



1907 are about odSO

receipts for the year

in excess of the

expenditure, and that the Association has a

sum of


invested or on deposit.

volume of the publication inaugurated by the
Investigations Committee has been published under the title
of TTie Years Work in Classical Studies, under the editor"



ship of Dr. Rouse.

The volume was

supplied to


at a reduced price of Is. 6d. (with postage 1^. 9d.) instead
of 2*. 6d., and 283 members subscribed for it ; 181 copies


were also sold at the trade price.

sales are insufficient

to cover the cost of production, and the Council feels that
the continuance of the publication in the future must depend

from the members of
the Association. The publication of this volume may have
escaped the attention of some members who would wish to
on the amount of support



purchase copies.
" The scheme of Latin pronunciation recommended by the
Pronunciation Committee, and adopted at the general




1906, has


published by Mr.

form of a pamphlet entitled The
which has had a sale of nearly
Pronunciation of
has also been officially adopted
500 copies. The
by the Board of Education, and is now in use in a very




number of secondary schools.
" The Council presents herewith the further report of the
Pronunciation Committee appointed March 18th, 1905, 'to
consider and report on the best methods of introducing



Printed on






a uniform pronunciation of Latin and
concluding- report


18th, 1905,

of the




and the

Curricula Committee appointed

what respects the present

to consider in

school curriculum in I^atin and Greek can be lightened and

the means of instruction improved.'

The adoption of the report was proposed by Professor
SoNKENscHEiN, Seconded by Mr, F. Fletcher, and carried
nem. con.
Dr. F. G. Kenyon.
for the next


— " We have


to elect a President

and the name which


beg to suggest

you on behalf of the Council is that of the Right
Hon. H. H. Asquith. Mr. Asquith represents the union
of public life and scholarship which has been a feature of
our English statesmen in the past, and I hope will long
continue to be so.
We have already had as President for


a previous year a distinguished

and the


Mr. Asquith

of the late Cabinet,

show that the AssociaWe shall all agree that Mr. Asquith's
tion has no politics.
great abilities could not be better employed than in the
election of


cause of classical education."

The motion was seconded by the Rev. T. L. Papillon
and carried unanimously.
Dr. Kenyon.


I will

now move

except Mr. Asquith, be re-elected
Vice-Presidents to propose.



Mr. Butcher.


that our Vice-Presidents,




have also







of our

sure the meeting

be glad of this opportunity of showing


a small way

and stimulating address
that we have heard. Those who have been members of
the Council know that Mr. Butcher has been the life and
soul of the deliberations of the Association from the very
I have also to propose the names of the ViceChancellor of the University, the Rev. E. S. Roberts, and
of Professor W. G. Hale, whom we heard yesterday, and
whose presence among our Vice-Presidents will be a sign

gratitude for the

of the



that American Colleges

have taken from

Bailey. J. but you do not all know the amount of time Avhich that work consumes and perhaps I might suggest one or two ways in which the business of the Treasurer might be lessened. Harrison as Secretaries. I am very glad to say that no change in those officers is proposed. and hope that they will long continue to give us their help. We can only express our gratitude. W.ELECTION OF OFFICERS 13 I have also to the first in the work of this Association. method most profitable to the and the other is by sending a banker's order. add the names of Dr. Dr. Henry Jackson. Regius Professor of Greek at Cambridge. paying your subscription for four years at a time which I in advance. You all know the value of their work." The motion was seconded by Mr. . and the Dr. believe to be the Association . "Finally. " There are also five vacancies on the and the names submitted for your consideration Professor Ridgeway Professor HaverMrs. Association will continue Professor experience. Camden C. and Professor Sonnenschein and Mr. to Walters have is the benefit of their proposed as Treasurer. afraid I As to lightening the can suggest no means. and Professor Mackail. and whose address at meeting may be described as our original manifesto. H. Fellow of Balliol College and Mr. Headlam and carried unanimously. Treasurer and Hon. Treasurer of the Manchester branch since whose services which we held its foundation. One is by . which involves the Secretaries' work. — Kenyon. Secretaries to be appointed. Gilbert Murray and carried unanimously. . who was the first Treasurer of the Association. — Kenyon. ." The motion was seconded by Mr. Nowell Smith and the first carried unanimously. Williamson. were so valuable at the successful meeting last year at Manchester. : — . ." The motion was seconded by Mr. I least am trouble. there are the Hon. Verrall are Ancient History Professor of at Oxford Mr. field. Council.

Birmingham will.'" The President. . especially our present balance is from Cambridge. such meeting and the expenses of the The Money has Proceedings to be published at the end of the year.^Q.— THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 14 Professor Sonnenschein then moved that the next General Meeting should be held in Birmingham on the 9th and 10th of October.^ I have to do now is to propose that the Association approve and accept the balance sheet for 1906 as given on pages QQ and 67 of the Proceedings for October. financial statement has already been the expenses of this in the Report so far for the year has are some liabilities. come in very freely lately. Papillon and carried unanimously. Professor " A W." » Printed on p. 1908. The expenditure been about dt'lTO. Of course there of the Council. 112. together with friends of classical education in Birmingham and the neighbourhood. of course. Classical Association to hold their General invite the Meeting for the year 1908 in Birmingham. on September 27th : " That this special meeting of the Committee of the Birmingham and Midland Branch of the Classical Association. and unanimously adopted at a meeting of the Local Branch. as Treasurer). A full balance sheet will be presented with the Pro- What ceedings as last year."" The motion was seconded by the Rev. seconded by the Lord Mayor of Birmingham. 1906. hospitable offer from be gratefully welcomed by the Association. C. receipts for the year so far have been £9. This is. Walters (Honorary made F. merely a temporary position of things for this part of the year. so that nearly . and by a number of the prominent clergy. — " This I am most sure. T.f'lSO. which was also attended by most of the head masters and head mistresses of the Secondary Schools of Birmingham. which had been proposed by the Bishop of Birmingham. He quoted the following resolution. L.

. Hale. Papillon. 15 O. and I grateful to the busiest man in Cambridge having shown us such gracious hospitality. Professor The Presidext. —" I have the honour to move a vote of thanks to the University of Cambridge for the loan of the Senate House . and I think you will agree with me that we ought to carry a . Kenyon of the work he has done and the service you heard for yourselves he has been to the Association and force and illuminagrace yesterday afternoon with what tion he can handle the cause for which we are met here . Mr.VOTES OF THANKS The motion was seconded by Mr. —" I have pleasure in proposing a vote of You have already heard thanks to the retiring President. B. at this meeting do is feel especially Ridgeway. W. Caspari and carried 7iem. Pope and carried by acclamation." was with- A drawn. to the . to the Master and Fellows of Gonville and Caius for the loan of their Hall and Combination Rooms. motion of which notice had been given. the fourth page of the acted as hostesses and have Committee and the ladies who to the Cambridge Classical Society for its co-operation. from Dr. and the Master's Lodge . and to Mrs. and think it is all the more kind to take in a hundred guests or more at the them when there of I have been is left an impending railway strike. moment and we might on their hands. Roberts and the Vice-Chancellor for opening Committee whose names are on and to the Hospitality programme." —" The welcome offered to us by Cambridge a thing which we shall not forget. M. con. and shall be re-ehgible for two more years in succession." The motion was seconded by Mr. " That members of the Council shall be elected for one year. They have all done much work which I will for not attempt to describe. Professor G. We are also much indebted to those who have worked on the small Committee. in particular to its President.

I have my grateful to much more to be President of the Association after those men who came distinguished a very great delight to member of the feel and that in a very small way. and just take will I men it this further has been to find busily engaged in teaching in the Uni- in schools. dated October 10th) has been issued by the Board of Education. " Within the last few days a very important Circular (No. opportunity of saying what a pleasure that there are old friend be a high honour felt it to how best promote the welfare of classical studies. only be received In moving this. and Classics in also two Prussian special reports on the teaching of Secondary Schools. Paton of Manchester and Mr. tions arising out of this —" We propose that three resolu- Report and expressing its general tendency should be presented separately for adoption. 574." Professor Sonnenschein. who frequently give holiday in the week and come up from all up their one parts of the country to spend a long day in a dreary city considering they may as it Council. carried —" I by acclamation. dealing with the teaching of Latin in Secondary Schools. am most for proposing this vote.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 16 most hearty vote of thanks to Professor Butcher for his services as oui' President. as well as to the Association as a whole. and I will call Sonnenschein to make a general introductory statement. I desire to and call attention to one or two general features of the Report. members of the Association is will feel with I think that me that there a complete agreement on essential principles between the . I can keep in touch with classical education in England versities I look upon before me. Fletther of Marlborough." The motion was The President. by Mr. as a . " Now we come Committee upon Professor to the Report of the Curricula on the teaching of Latin. To those members of the Council with whom I have worked I would give my warmest thanks. but that the Report as a whole should entered on the minutes.

One great advantage of the study of the it first foreign language is that should loosen the tongues of the pupils and give them a certain freedom of movement in some language other than their own. in additional so far as we are considering not only schools in which only Latin and no Greek schools. as passing from living lip to living ear. in Latin if the effort is made. the study at an early age are based upon the assumption that Latin will continue to be taught on old-fashioned lines. that there are weighty arguments to be adduced in favour of this procedure. as we do. I have in mind does not involve any sacrifice of strict grammatical discipline. and this may be done to some extent. nor is it to be identified with a 3 .THE TEACHING OF LATIN Classical Association 17 In regard and the Board of Education. And we have an reason for exercising caution in this matter. Again. Latin acquires some of the merits which are claimed for French as an early study. the burning question which has formed the subject of a conference between representatives of the Classical Association. and which may be fruitfully applied to Latin itself. called First type of school is taught. Obviously. but also the specially classical Grade Schools. and without contact with those newer ideas which have done much to improve the teaching of modern languages. while at the same time they recognise. a great deal depends on the way in which Latin is Many of the objections urged against commencing taught. It is pretty clear that if Latin is taught more like a living language it becomes pro tanto less abstract and more suited to an early age of study. What is true of one is not necessarily true of another. too. the Modern Language Association. if attention directed is to giving the pupils plenty of oral practice and accustoming them to the sounds of the Latin language. at any The method which rate. and the Incorporated to Association of Assistant Masters —the question whether a — modern language should be begun before Latin the Board of Education agree with us in not laying it down as a principle of universal application that it is better to begin with the modern language.

the felicitous expressions or dainty touches.— . Which of is that the the intelligent reading (i) (ii) a linguistic and ends these more the is important it is not necessary to decide both are essential and they are not inconsistent. much the graceful lyrical turns. But when we say linguistic and logical discipline"' we do not mean Ciceronianism and purism. Committee of the more important Latin authors. in so far as the authors are read for what is called their content or subject-matter to the something which can be expressed in the form of a logical or historical proposition —to the neglect of their human . to the exclusion work of from view of the meaning or message of a literature as The opposite many documents a whole. of Latin literature as the vehicle of so still from which gems may be collected or much information composition. " In defining the objects of the study of practice Committee touches upon what question in all such discussions. object of learning Latin is of the twofold. THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 18 conversational method of the ordinary purposes learning. as the Latin Head Master of Eton Why has pointed out in TJie Classical Review of last month. or do we read the literature in order to the language learn Whichever of these .e. the habit of regarding the authors as a quarry less fine passages. do we learn Latin ? Do we the the fundamental really is learn the language in order to read the literature. is one thing. verse for future use in prose name of In the taste and literary form classical teachers have concentrated attention too on the .'' alternatives one affirms one seems to be ignoring some important aspect The answer of the study. of the the use of Latin for i. logical discipline. of regarding the literature as so purport as to the state of ancient society and error — that of historical its relation — modern world is one into which Germany at present seems in some danger of falling. conversation another. the noble thoughts. which killed Latin as a living language at the and when we say intelligent time of the Renaissance reading of Latin authors' we do not mean the treatment : ' ' . of intercoui'se Oral life.

the march of events. the and nothing but the book. Hitherto we have bowed before the fetich of the book. though not the Committee has made new. the limitation of Virgil to one or two relatively un- and the thrusting of Cicero into a important place in the curriculum. a large outlook upon the world. " We hope that our ideal the ideal of the Renaissance average man is something more human than — something more scholarship without pedantry. and aesthetic appreciation. In order to realise this ideal a suggestion which. supposed we were reading . so far as circumstances This may seem at first sight an permit.THE TEACHING OF LATIN 19 aspects and their power of appealing to the feelings as well the as Hence the judgment. and the development of the if a lyric or epic poem. " have tried to avoid these extremes. We work provided that we whole book. stress which is laid by giving a complete picture of the Greek Wilamowitz upon world and our own debt to pointed out yesterday. What we We characteristic stand was meant by its authors to be read if a history. the principle that the classical authors should be studied. which is of some recent German educational theory. then with an open historic sense for is rather the reading of Latin literature as it — . is its pre-eminent merit. as our President means the reading of of the great little or masters of the classical Hence. books. little it. principle that in order to grasp the unity of a literary it is not necessary to read the whole of omit only the less essential parts. impossible demand at the present day when the time that but a can be devoted to the classics has been reduced solution of the difficulty may be found if we recognise the . and the best justification for the place which it occupies in our educational system. : That appreciation without preciosity. then with an eye to the facts. comparatively period. too. down too much it. as literary wholes. mind for its power to touch the emotions and appeal to the sense of beauty. namely. seems to need emphasis. it even though. excellence affords at once fitted for the and classical aesthetic study par a logical training.

say. while or Horace. Tacitus. Yet a single book of an author.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 20 we read a whole book of. and reading a collection of mere excerpts which. often gives a very This It is is obvious in almost as though one were to read in English a single book of Middlemarch and fancy that one had understood the story. But success is impossible." The motion " the minutes " that the Report be received and entered on was seconded by Professor Mackail and carried Tiem. said : " No C. classical We author was regarded as perfect in all recognise that they have degrees of merit. we devote our attention we lose our opportunity of coming into contact with some of the most vital Here then is the suggestion of the things in the author. coil. in a literary spirit if or Virgil. it may enable one to appreciate his style. as treated far — ' that a classical author should be as possible as a literary whole. and necessarily follows that if it impartially to the whole of a single book Curricula Committee. imperfect idea of his work as a whole. beautiful as they may be in them- work as a selves. indeed. which were published together and we can get a better idea of this unity by reading a selection of the most beautiful and representative odes contained in these three books than by The day has gone confining attention to any one of them. are so scholarly father should begin Latin Avith his boy. Latin and French. but to into the difficulties of two foreign I can imagine a home where a and at the same time an able mother or governess should begin French. Canon G. . though with omissions and the Committee calls of the less important parts ' attention to the important difference which exists between . in the first three books. experienced school teacher would attempt cramp the young mind languages at once . reading a book with some omissions. the several books being read in consecutive order. The unity of the Odes of Horace lies. by when every his parts. in first Resolution. are totally incapable of representing the whole. . if anywhere. proposing the Bell. the case of historians and epic poets.

'" At this point it was agreed to take as an amendment a J. the objections are multiplied."" it in : My motion does not assert definitely either that Latin should be begun at an earlier age than modern languages. Postgate accordingly moved : " That. proposed to teach two languages that are not alike. To plunge young children (either boys or girls) into the Again. which consider to be essential . if it is such as Latin and German. or that a considerable number of hours should be allotted to it. there is the whole subject of phonetics. since Latin is considerably more difficult than modern languages. Secondly. the meanings of similar words. but " ' That it is of two foreign move will : not desirable to begin the school study languages. but there are and then there . no scheme of education including will it be satisfactory which does not recognise either that Latin should be begun at an earlier age than those number of hours languages. abyss of such difficulties would be unpardonable. Dr. and in con- much alike that perhaps it help the other in structions . First. but it asserts that we must accept one or other of these alternatives. and I take the Council would consider Association to take it it that if this motion as an instruction up the consideration of is carried from the this question by . I need not elaborate the subject.THE TEACHING OF LATIN 21 might be said that one would all sorts of minute differences. motion of which Dr. very is much complicated of late years by two changes that have taken place. in genders. Postgate had given notice. P. many teachers now but the phonetic systems of two languages such as Latin and French are quite different. the question of sound. we no longer shall encourage children to pronounce Latin in the old British way. or that a considerably larger should be allotted to He " said the school curriculum. ancient modern. at or or about the same time.

. as a matter about which there can be no doubt whatever. and I move it in no hostility to the proposals in the Report. I should have given you statistics drawn from the Universities"' Local Examinations to show that there is a very considerable appointing a day for discussion or otherwise. This incidentally and without any appearance of heat. But that we should within the same educational sphere you will have to choose. Now that Latin and Greek a single but peculiar phrase : : (especially ' the latter) are slowly but surely drifting out of our school curriculum. this before is why I felt it was urgent to bring my motion meeting. One of these alternatives. decrease in the number of candidates in Latin in the Senior and Junior and Preliminary Examinations of both Oxford and Cambridge two L^niversities which are at least favourLet me ask you to take my able to the study of Latin. it is very important make up our minds soon. lancruasres are nearer to our own. which has come into my hands to-day. it is true. p. I would put before you some conAs an siderations that may be urged on either side. If I had been speaking at a later stage. which of them should be adopted in any general scheme. Without arguing the matter out.173. may suit certain forms of education. a paper by a Harrow master. word for this. modern argument for beginning French or some other language earlier than Latin it may be said that such and that therefore the young mind will be more receptive of them. and overcome That is an argument their initial difficulties more quickly. " With regard to these two alternatives." ^ It is mentioned. to which great weight should be given.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 22 Before we we must recognise that Latin is a language of superior difficulty to the modern tongues. October^ 1907. and to allow me just to quote from. and the sooner you choose the better will it be. you see. can arrive at any satisfactory scheme. and the other may be more suitable to other forms. it may On the other side be said that before deciding in the matter we ought 1 Modern Language Teaching.

For example. the ruts will be deepened and the stage much difficulty of learning increased. If. reason or four important particulars Latin is that and English The where Latin and French do not diverge. change in order usually a change of emphasis. That Latin at a later French does exert an influence upon the acquisition of a classical language appears to be shown by actual evidence. French have two. but in Latin it is free. what is the educational minimum for the study of Latin in schools. . and French English different. since he came to Cambridge at considerable inconvenience to vote ' that at least six hours a week against compulsory Greek — were required to teach Latin. but it is the order usual in French. I do not myself say that a matter to be discussed is.. estimate of a friend of mine —a I and how we or by allotting may it give here the practical schoolmaster who has no undue bias in favour of the classical languages. express the different functions of a word by putting modifiers them at the end of Latin by putting before the word In English and French the order of words is the Avord. more hours in the school curriculum. French is taught before Latin. a common mistake in learning Greek is to put the adjective after the noun when the definite article is This used. is which agrees with Greek. means a change in syntax in Latin English and Latin has no article then.' six hours are necessary —that but the minimum. and had I far better therefore drop Latin ask you to . THE TEACHING OF LATIN consider very carefully what to much more Latin a in three it is that makes language than French or even difficult to an English boy or German exactly 23 The girl. it curriculum. . . not the order in English. whatever if a school cannot provide entirely from its is it it. should be provided. the strong proclivities of English associations towards forms of expression which are alien to Latin will be strengthened by the similar associations in French. is framework of the languages diverge. Such are some of the considerations to be taken into account before we can settle the question. In English and French a tied . are to arrive at it —by beginning earlier.

in teaching French. " We is E. it must be taught we must give it a number of hours."" Miss M. LvrrELTON. In spite of that demand. we are bound to make some recommendation about Latin which will commend itself to practical men. and a large number of parents have a more robust belief in the value of French than in that of any This belief has had great influence other subject whatever. Fletcher. Wood said that Dr. Case-inflexions. or by beginning it sufficient later with is this. or we must by some means give a truism. and it has obliged them during the last modern methods ten years to adopt. The alternative of giving Latin a laro-er number of hours at a later age was therefore to of a be preferred. in seconding are bound. to be taught well. on preparatory and public schools. and have a sufficient number of hours allotted to it but they . subjects which push out Latin are French The and Science. In consequence. labour under this real and practical difficulty. Now the chief difficulty an increased number. . Mr." The Rev. either by beginning it earlier with a moderate number of hours. and much of of age the with diffiired teaching the earlier teaching was sheer waste. a subject if If Latin well. — " Dr. the papil . Canon the amendment. cannot be understood by children of eight. and their time would be better spent in learning the vocabulary modern language. Schoolmasters are willing that Latin should be taught well. French makes a larger demand on our time. Postgate's motion is almost a Either we must begin Latin at an early age. as far as they can. and we ought to show them such sympathy as we can. and Hon. F. H. as we have been doing.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 24 support this amendment order that we in may have a thorough discussion and early settlement of the question which of the two alternatives should be adopted for general use in the different classes of schools. : is taught. for example. said to agree that. Postgate's two alterThe value of an hour's natives were of very unequal value. as rational beings.

though I I have not should be support this motion I of Dr. But where is in their the Preparatory School that can begin with French. — " The not been as convincing to Latin saying that ' languages.. and that a Modem-side boy would be able to give. at a later age. could be done."" Miss E.' it is to be dropped alto- is wording of the amendment has me as to the last speaker. 4 . The Classical Association seems in equally unpractical. six hours a week at a time when Latin was opening really valuable possibilities. namely. it should be begun I have always understood that in teaching the easy should precede the difficult. its first part begun a large number A great educational advantage of putting French before Latin to my mind is that when children have learnt some French and then go on to Latin there is very great pleasm-e in drawing a connection between the two languaffes. Our committee danger of beino. and for that reason could not possibly accept the resolution in but I After considerably more difficult than modern goes on to suggest that at an earlier age. We the difficulty of parents. R. say. unless gether. THE TEACHING OF LATIN larger number of hours a week to German But the have tried the experiment. Bull. Then I think a boy might very advantageously subjects begin at eleven instead of nine convinced myself that this glad to think that it is but at present . I Latin do think that when Latin of hours should be allotted to is it. tions recommendaspeak of Latin being begun at ten or eleven." The Rev. because I see no choice except the two choices he has given. Gavin. practical. Postgate's. — "May I say a few words about the by Preparatory Schools. the enormous difference between the theories advanced by the Head Masters' Association and the practice at their schools ? We are in a perpetual dilemma between the chief difficulty experienced two. in it accordance with the experience of the 25 schools who of this difficulty is should need to be sure that we could be free from the pressure of a variety of outside when a boy reached the age of sixteen.

excellent theories then there will is that those spell the most who propound should themselves act upon them.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 26 as so till many ten speakers have recommended. and be some hope of bridging over the gulf between our discussions and the realities of school life. " What I plead for. since many of their pupils enter at the age of twelve from elementary schools. the Association would act more wisely if it gave these smaller schools some idea as to how the small amount of time that could be devoted to Latin might be most profitably employed. Grammar Schools. W. to declined /xoucra with Latin endings. F. the change it implies. WiTTON Dr. Miss M. needless he could neither read. and Municipal Secondary Schools. and. nor can Latin be begun earlier. leaving Further. and of attaining the goal of an ideal curriculum for young boys. elementary English. simultaneously in the previous and Greek French. nor say. Public the School leave Latin that give will admission into any but the lowest who have been forms. write.'' Mr. then. Postgate's proposals said that could not be applied to the smaller Public Schools. At most Preparatory Schools Latin I once had a boy from another begun before nine. and Where ? or even scholarships. it did not . Latin. There was a danger that some people might interpret the motion to mean that Latin was the subject on which most time could be spent with the least result. Morton said that even if it was admitted that Latin was harder than a modern foreign language. to boys to is be begun at fourteen ? so taught. since their time- table is so crowded that no more time can be found for Latin. Instead of adopt- ing the motion. is He term. how many Greek of those who signed the reconnnendations before us will send their own boys to a Preparatory School with the request that The they may not begin Latin before they are ten ? scheme recommended is in itself excellent and goes far to meet a real need but we must realise the magnitude of . He had begun school a week before his eighth birthday.

Mr. in spite of the almost axiomatic simplicity of its language. read. R.THE TEACHING OF LATIN necessarily follow that 27 more time must be devoted to it. Postgate agreed to withdraw the amendment. the doctrine which it implies is more revolutionary than you would think. and it is in order the children of this country from such horrible conditions that this resolution has been formulated. when Latin at any rate . circumscribed way. One is that we are inclined to look back to the mediaeval practice. The amendment having been withdrawn. F. with the proviso that the two alternatives mentioned in it should open for discussion. and write with the widest in Latin the aim could be restricted to possible range reading a limited number of works and writing in a very . It was only necessary to limit the aim. as indeed the Association seemed prepared to do. " This motion may well seem to you to need no recommendation and yet. We have just heard something of the extreme divergence which exists said : : between the recommendations made by schoolmasters to the and the practice of those masters in and some of you may not be surprised to their own schools hear that there are places where the approved method of teaching Latin is still to make the boys learn by heart large masses of grammar towards the end of their books. The President said that the wording of the amendment might lead to much misconstruction. and at the Classical Association . Postgate would not press the Latin. same time to get at the beginning. in proposing the second Resolution. original con. Many persons would infer that new and larger demands were being made for He hoped that Dr. to rescue their practice from the elementary exercises This is actually done . Dr. the be regarded as still motion was carried 7iern. In the case of a modern language the aim was ability to speak. Cholmeley. amendment to a vote. " Two errors in particular stand in the way of the right teaching of Latin and Greek.

I beg to move " That in the earliest stage of teaching Latin and ' Greek the teacher should aim at making his pupils . some practical art their pupils sharpen it is upon those who necessary to be as simple even about the most elementary as clear as possible things. possible indeed it must be.. rather than as a science and they have this advantage over most other arts. just as like carving. secondly. and to forget that we have now so things to talk about that conversational Latin is many more no longer possible in the is To art. Most of us have to learn about painting. not help wondering. their tools teachers should make every day and practise simple examples again and again before proceeding to more complicated patterns .. Literature not go far in them. ciation is to succeed in forcing its would rather be blind to them. Rouse has done it to — — make ordinary boys able to read the Apology soon after beginning Greek by talking with them in Greek about all the things to be found in a Stores catalogue yet I could . Rouse's charming little book. that in Latin and Greek. if ever so at the little. Latin or will Greek should be taught as an art. If this is true. tend to confuse the conditions of is other and that we is scientific teach- a science. boys who artistic Grammar ing. without being able to paint but in learning Latin and Greek we are learning the art of Literature and producing even it. the proposals contained in the resolution must surely be accepted as reasonable. : THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION S8 was used for talking. whether those boys would not have been able to read Plato sooner which Plato if they had been talking about the things of talks. same time. but It may be the number of tools to be used by beginners. for instance. as I read Dr. outside the terms of But my this is a controversial question resolution. They involve two very simple assertions but if the Classical Asso. or to forget that while an The same way. that in teaching Latin and Greek we must limit not only the number of patterns. that everybody can do a little of them. for Dr. and in It is asserted. principles first.

. inflexions. duty of all friends of Classics in this country. Miss M." " teachers. Latin is an essential instrument for the educational use of the English language. the British public. moving the third Resolution." and " examinees " "pupils. to see if they can be justified by practice." by for substituting "examiners. The motion was carried nem. to my mind. religion. perhaps be accepted as uncontroversial. I am moving. and may in point of fact it the most important thing towards the whole life and growth of classical studies in England at the present May I read a sentence or two out of the document time. said by its mover as an out to mean a turned subsequently which term a axiom.' These how far do they correspond with the are brave words It is our principal duty. first be read at school. and teachers who had to prepare pupils for examinations were very much in the examiners'" hands. DuNSTALL suggested that the motion might be amended with advantage " test." " teach. and thought. Basil Williams. and especially the to author.THE TEACHING OF LATIN 29 very familiar with such words.'" The motion was seconded by Mr." and Teachers did not teach the dative and ablative plural oijilia in response to a demand of but to that made by the examiners . Professor Mackail. con. seems to me which has already been quoted. C. study of the Romance languages. and constructions as occur most commonly in the authors. the circular on the Teaching of Latin just issued by the Board of Education? 'The study of Latin is an essential part of a complete modern No study of the development of European education. institutions in it is possible without knowledge of Latin. in " The : resolution just carried was described The rather highly controversial proposition. while it falls resolution which short of being axiomatic. literature. and they cannot. for are contained the records of the development of law. the principal facts in schools? and any scientific .

by being disjointed. the from school to school.' which seems possible regards the first. see introduced into schools but one which will will vary fore not be rigid flexibility flexibility the first which which not a hard-and-fast system.' axiomatic. is Committee. as regards the organisation of reading. flexible. for no one would suggest that they should be chosen for their unsuitability. lay still of the excerpt. and the of The intention of the Council. only exists in is to time at his disposal. so far as my . the anarchy tyranny of the book. the So much on As point. regards the subject-matter of the reading. should be kept of the in view ' It goes on to say that there the literary and historical value authors or parts of authors selected. All this is so nearly self-evident that I should only obscure it if by comment. and the weak points of . that the Association is trying to impose upon schools the reading of certain books That is far from the intention. that is words which may remove any possible misapplication or wrong impression of two phrases These are organised scheme. iron system believe.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 30 be so justified except through such consistent and organised method in teaching as is urged in this resolution. the particular strong or from far the schoolmaster according adjusted by be is certainly system which we desire to will It organised have the structures. All.' and in the resolution itself. The tyranny of the book is.' As regards the question involved in the words 'parts of authors. the resolution says in the firet place that the pieces selected should suitable in respect of matter to different ' ' be both their language and their subjectThis is really stages of learning. I in a certain order. disagree with that warning. I think. I tried to illustrate it necessary is say a few to ' ' As historical value. and which capacity of his boys. it be will killed the It will there- his staff.' we have already been warned by a previous speaker against the While not at all disposed to my own feeling would be to greater emphasis upon the other danger. the misapprehension that in this resolution some cast- is being recommended.

sense we study Latin not for the sake of the facts given us by the authors. what is more important for our present purpose. : That the scheme of reading in Latin and Greek authors should be carefully organised and graduated with a view (1) to the selection of such authors as are suitable in respect of both their language subject-matter to different stages and their of learning. are read for the sake of the facts contained in them. con.' THE TEACHING OF LATIN 31 knowledge goes. " ' art. (2) to the literary and historical value of the authors or parts of authors selected. Gilbert Murray and carried nem. for the younger pupils. as far as possible. development of thought. But. But at present in many schools authors chosen entirely merit were read long before that merit could be appreciated by the boys a survival from the time when boys were brought up to quote Latin and Greek and for their literary : . that. read. as regards the historical value The term historical value means on the one hand the value of is We learn knowledge of history.' " The motion was seconded by Mr. but their value as history. a very mild thing. but for the sake of the authors them- and selves. ' It . I beg to move in the evolution of civilisation. our towards the work read excerpts the knowledge purpose of and read Latin for the Latin which of the is happily ambiguous. the historical value of tlie Latin and Greek authors is not only their In this value towards history. and a very insidious one . and this brings is a me directly to the second point." The Resolution as it stood would be generally accepted. The other danger real. with a view to the attainment of this simple narrative in prose or verse should be selected. a vital. for their value as dominant and vital factors and in the progress and and life. Canon Lyttelton moved words to add to the Resolution the : "and object.

Jenkinson and Mr. F. : — Mrs. F. H. E. A. Miss K. Miss J. H. F. J. Messrs. C. Reid. prevail more and the schoolmaster needed was important to insist on the necessity of choosing nari'ative. Harrison. W. Orator). E. T. J. S. Mr. Ridgeway. Harrison. . Chairman). a H.* arrangements for hospitality were made by Committee consisting of the following members Montagu Mrs. D. C. Professors J. Harrison. S. H. Waldstein and Dr. Butler. Walters.* W. N. L.* Professors C. definite guidance. Rouse. W. the only form of Latin literature which children at the outset could understand. Mackail. it The motion was seconded by Mr. E. It was then suggested that the Curricula Committee be and SONNENSCHEIN appointed re- was agreed. By the kindness of their Librarians (Mr. Messrs. Moule).* Miss Henry Jackson. Whibley. Giles. F.* J. nem. Adam. F. to over that older idea. Sandys The W. : "That be the Council requested to reappoint a Curricula Committee. E. W. E.* Dr. Ward * W. Postgate. and Caius Gonville College. P."*' Note. J. J.* (Master of Peterhouse). J. —The chief arrangements Cambridge meeting for the were made by a Committee consisting members E. Sikes. Dr. Mr. The : Roberts. Harrison. E. Professor Jenkinson (University Librarian). Stewart. Fletcher and carried F.. * Members of the Executive Committee. con. Jex-Blake. E. H. (Public Sheppard.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 32 to compositions long before they could understand write If the idea contained in the Resolution was literary merit. M. the University Library and the Ijibrary of Corpus Christi College were opened to members of the Association during certain hours. Mr. P. Vice-Chancellor of Master of the of the following University (Rev. on the motion of Professor it . Wedd. Cornford. Dr. J. J.

I have live to may occupy his room no one he has stood as the generation our For or any one else. Postgate still . Association Postgate. Verrall a the last and perhaps the best most intimately appreciative in chapter of the Life and Letters just published. a volume 33 5 .Mr. paid classical studies . out of any single brain. take office. as our Founder. out is true that the was before us in the Classical field commemorate Dr." said assuredly a living one. this movement. H. type of the scholar and the humanist. of Scotland in this place I desire to Newman and if It . M. of that of Dr. S. He was nominated to the office which but he did not now the high honour of holding. Butcher.P. for years past he has been the undisputed leader of our band. That our first meeting here should be under any other is a saddening Presidency than that of Sir Richard Jebb reflection. and its since his tributes to —the —being that of Dr. . it is perfect not too much to say that he imparted to in this country death. his place. a new direction and ideal scholarship his incomparable in every land has work . first time we meet we came into existence as the " Classical Association of England and Wales " and though we have now got rid For the years ago . came. of all limiting words in our title. can fill I. Four to-day at Cambridge. to recall the fact that it come out of Committees. GREEK AND THE CLASSICAL RENAISSANCE OF TO-DAY. I may perhaps be allowed was at Cambridge that the idea of " Living movements do not our Association originated.

done so on purpose . the reform recommending circular issued a of Education have the by the Board. Headmasters' Conference and the Assistant Masters' The Board Associations represent the Secondary Schools. as step of ground as we went. Probably we all think how much better we might have been taught than we were. be carried through in a day. we well know. our groping attempts. and have urged its adoption in the schools under their inspection. That is a hopeful record of progress. who in their divergent lines of study have each of them left the strong impress of their character and personality on all that loss be all three. . which. The Scotch Education Department have approved a scheme almost identical with our own. lost to us by premature death — . Adam —long will his Dr. in all schools recognised Reformed methods of teaching the Classics have also engaged the attention of our Council. But the goal is now in sight. We bodies in England. to those distance. Dr. we were resolved to make good each So great a change cannot. drawn up by the Classical Association of Scotland. the man In the last few months other gaps have occurred in our Three of our foremost scholars have been classical ranks. they produced. I will not now take up your time by anticipating the Report of the Council or forestalling the discussions which are to follow but there is one matter so important as to I have to report that the scheme claim immediate notice. have won the adhesion of The Philological and Cambridge may be taken all the chief Societies of Oxford as speaking for the Universities . our opportunities of experiment too . Rutherford and Dr. felt in . Some of us whose teaching days are over look back with chastened feelings to our own obsolete methods.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 34 who knew only the scholar at a now makes known through his own familiar letters " dear to the Muses " and beloved by many friends. of Latin is advancing steadily pronunciation for the restored towards a successful end. Strachan Cambridge Scotsmen of power and fervid enthusiasm. We have moved slowly we have .

and he described the deed so that " the words became alive and walked up and down in One is : the hearts of all his hearers. Any of the Classics. however much methods may be improved. one who looks through our Proceedings in the last few years must be struck by the studious modera- and the absence of all exaggerated claims. said others. We are not for the great goddess nor have we any war to wage with other studies to We admit freely that a man all of them we are friendly. a belief also that our classical studies be made more literary without the loss of disciplinary effectiveness.THE PRESIDENTS ADDRESS 35 Yet we must bear in mind that. we cannot smooth away often neglected. " Whoever would conquer as I have conquered must do so by the sweat of their brow. vouched for by Kipling. let them Ephesus making shrines go. There is a point the hard facts of and Latin. alive things. Man has in all periods of his history felt a little suspicious of ." The tribe. of the man who had achieved a deed. The reason we are here to-day is that we have a quiet but strong tion of our tone conviction of the value of this learning to the intellectual life may of the nation . impossible to simphfy . . silversmiths of why. have indeed lost vitality. Scaliger. magic of the necessary words. can get through life very handsomely without a knowledge Diana . took and killed him. but when he came to explain Then arose the man with the it to the tribe. the difficulties of Greek all beyond which it is language stand in the way. was dumb. of the earliest puzzles which have perplexed mankind Dangerously what words are and how to treat them. studies our If believe the reward to be worth the cost. writing to a friend who had told him of a new Polish plan of Greek made easy. mere dead things. seeing that the words were alive and fearing that the man with the words would hand down untrue tales.'" This is also the law of But we learning in much humbler walks of classical study. said some There is an ancient legend. Both in speeches and papers the pleas put forward in defence of the Classics have been temperate and powerful. said.

Speaking broadly. we may say that the Greek mind leaned towards the error of ascribing to words an independent existence and endowing them with a kind of to thought.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 36 words indeed that he conscious . which they do not possess. To always to mean just as it to it wishes proclaim proud mastery over these obedient symbols he made names his slaves he called dWa his use of particles as proper Hrjv and take so forth. the Greeks had no other tongue to bring Owing to the absence of into comparison with their own. {ap^r] iraihevcreoi^ sthenes. of thought. his sons and yttey " If you do not he. the richer in wisdom as you grow older. they the is but with an instinctive dread that they may turn upon him and gain the upper hand. Protests indeed made themselves heard against the prevalent mode of thought. has been the constant cry of the assailants of humanistic learning." well knew. Plato himself was led into verbal fallacies from which he would otherwise have been saved. vitality knowledge. unlike ourselves who know so many badly. One philosopher insisted that it is the business of a word much as the utterer of mean. not only with the origin of language. Plato says seriously.— nothing more and nothing less. Plato place and . and may be so handled as to take the we need but cast a glance down the course of Greek speculation to see that the warning was not superfluous." in the Politiciis. i) in the theory of ^ said Anti- rcov ovofidrcov eiricTKe-^Ls:) Give us things^ not words. words " you will too be all Words. the master. In Greece reflection busied itself early. Unlike the Romans who knew one foreign language. The function of words in education has been as hotly debated as the place of words " The study of words is ledge. but with the whole problem of the relation of language servants. motto of know- the basis of education science against classics It some thirty was the or forty . nor was it till his later years that he appears to have freed himself this from that tyranny of concepts which exercised a superstitious sway over the intellect of Greece.

on the other. is the we no longer between words and things. Augustine. They are living organisms. science . wholly reconciled by these and similar considerations. friendly to literature. and. hear much we all now know. Still On the one hand. They are not only things. Many become much more linguistic and of its foremost champions admit that literary training must always be the element of prime importance Not less literature but more. the matching of the word with the thought. as a natural sequel to this. I even under our traditional system. has abated something of its old pretensions . we became dimly aware that precision has an austere beauty of its own. in schools days can recall the gradual the by the feeling of words.. each with We can trace them in their history. a discovery which marks a memorable stage in mental progress. This no doubt falls short is what science to-day demands. life. as real as material natural products. THE PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS education. Ave 37 are things. still it affords a common ground for discussion. Into that discussion I do not now propose to enter. perhaps. If I of this bare antithesis as were told. science has of the position maintained by the classicists. why the saying neither too much nor too little. Next. mistake not. how and a particular word is untranslateable. would merely the classics have often led us by gradual ascent from the How many of us study of words to the study of literature. we came words of precision. development of their structural forms. and clears the way towards a more complete understanding. possibly. . classics the acute differences are softened. in education. Classical with mere abstractions. and more varied. We follow the shifting phases of their inner as whole epochs of mental change are unfolded before The claims of classics and of science are not indeed us. often with rigorous exactness. insist that. its own evolutionary growth and in the but thoughts. own literary sense instance. has to do words and phrases way Words. to concrete reality. St. years ago. looking back on our awakening of the in the first of exactness. by the lesson use for and to see idiom. phrases.

for as the words fall into their absolutely right order. repeated came by orally poetry. the illuminating truth broke in that the diction of poetry is not the diction of prose. At a later stage the attempt to recast the original English beginnings it is and reproduce it in a new mould of thought creative effort. complete and adequate This old method of learning hterature by gradual and in its kind. The feeling of beauty was educated by a discipline. Then as we grew more familiar with Greek or Latin poetry and tried to turn it into English." Latin verse composition. or to the mass of needs to be largely modified and supplemented. has in countless cases given a boy his first insight Even in its slight into the meaning of artistic work. a mode is its a sort of own.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 38 speaking of the great pagan orators. of recognising that " beautiful words are. the rhythmical instinct finds its satisfaction. " Their words seem less to have been chosen by the artist than to have belonged by a kind of antecedent necessity to the subject. says. something more than the piecing together of a dissected map. though not perhaps to be wholly discarded. A a bit of a genuine of self-expression. that the words of poetry carry in their sound as well as in their sense some message that cannot be conveyed to the logical Through understanding. but the pain of which was insensibly transmuted into pleasure. also. " in a real and special way the light of thought. . bringing with simple copy of verses a pleasure of it thus becomes human workmanship. too. The system had this signal merit." That is the sort of impression I am thinking of." as declares. that words and thoughts sank into the mind by absorption. easily as it lends itself to ridicule. learned by heart degrees unexpected word finding the the further and delight of and Longinus in the inevitable place. it be permitted to say wherein we are indebted to it. indirect approaches is may not be the best . undoubtedly it not adapted to every order of mind. Anyhow those of us who owe something to that intellectual nurture may boys . painful it is true.

crisis to you as piercing traths. It is this which makes us pause and ask ourselves whether we are altogether on the right lines. the resistance to The be overcome. what has become of it ? Is it not that marked in the . Line by line. charged with emotional force which has gathered round them during the years that have elapsed since you You first read the you have imbibed than you knew. Well. Certain classics spirit of the more of the words and even of grammar it is that through the portal of effective entrance has been often made into the domain of literature. — may the for learned moment not to this fancy myself speaking. professed to be scholars — Greek and Latin. let us suppose. at some thev come the it . we applied literature. but to educated men who have never you say you have forgotten your audience. music. however. and seeks to of individual feeling by merging You knew of the race. But the gate has been too strait. You open. facts and dates and all the niceties of have gone by grammar have slipped from the memory. The love of letters that is frequently so strongly boy of eleven or twelve. that was all. You say if I . You read one of those great calm utterances in which ancient poetry stores up the emotion of centuries. upon some half remembered lines of Homer or Virgil. you their Now in fresh home allay the unrest in the larger experience the lines at school. letter by letter we learned from the classics With minds the rudiments of literature. and found influence ourselves tinged by that the reading of English to mother tongue latent capacities of expression which might well have escaped us but for our in the early habit of seeking in English the nearest equivalent for some ancient word or idiom. find to your surprise that of those admitted has been few in comparison with the total number of the learners.THE PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS 39 very difficulties we had to encounter. gave a keener relish to the joy of mastery. and the number lines. after long interval. years. so markedly absent a few years later. upon some fragment of a chorus of Sophocles. of your life. you enjoyed felt their simple beauty a season of recollection.

What is the best way or ways. if speedier access to "the literature could have been won ? Under our existing tradition books have been read in too detached portions too . If it is neglected or disparaged the whole study becomes flaccid and unliterary. between form and expression may so that a training in literary be associated with the study of the best thought on things substance. even the literature of our is many all an open question." says Roger Ascham. that we are in the full swing arresting fact? .THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 40 the discouraged learner has turned into the perplexing idler. Surely this. and would he not have responded to the stimulus and the charm of classics. " what hurt ye do to as learning make a that care not for words but for matter. yet there is a stage for the pupil at which form is paramount. Our aim indeed should be to keep form and matter in close alliance. and so divorce between the tong-ue and the heart. the play. at least in the case of one ancient language. be thrown on the linguistic side of the literature. for they are many. But I hasten on to the main theme of my discourse. There is such a thing the passive unlaborious reception of the general sense " Ye of a printed page which is valueless as education. am be imbued from the first with a literary colouring. Enough spent over grammatical details . the chief stress of the earlier instruction must. stiU But experiments. and would ask you to turn to the larger field of classical What do we there find as the salient and learning. know not. we must hold fast to the principle of true humanism and maintain the organic union between speech and thought. the incident. much time has been little interest roused in the story."" What- ever may be our ultimate reforms. the literary structure of the whole. the relation of the parts to one another. of teaching literature. the biography. classical Personally I I in favour of incline to the belief that while should teaching own language. human. too attention has perhaps not been paid even with advanced pupils to the sequence of the thought.

Anthropology and Folk-lore add their witness to that of the manuscripts. and sixteenth centuries set themselves to reconstruct the mind and life of classical antiquity has the sense of achievement been so great. the lost treasures of ancient literature there nothing that may not be resuscitated. The new Renaissance is predominantly a Greek Renaissance. is well nigh Aristotle's Con- of Athens^ Herodas. many gaps in in our development of Greek language. fifteenth the new Revival of Learning even Art and Archaeology. The methods employed are in large measure the methods of exact science. Myth and Ritual. its mystery and romance undeciphered that long buried of given a kind of imaginative lift Meanwhile the papyri knowledge of the later and in particular throw Greek of the Septuagint filling are disinterred and the script. contained texts are. to archaeological research. our extant manuscripts. city pre-historic of Cnossos. to Photography that has not directly aided the processes Historic sites have been laid of this multifarious erudition. strata of society. Nay more.THE PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS 41 of a new Classical Renaissance. details of home-life. Palaeography and Inscriptions. there is hardly a science from Geology variety of materials surpasses the old. of which we had no previous record. confirming or more often disproving Of the conjectures of the learned. The civilisations unearthed. bare. We have quite lately heard of some And the 1300 lines of Menander about to be published most notable fact of all remains. an era of movement and discovery which began in the with quickened going forward century and last now is Ever widening impetus. never have the possibilities In range of study and of the future seemed so limitless. and Bacchylides have already come to light. carry us in these behind papyri. The fragmentary classical as they . a thousand years back and more. Never since the scholars of the horizons are coming up. a most instructive light on the and of the New Testament they are disclosing facts of law and administration. Greatly as the stitution 6 . whole have world.

She is been so admired. India. in the light of contemporary Hellenism as in philosophy." : Armenia. Delphi. so imperfectly known. so in medicine . which is not only the source of our own. as she has never been before. " has learnt to recognise a advancing science all growth of culture through some fifteen hundred years. but the East shows the influence even Palestine and of Greece and the Greek language of it. is "The world. for this great Back Give up Greek. human . In the light of evidence of the truth of the remark. scientific.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 42 Roman study of antiquity has been deepened and extended. It may be added in passing that it is only by the collaboration of Greek scholarship and science that the history of the sciences. can be thoroughly explored. and natural science." all but discovered the general circulation of the blood." roads lead to Greece. but for her uncritically exhausted contributions. admired. " the first great experimental clinician. and geography. for Rome is only a province " Not only Europe. or has its and research source blended with that of Greece. to 1907. philosophic and ' Classical Review. to Greece. as in astronomy. mathematics. and oration is that was the revived study of Galen that gave birth to it modern anatomy. Mycenae. Never is strangely ill-chosen has Greece lovingly studied or so vitally apprehended. says learning. not only for the perfection of her literary art." ^ This very day when the Harveian being delivered in London. Theologians are at last learning that Christianity can only be understood Syria. we may well recall the fact that Galen. educational reformers. Olympia. this is all Greek. Arabia. Feb. the modern spirit finds itself closely linked with the ancient. Tiryns. but in a sense its vital parallel and . But here comes in the paradox of the situation. the main current of discovery Greek channels. Every branch of human thought owes its first inspiration to Greece. says Wilamowitz-Mollendorff. Troy. say a host of The moment experiment. in flows along the archaeology In which civilisations mere mention of Crete.

All who hear me know the limits of I believe that a new and widely myself the classics has its capacity. part indestructible as is is a recognized no is question Greek as a compulsory subject for all pupils. What translation can and cannot do I will not now discuss. issue hinges on spirit. 43 the point of view of learning and The of culture the claims of Greek to-day are paramount. the classical baggage of a cultivated all. normal and well-defined. Greek it is not on the ground of any danger to learning. of here of Greek surviving as an element in our national culture. It that score not Greek The pivot on that of the is our but to be a type is (There curriculum. into the and poets thinkers have said and thought must be told and retold more fully. "After but the counter argument . but it must be told in English. which the educational whether henceforth there school may we of school in which classics. in my judgment. fact not seriously disputed is runs thus : man must learned. and portable. learning as the will take Greek minds at It is English education." Let me say at once that if this prospect is disturbing.) If such a course of study. is. these days be light in Greek continue to will For the be a fascinating Even the unlearned must obtain some glimpse place of Greece in What Greek civilisation. Greek in translations is what the reformers offer to us. skill which Translations . including Greek. We in this Association are not primarily concerned about turning out professional scholars. be restricted to a few pupils with special linguistic bent. This is what is at stake the very existence of classics as — a humanistic discipline. not in Greek For school purposes the teaching of the language must. study. is abandoned. there is little hope. For diffused interest in been created by the literary marks the art of translation in our own day. set imperilled. rest.THE PRESIDENTS ADDRESS AHke from thought. We are concerned in retaining as a civic possession the most potent instrument that has yet been found for the awakening and enlargement of the mind. of care itself.

. limited. and some few will translation to the original. to turn It up is their but the greatest book we have is a translation by divers hands. some- The new added. medium conveyed through a permeating quality is not a kind of superadded charm.. THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 44 have a far greater future before them than has yet been Many to whom the classics would otherwise reahzed. Still it is lost is the translator and something is a man is a mere truism to say much that in every translation. translated. Testament Hebrew often in itself suffers loss form. in his daily doings with his fellow-man can express the deep outgoings of the heart towards God. but in any case the impression it literary doubtless be led from the thing. if is retained. however thing may of genius. And cannot be otherwise. But the language of Homer with its elastic play of particles. very well. Even if as who can doubt that the of the thought are frequently discoloured by our Western speech ? Is there indeed any book that has been so much misapprehended inevitable in translating ? Job or But if some degree of Isaiah. remain unknown. it its pure literature the English version surpasses the original. and describe nature in her quiet and ordered sequences. I hesitate to say a word yet I imagine the Old about a language I do not know . delicately shaded distinctions of word and phrase. it is a The of mind. . yet associations is being translated out of Homer of simple structure range of expression is . it is Hebrew has a small vocabulary It can depict it man . Greek poetry least Greek work and this is true also Plato or Demosthenes which cannot be prose of of the What is lost not its own. an atmosphere in which the whole is bathed. its immense vocabulary. its is loss infinitesimally small compared to the loss sustained in translating either into prose or verse. is its and also in her sublimer moods. will find in them an undreamt-of enjoyment. the old. — essence in all the best — English Bible is cited in disproof of this contention. for scholars translations. we are all noses at told. if even be better than it leaves is different no poetry can be adequately There is a subtle of all.

mutually illusAs a mere disciplinary exercise Latin trating one another." Since the age of the Italian Renaissance Greek has been too much read with Roman eyes. has been translated and never can be. Rome the characteristic lines are in truth a strongly con- pair— they became aware of it themselves — unlike . A lowering itself on the higher plane of literary instruction. and feeling. and this even apart from the music of his verse. vaguely known as " the classics. it is as diverse as the life it reproduces. Professor Harnack tells us two young of German students who having received a education were prosecuting other studies at the They were asked whether on looking back University." they they would willingly give up their Homer. " No. It cannot in isolation maintain cut off" from its source. all styles are already implicit in the rich variety of the poefs Homer never I need not pursue the contrast. utterance. The differences of the two races have been obscured. classical said. the two studies have been is sure to be further accentuated in England or disjoined. divorced from Greek of standard is it is perceptible wherever. but a maimed and impoverished study. I would not suggest that Greek and Latin form a single undistinguishable whole. It lends it reflects itself to the most many-sided human intercourse every movement of peace and war. him read in in German he was a mere Greek is fairy new the knowledge of a world. by way of amends. every phase of thought . trasted often Greece and ignored. "when we tale but to read him ." Those who would substitute Greek in translation for a study of the Greek language propose however. but as forms of literature and culture. where. In deprecating this divorce as fatal to Greek and harmful to Latin. Hitherto Latin and have been studied not as languages only. to keep Latin in the original.THE PRESIDENTS ADDRESS 45 an organ of far greater range and flexibility. when The else- difference teachers as well as taught are ignorant of the parent literature. Greek in classical schools apart from Greek may still remain highly effective .

hterature and their different readily to the natural in and firm in of their thought." Rome must connected in history and ancient civilisation. To follow humanity and moral development we must study our existing in its intellectual to scheme a reformed teaching of Greek. for do we find .THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 46 one another in their strength and in their weakness. very different. poHtical in the structural The single example. markedly with expression Take a logical syntax of Latin is from the psychological syntax of Greek. from any that aims at understanding Greece through Greekless study. in their organisation and history. This will be possible . of political and philosophical reflection. The course of instruction should be so framed as exhibit the fertility. Greek mind. a syntax Where a case so characteristically Greek as the genitive in its union of opposites ? Dorians and lonians within Greece herself are not so diverse in their gifts as are Greece and Rome both in their intellectual qualities and in their influence on the world. responding its many else. movement of living speech respects so illustrative of the instance. however. None the less be studied together as indissolubly -as together forming the unity of The disparate elements and out of these mingled influences in time coalesced. delicate blend of intellect and emotion. arose that bilingual many vicissitudes and changes has been transmitted to our own day. For this end the literary and aesthetic side of teaching must be subordinated to the training of the historical intelligence. the ingenuity of the Greek mind in all departments of art and science. is is this. A is there need not say. His central position recent research shows that Greek influence factor in Greek. By degrees. the variety. The mention of that culture brings me back to the world-wide culture which through remarkable article of Wilamowitz in the Classical Review from which outlined I for I have already quoted. the lineaments of Greece have been disengaged and the spirit of Greece begins to stand out clear from what has been known Greece and as the " spirit of antiquity. All the dominant civilisation.

Plutarch. the the Attic standard most of — all this will less rigid adherence to probably find favour with Gladly we open our door to Arrian. to Its it is almost ungenerous breadth of outlook may at first sight seem to be the one thing needed to expand the minds both of teacher and pupil. The Greek Reader he has constructed as an aid in working out this idea contains passages basis religious. . programme that to will ever afterwards With Lucian and Plutarch friends in . prehensive century there floated before the imagination of scholars the idea of a complete reconstruction of the classic past. from all century The extending from periods of Hellenism. Poetry. principle from which Wilamowitz starts — the lighten- ing of elementary grammar. us. pupil will traverse swiftly and lightly the whole field The of Hellenism from Attic must be deposed typical extracts. down b. others after a period of ill-deserved time. now in must be history natural and physical science.c. has faded away before the growth of The field of classics is so subdivided . philo- sophy and religion must claim attention. That vision specialized learning. and to vivify the study of Greek. Lucian. coldly. the widening of the range of authors available for beginners. in of undue position its supremacy. Greek so pursued will no longer be " one of the elegancies of life. the foreground. In recent years the question has often suggested itself with insistent of last can we recover something of the old comhumanism of the Renaissance ? In the middle force. but a guide It will be found to be the to the continuity of history. the sixth to the fourth or fifth century a. scientific and and a connecting link between many school studies which now stand apart. must take a back place made more prominent . made youth to criticise is who have once desire to keep As to the large and exhilarating here presented.THE PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS only if the language —and with much is less learned rapidly grammatical — not 47 own sake for its detail than at present.d." and bond of all forms of education. it some those their friendship in repair. and even to Longus and Dion of Prusa for the first neglect.

but Greek method. Still literature is scientific i . or to the historian of civilisation. on the ancient world. a teacher name may by bring the youthful learner into survives in school occasional excursions contact with the fresh mind of Greece. enabling some of the larger principles But what we are more of scientific and historical thought. hope of a science of antiquity has vanished. sounding. art and archaeology can each throw their own side-lights. exploring. myself strictly to To its educational value at an early the professed student of Greece. classical many point of is a unifying idea for be the meeting- to through Greek the learner sciences. is merely a dispersion of energy. by Greece in that development are of For the maturer student. appears to me. It is position thinking. of Euclid in The the original Beyond to And its the end. domain of Greek study itself. not fortify- may To read a pro- indeed set a boy discovery that Euclid was a man. so in saying and I view the proposal with grave misgiving. eminent persons seem as alien to one another as if they belonged to different The tribes. scholars. few courses could be imagined more enlightening played the part than the study of Greek texts. weakening. perhaps the greatest. as it education in the school. University. limited indeed and practical ideal in scope. too. comes forward and proposes a certain line of reconstruction. at the engrossing interest. and that may be a useful and pleasurable shock indeed ten years hence Euclid^s circles. Premature expansion of the mind ing. experimenting in all directions: Similarly. the steps of the slow process by which the human mind has painfully Mon way towards its and truth. its designed to form still Greek study education. will I own trace in outline the course of our historic culture. at least But now one of the greatest living for our generation. I limit age. reconnoitring. judiciously selected.— THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 48 Within the that no one can pretend to master the whole. concerned with. is not specialised Greek teaching in the him to follow to their source University. more frequent and more vivid. he wrote in Greek if ill-adapted is this.

But. its school-days True it is that science learned to think are numbered. learners are It is their case kept outside at the vestibule of literature. the things of art are Greek in the school class-room must take its stand on the supreme value of a literature in which form and matter are more perfectly fused than in any other. ancillary to science. liberal culture efforts The things of science are temporal. and as what is cellence of of the life. The opinion of the Universities is. Latin was there employed as the chief instrument of grammatical linguistic discipline . that content can be expressed German or Esperanto. or appreciated without a full comprehension of the historical setting of the literature. Association has recommended a reform on these lines. and even were in English or like all science. and the foundation being thus Greek was studied mainly ? is and laid. Our Its report has been approved by the Headmasters' Association. 7 .. eternal. That To say this is not to treat Greek position is impregnable. as public and private. The thing was done in the humanist It schools of Italy during the early Renaissance. so far as I can gather. The literary excalled " mere aestheticism. many readier entrance it. that causes disquiet. But Greek science. sprang." Greek writers cannot be dissociated from the rich content of the thought. is must not be bound up with the tentative of Greek thought in any or all of its branches. is another. young minds. it is perishable in content its otherwise. embracing discipline. THE PRESIDENTS ADDRESS 49 one thing and the history of science. Now the Greek with Greek of that which we seek to inspire adequately conveyed be which cannot distinctive quality Greek as of fortunes The through any other medium. which with certain modifications The example we may is one to well revert. too it Can they obtain a Assuredly they can . and speak in Greek as she has seldom spoken since. for its literary content. as also the science If Greek is to be made an allof history. from which I have already observed. the range of reading being surprisingly wide. proves experience being frequently done to-day.

demand If the is to bring Greek nearer to life. as he himself hints. especially in sections of the population to they have been unknown. the words which themselves become deeds. In our younger whom hitherto our industrial centres.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 50 In adopting this change we shall not be driven favourable. and it of every other nation. prosaic on the the poets is the Greek afforded by imaginative training first and greatest youthful Hellenist. The level of Wilamowitz's programme. should be taken not in sips my the opinion Homer above all but in copious draughts. is more moving in its appeal than Heron's doctrine of the vacuum. than the physical geography of Strabo or the biological of observations Aristotle. not be extruded from will reading by the pressure of school There will still be time " the ephemeral orations of Demosthenes. who seems to have regarded Homer as a fatiguing person with a kind of homicidal mania. another reason now being by against employing studied. will find few followers even among schoolboys. are to be miscellaneous history and science. the most prosaic of prose authors as an introduction to Greece. Greece has in store for the that gift remains as a passport to the poetry Wilamowitz by no means excludes it sparingly. is an epyov ? There is another and The early study of Greek will not be placed cardinal point. Herbert Spencer. Where. more in contact with the actual thought of men. surely the world of imagination is nearer to us in youth than the hygienic principles of Hippocrates. Greek oratory to the di-astic remedies of Wilamowitz. found both in French and Latin. if anywhere. or the scene between Achilles and Priam. we are reminded. In allowance of poetry should be generous. the \6yoq which. but he admits poetry."" to read some of Specimens of formal oratory. The There classics is are Universities. but in Demosthenes can we find the temperate reserve. The parting of Hector and Andromache. people need to be lifted out of their own surroundings to escape from the pressure of material things. however. the hidden glow. .

a large vision of litei-ature is something It has not quite like a book. progress. The literary speech is on the colloquial idiom. is entering on Greek literature we may common one who is say what Pliny said to a friend who was setting out to be governor of Achaia. and Greek in Classics are privileged. of see to it a way which They belong to democratic com- new-comers. Their great imaginative works travel along the broad thoroughfares of human simpler human like pourtraying. The growing. beauty place there apt to be starved or stunted. to sometimes described as a feudal. it in these munities. now attaching to Greek study. that in offering Greek for Let us spirit? we do to the schools. undemocratic domain of particular as an abstruse culture out of the reach of Of men. the life. all not Is there the heresies this To the worst. the Greeks are of all men the most truly human. though with infinite subtlety." Yes. the self-adapting tion. oral speech it is .THE PRESIDENTS ADDRESS 51 from the common cares of business or of money-making. subject. learning. has The mystery of Hellenism remains. such as for centuries past has hardly been known outside the sphere of the consciousness that and physical Greek is a natural living. human emotions and opening up Their best prose experience. Hellenism is a . the fluidity. the The feehng for emancipating power of good hterature." In the prose writers of Greece you feel that even on the printed page there speech. the power of good conversafreshened by drawing freely ease. " Profecturus es ad homines maxime homines. " of texture between life and books. sciences. for left of the for the things beauty. They desire to feel the touch of poetry and imagination. The sense One other word teaches the soul to put forth her wings. It has incorporated in itself much that is. expanding moving forward with the full tide of human communicated to many of the friends and teachers of Classics a buoyant hopefulness for the future. is the creations of Greece. there is is the the air and the tone of the sense of progressiveness of human Add to this warm breath life. in Wordsworth's phrase.

It scatters vital seeds of thought wherever it What passes. penetrating influence. our study of Greek needs to be reformed. .THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 52 pervasive. is that life-giving manifestation of that in different societies. but in which intellect and emotion are if combined. cannot be explained. at the moment when it seems dead it germinates afresh. Roman writer said of his teacher. They have studied a language they have won an intellectual franchise. A late were in quest. and by that partnership of mind between teacher and taught which has given to the world the highest thought of Greece. Its It The mode eludes ways are of its working us as does the secret of ways the the of spirit. he knows" {plus pre-eminently true And docet — more quarn *' He scit). The different periods. by fearless questioning of tradition. its permanence. . energy in some form energy differs at will spring from that seed cannot All that we know will result. by a love of truth which is not all intellectual. People have not always got from Greece that of which they They have gone to her for learning they They have sought science they have gained spiritual emancipation. teaches more than Of Greece this is than she knows she has taught. surely be predicted. it is through Greek methods that the inward renewal will come. . . have found beauty. Always going and never gone.

but as a practical teacher as well. I should urge in vain that it is the object of philosophy to determine the ultimate nature of things. We need in Classics the same free and frank discussion that has long characterised work in Natural Science. I have teaching ultimately in mind. Professor G. THE HERITAGE OF UNREASON METHOD It is a pleasure to of scholars in me to be a this mother-land of IN SYNTACTICAL member of an association my own speech and race. speaking at for many details. Hale. of the University of Chicago. including the 53 . In what I say. fitting our rules to his categories. with I my Training Teachers' Classes in my have recently carried young beginners half through the American preparation for college in Latin and the First Latin Book which arose out of the earlier part In whatever of this work is now in use in American schools. I have to suggest in this address. the subject one that I must compromise. W. you would hardly give me a hearing. I beg you to think of me not merely as an investigator. and adopt a system from some professor of philosophy. calls most points with great brevity. The time at my disposal is short. and an honour to be allowed to take part in its work.. You must also pardon me if I mention names and systems without reserve. In connection University. I If I were to propose to you to-day that we should abandon the independent study of syntax.

because and one another. though the fact . Avith the a hundred years ago.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 54 ultimate processes of the human mind. in the majority of cases. The scheme. We pass now. it was found in dependent clauses. that the history of philosophy is the history of warring schemes. reasonably some power which. moods from Thus the — to translate by the Roman name—does have. with a long stride. not from any power. the mood which they called the subordinated— Optative other powers. You would answer. hand. which everywhere else rule in scientific investigation in this brilliant age. Possibility. and would ask to which we should attach ourselves. the scheme. among On the other that of expressing a wish. has escaped notice. you would probably inquire why we should give up our intellectual independence. The cycle of our dominant explanations was completed nearly and. Further. in substance. Yet it is cisely this people. twists Kant. on systems of mood-syntax established in preare to-day bringing up our young way that we and explaining things to one another and ourselves with a gravity worse than that of Roman augurs. at by a few very early Wolff and categories of named least. This was a calamity of which we have not yet seen the end. or and turns) from the modal This I The Greeks have first to show. and simply follow at the heels of this or that philosophical Still worse would it be if I were to propose to establish a system of syntax on some philosophy a century and a quarter or a century and a half old. but from the mere fact that. namely in 1812 exception of three inherited errors which were worked into we do actually deceive ourselves . Its categories and Contingency. was taken are Necessity. three of the they possessed. vTroraKTiKt] (Latin. say You would marvel that any that of Rant or that of Wolff. subiunctivus) — received its name. to Wolffs Ontology. it all came (directly. and that accordingly a sound syntax must be in harmony with its results. one could be found who should be so blind to the methods exploring party.

e. these it 55 mood the Indicative as the : of Necessity. 1751. In the of Pure Reason. was categories felt. because " an End.g. of categories three Existence. applied the categories to the verb. the moods. being the force of the Imperative. and our Forethought. and the Imperative the of In 1801 Gottfried Hermami.:>£'. exists. according is .THE HERITAGE OF UNREASON by up number a grammarians..e. explaining it as the mood of the contingent." which had played so large system. making the Indicative the mood of Existence. the Optative jective Possibility— i. the Subjunctive in the mood mood of Possibility.. The complete correspond to them. condkionem the Verbal in moods of Existence of Objective rerum the a part in Kant's as follows: . the Imperative of Possibility is is the . mood as the Thus a purpose expressed by the Subjunctive. in his of Possibility or Contingency. scheme did not even fit by Necessity Kant meant that which in passing that the categories necessarily. while mood forms the mood of Objective Necessity. or Final Cause Life is always a Contingent. are defined exactly in the Wolffian terms The moods 1781. In 1792 Hasse. is the He defines mood :. the is -Teo<i Let me say Kanfs . and carried it still further by of the philosophical terms "subjective" and use making applying "objective. a schoolmaster Necessity. The the Subjunctive Possibility— i. Herynes. for and so always. This is very far from Neither did Kant mean .. namely modality.. is und Allgemeine Sprachkhre. of If covered all action and being. Kant laid in despite of all down and Possibility. De Hasse as not understanding Kant. application must made. of Subjunctive Necessity.- mood the Indicative mood ipsm-um of Sub- of Possibility as thought (cogitata) . the Subjunctive Harris. had already dealt with the Subjunctive in a similar way. Kanfs own town. in human may perhaps never happen to Harris. in the book entitled Emendanda Ratione Grammaticae Graecae^ while abusing Necessity. adopted his idea of Kant's scheme." was succeeded by the philosophy of philosophy Wolffs Critique Kant. 1781. in Meiner's Philosophische e.

the Optative less definitely. ellipsis. as depending on external circumBoth moods. in order that we may go. " what shall " I am in doubt I do " stands for afjbtpta-^rjToJ ri ttoiw. expressed thought between the two moods being that the Subjunctive expresses the act more definitely. without Re- the it specific evidence. Since.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 56 by Subjective and Objective what Hermann meant. and naissance error of resorting to the theory of freely. as of a conscious thought his point of departure. Hence is. Xva stands what to do."" and IwfieVj "let us go. In 1807 and 1808 Matthia. as you stances. taking Hermann's phrase "dependence upon the nature of things.. which alone is it cannot but must be attached to a main sentence. to the difference mind. the Subjunctive possible per ipsarum rerum condicionem." " Here Hermann act. of thought. for ar/e. even where it appears to be independent. But I proceed with our exposition. he emphasised the side of dependence. it . tl TrotSi. started from the now had before him. that the Optative. Thus. Matthia also hinted. in his Graeci. also. . and so defined the mood directly as the mood of The Subjunctive thought. For the Subjunctive. in two Greek Grammars. with a difference only in the degree of definiteness. as Kiihner afterwards expressly taught. competent to show what the condicio rerum must always be dependent. but threw the emphasis upon the latter side. De two Temporlhiu^ novel et Modis schemes The Optative he made Verbi which the he mood —a refinement on Matthia." per ipsarum rerum conclicionem. in accordance with its secondary terminations. are now moods . started from Hermann's definition of the Optative as the mood of Possibility as thought (cogitata). In 1808 Dissen.? has combined with his metaphysical scheme the inherited error of the Greeks. is merely a Subjunctive of the past. continues which expresses that Hermann. as against reality his see. is stand by itself." tco/jbev. which made the Subjunctive the mood of has incorporated with subordination.

in its potential must. in his Latin Grammar. Zumpt. a indirect questions. Indicative. while the Subjunctive of a sentence not e. as resting upon the relations junctive. The mood-system is made up from Matthia The Optative expresses an act as merely and Dissen. that Possibility of things. which had been associated by earlier writers with a different mood. says Dissen. working into his definition also an old conception of Doubt or Uncertainty. says that the Indicative is as is the Schulz's mood Latin of reality. pure and simple. or subjectively. but merely as an idea. as an idea. and the operation of putting them together is a purely mental one. Thiersch published two Greek Grammars. because the going depends upon the will of the person addressed. last given in 1827. 8 . in 1812. a conception (als hloss thought {aU Vorstelhuig). gedacht). This is Hermann's scheme. and published by are three forms of being : Haase in 1839. used when one expresses the contents So. the becomes for him. in his lectures on Latin Grammar. This is from Matthia. For the Subjunctive. expressions of purpose or result. as in the mind of the speaker.g. correspondingly. Possibility. 1818. Subjunctive. Thiersch ingeniously compounds all the expressed phrases of Dissen's discussion. Four years later. says that there Reality. From Greek the scheme was applied to Latin. be The mood of conditional. 1825. fact. made the Subjunctive the mood of Thought. and three corresponding moods and Imperative. Indicative t//tconditionality. and (making it the expression of that which requires something outside itself on which to base itself) defines it as the mood of the dependent^ the Thus in iw/xez. is necessary. Thus a general condition Optative because in the past is the various acts did by the not really take place together. and in Latin : and Necessity. Thus Reisig. of Conception Grammar. Dissen.THE HERITAGE OF UNREASON 57 and so made this mood the expression of Conditionality." the cojiditioned. namely the Optative. Sub- may be thought either objectively..^ in {Vorstellung). the uncertain. according to All Subjunctive constructions power. " let us go.

or conclusions. Thus Etzler." in the Subjunctive used because the sweating is This conception.. he says. I had which church not as a but as the object of a mental activity. I am unable. . for Hermann is is by modified a mere Matthia. 1824. that Titius airrit ut sudet. the metaphysical conception of moods was transferred to the grammars of the modern languages. 1904. Madvig 1840. to agree with Golling. a recent But it paper of own. and Madvig. one facts. Boston. Ramshorn. but upon grammatically scientific foundations. 1904) says that the grammars of Zumpt and Ramshorn rest upon no philosophical theorems. unravelled the I principal had not been done my trust that I about threads before. contain this idea. Universal Exposition. & Co. but with conceptions gone to church " (dass for moment the ich in der Kirche my regard I is dealing. St. example. 1906). who (in his very interesting Introduction to the Syntax of the Historische Lateinische Grammatik. iii. and the Imperative the mood of Necessity.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 58 wishes. and printed in vol. of the Proceedings (Houghton. says. Mifflin. the moods has have already successfully except of in the web. then. make the German Subjunctive express das Denken als solches. Thus the All dependent clauses." read at the Congress of Arts and Science. as a conception (Vorstellung).^ From Greek and Latin. Similarly Kiihner. Louis. ^ A somewhat fuller paper^ entitled " A Century of Metaphysical Syntax. concessions. made the Indicative the mood of Reality. This is a mixture of Hermann and Dissen. And I need mention only this fact. together Hermann as the " true show how little the real history with the fact that Golling regards reformer ''' of grammar. " Titius runs to get in a sweat. and so . the clause of Result is in the Subjunctive because the very notion of the rise of something out of something is a conception. 1826. not with as in " 1 told him that gewesen being in in sei). fact {Thatsache). in his Erorterungen. 1844. the Subjunctive the mood of the Conditioned. to thinking nineteenth-century of been understood.

For the moment nation. They v/ere turned and twisted into the shape in which we have seen them. not by a series of corrections founded on observation. set up the following as the forces of the Subjunctive or Optative. human thought as the investigation of the processes exhibited in speech. and were founded upon a passing system of thought. either for life in general or for the moods These doctrines originated in a false method of procedure. . Metaphysical syntax. but by a manipulation of phrases. idea that the Imperative but otherwise was the mood of Necessity passed away the metaphysical system. all . that in syntax. of a miracle if. these men had been so marvellously ahead of their times. mirklich. 1827. of Conception ( The Vorstellung). in his English Grammar. one would to-day accept the categories of either Wolff or Kant as final. oder voigestellt). won in the first half of assent. Now and is to-day the last century practically complete the dominant system. and developed so radically wrongly. in one of the most delicate of — . selves free from error. It would be little short or even of emphases in phrases.THE HERITAGE OF UNREASON Thus again Becker. begun so radically wrongly. in his 59 Organismus der Sprache Vor- als bereHtmg ziir deutschen Grarnmatik. we are content with the achievements of a hundred years ago as if. the English Subjunctive. says that the German Subjunctive expresses an act as " thought " {ein vorgestelltes\ whether it be in itself real or only thought {set es an sich Jakob Grimm similarly defined the German Subjunctive. content with this condem- my introductory which had been statement brought into fashion before the year 1812 (mainly in the eleven years preceding that date) are the dominant ideas of the present day in other words. as we have now seen. in one or another of its forms. as the mood of Thought. all of possible subjects. still the chances are very great that it is No unsound. and Miitzner. as in no other field of science. they had nevertheless worked themin particular. that and and now shall I turn again of ideas the cycle rest to really reflected the truth.

" This is again Matthia. Syntax to a Primer of Greek Grammar. The Subjunctive mood expresses a thing not as a fact. A verb is said to be in a mood wben it shows by form whether the action is regarded as existing independently or as conceived (more or less distinctly) in the mind. if he comes (2) the Remote or Conjunctive (sometimes called Optative).: THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 60 of which forces were also singly assigned. but merely as a conception of the mind. the Idea as opposed to Reality). new : edition (Rivingtons. the Optative less definitely. Uncertainty or Doubt. and then borrowed from him the books from which he had learned them. strife this last summer University of Oxford. Hence the Subjunctive mood is used to indicate (a) an hypothesis . Hall. if he were to come. the Subjectivity (or. Smith and T. German. I will read some extracts Mansfield. I made the acquaintance explanations of certain common this constructions Greek in and Latin. 1876 A Grammar of the Latin : " § 421. ness (the Optative expressing more. ception. other in I spent an interesting evening of classics etc. which is used to express conceptions nearer and more distinct to the its speaker's Historic presses mind as iav eXdn. " § 78. Language. D. 1897) " § 76. His explanation of the Subjunctive and Optative in Greek was that they expressed an act as in the mind of the speaker or writer. who is devoting himself especially to classics. like the Indicative. 8th edition. I felt as for this is if I were assisting at the centenary the doctrine which he published in summer of an able young student of the University of Cambridge. of Matthia . (6) doubt or uncertainty (including indirect . : in the Con- Indefinite- Subjunctive less). W. or in to the Subjunctive in Latin. which ex: . conceptions further removed and less distinct : as tl tkdoi. Conditionality. designations. in the school from which he had come. tingency. I asked him his 1807. English. Con- Thought. Tlie Conjunctive has two forms. the Subjunctive more definitely. and Dependency. with a lecturer in groups. (1) the Near or Primary Conjunctive (sometimes called Subjunctive).

" § The Subjunctive mood 422. and which deprives it of the character of a positive (' objective ') assertion. and the erroneous mood of enormously extended ellipsis. along with the old Greek error that the Subjunctive is always dependent. u7iti/. obtiqua). As regards the explanation of the Subjunctive with dumy it is the common one which was adopted. it as certain that he will learn. The antecedent member of the sentence is very often not expressed. Ati Elementary Latin 1901). will come up later. according as a simple fact or a purpose is intended. to be brought up upon such a farrago of ancient error. It also. until writer regards I have learned. in the Renaissance doctrine syntax of the metaphysical school. " Rule. either (1) is always dependent upon some hypothetical Conjunction . as a detail. I am speaking of the Continent and America as well. The conception. whereas the Indicative denotes those which actually Hence." Indicative expresses a fact. . some ante- or (2) cedent sentence or clause to which it is subjoined {. § 196 Grammar (Clarendon Press.. sometimes carried with Subjunctive in the latter is it is a and an anteq2cam- the explanation that the due to the idea of purpose. Dum. is construed with the Indicative dum. This matter I Allen. THE HERITAGE OF UNREASON 61 questions) {d) purpose or result (c) a wish (e) a proposition borrowed from another. the Subjunctive a . with the Indicative or Subjunctive. " Obs. The sciero.nibjnngo). in the twentieth century. : " The Subjunctive denotes actions which are thought of as happening. dum " Note. I find no weaker word than " monstrous " for a condition of classical science and method that makes it possible for students." Here we have Matthia's view of the Subjunctive as the of conception. add a few more specimens from our grammars. . " § 497. since there certain resemblance between a dum-clause clause. whilst. do happen. But do not think that I am speaking of England alone. as worked into his Kantian scheme by Hermann. but left to be understood. and not adopted by the writer {nar ratio .

to which we shall presently come. Green. and the phrase " subjoined "" ^ to" from the old Greek error about the Subjunctive. : is of the speaker. St. Carpenter. : "The Subjunctive as something mood represents the predicate as an idea^ merely conceived in the mind (abstractions from reality). new edition (Macmillan. Second Year. "The Subjunctive mood (is used) if p. Third Year." Fasnacht." again : " In the sentence ' son pere veut qu'il viennej' ' his father wishes that he should come. may Predicate the speaker : (a) as stand in certain relations of thought to a fact^ a supposition. or which are obviously not conceivable as facts. has in part similar ideas. Latin § 255 Grammar^ 3rd ed. Comclauses .. Macmillan''s French Course. to denote an expected (or ." The word " contingency has come down from the Wolffian " school of syntax. 115 we read : " The parative...' the contingency (eventual fact) of his coming is in the speaker's mind. 1896. Thus on p.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 62 An Elemsntary Greek Grawi/war (Longmans. 1906): " The Subjunctive mood represents statements conceptions^ which may or may not have a as thoughts or basis in reality." {b) as Gildersleeve and Lodge. the phrase in the speaker's mind from the school of Matthia-Hermann-Kant. by Fasnacht." The phrase last is from a book of the metaphysical school. Baumlein's Ufitersitchnngen. subjoined to the will of another (his father). " The Moods "The §150: of the Finite Verb. 1900). 62 the Principal Sentence implies that the action expressed in the dependent clause merely conceived This is in the mind And Matthia. John Parry. Subjunctive and Final mood may be used in Consecutive. The word " will'" belongs to an entirely different conception. New York. The corresponding German Course. English Grammar. & Co. 1846..

in the Latin grammars just of three English scholars in whom I regard as my the attempt to bring about better things those of Postgate. and from this gets Subjectivity. In the third edition. as he has himself expressed it. aii uncertain contingency. in his hivestigation of the TJieory of the Latin Moods and Tenses.— : THE HERITAGE OF UNREASON 63 unexpected) result. which he then applies to account the various dependent uses of the Subjunctive. I believe. Inner Connection." And Sloman says " Speaking broadly. Jictive power (only another name for our too familiar VorsteUung). started with Subjectivity. the probability or uncertainty implied in the principal clause of the expected result or contingency." Subjective a single form Optative have been united so as to forward as a Thought or Feeling. Similarly Schmalz. etc. expressing Will and Thought. 1900. ? Sloman. . as opposed to a realised fact. junctive or Indicative depends entirely on the sense expressed or i. Sonnenschein. he starts with a. whose service lay. not Mood. in the Syntax of the Latin Grammar by Stolz and Schmalz. Waldeck. in the Syntax of the new edition. And now may I add (setting aside the title of my paper) that I regret to see the use still made of certain of these old phrases. and Methner. 1885. put all uses of the Subjunctive under VorsteUung. Subjunctive of Desire" and " In and B adds of Imagination." . of Kiibner's Greek Grammar. or a purpose not The alternative between the use of the Subaccomplished." : A as a something is put Subjunctive and the Latin Sonnenschein says: "In fact. and from this got Dependency. in " treating Greek syntax by the light of common sense. defines the Optative as the mood of VorsteUung." The phrases which I have emphasised should. that Goodwin. now completed. . in his Practical Guide to Instniction in Latin Grammar. I regret. be wholly dropped from our grammars. with especial regard to use in Instruction. for Similarly again. Gerth also. the Subjunctive presents a statement as a thought or idea. 1892. and after giving the headings " B. though they play no vital part." has followed . too. Subjunctive "A.e. colleagues They are Postgate.

Most of all is it to be regretted that even Delbriick. and even Thompson in his Monro in his Homeric recent Greek Grammar. But these last matters will be seen more clearly in the light of the constructive part of ' my address. writer. It Neither did constitutes no advance. though no one can question that human speech did begin with that Allen-Hadley and Goodell Bevier in his Brief Greek Syntax. but it lays down no sound and helpful conception of the nature 6f language. e.^ [This part was not read by Professor Hale. abandoning the very method — —the psychological and comparative of which he had been the leading advocate. conditional. even in his negations. should have continued the same tradition from Dissen in making all relative clauses the Subjunctive conditional. adopts Vorstellung as his regular explanation of the Optatives (in the older terminology. syntactical work..g. to whom. but only an arrest.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 64 the metaphysical tradition from Dissen which came through writer after structions. They aimed to find some one idea which was Goodwin says that it present in all uses of a given mood. I regret. owe the spread of sounder views. until the last editions of his Greek Grammar and Greek Moods and Tenses. begin with independent sentences. Goodwin. was unable wholly to escape Even in his last Der Gennanische Optativ im Satzgefiige. even down and makes all Subjunctive conwith irpiv and eo)?. more than to any one else. or a meaning which should cover all the uses of the Indicative. escaped the influence of the general method of the metaphysical grammarians. we them. similarly. and rests content with is perfectly true. but it is hoped that be accessible to members of the Association. which especially aims at introducing modern points of view into syntax. Grammars. is impossible to find. Subjunctives) in the Germanic languages. he the inheritance of the metaphysical school. a meaning which should cover all the uses of the Optative. in their Greek Grammar. those Nor has Goodwin. The statement this.] will shortly it .

one was It I was not thinking of Crete or archaeology. Zeus himself. I felt it was a golden opportunity. Instantly Co7isciousli/. assure do three thousand years. . I lack of reverence Athena.. Harrison THE PILLAR AND THE MAIDEN My friends have brought against for the Olympian gods for Father me of late a somewhat They tax me with some serious charge. forbids of those amazing sunsets whose magical beauty yet at the accidental sight of an archiarticulate thinking oddly familiar. my I the tearing of ceremonial heart. ordered Panathenaic processions. seem. Miss J. for My interest. I . had an uneasy misgiving that my critics were sound good deal of the Long Vacation in searching out my spirit. Dionysiac orgies. tectural feature. Last summer I found myself standing at sunset before the north facade of the Cathedral of Suddenly ray Our Lady at Chartres. nay even am told. and stately In a word. up from my archaeological subconscious 65 9 . fetiches. to Crete. for Apollo. the to bulls. pillar-cults. E. bogies. it of would not in the right place. I so I spent a not to justify my position —that may be impossible —but to submit an apologia pro haeresi mea^ or at least to tell you how it came about. When you were good enough to ask me to read a paper before you. in matters of ritual prefer savage disorders. yet remote. them and Worse still. wild is I focused on ghosts. eye was caught by something that seemed my mind flew back you. is unduly pay to such like the attention properly due to the to reverend Olympians.

It was a Pillar of the House of Oinomaos. central pillar them ^ as you On the (reo-crape? " avrSiV opo^o^). and that 1 2 is Sous sketch from north facade. Pillar —a Pillar surely of great sanctity. On stand alone.^'' The "has been erected in order which is decayed by time. facade I had seen. next to the sacristy. I was sure. a pillar-shrine. Chartres. Marie. is all very well. more hallowed by a living devotion than any other of the manifold sanctities of the place * more than the miraculous Voile de . Chartres " ? Pass within the Cathedral. to Crete Oinomaos.^ have been describing these many the minds of does and architecturally it is superfluous. of the high altar. left it apse. a very interesting hww what the pillar at Olympia was. else need a shrine The ? which support the Further search is far larger I of you have flown not pillar of Olympia. and some adorned the outside of the Probably while why than the four roof. Cecil Headlam. the left a shrine. Pausanias says is go from the great altar to the sanctuary of Zeus. Chartres. showed that this pillar-shrine did not the north facade were a whole series. This is the shrine and it encloses. : . 20." on. through the North To sacred always to the worship of the Virgin. not the expected Saint or Bishop. to the to when at Chartres I first "What had pillar-shrines.^ Four slender columns support a roof. north fa9ade of the Cathedral and view of pillarSlides 2 and 3 Slide 1 : : shi-ines from roof. * See Mr.: THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 66 self High up on the north surged Crete and pillar-cults. is Porch. forgotten. more even than the black image of Notre Terre. Slide 4 ^ Dame the shrine before you. a local hero with a local cult. " This iir' but confess. But what evidence is there of a pillar-cult at analogy but we ." Pausanias goes to protect a You wooden pillar are thinking. p. but a .^ 6. which. 3 V. I the Eleans call the pillar of Oinomaos there are four pillars with a roof over 8e elaiv ev dptaTepa Kiove^ Kal structure. 207 chapel of La Vierge du Pilier.

a pompous sermon. Headlam. lamps. is crowded with offerings. each with a lighted taper.. almost I in a the real business began had noticed that the were thronged with young long white last. when it was already ancient. cit.— THE PILLAR AND THE MAIDEN The Pillar tapers. back to 1608." A ^ few months later the Pillar and the Maiden drew The back to Chartres. girls all in side blue. . foolish. but the Pillar that you must kiss. The great dignitary But. says la devotion si : des seuls baisers des personnes devotes et catoliques. This cult is of immemorial antiquity. country round the mothers bring their babies. Mary. in the Cathedral. sermon ended. set to preached a and Pilier. a hymn to As veils. From all the the accompaniment is a week-long fair. As they sung they guarded by nuns. p. Pilier is in me Dame du great festival of Notre September. to take their station at last before the Quoted by Mr. the chapel of the and the Maiden. it is not the hem of the Virgin's robe. with the sermon ended they began to sing a childish tune. and camp out on the great Cathedral steps. op. " L'affluence y est si commune. formed they Down they went into the crypt to visit Notre Dame Sous fluttered together. The shrine was all aflare with votive tapers there was . As always with primitive festivals. La 67 du Piher. but if 1806. et grande que la colonne de pierre se voit cave'e writing at that date. TeiTe . and was set up only in Paritura . 208. the end was beautiful. The actual pillar is a fragment of the ancient jtibe. votive hearts. up again ' . They may be votive to Our Lady. the the worship of the Maiden. octave closed with evensong moment everything changed and aisles trafficking in holy cakes and the procession of La Vierge du evensong After much But the end came at and pictures and images. but happily we can trace the devotion to a pillar Rouillard. chapel of Vierge Virgo herself here the lineal descendant of the Druidical you want forty days' indulgence for your sins. to the chapel aisle into procession. beginning on the eighth and lasting through the octave.

standing hymn gregation pressed round to kiss the Pillar. but they did not really It was the old pagan thing back again. was such a worship as was paid by the school children It was such a worship as the Maiden at Ostia to Diana. 170. Hold. Wliat their significance world have they to do with the ? question of Olympian Let us go to Crete. 280 ray re KopaSjXifJU'aTi. ^ Timarete paid to the Maid Artemis. the maidens count. 1901. priests was it all so frail. when had sung shrine. their : clothes and all. thanks to Dr. : . of an aneikonic and an What is What in the together side by side. Cretan gem.&> ftTrtetxey. and virginal. their tremulous voices. wall-painting from Ostia. the to see. Pal. like thee. their My matriarchal soul was glad within me. Leto's child. Kopa. Pardon the thrice It familiar words ^ : Maid of the Mere^ Timarete here brings Before she weds. Arthur Evans. 3 Slide 6 : : vi. her cymbals. Kopq. cults of Crete are.S. were just nowhere . a living instance. That procession was a the white veils. eikonic their cult relation you will subsisting ? grant me.H. fig. flickering lights in the dim Cathedral The .— — THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 68 Maiden of the Pillar. above Timarete Thine hand. surmounted by a table. and young. ^ before you takes us there. her maiden offerings Her snood^ her maiden dolls. the moving. the their last round the to the Maid. At the close. avdero. Chartres then we have the Pillar and the Maiden. of course there were a few of them trudging heavily at the head of the procession. and At all was done. and to hear lovely thing — girls. J. the great home of pillar-cults. her dear ball To thee a Maid. 48.. p. A worshipper stands before a great pillar behind it is a shrine with sacred The pillartree and smaller pillar.. worshipping the Maid Maid. so well known religion The ? signet-ring . the con- maidens. and keep her virginal. and the Bishop did the censing. ' Slide 6 ^ Anth.

A. 146. off. went ? . it till grew to perfect human so easy to talk like this in a lecture this it really myself. but that think their significance has been in some ways missed. It is sure I have done how it artist. It is. is this.higher perhaps sometimes than the lowest aneikonism. Then we pass brief and unsatisfactory. Aneikonism and eikonism represent. when mental eikonism was well established. Libyan * Slide 8 : Hellenistic relief in X. on aneikonic cults. but rather two tendencies in the human mind. alien always. what is the eikon to the god ? but a votive figure. 2. when roofed at all. the tree trunk. but this was usually at a later stage. fig. view is that aneikonism The orthodox to the Olympians. Vienna Museum. One supports cups for libation. a lower and a higher. usually offering. Note they have become altar-tables. one result : three . I think. or even lower. we are told. Old books on Greek religion usually begin with a chapter. aneikonic his of development out a pillar. not so much two stages of development. have The shrines of flat roofs. not First. lower religiously — — than the highest aneikonism.S. Let us look into facts and examine the relation between aneikonism and eikonism. to state it crudely and broadly. was gradually transformed by the shaping hand of the form. Eikonism is a religious phase. the other a likrwn or offertoryThe pillar-god is his own altar the offering is put basket. p. The unhewn stone. hostile often.THE PILLAR AND THE MAIDEN that I I should not so much as mention them 69 here. an morally The pillar-shrine of Chartres ^ has a gable roof to let the rain and snow of the north slide Crete and Libya. I am sounds so plausible. and eikonism represent two stages of development. This continued down to late days. ..^ on himself. but infinitely I do not say artistically. aneikonic his on placed agalma. Annual B. In the next you see a liknon full of fruits placed on a sacred pillar. slide and Cretan altar-tables. 1 Slide 7 : pillar-shriue of Chartres. the rude image. My view. but It Of course is the old herms did have heads put to them.

Sometimes the portrait pillar-god sinks to be a pedestal but never at Chartres. and not so are apt to think in Greece. and for him Mother with her wild lions — he numen into a thinkable ^eo9. not surely less gods took no delight in such knew that its agalmata. 9. vii.* nation to thyself any graven image. F 278. 272.. a rude stone or a trinity of knew that.'^ ^the portrait . he wants to Jc7ww whom in he has believed. : B. p.. What In the next slide we see Zeus as a pillar-god/ human he . xvii. amphora. But what sort of a divinity ? The next slide explains. That nation was content to conceive its god. . if. The Mycenaean always knew that. fig. vol. has no objection to having his portrait taken and placed on his sacred pillar. but an illustration of his own thought. Classical Review. The Greek was by nature a confirmed.S..M. he Another nation. though morally and eikonism might be an advance. B."" eikonic Zeus. make shalt not * Slide 9 its Bethel..THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 70 But you can of drink there : god not only to the offer something is fruits and cups that pleases him best of else would old Zeus best of like all ? He is very all. ' ' Slide 11 : Slide 12 : Slide 13 : Lion Gate of Myceuae. religiously it was The ordinance of that nation\s god was. xvii. visualise. it is the Mountain has turned a vague pillar- habitual eikonist . the god then the eikon To a votive offering. but is the worshipper it is not an object of worship.^ Side by side we have pillar-shrine and eikon.A. i-eligious. vol. Baetyl triad. not a development. In the familiar Lion Gate of Mycenae^ we all know now that the column guarded by the lions is a divinity. 271. p. loved to realise. Classical Review. Cretan gem. It supersedes the god own as we for his often To is — his agaltna. " Thou That stones. the illimitable power that animates sky and sun and moon. ^ Slide 10: eikouic Zeus crater. The Cretan gem-engraver is not content with worshipping sheer divinity. dwelling in as artistically a set-back. if. F 331. Phoenician cippus.

* We all know that Atlas was a of us remembers that he order that came before old Ouraniones. the Titans the ' Slide 14 : ^ Slide 15 : ? Zeus. Conze. Which Hermes and herm. the of us remembers that he Hellenistic relief. the eikon. but it also obscures. making a human picture. of the truth. an illustration. careless we are we can scarcely forget. Eikonisra. * Slide 16 : Hermes aneikonic and * Slide 17 : zodiacal light-pillar. The slide before you a late bronze patera ^ shows Hermes half eikonised. Herm and tree. but " shows indeed the eikon Hermes and artist is bent on telling all he — the knows about the god — but his many attributes tortoise. But Aguieus. by its human interest. the Charites. Heroen und Gottergestalten.THE PILLAR AND THE MAIDEN Now sometimes the eikon keeps proper function. could show you a multitude of pillar-gods. the golden was the mutilation of images such as these that raised Do you suppose fear. performs its to be a votive offering. they would have cared a serious jot if some one had knocked down or mutilated the Hermes of Praxiteles. Perhaps we are most familiar with our Homeric Such was not an object of worship. pillar. a mere eikon ? It even educated Athens to a frenzy of Not they. that the Hermes of actual worship was a herm. is felt its 71 place. eikonic (bronze patera). : the Dioscuri. our goodly young messenger-god with But however staff and the winged sandals. I . begets a human story Mythology. . was a pillar-god of the the old Sky-gods. and even literature reminds us. it generates mythology.2. main the case we have the worship and the human herm of two forms side by side. in the a terra-cotta relief^ Olympian Hermes. less Apollon must pass now at once to the other face Eikonism illustrates. tends to obscure divinity. surmounted by cock and genuine old divine pillar. is the I behind. Tafel 69. On with the god Hermes. Take Which Atlas. more or eikonic Dionysus.

Sophocles ^ is of but which of us remembers that course.7)6ev<i. That Atlas guardeth. 517-622 p.' The spell of it is half unconscious. wicked.. Vatican. by Mr. Gerhard. Hipp. 86.. Yea. no doubt. with head And tireless hands — hard by the Hesperids Clear singing at earth's verge such was the lot That Zeus the counsellor ordained.. he no longer is. 1 ' Eur. Slide 18 : 3 Soph. * Hes.* And Atlas the broad heaven By harsh necessity upholds. literary and artistic. Cyrenaic kylix. beyond that Pillar of the End. 65. filled our hearts with longing for The strand of the Daughters of the Sunset. midway a pillar. Col. ^eo? IIpofj. is Prometheus ? ^ We all Prometheus was a god. Oed. and he set A great winged eagle on to gorge his liver .— : THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 72 was the husband of Selene. Vasenbilder . Gilbert Murray. the father of Hesperos. Immortal. The Apple-tree^ the singing and the gold Wliere the mariner must stay him from his And the red wave tranquil as of old is . onset^ . Tliere too Wily Prometheus did he bind with bonds That galled. How should a plain man go on worshipping his plain Pillar-god with that sort of Siren singing in his ears ? Atlas. TroiKiKo^ovXov . the Hyads and the Pleiads ? How should we remember. 742-747. (S^cre S' aKvKTonfbjjai npofxrjdea 8(crn6is dpyakeoioi fxicrov hia k'iov iXaaaai). Pillar-god of the west that the Pillar-god us of know. : Hesiod. explicit ev TcTav Now : of the east 3' 6 7rvp(f>6po<. Atlas has and holds the Pillar. when mythologist and literary eikonist have been at work in their magical way. would I wend. trans. human shape and giving to these old setting Sky-potencies when Euripides has . at work compare the vase-painting before you with the account of watch the eikonist. Theog.

— — a - THE PILLAR AND THE MAIDEN We know it know which so is we miss the well. Odysseus. east eagle pecking at his sets the you could possibly support the heavens Further reproducing a under circumstances so complex convention he does not understand. not on a sea. Hesiod Both know that Atlas and Prometheus belong somehow together. just in . He I pass to Odysseus. behind Prometheus he sets the zoomorphic eikon of Prometheus. * Od.^ '7ro\vixr}')(avo^. or the vase-painters.S. curious mast indeed. Who holds the lofty pillars of the earth And heaven ' apart. making it difficult for him to sit down. We last instance. i. black-figured lekythos. the eagle. no mast. Forgetting that Prometheus is the pillar. J. and knows the deep Slide 19. on his Note also that the vase-painter. Dare we think it ? At least we cannot forget that he tarried long and seemed much at home in The island in whose bounds a Goddess dwells^ Daughter of Atlas of the guileful spells.. being educated and orthodox. retributive torments him. and that one or both have conBut the nection with pillars and supporting the heavens. and he puts a little under Prometheus. the fire-god. or rather slants down ominously under the He end of the heaven. Athens. the pillar. as if ! like the present speaker perhaps. sea-wells. by Prof.. brain. escape the to simply has pillars on the positively sets a pillar in the exergue. pillar. my Sirens' but in the all know how iroXvrka^^ was bound to the mast Bound singing. Mackail. trans. for which the But he simply revels in vase-painter cares nothing. he ties him to a pillar fire which supports. Hesiod..H. in the worse mythological I 73 scarcely muddle. a pillar ship. aneikonic form. 10 . immortal liver. though he remembers it about Atlas. and then inventing stories why men had to do as a punishment the work of pillars. depths of the — he to the mast — stands. he gives poor Atlas a snake to bite the tender part of his back. eikonist has been at work turning divine pillars into men. absurdities. xiii. has to work in the will of Zeus. plate 1. Odysseus bound to the 62.

I besides being a sky-and-pillar Returning to Chartres. " Religion of Greece. Gilbert Murray writes. the Maiden for Further eikonism. would I began to see that my own deep inward with Olympian religion rose from the fact that. Demeter. saw the kissing of the nay my pillar I Protestant soul recoiled. with the Olympian system^ I have most interesting ethnographical problems which we hope Professor Ridgeway will solve. " The Homeric religion is not really a religion at all. human archer and a wanderer. though it raises ."" Further reflection made me see that the Pillar and stood not for one superstition superseded by the Maiden another. Professor Ramsay has called the Olympians "an idle. not audibly. The twelve Olympians represent an enlightened compromise made to alone. Diet. . I say advisedly the accredited Olympians eikons. superfluous celestial hierarchy. who. which go. I caught myself humming automatically." Mr. was also a god who went to sea. 235. a fetich surmounted by a doll. here nothing to do. but for two deep- down tendencies of the human mind. avail. Not my dissatisfaction might well have disputed it. to the Pillar and the Maiden. it seem. the Pillar for aneikonism. equally religious : dissatisfaction I think. are more than Olympians. hymns about " the heathen in his blindness bows down to wood and stone. but an anthropomorphic eikoii of a for the half god. The secret of my discontent lies deeper. it disallowed the aneikonic. may I resume ? confess that When I first my Anglican." The Rise of the Greek Epic.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 74 Kalypso." ^ With the " twelve- ness" of the Olympians. p. daughter of the pillar-god Odysseus kin as well as kind ? Did time Atlas — was she to could say much more of Odysseus. but are not. otherwise I ^ suit the convenience of a federation. while developing and expressing to the full the eikonic element. ' 2 of the Bible. and it is that each several well-accredited Olympian is inadequate because he is not a god. Dionysus. Eros. always to the making of religion.

to Its artistic. them in the life of nature outside man. the hate. lands us. eikonism tends inevitably to polytheism. as as it What ? distinct. known. junction. some-ow(?. the attempted expression of the unknown in terms of the known it usually obscures rather than illuminates religion. no one will deny. For mythology is only. Having made the vague something into a definite intelligible and distinct. with other of course. it its savage inchoate equivalent. definite can think about and understand about and understand him man — something as far man a will think rationalised as particular modern philosophical jargon. or rather men — something — something that The vague something becomes a himself. to make the El . some-owe do ? Eikonism takes and tries to picture it. articulate — . in takes on. they give him a life-story with human relations eikonism generates and provide him immediate mythology. take and fashion just what they can realise and use. pragviatises of the Absolute. in con- Olympianism. how swift Turn it the corruption. That eikonism.'' 75 and with them I wage no war. the it form of anthropomorphism. are in the deep sea-wells head is and it ends in the swathed in mists and mysticism. segregating him completely as an individual. has civilising tendencies. Seeing the god clearly. Out of the terror and emptiness to use a . the fear. human gods tend to be but how partial and precarious the process. eikonism the divine god. giving him characteristic attributes. its feet its It begins with fetichism. when causes. Aneikonism does not make its gods. Starting with a vague effort to seize and imprison the un- known terror or delight within or without. What is picture eikonism unknown the vague does fearful thing. the love within him. to eliminate vague terror . are. . to aneikonism.THE PILLAR AND THE MAIDEN they are " Things that life-spirits. It tends to expurgate the cruder monstrosities. like eikonism. in symbolism . them — finds or in the psychological experience. the hope. primeval slime. great advance finds is Olympians themselves humane liable witness. as with the Greeks. discretely.

aneikonism kisses its pillar. offers sacrifice him. mystical. . Gauls ^ : " Numina Non vulgatis sacrata figiu-is metuunt. a word it is had often wondered > iii. Hence. sic . not impossible. and emotion were not segregate as now. outside The simple. Its tendency is towards monotheism and pantheism. easily intelligible. Aneikonism will not sacrifice or pray or praise. in and below being aneikonic ritual. . to him. aneikonism tells no human story. monotheistic Olympians —Apollo. though the gods of aneikonism are not scientific. of Seeking the virtue of magical contact. unthinkable. It is once^ above at pantheistic. no pseudo-history . Tantum terroribus addit Quos timeant non nosse deos. no human genealogy." Shaping no human form. things that are. aims at union . why the 415-417. prays to him. all the it renounces whole domains of art and variegated fabric and fancies of polytheism. immortal At its it men." highest. has no mythology. treats him praises ritual of eikonism as such. . The and Having made the divine into a man. it ritual. Aneikonism is always imaginatively more awful than Lucan saw this of the imageless worship of the eikonism. and creators Turn to rulers. literature. or sacramental. and from these cosmogonies is born a rude and primitive philosophy. It generates cosmogonies rather than theologies. the outcome rather of emotion than of in- is begotten probably in that early stage when thought tellect. they are life principles within the whole of nature.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 76 moment of a aneikonism resident permanently in some tangible Beth. they are not wholly irreconcilable with science . I that. It holds no human traffic with " fabulous magical . of aneikonism ritual is at its lowest is aims at direct control of unknown forces.

lovely with curled hair. emotion. their shapes and ritual. when the salutation to Mary the Maiden was over. ecstasy The . and I temperamental all . conscious and the for fusion. am sure. and the Greek only. Erinyes are eikonic. Demeter. this is not the place or the hour. temperaments. always vaguely irritated me. but true I believe it to be But of this much I it. lovely represent the supreme golden achieved by the Greek. and into barely held . much concerned. and a Burning Flame. changes his they shift and change. and why the mystery gods.! THE PILLAR AND THE MAIDEN 77 Athena. when I turned to leave the Cathedi-al. and I am not the action . but so tardily. discrimination. vitality would seem to depend." see. but in a is a Wild Bull. The moment he Dionysus is a beauty and the Finally. and her moving lights were quenched. drew and drew me. arch-mystic. I saw. clarity of vision. caught in life-spirits charged is with impiety. union. Dionysus. even Zeus. cosmic Eros. On the and interaction of these two our whole spiritual It is a far-reaching thought. that the tendency to eikonism or aneikonism is in the world for and there is. discuss to person. confess without shame that I was glad to throng up through the darkness to kiss that " Pillar of the End. the It is just I see it now. the subconscious. At Chartres. room I throw myself on your mercy as a mystic and aneikonist. Eumenides. human youth. I hope. the faithful . in his human shapes but they are . Aeschylus. mystery gods that these moment The mystery gods incomparable way. analysis. of thrill it has been suggested to it me that eikonism and aneikonism in their ultimate analysis represent the workings of those two factors of our being with which modern science is now and rightly. subconscious makes the conscious for segre- gation.


Mr. and (3). the foundations of an ancient church were cleared. mainly by the stamped tiles which are found on the hne where the wall previously existed. In Thessaly some geometric tombs were discovered with a rich yield of vases. (2) the excavation of the sanctuary of House. and a very fine early Panathenaic amphora. M. There was evidence to prove that the sanctuary House. now been Athena of the Brazen the further excavations of the sanctuary With regard to the city wall. series of goes back to very early times. The sanctuary of Artemis Orthia 79 is now proved to consist . just behind the theatre. of Artemis Orthia. a long archaic inscription. it has possible to trace its general course all round the enceinte. Near these. The main three objects excavation of Sparta was chiefly directed to : (1) the tracing of the course of the city wall. Dawkins THE EXCAVATIONS OF THE BRITISH SCHOOL AT ATHENS The work of the British School at Athens in the season of two 1906-1907 was in conducted at a site A places. were found the scanty remains of the famous temple of Athena of the Brazen A important statuettes were discovered. subsidiary excavation was on the Magnesian promontory of Thessaly. interesting both for its plan whilst the season's and for its very fine mosaic pavement. On the Acropolis. main work of the school continued the previous campaign on the site of ancient Sparta. the wall itself having often entirely disappeared. R.

c. going site back to evidence that the cult back indeed to the of the Dorian settlement in sixth century the level is days earliest the Laconian vale. bearing to the fa(^ade of the temple the relation of the cavea of a theatre to the stage building. but there is very much older. and probably a Hellenistic. and of the same period. known that the savage of rites it is Orthia lasted until The temple itself dates from having been. at the top of the deposit. clearly the debris of burnt offerings. These remains carry the the sixth century b. of votive offerings to the goddess. In the middle of the The arena thus formed was found the altar of the goddess. by a layer of sand subject. The votive period are of very great interest pottery ranges from Corinthian. in front of which is a large theatrical building. was found a very large altar resting upon a cobble pavement.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 80 of a temple. however. theatre dates well and to the third century after Christ. After clearing away this sand. These are all certainly earlier than the sixth century b. debris of sacrifices. to which this low-lying site must always have been three or four feet. altar.c. In the of the sanctuary was raised some and gravel brought from the bed of the Eurotas. and even before it upon proved from the fact that under- this spot. The latest altar is Roman. This is was built sacrifices were offered neath the foundations of the altar there is a quantity of burnt charcoal and bones. rebuilt in the very end of Paganism. down to a thick stratum of geometric. in some places as much as three feet thick. associated with which are a mass of the charcoal and the Hellenistic period. fitting in thus very well with . The itself. thus carrying us back to the earliest Dorian period.c. no doubt to avoid the danger of floods. and the earliest of them can hardly be later than the ninth century. but rests on the remains of an early Greek. we found all over the arena and inside the temple a copious deposit. the sixth century b. through proto-Corinthian. Amongst these offerings. This altar can in construction hardly be later than the eighth century. A mass of such debris surrounds the altar offerings of this ancient and importance.

this pottery were found a large number of bronzes of geometric which style. part of our finds. whose venerated image. the temple was rebuilt in a new place. in the sixth century.EXCAVATIONS AT SPARTA 81 With a date ranging from the sixth century backwards. as their nearest congeners are found. the site. whilst the altar remained throughout in its being the real centre of the cult. All this evidence strongly supports the theory that the Dorians w^ere invaders who came into Greece from the north of the Balkan Peninsula. JihulcB are and carved of unique interest. remarkable that the altars found are situated one exactly above the other. its hidden beneath a part of the foundation of the Roman If this be so. Many Age settlements of Austria The amber found points also in and is a link with the same Iron Age not in Greece. the same direction. it will follow that at the theatrical building. couchant and plaques with representations in relief. was actually brought to Sparta from some other offerings place. form The the most ivories. original sacred position. The results of these excavations are published in the 11 Annual . They brought with them also the savage rites of their goddess Orthia. and in these early votive finds. ivojries. time of the reconstruction of the sanctuary. but in the Iron and the Alpine region. and thus show a continuous cult of the goddess on the sacred place for at least twelve hundred It is The temple associated with the oldest altar and mass of votive offerings has not yet been found. according to the legend. as The further excavation of and in particular the search for this most ancient temple will be the main task of the British school in the coming season. seals of these plaques adorn the brooches that were used to fasten the characteristic Dorian dress. The fihulcB are of great importance. but there is good evidence for supposing that its remains are years. important There are many small figures. animals. we seem to have the peculiar jewellery and ornaments that they brought with them from their earliest home.

This year's work will be published in .82 THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION of the British School at Athens. the next issue. The number which has just appeared contains a full report of the work of Sparta carried out in 1906.

it can be felt in some degree in the familiar domi. THE DECAY OF ROMAN HOME LIFE SHOWN FROM THE HISTORY OF THE ROMAN HOUSE In the of this brief lecture title have used two words I " House " means a which obviously mean different things. home and " — such a line need say no more of I Was anything there meaning on the inward flashes its eye. sense it was even more a home than ours as with us. so also did the house. Warde Fowlee Mr. In one the family was. W. slaves. Roman in answering to our life Beyond a doubt there was and if this is not exactly expressed by the nominative domus. sometimes perhaps also the families of his sons. but the divine beings As the city-state comprised both who dwelt in human and habitants. all In that it was contained was supernatural. " home " suggests a " Home " is for us Britons almost a psychological fact. . the city.. both natural and the natural and supernatural elements were inseparably bound up with each other the head of the family with his and the cooking with Vesta meal with the Penates . the . of home life essential And the house. children. " True to the kindred points of heaven and sacred word. all to its life. and. as 83 Genius .. but by family we have to understand not only the head of the household with his and wife. . the hearth-fire the store-cupboard and now seems its probable. the basis of society. use of this wonderful word The Roman earliest ? house historical (I am not here con- cerned with anything earlier) was really a home. divine in- germ and type of the that was dear to the family. it. material object of man''s handiwork .

and I cannot but think that in this passage by the thought of his own beloved a farmhouse of his family. though no doubt the beautiful idea of the common and divine beings was then practically lost. in which the domestic life. itself originally better realise the character of the people a character simple. et mensae credere adesse deos. than by the costly mansion he had bought from Crassus on the Palatine. the farm. in the country . action than speech stitious sense). real presence of these spirits survived by tradition even into the Augustan age. than the house of each of our citizens But " ? us note that this Roman house. The worship of the slave was confined to the Lar but . 305. was originally the economic as well as the religious centre of an economic Here worship and work went on together unit. life of human Ovid^ could write Ante Mos Cicero focos lolim scamnis considere longis erat. was focussed. what more entirely protected by : religious feeling. the other members of the familia had priestly duties to perform towards the deities of the ddinus^ which itself all The was a sacred place. The atrium was As we study it to the house as the choir to a cathedral. but a farmhouse let religion. Cicero home is at we can it : inspired rather Arpinum. Fasti. super- in our sense of the narrow in 1 its who invented dignified. : THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 84 Lar familiaris with the life which supported the arable land of the family. well disciplined. on the days of birth. and burial.. . the one room of the oldest domus. very strength. here were celebrated all the family festivals. quiet. puberty. disposed rather to word (not indeed in the Latin During the late war. human and superhuman. wedding. sanctified by was not originally a town house. ^ De Domo. vi. 109. We must never forget that the Italian atrium. . not merely rhetorical when in pleading the cause ^ is of his own lost house before the pontifices he exclaims " What is more holy. hard-working.

Let us pass to the domus of the its expansion. whether the household e. he had remained behind while the others were transferred to the city. the ground plan find shall In survives. and the true home life existed in Rome only. or how a second storey could be added. Now the as between the two types of character. how the tablinum. opposite the door. he mentions. and before he goes visit his his rounds saluting the Lar me Lar was more that. or that his duplicate But was passed on with them.THE DECAY OF ROMAN HOME no one acquainted with the old Roman LIFE Hfe 85 could help being struck by the analogy between the Boer farmhouse and the Roman. as we are still in a primitive age. all it whether at I and briefly trace closely reflects the the town houses of which the atrium^ nucleus with developments. were carried bodily (or rather. the old home-centre. questions deities home step in the decay of first this simple was perhaps life farmhouse to a house in Curious lost to us. One thing we do know. which are familiar to all. and deity of the villa which it is the only suggests to closely connected with the land and the slaves than the others. that is Rome there. but only as a need not describe its original form and contents. development of We society. or duplicated home for both dwellings. after the Greek fashion and under a Greek name. nor how the " wings " could be utilised as dining-rooms or wardrobes. city. viz.g. that in due time the farmhouse came to be left in charge of a steward (vilkiis). so as to secure the idea of from the city to farm in rure. an open court with a pretty colonnade round it. at the outset of his De Re Rustica. could grow into a permanent dining-room. but unluckily the details are suggest themselves. into a peristylium. this only is conjecture. as the This familiaris. Cato. to which again there might be added other saloons with Greek . or Pompeii. spiritually) into the new abode. The point for us is to understand how the little garden behind the tablinum could be converted. describes the paterfamiliaris coming there. the transition from the city .

just when Greek influences were beginning to press in in all departments of life. This change had already been brought about by the time of Plautus. La Religione nella vita domestica. we do not the rooms were possible in such household gods? we could but answer that simple question we should have a flood of light thrown at once on the home life of the Professor De Marchi. even been found for so many.. and thus the house reflects the composite character of Roman life. or how far anything like home life was circumstances. atmosphere of the street is penetrating it. So far as we know. what like. who has given special plebs v/rbana. ' . Dionysius the history of the insula as we do of (x. if they are deemed worthy to penetrate beyond the vestihulum it is into the Greek part that all the elements of home life : : . the Your atrium has become in part a public room and the Lar . have retreated — even in many cases Vesta with the Penates and there the private life of the family goes on. attention to the subject.C.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 86 many names. convenient for Thus the house purposes. But meanwhile a lower population has been gathering in the city. chambers on several floors. and the Greek peristylium and its developments. it is the Roman literature and Roman art. part that is retained for reception rooms it is the atrium to which the morning callers are admitted. and may be put in the third century B. If Had each family here its . i. came to be divided into two parts. . they always great lodging-houses with flats or 32) puts the beginning of the insula as far back as the settlement of the But we unluckily know as little of plehs on the Aventine. and when social and out-of-door life was getting the better of the old reserve and simplicity. the Roman and the Greek the Roman atrium and its belongings. i. 31 foil. whose families could if space could have not afibrd the luxury of a domus. So far I have been speaking of the dwellings of the more important Roman families. just as do Roman Strange to say. lived in insulae.e. its life know how many families lived in each. is inclined to think that there was * De Marchi.

or procured from the public for and the meal thus obtained was given. insula. went on. than we do that in Mediterranean cities like Athens the centre of life came to be more and more the agora and other public places. divine ones. as the city became the pivot on which society turned. to as time Pliny tells us that baking came in as a trade in 171 B. of course. whether for business or pleasure. Where was there neither permanent neither Penates nor Vesta. could there have .I. We know. Vesta and the Penates must have become gradually superfluous even if they ever had a place here provisions were only bought : the need of the moment.'' seems likely that all the essentials of home were by the last century of the republic absent in the insula and we meet with another tendency. pistores to be baked. in this period . which . (in rure) of private sense have b.C. whether high or low.c. that in southern climates people live much more out-of-doors. we may perhaps connect with the growth of insulae after the Punic wars and the irruption of new population.. and that been maintained there in the life Rome favourable to home real its . I should myself be inclined to guess that at any rate in early times the separate rooms of the insula may have contained some means a home life might in some worship. of public resort. not 65-7 we have a dedication to a Bona Dea " In tutelam insulae^'' with which he aptly compares the to be found at the door of the great lodging- little altar houses of Naples at the present day. which serves for the devotions of all the inhabitants. a fact which distribution of corn. sheltered vi. even in the winter. So at Rome.L.THE DECAY OF ROMAN HOME a common protecting deity for each separate dwelhng-rooms In C. been It store what home nor life daily cooking. were not self-sufficingness of the was clearly impossible here. which steadily worked in the same direction. and more especially in the last two centuries b. but in any case the conditions of of the last three centuries The maintenance.c. human LIFE 87 and that the beings only. we find a beginning made of the building of all those places .

pleasure-loving. as they had been wont to do. 86. but for the are without a real home. from so well life — book of Ovid's Ars he says nothing. for the few minutes i. Cp. most convenient and the The in the world. life of the insula and the necessity as well must have helped No doubt it sharper. and life for change as the apparently cares less who happily unmarried sights its city. What I have said about the effects of out-door life on the lower classes applies also to the upper. does Tacitus ^ cubilia. and places of public enjoyment Rome and is indeed a Paradise. 69 ? lairs as they could find. But was a in whatever degree this homelessness of the masses the fact. apart from the games and other amusements.^ but deliberately took the line of making this population comfortable in body and mind. taheniae gave shelter I for merged tenth who were am inclined to suspect that these the night to really homeless. the basilica.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 88 Rome under the empire made sociable city the centre of human Amatoria. For the lower population. must now return » Hist. The . as it does in our own towns. to which we as the attraction of the out-of-door life to weaken the fibre of the urban population. there was the popina and the taherna of the kind described in the Virgilian Copa.d. What many and of the sub- slept in such mean by the which he couples with tabernae in describing the places where great numbers were caught and drowned by the great flood of the Tiber in a. circus. » that are left. Cat. by simple petting. know nothing that I Of family and home this illustrates conspired to shift all from the home to the life the family to the forum. made them but it also made them restless. 37. with its small delights of dancing and singing. useless for prompt political or military Augustus so clearly saw this. that he reluctantly action. and so too reckless and revolutionary. so that they might not make every one else uncomfortable. all porticus. it is first not him . Sallust. the the theatre and the baths.

festo atque profesto. Aut etiam properans urbem petit atque revisit. subitoque revertit. gravitas of the old even home life the satirist if Roman character seems to have disappeared with the privacy of the atrium. These wonderful lines aptly introduce the last have to make about the decay of Roman home remarks life. say that. life is struck life of change. I While the masses are homeless in the sense of being without a I iii. Totus item pariter populus. life. he adds. as well as ancient Every one who knows anything of the of the street. the restlessness time. 1060 f. Curio. and flatter. or even of the political must have been of Cicero. in modern Rome. of the age character.THE DECAY OF ROMAN HOME LIFE famous fi'agment of Lucilius about the the life in Forum 89 fretful contentious applies equally to the rich and poor : Nunc vero a mani ad iioctem. decedere nusquam. Can the plot. tetigit cum limina villae. by the instability men and women of and of and love that we can but their kind. be better described than in these exaggerates The ? lack of a true lines. All day long. a quality of the home. Quippe foris uihilo melius qui sentiat esse. plebesque patresque lactare indu foro se omnes. And indeed it that gravitas at true. restlessness a quality is Their paints this restlessness in a passage ^ which brings home to us vividly the relation between the disposition of man and the way he is housed : Ut nunc plerumque videmus Quid quisque velit nescire et quaerere semper Commutare locum quasi onus deponere possit. they do nothing but talk and quarrel. 12 . " Unstable as water. that mark the younger Of Caelius. deceive." contemporary Lucretius social only. Currit agens manuos ad villam praecipitanter Auxilium tectis quasi ferre ardentibus instans : Oscitat extemplo. Exit saepe foras magnis ex aedibus ille. the infirmity of purpose. Milo. Aut abit in somnum gravis atque oblivia quaerit. sibi Esse domi cum pertaesumst. they could not excel.

of intellectual among the Romans. The atrium has which we know the kitchen. were us reflect that every man. if they were . it is disappeared in them. as Sallust says. answering the purpose of our modern hotels at " health resorts. even of such moderate means as Cicero's. had his villas scattered about Latium and Campania. of home. buying land wherever the fancy takes them. indeed. as well as the looseness of their family life in these later periods of their history. rather indeed. it has become relegated to purely material purposes. did feel that his ancestral villa at Arpinum was his real book of his — home the charming introduction to the second De Legihts proves that but all his other villas. one must have an I would suggest that the want of the power abiding-place. concentration. which. Cicero. are convenient resorts and He never mentions their household deities. and often perhaps without even a room of their own. but let homes at all. but I do not doubt that this multiplication of homes was bad for him. Cicero was a good man with high aims. — and at the same time it helps to stimulate it another point in which the life of that last century b. too magnificent of name to be worthy of the and then for the constant buying and selling selling them again. even the loved one at Tusculum. but they are doing the same thing in the country. as in the ground-plan — or all the villas of rather. little more. . of town houses is one of the most curious features of that age . and not only that. vying with each other in the invention of new luxuries both in house and grounds. like cities. of Baiae and homes of vice I say nothing here of the great mansions Bauli. reminds us of our Neither the palace in the city nor the villa in the time. For steady thought or persistent work.c. country could really be a home. as I have already said. — and building villas with all the latest improvements.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 90 house. have noticed one apparently unpardon- ." This means restlessness. into connection with the history of the You will doubtless may be brought Roman house. the wealthy are building themselves palatial residences on the hills Rome. of deep and sustained thought.

that know the Roman we should note that the period in which that house was a home. unintentionally pathetic. there was not yet a home life maintained. and life restlessness by the multiplication of residences. in which the life of the insula begins conveniences of out-door and grows. had in reality vanished.. Clark's new Oxford text of Asconius.^ dating » C. in which it is made plain that the mistress and the atrium are no longer inseparable. above home ? But the through. the type which so strongly attracted the gentle and homely Plutarch. up. First. noble lady gradually disappears. losing in type of gravitas and self-restraint. we must not be too sure that behind the scenes of public life. 1627. sacrifice all It would be interesting to go over the story again and to fit her into it. home which are after life lives which we call all to be found in all ages.L. among other things. fi-om the very . the charms and the city are ever on the in and homelessness too are induced Reading the other day Mr. you must Secondly. exactly corresponds with that which the atrium ceases to be a private room. is inseparable from the atrium where she sat and spun and ruled. The mob broke into the house of Milo and broke increase. Such a recorded for ever in the famous inscription The Praise of Turia. : I 91 have hardly in the house. To know that dignified matron you must know the old Roman house . the spinning materials which were They were there as a symbol of what Still. and through Plutarch has descended to Shakespeare. graces. chiefly by the womanly there ex vetere mare. and to under- how stand matron.THE DECAY OF ROMAN HOME able omission in what I have been saying even referred to the position of it is not woman. A. I was touched by a few words. vi. all else. — and that makes a house into a fatal clepsydra has have had to I woman LIFE been haunting me the materfamilias. while she gains her legal freedom and makes a monde in for herself. and I will just briefly indicate how this might be done. we should have to see how the characteristic Roman lady of the best time. C.I. which we call history.

THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 92 time when we are apt to think of at its there As I a home lowest ebb. is indeed limits of the house. and Duty. and is read it Roman married Hfe as through again I feel that that transcends the material based on the eternal laws of Love life .

31.•••• .. of the Cambridge Mebtino ... To THE President etc..•••• 93 .. 32 : To the Organisers.. 16 Teaching of Latin in Secondary Schools The Decay of Roman Home Life shown from the History of 83 THE Roman House The Excavations of the British School at Athens. Accounts Adopted Officers and Council Elected Place and Date of Next General Meeting Reports . 53 65 The Pillar and the Maiden B.-COMMUNICATIONS AND DEBATES PAOB Greek and the Classical Renaissance of To-day Pronunciation of Greek .33 . ... . 29.... 15 15 .. Curricula Committee (resolutions carried) Votes of Thanks .INDEX TO THE PROCEEDINGS A.14 : CoaiMITTEE ON 8 GrEEK PRONUNCIATION (GENERALLY APPROVED) 12 Council (adopted) Curricula Committee (report received) . .—ACTA . The Heritage of Unreason in Syntactical Method .20 27... 79 . 14 12 .. .. ..••! . ... .

13. . 7 . DuNSTALL. 7 . Harrison. 14 29 26 24 . j. . Miss . Hale. . .7 . J. 27. 31 3 . C. A. G. a. .32 83 . Collins. 15 .INDEX 94 C— NAMES OF THOSE WHO TOOK PART IN THE PROCEEDINGS PAGE Bell. 29 26 . 63 65 . . Harrison. . W. F. . B. 15. 7 12. H. . T. C. f. Mrs.7 8. . 14. 20 . G. Pope. 12. M. . .1 . 27 RiDGEWAY.ton. 7 24. 16. Walters. Morton. H. Gilbert . R. Smith. 33 . . Williams. Burrows. . W. W. E. Lyttei. Conway. H. 16. A. . F. Cholmeley. C. Warde . cornford. W. Basil WiTTON. . G. J. . Sloman. Wood. W... 7 . . Miss M. F. Sonnenschein. O. 5. G. F. J. Dawkins. G. 12. S. Kenyon. COMPTON. E. 31 Murray. Miss E. . 14. . a. F. 15 . W. R. Miss M. Headlam. E. 21. 20. 14. 24.13 3. 8. M. postgate. m. 32 . W. E.29 8. . p. W. Papilix)n. E. Gavin. Cook. A. . 9. . 8 Sandys. J. Heard. C. 5 79 . a. 27 . Lewis. Nowell 13 .15 . . E. Miss M. R. W. 12. 25 BoLLj R. 13 F. 6 J. Fowler. W. . Beirnays. (President) 7 . S. Butcher. 8. Rushbrooke. L. B. R.25 8. . . 7 Fletcher. Caspari. M. Mackail. 7. .

ea in 6ear than ey in grey). ^ (long open e) as 6 in Fr. iffiei^. for teaching purposes. 96 . -n'vw. Vowels. and at the same time as a great advance on the present usage. 1907. the Committee has conand consonants in Greek.) The Pronunciation Committee of the Classical Association. The following suggestions are not put forward as constituting scheme. t. as a in /a. as ee in feed. ^wpa. i in Fr. postponing at present the more diflScult problem of accen- sidered only the pronunciation of the vowels tual pronunciation. which has already reported on Latin Pronunciation. il mene (nearer Eng. by the quantities of the vowels should be For example." In drawing up the following scheme. longation. a. o. the short vowels in ^arrip. as a in aA<x. iJSwp. e and o (the last two being always short) be pronounced as the corresponding vowels in : i. nearly as Eng. may be regarded as practicable.ther. October. as o in not. a and 5. but as approximations which. as e in fret.e: o. piquet. X. not kIvw. strictly observed. i in fit.GKEEK PRONUNCIATION {InUrim Report of the Pronunciation Committee. both for clear- a complete or final ness in teaching and for actual likeness to the ancient sounds. As in Latin. xo/50'9. should be carefully distinguished (by prostress) from the long vowels in (^parpla. is empowered also "to consider what changes in the present pronunciation of Greek should be recommended for general adoption. i may Latin and t. as e. Quamtity.

Consonants. m. Eng. always as Lat. p. t. of ei is difficult to determine. vowel was long. it is readily understood why the reduplicated perfect is . ankle.h. ai in leaiah. precise Attic Greek and it sound to maintain the distinction clearly it grey. and the Committee is not prepared to deny that this pronunciation lasted down into the classical period. as Germ. ou in roue. c or k and g respectively except that 7 before 7. The Committee has carefully considered the pronunciation of the aspirated consonants in Greek. It is certain that the primi^as as k. X. . oa in broa. rj till it is perhaps best for eye. ui in Ivd. Further. r. d. ee in passee. ew ov as Eng. and the second only first faintly heard. s has made : e. where the sound was as in Eng. tive pronunciation of x» ^> p followed by a strong breath. Germ. s (Eng. in nearly as Eng. Diphthongs. nearly as Eng. there nunciation makes obscure is much in rhaiviv. Fr. no doubt that the adoption of this proGreek accidence that is otherwise If 0atVw be pronounced perfectly comprehensible. OW in ^oww. dn pain.g. in /ew. h. oi in 4 as Fr. The et. anger. encore to (nearer Eng.h. that is as k. though in must have been nearer to Fr. In a Tj the u) oil. was never confused with av = €v = eu. in Lat.d than Eng. afffiearo^. a. (paa'^avov. 7 and ft. V as French u in French ii in rue or V as in bone). T. ey in The Greek 'A\0€fos is Latin Alpheus. p. it as Eng. U in grVin. au au. IT. except before /3. I. /I. Aspirates.h. English students to pronounce fact but in a late period. has gone. /3. n. t. K and 7 as p. has been. =a+ =9 + ft = V + ai t as Eng. HaMs.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 96 (long open o) as o in Fr. s in mouBe). 01 1 as Eng. 00 in mOOn. *: and x is used to denote the nasal sound heard in Eng. t. V as Lat. tfffios. 5.

i If the later sounds are accepted. A. which is now current in most districts of Greece. having shifted itself to the t. crease the labour of the teacher or the student of Greek.GREEK PRONUNCIATION irevhrfva '. therefore abstains from mon recommending any change in the It com- pronunciation of the aspii'ates except in the case of x- H. S. C. H. G. 97 the perfect. the h. * The word x^oi^^s is pronounced with one aspirate only. In the course of time the pronunciation of the aspirates changed by degrees to that of fricatives." and x acquiring the sound of the German ch.^ loth to do anything to discourage the primitive pronunciation of the aspirates. though there is no douht wliatever that a distinct h was heard in all these sounds long after the . 6 pronounced as th in English " thin. POSTGATE. which can be pronounced with difficulty. W. EoBiNSON Ellis. A. p. The raivto. Wood. S. " The dates and stages of these changes cannot as yet be settled with But the practical choice seems to be between the earliest precision. Chairman. Rouse. R. if at all. BuTCriER.ury n. though . R. WiNBOLT. becoming f. M. and thel atest values. Hon. 13 . and Irish place-names. Du PONTKT. GiLSON. on the whole. See. pronounced relation of 6pL^ rhpi^ to rpix"' TpiKha becomes perfectly intelligible. D. is but if it be pronounced anomalous. E. The Committee. as in auch. J. RUSHBROOKE.c. but it will remain desirable to distinguish between the sounds of k and ^. S. TTcfijva. This advantage seems to be one of the reasons why it has been adopted in practice by a certain number of English teachers. no change in the common pronunciation of and in England will be required. This may be done by giving ^ the sound of kh.Scotch. or of German ch.nth cenr. C. recommend the latter alternative as being more familiar in German. has not been able to would be easy to introduce this pronunciation which it is strange and it is of opinion that it is not advisable to recommend anything at present that might insatisfy itself that it into schools to .i which are at present confused &ko<^ and ^x°'' kui'vio and ^^a/Vw being now pronounced ahke. Conway. before S. W. H. The Committee : would.

elaborate study of English grammar is An not useful at this stage. . We have not felt it to be our duty to consider in detail the character or scope of the teaching. so far as possible. it is not form but function which in the main distinguishes the " parts of speech. Ill. (A) ON THE TEACHING OF LATIN IN SCHOOLS WITH A LEAVING AGE OF EIGHTEEN OR NINETEEN. but express our conviction that Schools. . A feeling for litei-ature may in writing. both orally and and have acquired a good stock of words and a They should also have learned to read aloud with accuracy and intelligence. and. AND SCHOOLS PREPARATORY THERETO. . (A) that relating to the schools with a leaving age of eighteen or nineteen. greatest importance should be attached at an early stage to the study of English. the . with taste and they should have become familiar with a considerable quantity of good English prose and verse of a character suited to their age. thus be developed which. and in schools preparatory thereto. habit of orderly and connected thought.REPORT OP THE CURRICULA COMMITTEE ON THE TEACHING OP LATIN IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS This Report falls two into course of study in sections. that a child should receive in the early stages of repara ory its education." and the chief aim of teaching In English should be to attain a mastery of the broad principles of sentence 98 . while of the highest value in itself. Before children begin the study of a foreign language they should have learned to use their mother tongue with some degree of correctness and fluency. (B) that relating to secondary schools under a local education authority. it is we venture to desirable that . will also help the pupil afterwards to appreciate the classics.

a modern language taught colloquially and at an early age is the first study of their . An adult who best language finds that he succeeds desires to learn a by working at it every day. The method which we are recommending also tends to keep the pupils interested in their work and encouraged by the sense of making progress. the original impression is often effaced and the work has to be done afresh. but should have been well grounded in the elements of one language before beginning a second. if it We it think that better results would be obtained were recognised that learners should never begin two languages at or about the same time. therefore. When. but the fundamental grammatical structure and the functions of words. and to their second foreign language for at least a year before a third foreign language is begun. We think of classics. and pupils of only average ability naturally make very slow progress in any of the three languages. that the study of the precede the study of any foreign language. that as a general rule pupils should devote themselves to the first foreign language for at least a year before any other foreign language is taken up. and consequently tend to lose interest in their work and to do mechanically. especially in girls' schools as regards the teaching and in some boys' schools which attempt a very wide Yet if several days are allowed to elapse between one lesson and another. and well grounded in the elements of the second before beginning a third. pupil be- We have.KEPORT OF THE CURRICULA COMMITTEE 99 The teaching of the elements encumbered with distinctions which are English itself. and a third foreign language before the pupil has acquired an adequate knowledge The elements of three foreign of either the first or the second. curriculum. however. In the same way we think that the best results are obtained at school ginning a new language has a when a daily lesson in it. of English should not be not vital to way notions should be taught in such a as to prove a help when pupils approach the study of other languages. good reason to believe that so obvious a principle is often forgotten. Assuming. languages taught concurrently take up a very large portion of the school day. attention to the disadvantages mother tongue should we attending the desire also to call common practice of beginning a second foreign language before the pupil has acquired an adequate knowledge of the first. as will often be the case.

hydrops. to superlatives and say nothing of forms which. and there is always The itudv of Latin : methods a danger of making these demands excessive by of teaching putting before the pupil a bewildering mass of In teaching the elements unfamiliar words and inflexions. common occurrence it should be possible for the pupil. language such as to acquire a will enable him working knowledge of the to pass without great difficulty to the intelligent reading of a Latin author. 1128). or acer ("maple-tree"). we think that the study of Latin beyond the age of eleven. in a com- paratively short time. the gender of gryps. Latin. . without any word to indicate the gender. ch. and able least is to so familiar with the commonest inflexions and constructions that he can use them correctly in composing Latin sentences of a simple character. though not wanted for the purpose of reading Latin literature comes to the Civil War of Caesar (where it occurs onoe. Poen. II. the forms of Greek nouns as declined in Latin. is of of frequent and constructions should be introduced gradually and thoroughly worked into the pupil's into mind. It may be worth while to point out that the principle of concentrating attention constantly violated in on what practice. the genitive plural of accipiter or pants. we the amussis. find such forms asked for as the ablative plural of filia} accusative singular of nouns like tussis. is If common and essential is we study the grammar questions set in the scholarship examinations of some of the public schools or in University Matriculation Examinations. inflexions. In the early stages of learning a language great demands on ^^e memory are inevitable. ex duabus flits) so too Plautus ' Filiatus is until the pupil .THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 100 foreign language studied. Greek should not be postponed should begun be not until the pupil is at translate an easy piece of narrative Latin. (Stick. we should The occurrence. 2. and rare or non-existent comparatives and " principal parts " of verbs. according to the MiSS. restrict ourselves to what really useful words. such as duabus 567. 2. 26. by constant practice in translating from and By thus concentrating attention on what is of Latin. . twice. . 3. Elsewhere Livy xises_filiis in the senRe of "daughters" (XXXVIIL 57. for the sake of distinction from Jiliis) and the 24th book of Livy (where it also occurs once. 108. but the reading is doubted by Weissenborn) and here a reference to the dictionary will give the information required.

tion into English Perhaps the best plan is to combine to construct a very simple narrative for transla- and isolated sentences for translation into Latin. though not easy. easily in- that words. the two —that is. of the Special Reports on Educational Subjects (Board of Education). The use of a classical author at the stage contemplated is. will show that many of the sentences set in them are not well suited to test. forms and constructions embedded in a context of meaning acquire a certain energy and power of impressing themselves on the memory which they lack in isolation and that the mere interest . such as non dubito qidn futurum sit ut urhs capiatur. As to the particular shape in which this practice in common words. method are that sentences woven together continuous discourse need not be more struction. The merits of this It is possible. common forms. to write a connected narrative in which the new grammatical points are systematically introduced and the vocabulai-y gradually extended. indeed. But it is possible to present vocabulary and grammar either in the form of isolated types. and common constructions should be given. forms. VI. excluded by the fact that no classical author satisfies the conditions. and constructions required. of the story contributes to the acquisition of the art of reading. and the study of thus divorced from the attempting memory grammar A actual speech. whether the candidate possesses a practical knowledge of the common constructions and a good working vocabulary. especially sentences or in the shape of a connected narrative specially written for the purpose. as they should. nor could extracts from the classics be made which would contain only the words. as distinct from construing. reprinted in Vol.REPORT OF THE CURRICULA COMMITTEE 101 they occur in classical authors. An examination of the Public School Entrance Scholarship papers. and are from the nature telligible in their difficult to form a as so or varied in con- of the case more context than isolated sentences . On the other hand. of outfit commit to whole the of the accidence early stage without practice in the is iise of to of criticism may study of at an the forms learned kept alive by such questions. is similar be applied to the teaching of rare syntactical if they rest on imperfect evidence. exercises con- sisting of disconnected sentences for translation into Latin have . more than one method is possible. are no necessary part of the mental The method the beginner.

to concentrate his attention on some puzzling construction. The practice of composition is of the utmost importance. It should never be forgotten that Latin literature has largely contributed to making and literature of the civilised world of to-day what it is. These two ends of formal and Uterary study are. the Classical Association has adopted the principle " that in the lower and middle forms Public Schools. he should rewrite the sentences in which he has made mistakes. perhaps. however. as we explained in our report. 1906. but also as a linguistic discipline and with a view to training the mind in habits of clear and logical thinking. but as giving a fuller insight into the spirit of the Latin language. does not exclude a study of gi'ammar or the practice of simple forms of composition as means to the reading of function of grammar and Greek But literature. them It the writer does not attempt to form is easier. what needs more emphasis is that the literary and historic interest of the authors read should not be neglected even in the earlier stages of learning. if approximate correctness is not attained. Latin may and should not inconsistent with one another. they should be studied not only as a means to the intelligent reading of Latin authors. Perhaps. however. . worth remarking that the pupil will not learn Latin from doing the sentences wrong it is essential that. of boys' public schools Greek should be taught only with a view to the intelligent reading of Gi-eek authors.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 102 their value. and by is. in Latin the composition must be defined differently . and the awakening of intellectual ambitions. instead of regarding it as a literature capable of exerting a strong attraction upon the pupil and of becoming a powerful influence for the training of taste. In accordance with the recommendation of our interim report : presented in January. to introduce exactly the words and grammatical forms in which the pupil requires practice." This principle. if into a continuous passage. the development of character. familiar with It it. so that he may retain in his memory the impression of an idiomatic piece of Latin. be so taught as to realise them both at the same time. excluding for the time other difficulties. reiteration to whether of vocabulary or make him thoroughly grammar. too common even It is at the present day for teachers to set up a mechanical conception of Latin as a merely formal gymnastic. not only the life as developing habits of clear thinking.

Butcher. Caspari. Mr. two years or one employed. Butting. ends. V. C. J. there- the intelligent reading of the more important (i) Latin authors t?ie ObjecU of study In of Latin. and (b) in what order they should be taken. of both subject-matter for their subject-matter {e. it is this preliminary depend on course method the of work lasts for teaching taken after some mastery of French may be possible to limit the preliminary grammatical work to one year. partly of the suitability of their In drawing up the scheme appended to this part of the Report the Committee has had the advantage of the assistance of a nvimber of experienced teachers contents for reading at different ages. together with Committee has tried and style. Mr. M. is submitted only as a specimen. 0. Livy and Vergil) and Professor Sonnenmembers Professor E. of Sir A. REPORT OF THE CURRICULA COMMITl^EE The ends two fore. In making to bear in its selection of authors the mind the claims In most cases authors worth reading are also worth reading for their style ' The Sub-Committee consisted schein. F. a and lingviistic with connexion the what many new study some well-considered and repre- majority of in the left not the that teachers cannot be too careful feels selections make Avhich they wasted is will school. Otherwise two years will probably be necessary. Mr. Professor Mackail. Mr. Mr. and not as necessarily the best that could be devised. as profitable as possible it Considering the fact that the read these desires to call attention to the importance make is logical discipline. Gilson. The suggestions scheme are based on the supposition of the that the pupil will go through a preliminary course of on a Whether Reader. M. Reudall. C. H. Mr. Miss Slater. in view partly of their linguistic difficulty. Committee (ii) . B. who have co-operated with a Sub. Professor Hardie. R. G. .g.Committee appointed for this purpose but the scheme ^ . so as to sentative of 103 of authors time the present at for by a haphazard method of procedure. of first of planning ovxt the course of reading on principle. : to be kept in view in the study of Latin are. Williamson. If Avill Latin has been acquired. pupils Latin books after they have much energy . The Committee has therefore considered («) which authors are most worth reading at school. the best in Latin literature. Hort the following co-opted : Arnold.. Committee Course if reading.

g'. Satires. connexion the Committee desires to call attention to the important difference which exists between reading a book possibly with ' The some omissions of the less rejection of Sallust in favour of Livy has the support of Quintilian In answer to the question. the Aeneid. Eutropius middle stage." . latest . {Inst. ut Livinm a pueris magis qtiam Sallustium. The Committee has of inferior educational value and Cornelius Nepos stage. but be reserved for University study. poets. The traditional course of reading in school to may be widened if time allowed in class for reading ahead is after the translation of the passages set for preparation passages read as unseens in class may . the several books being read in consecutive order. certain authors deliberately rejected e. for example. epic thought should form no part of the Sallust ^ . but with advantage be set for revision out of class. Orat. " qui sint legendi in5. developed later.— THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 104 but where the two claims are to some extent opposed the Committee has chosen such works as on the whole seem beet suited to a particular stage of learning. The conventional system of " prepared construing " seems to need considerable modification. and to the Elegies of Propertius. should be treated so far as possible as a literary whole. 19). cipientibus ? " he says. " Ego optimos quidem et statim et semper. the interest of the subject-matter it of For the earlier stages more importance than the capacity to appreciate style the beauty of the style. and is is at the later stages that the style of is the authors read begins to exercise an important influence on composition. The principle wherever it of using selections may be safely applied does not involve scrappiness of reading— e. which In this might be read in a good English verse translation.g. though important parts. and On the Epistles of Horace. in the whose works school' it is curriculum. sed tamea eorum candidissirnum quemque et maxime expositum velim. the principle of continuity should be more applied than at present to certain works . thoroughly other hand. in the Age the Silver as in the early stage. II. it may be applied without sacrifice of unity to the Odes. The Committee thinks that encouragement should be given not limiting the amount of reading done to the practice of what pupils have time to prepare out of school.

... 2nd Year : Prose: Simplified Caesar— p. II. of Caesar's Gallic War." which are Verse difiicult) and some easy selections from the elegiac poems of . I. VI. IV. some Verse : : I. V. VIII. (not simplified) or. stories of Roman Vergil. Actio II.. By means of omissions it becomes possible in the with some case of long works. : Ovid. 3rd Year : Dramatic scenes and incidents from Livy e. III. Pro Ligario. life or and easy letters of Cicero. such as In Pro Lege Manilia. Simplified Livy e. {The Invasion of Britain) or. Verse Stories from Ovid's Fasti and Metamorphoses.G. communicate to is only too long to be read in its entirety method and unity. AND SCHOOLS PREPARATORY THERETO I. Some fables of Phaedrus (omitting the " morals.. and V. passages from Books v. whereas.. such as the history of Livy or the Aeneid of Vergil. Books IV. VII.. he necessarily To omit the work as a whole. Ae7ieid. II. or Prose : ..g. and IX. De Provinciis Consular ibtus.^. : A miscellaneous selection of Latin verse. IST Advanced Stage (Ages 14-18) Year: one or more of the easier orations. 1st Peeliminaey Stage (Ages 10 ok 11-14) Year: Preparatory Course. together with passages of some length from other speeches. confined is get an to parts of a idea understanding the : to of work which therefore. VII.. to get connected view of the story or message a which the author has of the pupil fails is. passages from Books II.— — REPORT OF THE CURRICULA COMMITTEE 105 omissions and reading a collection of excerpts with a view to their individual beauty of thought or selected diction. Episodes (not simplified) from Books V.g. part of JB. and Prose : Cicero Catilinam. 14 . The passages selected should form a continuous narrative. practicable of its contents of acquiring an A SPECIMEN COURSE OF LATIN READING FOR SCHOOLS WITH A LEAVING AGE OF EIGHTEEN OR NINETEEN. if the attention one or two books. such as the Verrines.

: War and the praise Scipionis and parts of VII. 4th Year : be much freedom of choice. Seneca a treatise such as the De Clementia. and to which boys proceed from preparatory schools where both Latin and schools In the preparation of this part of the Eeport the Committee has had the assistance of a Sub-Committee consisting of the Rev. and V. The following books are suggested as . Livy some of the later books. (as much as possible of these books. (Considerable portions of Vergil. W. VI. III. A. Book V. One or more books of a philosophical or rhetorical treatise of Cicero {e. Aeneid. : Plautus or Terence one or two plays. or selections from (J) .^XII. Aeneid. Vergil. might be taken for rapid reading in class.necessary to complete the above scheme of reading Prose'. De Amicitia and De might be taken for rapid reading in class Prose Cicero. : One : of the longer speeches of Cicero.). The following books are suggested as less essential some of the. One or more books of the Annals or Histories of Tacitus. Holme.. of Tacitus.g. Quintilian.— — THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 106 2nd Ybae : Prose: Livy. Witton. Book X. Mr. or a book of the At this stage there will naturally (a) : De Oratore). together with the of literature in the The Agrieola Verse Pro Archia (sections 12-32). Horace : and Epistles. Pliny select letters. F. : : : : the Epist^dae Morales.. Canon Bell (Chairman). or part of the Civil Somnium of Caesar. Book V. and XXII. select Satires Selections from Catullus Lucretius Juvenal : : three or four Satires. and Propertius. A few Verse : selected letters of Cicero. Mr. IV. Verse : : : ON THE TEACHING OF LATIN IN SCHOOLS WITH A LEAVING AGE OF ABOUT SIXTEEN {B) i Hitherto in this Kepoi-t we have had mainly in view those where the leaving age is eighteen or nineteen. Select Odes of Horace. and selections from other books. XXI. Vergil some of the Eclogues and Georgics. E. ' .) : A few select Odes of Sbd Year Prose Horace. Tusculan Disputations. not omitting the battle of Cannae in the later part of Book XXII. Verse Book V.

introduces the results of pupil to the life of the ancients. in clearness of thought and accuracy of expression not easily obtained from the study of a modern language. remembered that on entering the secondary school the pupils have usually no knowledge of any language but their own. which is both desirable and attainable under the conditions of the schools hitherto dealt with in the Eeport. receive their early education in public elementary schools up to the age of twelve or thirteen. largely because on the older average boy rarely gained any real knowledge of the language in the time allowed. however. available —not more than four or five lessons a week for three or four years. The study of Latin in such schools has. science. a large and increasing number of secondary schools of which the pupils. Roscoe and reproduced in an appendix below 110). We therefore recommend that in these schools Latin should If in this time be taught with a view to the intelligent reading of the easier Latin authors. such as the power of reading the easier Latin authors and some acquaintance with Koman hfe and history. met with the opposition of many system of teaching the parents. it is plain that the complete and When it is systematic study of Latin. F. afterwards proceeding to the secondary schools for three or four years. Yet the teaching of Latin by such methods as will lead to permanent value at the close of a boy's career is The study of Latin gives a training desirable in such schools. will be quite out of the question in schools of this type. is a necessary preliminary to the study of the origin of modern institutions. to a great extent. and other non-literary subjects. and must begin the study of mathematics. Some valuable facts relating to the teaching of languages in such schools will be found in a report submitted to the Committee by Mr. both linguistically and as literature. It will. There exists. there- be necessary rigorously to limit the scope of the work attempted to what can reasonably be accomplished in the time fore. and to supplying that discipline in clear and .REPORT OF THE CURRICULA COMMITTEE 107 French are included in the curriculum. (p. the subject would be more popular than it has been hitherto. some tangible results could be attained by the average boy. and assists in the comprehension of English literature. in the past.

— THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 108 accurate thought which not so readily obtained from the is study of a modern language. and not to use composition except as a means of understanding and remembering these forms and constructions. To gain these ends a scheme the following may of work is be taken as a sample recommended of which : —A Reader with grammar and exercises based on year. Horace may be read. together with grammar and exercises as before. The standard aimed at should be that of the Senior Local Examinations. the text and systematically graduated. We are of opinion that not than four periods a week less should be devoted to Latin. Tacitus (Agricola). since the not some Latin. before the age of twelve. manual should accidence of and syntax. and matical knowledge to ensure a thorough uncommon of in the gram- forms and constructions commonly occurring in the authors read. It is specially important to ignore all that is grammar. of Or the books set for a Matriculation Examination. at any which means also the boys may . important is constantly be that. A work of elementary who have been in the pre- difficulty will arise in co-ordinating the school pupils with that of the boys paratory department of the secondary school latter will usually have learnt some French. and who It this would generally be reached by those had passed through the fourth year's course satisfactorily. or of University Matriculation or Preliminary Examinations. schools by a separate This difficulty classification for rate in the lower forms. and authors ing Some and Odes letters of Pliny follow- Vergil. year. with graduated exercises as before. 2nd authors. Livy. — Simplified narrative passages from Latin prose 1st year. by is if itself. 4ith — Whole books selected from the worlcs of the — Cicero. made after to a the first simple reference year. and strongly urge one lesson a day where possible. The suggestion has been made that time might be saved for this purpose if grammar were combined with the formal teaching of English that of the Latin grammar and dispensed with as a separate subject. Easy portions of Caesar and Cicero. with selections from Tibullus or Ovid. obviated in most Latin and French. — Srd year.

Bell. M. G. few in the schools we are considering. WiTTON (Representative Masters' Association). COMPTON. (Representative of the Head Mistresses' Association). CooKSON (Secretary). E. E. SoNNENSCHEiN (Chairman). E. Pantin. H. HoRT. W. W. Mistresses' Lucy Association). {Signed) E. W. Nairn. A. F. F. D. W. A. Holme. Murray. A. BuBEOWs. A. as in the case of the newer methods of teaching French. Gow (Representative of the Head Masters' Con- ference). of t/ie Assistant . D.REPORT OF THE CURRICULA COMMITTEE 109 numbers for languages than for other The elementary stages of learning are the most important. G. the demand will dovibtbe taken in smaller subjects. J. less create the supply. C. A. B. Ethel Gavin . R. E. Ramsay. D. but. A. and the work should be entrusted to the most comSuch teachers are at present petent and experienced teachers. Silcox. P. Page. E. T. G. Mansfield (Representative of the Preparatory Sanders (Representative of the Assistant Schools Association). Adble F. J. 0. Swallow (Representative of the Head Masters' Association). Rouse. E. C.

Such schools are recruited mainly from the primary schools of their districts. but the new one leads to A better plan endless difficulties in the teaching of composition. . If this plan were universal in the primary schools it would be possible to begin with French.110 THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION APPENDIX By Mr. the second standard. considerable progress has been made. Roscoe. I have found that in Oldbury. living a strenuous life in the Black Country. The old system led to much meaningless drudgery for the children. Since these schools have been established so recently. F. although these are mostly working-class folk. and also to furnish a means of training pupil teachers new requirements of the Board of Education. where a secondary school was established in 1904. where the formal grammar is deferred until the pupils are eleven or twelve. there have latterly been not a few schools where grammar was not taught at all. than either is followed in some schools. This state of things is largely due to the fact that for some years there has been a reaction against formal grammar in the primary Whereas formerly the pupils were set to learn grammar in schools. Master of Method in the Day Training College of the University of Birmingham Schools have been established in large numbers during the past three years by county and borough authorities for the purpose of affording provision for boys and girls up to the age of sixteen or thereabouts. The teaching of Latin to such pupils as these has been found to be attended by considerable difficulty. or even subject and Thus a considerable time has to be spent at the start predicate. indirect object. in giving the most rudimentary instruction on these points. such as passive and active. It is also worth noting that the teaching of Latin has met with no opposition from the parents. The teachers almost unanimously ascribe this to the fact that the children coming up from the primary school are imperfectly grounded in English grammar and find it impossible to understand the meaning of ordinary terms. Already there are signs that the teaching of Latin in these schools to say . schemes of scholarships and exhibitions having been set up for the purpose of enabUng promising pupils to continue their in accordance with the schooling. and later to take up Latin in the secondary schools with less waste of time than is involved now. It is then found possible to teach the subject intelligently and with profit. it is not possible teaching much concerning the actual results of their work in Latin but making allowance for the lack of preparation in the pupils. beginning at the age of eight and continuing throughout the course.

however. and especially the first author. and in a few years there will probably be a supply of teachers for the primary schools who will have had a training in grammar and literature. is likely to there. owing to the fact that Latin was required for arts. As an immediate measure it might be useful to persuade the authorities of these schools to exact a higher standard of grammar at their entrance examinations. Unless this is done we are in danger of substituting confusion for ignorance. and historical value of the authors . (2) to the literary or parts of authors selected. Also there is need of some outline text-book on the lines of the Parallel Grammars to secure uniformity of terminology as far as possible. at or about the same time. Now. E-ESOLUTIONS On the basis of the above facts and suggestions the Com- mittee submits the following resolutions for the consideration of the general 1. inflexions and constructions as occur most commonly in the authors. That the scheme of reading in Latin and Greek authors should be carefully organized and graduated with a view (1) to the selection of such authors as are suitable in respect of both their language and their subject-matter to different stages of learning. but hitherto science has been preferred. we find that candidates are preparing themselves for the arts course. to be read at school. That in the earliest stage of teaching Latin and Greek the teacher should aim at making his pupils very familiar with such words. 2. ancient or modern. 3. That foreign meeting of the Classical Association it is : not desirable to begin the school study of two languages.REPORT OF THE CURRICULA COMMITTEE 111 have a marked effect on the pupil teachers who are trained In training colleges attached to the new Universities the course in arts affords the best opportunity to the intending teacher. This ought to react on the grammar teaching and serve to remove the great difficulty which I have described.

. New Is.1908(42) „ 1909-12 (40) „ Extra payments.1906(89) „ 1907(507) .. to July 1907 1st. July. 9rf. fees (101) Subscriptions for 1 905 (12) ... January.. Life compositions American subscriptions Total subscriptions paid in 1907 Work bought at Zealand Stock Copies of The Years Dividends. Murray Total credit. Credit and Receipts.. 304 subscriptions for 1906 and 1907 paid direct to the bank.. 1906. £ Investments to January Ist^ 1907 (cost) Cash balance Credit with Mr.. . Interest on deposit Total interest. 1907 Entrance .THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 112 STATEMENT OF ACCOUNTS.

. 5d. s. New Zealand 3|% Stock £200 India 3i% Stock £100 Deposit Chartered Bank . Treasurer.. 113 1907..— STATEMENT OF ACCOUNTS JANUARY 1st TO DECEMBER 31st. £45 16s. (Signed) C. 1907 1 Balance in bank Less cheques not presented 143 . 6 7 6 3 10 1 10 Returns (subscriptions paid in error) Paid to the Publisher for The Years Work.?/ — December. 288 198 100 * Exclusive of £7 1. January. 10s. 28 9 10 3 17 5 (special) 32 7 3 Postage 12 1 Clerical assistance 34 6 28 7 62 11 30 13 6 9 Travelling expenses of members of Council Proceedings. Sd. £ Printing and stationery (general) „ „ „ d. 1907. accounts which came in too late. Flamsteai) Walters.5 1 586 16 Total investments t 9 31 18 Total cash balance Investments 268 5 13s. Eon. 3 111 7 6 : £289 18s. 1906. £966 12 15 9 . Exclusive of cost of Proceedings. „ Bankers' charges on cheques . .. October.. for reporting.. Ex^penditure. 190G Cambridge Meeting (general expenses *) Capitation grants to Manchester Branch „ Birmingham „ . 1906 4 10 64 3 Total expenses for the year to Decem- ber 31st.. for clerical assistance and £7 31.

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at in Aprils 1906. ITALORVM LITTERARVM GRAECARVM ET LATINARVM FAVTORVM ET VINDICVM SOCIETATEM BRITANNORVM QVIBVS IDEM PROPOSITVM SOCIETAS SALVERE rVBET. praeterire quae^ si in fine rem aliena bona con- illam nolumus non maximi momenti. suadet Italorumque amicitia. held in its Rome Studi Classici.The follmoing address 7eas written hy Dr. Raro certe atqiie opportuuo Fortunae utimur beneficio quod eo ipso tempore quo Vos alterum iam conuentum acturi numero— uellemus quidem negotiosis hoc anno ratio plures : estis paucis sed plures ne essent temporum prohibuit de uostro incommoda — Romam vestram illam urbium omnium dominam pulcberrimam inuisere contigit ut nou solum animo atque cogitatione absentes sed praesentes quoque nonnulli inceptis Vestris faueamus. Postgate and presented on behalf of the Classical Association hy Dr. omnia exoptemus.. commune denique non nostra atque adeo totius orbis terrarum seruandi pium ac legitimum consilium. Vt de felicia factis primum Vobis gratulemur. Ashhy^ Director of the British School at Rome^ to the Societa Italiana per la diffusione e rincoraggiainento degli second meeting. tamen ne minimi quidem 117 . poterit quam cuius ilia ut in futurum prospera ac iam omnibus nota Britannorum ecquod insignius testimonium adferri Vestratium aetate atque usu comprobatum illud ac firmatum prouerbium bella ubiuis cum gerenda: Britannis pax tenenda? suadent communia nobiscum studia^ communis ueterum mouumen- torum cum amor auertendi sed turn reuerentia.

sicut coepistis. Trpodvfiovfxfvoi fjfiai diaXeyfadai kol (piXovs t( kol Trpocrrjyopovs aXKrjXoLS yiyveadat.] MDCCCCVIl. ille Socrates uereri cfiLkoXoyias dypoLKi^ecrBaL. . LONDINIO DATVM MENSE MARTIO EXEVNTE [The Italian proverb referred to t'ol E is mondo A. Valete atque in studia uniuerso homiuum geueri profutura feliciter. S. Societatis nostrae effectum. Vobis quoque placiturum satis con- uerendum ne uideamur vno quod Platonicus sit.APPENDIX 118 cum nostra Vobiscum commercia proxime morem uerba Latina pronuntiandi est attingat^ prauum istum qui penitus toto diuiserat orbe Britannos iam eo esse ut effluat atque obsolescat. ill opera maximam partem fidimus ut nihil iam se dicit. incumbitote. : tutto guerra pace con lughilterra. TTOirjcrai quod.