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ALBEMARLE STREET. W. 1909 .cl Pn*/of $ 7/ CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION PROCEEDINGS I908 (VOLUME VI) WITH RULES AND LIST OF MEMBERS LONDON JOHN MURRAY.

. WATSON AND VINEY. LI). LONDON AND AYLESBURY.PRINTED BY HAZELL.

1908 . ... Postgate (1907) .106 . to Prof. . .. . . REPORT OF THE CURRICULA COMMITTEE STATEMENT OF ACCOUNTS. Friday.. INDEX TO THE PROCEEDINGS 98 REPORT OF THE PRONUNCIATION COMMITTEE ON THE PRONUNCIATION OF GREEK INTERIM .. . . ... 1st .121 123 126 168 183 185 .. . Yale University. . . Seymour. October 8th. . D.. JANUARY 81st. 1909 Topographical List of Members Manchester and District Branch Birmingham and Midlands Branch Formation of a Branch for Liverpool and District 119 . October 9th. . .... Officers and Council Rules T. 1908 1 21..69 . 100 . 1908 . 47 Saturday. Names and Addresses of Members. . 186 . October 10th.CONTENTS PACE PROCEEDINGS OF THE SIXTH GENERAL MEETING:— Thursday.. TO DECEMBER 1908 114 APPENDIX :— Extract from a Letter ok the late Prop.

.

In advocating a radical change in our method of dealing with the external form of Greek lyrical poetry I believe that Our Association I shall have the sympathy of this audience. Professor Henry Browne read a paper on : THE TEACHING OF GREEK CHORAL METRE. The first session of the Association was held at the New UniverS. good. Bournbrook. When of metre this treated merely lines nothing can be made more repulsive than Greek metre.P. October 8th. To-morrow we hope to listen by a masterly hand. Besides. however I do not say wholly useless. or are learning. I think. must be always inadequate. Butcher. nothing more utterly barren.SIXTH GENERAL MEETING. Thursday. can hardly ever be studied.. BIRMINGHAM. It is my aim to show that the subject may be made. but at least fairly interesting. we have learnt. at 3 p.. to be enforced.m. M. exists before all things for the bringing of life Classical education. to subordinate theory to the practical needs of our students—in the teaching principle has yet. at least seriously. H. practical in education to a real knowledge of ally if the subject be literature to give author's Now apart mind and literature from its him a real insight into his heart. Mr. The Rev. we have recently been informed of a very interesting experiment 1 . sity Buildings. and we shall not be losing our time. 1908. It is do anything towards giving the student and sympathy with his subject. in the chair. and especi- easy. external Hence translations. and reality into and if you grant there are any weak spots at all in our prevailing system I think you will admit that I am In our grammar teaching calling your attention to one of them. I will not say exactly on theoretical and most practical. to a translation of Euripides done form.

means to the end As . controversy believe to be the pith I to be entirely neglected. We must not be like the learned judge who decided that " when the spectacles are on the nose the eyes must be shut." If we want to appraise the music of Shelley or Milton. its if its form can Neither can verse be beautiful metrical form and invested with one . Prose indeed can : be beautiful. with the and Aristophanes. Grammar may but only so long as we remember that we and. has nothing to do with translations. the attempt to communicate some knowledge of the great masterpieces of Greece by means of translations. as it is Sophocles. to neglect all question of their metrical form and rhythmic intonation. and that of that form in prose is. not mean that I should metrical theory call it is something is it theoretically. we know that we must keep our ears open why should we close our ears to the lyric of Pindar and Aeschylus by treating it as though it were prose bad and inflated prose it must certainly be. but with Pindar's work in the original. of the very essence.— THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 2 now made being in this University —namely. and certainly without winch and marrow many all the jargon well-meaning persons of the study. are only learning to choral metres I with a and modicum all the am it is now a be useful at times. I should call it a crime. however. that is in the more personal parts. But on the other hand to pretend to deal with this feature. We have got to use our ears as well as our calculating faculty. in order to be able to teach metre practically also study do Of we must a heinous blunder. certain that a great deal can be done of theory. is something marvellous. I repeat. but not be mistaken for that of verse. and at the same time in the lyrical. almost as beautiful as verse. of Euripides usually dealt with. Murray for support in saying . or even the rhythmical lilt of Rudyard Kipling. course. on a sort of algebraical basis. as in its poetry and even were. With that experiment I am but I know I can appeal to Proheart and soul in sympathy fessor Sonnenschein and to Dr. this great lesson. it The question rhythm am I raising. work of Aeschylus and To pretend to teach these authors to our students. that the beauty of literature consists very principally in external form. worse than a crime. when that it is is stripped of alien to it.

full not English metre also on English poetry of any epoch ever of metrical My a difficult subject. Take a single stanza. or even Pindar. with the easier sorts of Metre. observing not merely the quantities but the important caesuras. of course. But here I come to what is more special in my own experiments namely. it is But of grave theoretical difficulties. ? put theory into the background. All this but if after a little practice. no matter what school of Metrical science you adhere Treat lyrical form as something to. the cadences. of course the It will follow the intonation. the repetitions. musical knowledge this no very profound when method the assistance of musicians is desired. though Greek Metres when so treated will yield a fairly smooth translation and pleasant effect in an English form. human and emotional. if a musical expert. It will^at . metre and especially Greek Choral a difficult subject to impart to ordinary students at school or college. I feel certain that in carrying out this they will would be ungracious if I failed to acknowledge my obligation to several gifted musicians in Ireland for the help they gave in preparing the records which I am going to use to-day. metrically equivalent to the Greek. aim at marking it. real. Besides. not merely the discussion problems which are perhaps well-nigh insoluble advice. say from one of the easier logaoedic odes of Sophocles. English version. lecturer 3 is. If there is melody will any contrast of one part with another. many Such a may not attain the highest literary standard. and hammer away at sound it till its is fairly mastered by the supply them with an It will also be a great help to pupils. Certainly I grant is a very difficult and a very thorny topic of — rhythm I mean Yet what ? intelligent out the question left the real rhythm. first of all be practical. For myself it is required. something humanising. the attempt to give a melodic equivalence to — For doing the various choral rhythms.TEACHING OF GREEK CHORAL METRE But. then. something Begin. you have no formidable to the non-musical person necessary with the assistance of idea how easy it will become . At the same time the tune will be one fitted to " catch on." may sound you try it. be always found most ready to give it. me It is hardly necessary to say that any melodic rendering of any rhythm will aim at expressing the particular emotion which such rhythm may represent. Metre may it is be objected.

it easier the second specimen sub- The same sort of cadences constantly occurring. especially in the dramatists prevailing forms are quite easily ful feet. But the residuum is small a few odes. or rather pair of strophes. the sections. the pauses. not merely to hear and by it will degrees lead them on course they played or it many to ask questions about the construction of the Metre. which with some the analysis of Dorian and arc also illustrated by diagrams setting forth suggestions of different authorities. will is mastered. probably with the Is it not sad who have read most conscientious attention to very unlikely various readings. in spite of all the and the wonder- variety and elasticity which exist in genuine choral Metre. and the very choice of They will want to know the reason from practice they will be led on to theory. others have been derived immediately from the rhythm itself. ending with a musical version of the " Ode to Love " from the Hippolytus of Euripides. the syncopations and resolutions. (of learn to sing the melody. Some of the melodies have been adapted from our existing fragments of Greek music. so different from the rigid second-hand imitations occurring so widely in Horace and other metrical plagiarists. to think how many Classical students there are their Bacchae. chiefly Paeonic. I propose to give you examples of logaoedic metre from Pindar and Sophocles. was setting in. and Bacchylides made at a period when the decadence of music. will be surprising how much mitted to the process is become. marked . of Dochmiacs from Aeschylus. After one stanza. and yet whose knowledge of rising is confined to miserarum est neque amori. by far the Ionic Metre they can tell larger part of A residuum them will lend themselves to melodic treatment. is really difficult. Incidentally I shall touch on theoretic points connected Dochmiac metres. and which must be left to the tender mercy of the mere theorist to discuss. just as you a great deal more about the Sapphics of Horace or even of Tennyson than they can about those of Sappho ? Proceeding by degrees to more difficult Metres.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 4 be perhaps merely entertaining to the class first must sung). of Pindar and some of the experiments of Euripides. of Dorian (or Dactylo-epitrite) metre from Pindar. and I may add of the dramatic art. there will be found which : . . and thus for everything.

which follows that may seem. without proof or argument. results. understood. Robert O'Dwyer. This in any case and it is my apology for anything is all that the occasion allows . The Homeric question has now been with us more than for Nearly half a century has passed since Arnold. I shall to be filled up or corrected by ledge. in his famous lectures on translating Homer. W. few years. In this brief paper I merely propose to give a sketch or a to it appears to me to stand now suggestion of the position as offer what seem to me . We still await some one to bring it together and vivify it. the time has is now come when this attempt may no finality . own know- literary or historical. in particular. without the processes by which they are reached. and according to their if I my own can suggest lines of hearers from their thought. our armament immense expansion. In such matters there Odyssey as poetry. but at least be repeated in the light of a vast access of experience. and to Within the last set We down certain things as either fixed or probable. attained. our methods generation our knowledge of of criticism. and above . Professor J. made a serious attempt to estimate the nature and the quality of the Iliad and the a century. these results seem to have been clarifying and co-ordinating themselves. and the the arrangement of which Professor University College Choral Union. enriched. to sum up the results so far of investigation. to be be satisfied dogmatic. restored. The work of on to those who can use it critically specialists is being passed and constructively. to give us back our Homer. During the last the ancient world. of Dublin.HOW HOMER CAME INTO HELLAS 5 The paper was followed by a gramophone demonstration. Mackail read a paper on HOW HOMER CAME : INTO HELLAS. have all undergone have reached a point at which it becomes possible to look about us. without this explanation. in Henry Browne had the co-operation of Mr.

in considers poetry you that word in Homer on the of the Hellenic For Homer was before Hellas : yet Hellas gave us Homer. Some time about 1100 which goes by the name the B.C. : and it is not precise date to the birth of the Greek race They emerge from obscurity in a period of and are not likely to know much more. after a century of confusion and dislocation. The Asiatic coast was colonised from Europe. then as once again in Western Europe. reaching comparative settlement. . It began broke into. it found in itself both the leisure and capacity for art. full century —say from 1050 to 950 convenient symbols) — B. When.C. both as cause and effect. In history. The loosely knit texture of the Achaean communities slowly transformed itself into a system of more definite monarchies and aristocracies. — using of the Hellenic civilisation. (such dates are mere there was a great tide of migration and The old Achaean settlements were broken up. a mediaeval civilisation in the region afterwards the known as Greece. . came the beginnings of Greek literature. slow process Middle Ages. and we may say. Iliad know what they are. some. it expansion. Thought began and with thought came the instrument of thought. nothing begins and nothing ends possible to assign any or the Greek genius. from the point of view of one itself as a function. I me the ordinary sense genius and life civilisation way — came in who and pattern which Homer to be : on Homer. to regard with its into the over their theories. what the of modern Homeridae are concerned with does not enter scope of this paper at I pass all. died hard. But that was a long. . because I do not My because they are irrelevant. of the movement of peoples Dorian invasion.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 6 all according to their own Much poetical instinct. others is now to consider the object and Odyssey simply as two consummate achievements poetry. The new age inherited a rich tradition of story and song from the mediaeval life out of which it had risen. letters. frankly confess. they changed their life. Beneath these. and broke up. which we know little. there began the first stirrings of self-conscious life among the people. of Greek life. . of the effect of and I ask life. The alphabet was in general use by the end of the century of migrations with the adoption of the alphabet. interpretation. For a or did not wholly die at all .

these earlier epic lays or chansons de geste have left unmistakable and traces of their existence. It federacy of and the feats of the Kound Logres of Kingdom of the the Briton. " It is to the poet of the primary Iliad.HOW HOMER CAME INTO HELLAS 7 turned to those old inherited stories as to a world which had already taken on the enchantment of distance. Achaean lays. now and recoverable indica- less certainly then. at period in the century of the migrations Peloponnesus was still Achaean. in Thessaly or Boeotia. This idealised into To where the fusion of the races was most complete. became and by the Northern descendants so idealised alike by its own them in blood with mingled had who immigrants or conquerors Asiatic coast. Normans. we are in the age In both Iliad and Odyssey of the epic lays. It was and its dwelling-places. except in the sense in But this was not the which certain chapters . these came the appeal of a half-legendary Argos and great deeds of a conof overlordship an past. the saga which was the origin of the Odyssey probably took shape tions. on the especially more was so and speech. and French. colonists. on both sides of the English Channel. But — an early probably while the all this is guess-work : the elaborate inverted pyramids of reconstruction that have been successively built up by theorising scholars go down at a touch. — primary Iliad. So also. home to Table. pre-Dorian world. it is of little relevance. tions." says Jebb. of their actual form. original Odyssey. and a story on which the poem was founded." The answer to it is that there was no fallacy in a succinct form. then dissolve and stream away into the mist The search after a primary Iliad and a main futile so far as it is not. of whatever blood. that the name of Homer belongs.C. traditionally transmitted. became the basis for both court and popular poetry. brilliant exponents they seem to take In the hands of their most shape for a moment. still familiar in its of life as in its language ways an epic age. the /cAea avSpaJv. primary Odyssey is in the . The material of portions of the Iliad seems to have taken definite poetical shape on the mainland of Greece. or at least before its in own Greece Proper before the migra- migration. The old Achaean. with to them all. as that of Arthur home came princes. " if to any That sentence puts the one. out of which they rose. no less than English. It is due to a deep-seated confusion between two things a poem. By 900 B. came to Britons.. or thereabouts.

THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION

8

Saxo Grammaticus are the original Hamlet. The argument so
two poets have wrought " on this or
that portion of the Iliad, generally amounts to no more than this,
in

often used, that " at least

that the poet has there used at least two stories, at least two
bodies of material.

By

the beginning of the ninth century B.C. the epic lays, the

become a whole body of literature, in the full
For them a literary vehicle, the Aeolian or
mixed language, had been evolved and brought to high perfection
a metrical form of unsurpassed flexibility and beauty had been
their overwhelming vogue had, so far as can
wrought out
be judged, eclipsed all other poetical forms and subjects. The
the time was ripe for
potentialities of epic poetry were created
kAeu dvdpwv, had

sense of that term.

;

;

;

the great epic poet.

Then the great
dust of

Somewhere on the Ionian
sky sown thick with
Homer conceived and executed

epic poet came.

among the adjacent

coast or

islands, in a

stars, a great planet rose.

the Iliad.

That
Iliad

Iliad, in its

main substance and

which we possess now.

It suffered, as

we

shall see presently,

It received accretions of

gence.

least are not

from the hand of

forms were modified
ised.

It passed

But

it

its

some

original author.

and purposes our

and only

Iliad,

work

of

the

of

which at

Its dialectical

The canonical

also to all intents

is

Iliad, the

is

was retouched and modern-

remained the same poem.

issued at Athens in the sixth century B.C., which

original

form,

many vicissitudes.

one long eclipse or submer-

substance,

in details it

:

its essential

through

is

Iliad

to all intents

and purposes the

Homer.

About a generation it may be as much as two generations
same poetical movement, the same quality

after the Iliad, the

of poetical genius, taking a fresh advance,

Speaking poetically, as a matter of
Iliad

throughout.

It is a

of higher technical skill.

work

;

overpressed

produced the Odyssey.

the Odyssey implies the

of lower poetical splendour but

In this matter of technical

author of the Odyssey set himself, as
the Iliad

art,

it

skill

the

were, deliberately to excel

somewhat — to use an anology which
not
— as the architect of Beauvais cathedral set himself,

only five years

is fertile if

later,

to excel the architect of Amiens.

general tradition accepted through Greece later was that

The
fcke

HOW HOMER CAME
poems were by the same
interval of years.

INTO HELLAS

9

by a considerable
by the overwhelming

poet, but separated

This view

majority of modern scholars

rejected

;

is

but

cannot be said to be im-

it

but the poet who prono precise analogy
duced the Iliad in the early prime of his life was, as one may put
it, a poet capable of the artistic and poetical change which is
felt in the Odyssey, among new surroundings, with an altered

possible.

There

is

;

life, with an imaginative ardour burning less strongly,
and with increased constructional mastery. As a masterpiece
of construction the Odyssey is unsurpassed, perhaps unequalled
The tradition that it was the work of the advanced
in poetry.

view of

age of the poet of the Iliad
fact that in the last

is

also in singular consonance with the

books there

The

different or a failing hand.

Alexandrian
that.

Up

critics as

may
last

clearly be traced either a

624

a late addition.

lines

to the 19th book the construction

From

hand complete.

certainty of

the constructive power flags

;

were rejected by

But there
is

is

more than

masterly and the

that point on to the end

the substance becomes confused,

the workmanship unfinished or uncertain.

Whether

this is

due

to failing powers in an aging poet, or to his death (as was the
case with Virgil and the Aeneid) before he

had

finished his

work

;

Odyssey are as the poet of the
Odyssey left them, or are the product of a continuator working
on the poet's unfinished material, we can hardly guess. Internal
whether the

last 2,000 lines of the

evidence, Jebb thought, was conclusive as to the workings of

But a

mind

a different

mind

may come

to a poet with the lapse of years and with fresh ex-

in the Iliad

and Odyssey.

different

Analogies are slippery. But if we turn to the most
Homeric of English poets, we shall find a different mind in the
Life and Death of Jason and in the Story of Sigurd the Volsung.

periences.

If

we turn to

Milton,

we

shall find,

even at the interval of but a

few years, the workings of a different mind in the Paradise Lost

and the Paradise Regained, in form, technique, and substance.
We shall find an analogous lessening of tension, an analogous
shrinkage of similes, a different way (as is said of the Iliad and
Odyssey) of thinking of the Gods. The vocabulary and syntax
show marked changes. Had the two poems reached us as the
sole relics of a submerged world, subjected to all the subtle effects
of

changing

dialect, of

long

transmission

through imperfect
2

;

THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION

10

MSS.,of dispersion and re-collection, it would not be beyond the
power of scholars to make out a plausible case both for a primary
Paradise Lost and for the attribution of Paradise Regained to a
different author belonging to a later generation.

So

it

is,

he

left it

With

too, with the Aeneid.
Virgil

for certain.

wrought up into

unfinished at his death,

it

it

we know the

facts

masses of older material

full

of varied readings, un-

had to be arranged and
work conscientiously
and admirably
in particular, they scrupulously refrained from
adding even a word anywhere. But even so, had the Aeneid reached
us without any collateral or external evidence as to the circumstances of its composition, did we possess it as the earliest known
product of Graeco-Roman poetry, reaching us out of an unknown
world, rising like an island out of unplumbed seas, it would be
easy to trace in it the work of different hands. There woidd
finished passages, unplaced episodes.

edited

by

his executors.

They did

It

their

;

almost certainly have been some plausible theory of a primary
Aeneid, and of

its

expansion by successive insertions.

three poets would have been confidently

named

At

least

as responsible

and sixth books, besides a fourth who
worked them over to make them fit into the poem as it took
final shape.
Whole passages would have been obelised. An
earlier theory that it was made up by the skilful piecing together
of a series of short poems would have been succeeded by a theory
that an original core, to which large accretions had been made,
had been wholly re-edited and reshaped, and that the name of
Virgil belonged, if to any one, to the author of the primary or
for the third, fourth,

Italian Aeneid.

By

the end of the ninth century B.C. the Iliad and Odyssey

existed

:

but Hellas did not yet

exist.

followed, the whole history of which
literature, it is represented

by the

is

A

century or more

plunged in darkness.

In

Like

lost epics of the Cycle.

the Chaucerians in England, the cyclic poets carried on the

Homeric tradition with continually enfeebling powers
the
is one of swift decadence and growing
:

record in both cases

incompetence

;

in

both cases the

last feeble efforts overlap the

new poetry. Their object was to supplement Homer
their method was to imitate him.
The Cypria, written as an
introduction to the Iliad, the Aethiopis, Iliupersis, and Nostoi
birth of a

:

HOW HOMER CAME
written to

fill

dated early in

INTO HELLAS

11

up the space between the Iliad and Odyssey, are
the eighth century B.C. The stream of epic flows

on from them

in a fainter

fainter trickle, not wholly dis-

and

appearing until the middle of the sixth century.

Meanwhile,

Hellas had been born.

In the dim records of the eighth century we can just trace
the outlines of a life which was still pre-Hellenic, but which held
in

it

the germ of Hellenism.

The old kingdoms have mostly

Sybaris and Miletus are the two wealthiest and

disappeared.

Greek world. Sparta and Athens are becoming important powers in Greece Proper. The afterglow of the
mediaeval world, which had produced the age of the epic, had
and on the eastern horizon appears, pale and clear,
faded out

largest cities in the

;

the

dawn

The

of a

new

earliest of

day.

the Greek

lyrists, in

whom

the voice of Hellas

do not go back much beyond 700 B.C.
Already by that time the memory of the Homeric poems had
become faint and dispersed. The Iliad and Odyssey, like two
great mountain peaks, had retreated and become hidden behind
first

manifests

itself,

The new poetry, the poetry of Hellas,
it was a distinct
reaction from them, and except in so far as they had created a

the foot-hills of the Cycle.

rose independently of them, except in so far as

literary language

which to a great extent remained that of the

whole Greek world.

The Greek genius had

great creations which

it

it

spent

its

whole

life

and became

—the creation

The

of the individual.

;

obsolete.

we do not

two

of the state

feel

and the creation

epic minstrels dwindled into court poets

For

the lyrists of the seventh and

all

the earlier half of the sixth century,
existed

set itself to the

introduced into the world and over which

Homer

Homer might

not have

in them.

In the sixth century begins the age of the democracies. It is
Homer reappears. As the world travelled on, the foot-

then that

sank away, and in the broadening daylight the two great
mountain peaks once more swam into the ken of Hellas. Homer
had been brought to Sparta from Crete, we are told, nearly a
century before lyric poetry was brought to Sparta direct by
Tyrtaeus and Alcman. But if so, he had not remained there

hills

as a vital influence

Homer was

—he had not

stopped,

we

struck root.

The recitation of
by Cleisthenes

are told again, at Sicyon

rearranged.C. of Sicyon What Athens time of Pisistratus. by a series of There had been much interpolation. Even after If he chose. little . enabled them to reinstate and give universal currency to an Iliad and Odyssey which were in substance the authentic Homer. it went on among those into whose hands the poem passed. the various texts of the Iliad. closure of the Schools of Athens. The text of the Odyssey. But when reading and writing were arts laboriously exercised and confined to a small number of skilled experts. The larger and more elastic scheme of the it had paid Iliad had admitted more variation and interpolation the price also of its wider diffusion and its greater popularity. and what we cannot say Homer was this largely. For the Odyssey. much cutting up but the organic unity and organic life of the Iliad miracles. A he did more as a matter of course. In an age of few written texts and no exact scholarship. gift of later. to Hellas and to the whole world. but we can say the gift of Athens. which were collected by the enthusiasm and industry of Athenian scholars. more freely. . had to be done. because we is no paradox are so accustomed . . element in the life. what still remained fluid and plastic in his hands. as it were. the and Odyssey had only survived. tendency to — so far as they were not restrained by reverence for the text as they had received it. recast. reworded. that. and Athens the Homer. that means. to it only seems paradoxical poems which have assumed — a fixed text before the invention of printing as well as after from the moment of publication. poems were so complete and so powerful that they had come through substantially intact. The term is I have just used must be more closely defined if it The authentic Homer was not a not to be misunderstood. this process only ended with his life. Homer this life precisely . what it is his natural do remodelled. there poet then retained his was no such thing as publication. much confusion. the launching of the Iliad and Odyssey upon the main current about 600 no vital of Greek Whatever B. fixed This text. with its close-knit and masterly construction. poem more in his own possession .— THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 12 means that Homer was it was like Justinian's The re-emergence of Homer. retouched. It it : took place at Athens in the did for Homer. took place did for Athens.

between adding and refraining from removing an addition. " The Pisistratean editors found and accepted this addition. which even according to the old tradition was a separate epic lay. For . in great measure. which has all the But it is impossible to credit appearance had not been inserted into the Doloneia later tradition that the Eustathius. Tren-acSevKev herself been called "the education of Greece. to the best of their power. has educated Greece 'EAAaSa." Their work in main substance and effect was a reconstitution. It issued from Athens. the Athenian editors did not add. the words " Pisistratus added this. Aristarchus at a later period obelised certain passages without removing them that was a further refinement of editing. made Homer. as all the members of vital is a There added it." . But they retained the Doloneia. and difference. clearly post-Homeric. clearly 13 done with great They may have carried had been insensibly which language further the Ionisation of the They were transmission. we may remember. because Athens was already becoming the central focus of Hellenic art and life. previous proceeding in the course of can hardly lines we two one or accused of having interpolated of accretions amount considerable doubt that they removed a . which had found their way into one or another of the texts which were before them. It was the Hellenic Homer. says Plato in the Republic. go back behind the Athenian version. three hundred years later. " Pisistratus of words in the Iliad until then. had Pericles the 7rai8evo-is 'EWaSos. the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings are aware. retained the additions. the Alexandrian scholars did not." we ought to substitute." of a late insertion. our Homer. by Athens. and this was the Homer that they gave to Hellas and to future ages. because they could not. which had found they retained their way into the account of the funeral games : the so-called little Aeneid of the 20th book. But what they left unremoved. Homer If likewise in a sense Athens in a sense made our Athens. through the Athenian capacity for appreciating Homer. But Athens became that. a fresh revision of the Iliad and Odyssey was made. any more than Aristarchus added what he did not obelise. of the authentic Homer . but not a part of the Iliad.— HOW HOMER CAME INTO HELLAS The work of the Athenian editors was judgment and with great conservatism. When. written by the author They of the Iliad.

in literature not only the dramatists. in successive hands and the accretions of successive ages.. the philosophers. which brought Homer into was the first Renaissance.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 14 Both sayings are aspects of the same truth. the soil and water brought down by a thousand streams. we examine their chips and flaws. grew. The of the sixth century B. the historians. dusk of the inner sanctuary. Gilbert Mackail.C. the whole of Greek literature implies Homer. is in organic connection with Homer Those great twin throughout. and Homer through Athens moulded Hellas. Homeric question said always with Murray. statues in the ivory and gold of an earlier world. . is : " It is in us. or some years earlier. is founded on Homer. From 500 B. peaks dominate the whole landscape their slopes . Dr. classics. We like two measure and analyse them. race has ever since turned spirit are fully its ranged the Greek In that temple of the eyes.. the flower of an age in which Homer was The Attic half forgotten.C. feed the and cities of men with the produce of a hundred forests. not only the poets. Greek varying measure. we were born try our best to reconstitute the world in which they . Jointly they created what we mean by Greece they created ideals towards which the human movement Hellas. Thus the touch of Homer upon Hellas had something of the same awakening and vivifying effect that the touch of Hellas has had. drama was the creation of a Homerised Hellas with its Hellenised plains Homer. The effect of the re-emergence and dominance of Homer on the literature and life of the whole Greek world was swift and profound. faded away or became transformed. on later countries and ages. The earlier Greek lyric. So is proposing a vote of thanks to Professor always a keen pleasure to to an address by Professor Mackail. we please ourselves by tracing them the work of The Homer. developed Greek thought and and Odyssey stand in the human the bronze and marble of Behind them the Iliad art. In the course of that movement the Homeric and the Hellenic genius were incorporated and became indissolubly one. I me to listen generally have the satis- . but : the orators. their rubbings and recolourings we conjecture the elements out of which they . Athens Hellenised Homer. again and again. was the whole of classical So.

15 I differ I On cannot but enjoy the beauty of his style and exposition. like those between one book of Virgil and another. we know a good deal about their and the dates lives of their The whole publications. essence of the difficulty with regard to the — — ' ' — — — — . impatient. then. and reword what he wrote as any occasion that is. it is particular premature to suggest that a particular name poems have certainly passed through the hands of tions of poets. present occasion I have been asked to of his remarks and .HOW HOMER CAME faction of agreeing with what he INTO HELLAS and even where says. I doubt if it ever will be. I feel that. The mass of poetry comes to us out of the unknown. And after any given poet's death the poems which he had recited passed in MS. of course into the hands of his disciples and heirs. then. retouch. " I will mention. many The genera- whom must have had a good deal of freedom them. Our knowledge is not far enough advanced. They were Surely. if make some little the criticism only the hour of tea were not already upon us. to admit of our answering the question. his general He well. thinking that he is — method. is naturally surrounded by a certain atmosphere of battle. each of in his treatment of " One should man with a did the whole of this or the whole of that. any fresh performance or recitation of the poems required. They were not mere scribes. What particular man at what time of his life wrote such and such a poem of the prehistoric Greek receive indefinite tradition The questions about Virgil or Milton ? are not similar. and I will take the disagreements As to first. it was the habit of those times for the poet to as I was glad to hear Professor Mackail admit remodel. is I cannot help expecting definite and precise answers to questions which can at present only and general answers. not like that at all. Homeric poems is that we have no such evidence. roughly the points where I agree with Professor Mackail. recast. Further. professional poets too and they continued the process. also remember that the and discreppoems and between differences ancies found between different parts of the the Iliad and the Odyssey are not mere differences of style. and where I disagree. There we know the individual poets. this would be a fine opportunity for a gladiatorial Homer display. They lie They are generally in small unconscious .

xix.' Philolog. religious outlook or the like. and in of the poems. the old doctrine which we were taught at school. admitted. the right question to me in which useful. find that they are not in the least the sort of differences that can be explained by a change in the mental growth of a particular man. 1908. that the characteristics of these non-Homeric epics. of "IAiov terly. It has the so-called Cyclic Epics. 'A #7/117 and Fendiconti Re. are found to imply a different geographical origin. to say. the purification and magic and anthropological stuff generally. July 1907). The way Professor Mackail puts the problem seems to indeed illuminating. misleading. and up the gaps were fill may almost be said to have been definitely disproved. of locality and of date. that I cannot do more than refer to works. of Herakles. have some records. when once studied. and How Homer came to Hellas is exactly ask. a different century of composition. " There is to try It is remark- have been attained in a similar problem by the Paul Friedlander's of the mythological material in ' is slowly the differences of source. 'AOrjvaCrj (Classical Quar- you Lincei.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 16 points. TJntersuch. Drewitt's researches into the use if augment in different parts of the discoveries of the variation Aavooi. by anthropologists that the matter and content of that non-Homeric tradition and not That is later is in many ways older than the main content of the Iliad and Odyssey. use of and 'ApyeTot. you take Mr. and besides them we that we have the two innumerable indirect knowledge a few quotations. a different The evidence is of course so vast But among quite recent it. 'A^atoi. able what results mere analysis recent book. another point on which I seriously hope that Pro- fessor Mackail will reconsider his views that : is. We do find that when the Homeric ' ' . Ac. I believe that the line to follow just at present make out much more to mythological background. his treatment of do not like that name. But the state of the case is which are implications great Epics intact. through mythology and through other forms of art of I — — a great mass of other Epic literature. or Signor Delia Seta's the Tpofy. that these sagas were late inventions left by the Iliad and Odyssey —that made to doctrine late. I believe it is almost without exception. which. " I turn gladly to the points where I agree with our lecturer. and where he has helped my understanding.

valleys at least not epicised. I will — — : explain my point in this way. something like a There are some problem for . as those." (Professor Mackail " No I did not say that. I am the Odyssey I feel really certain that many of the worked also at the Odyssey. that the proceeding of any given final poet 3 — if . are folk metres. that the coming of Homer implies something like the revival of a lost middle age. the thinking out of this I am anxious to admit that. like that of all other is —the Greek own Boeotian the mountains Helicon and Kithaeron. both from the sutures and from the passages which seem to come from some other definite source. " I fully agree. in the most handsome whom it will be any satisfaction. —nay. considered. there does of course remain the unity all is poems. and she forms the Her metres strangest contrast with Pindar or even Stesichorus. the strife of marriages of the daughters of the river Asopus. Flinders-Petrie papyri have demonstrated immense change into the mainland of Greece. inrush of heroic poetry and saga from Ionia. difficulties in detail in Homer first never seems to have been quite forgotten. The Iliad way. as the — when the poems came that illustrates this point so clearly and vividly as the recently discovered papyrus Corinna was not particularly early— a contemporary of Corinna. too. Renaissance. I think it can be seen from an analysis of the poems. they produced an in thought and literature.17 HOW HOMER CAME INTO HELLAS poems — coming. know nothing I text. is — though of course a by the same author.") " I remember now. her language —though slightly disguised in the papyrus — poets her myths are the local folk-lore of her . of Pindar but for various reasons she was uninfluenced by the . I think Professor Mackail seemed to imply superhuman Homer arose the Saga was in existence but it was not in poetical form. ProHe spoke of poetry of some fessor Mackail did not say that. to anybody to as we have a unity it is As to different unity. from Ionia and in their practithough not quite with a fixed cally complete form. The poems were never suddenly discovered in Aristotle's books were. inclined to believe poets who worked . that when his single almost : sort existing. But I will not dwell on " When of the a box intact. with that fruitful thought of Professor Mackail's. The slightly to modify Professor Mackail's at the Iliad point where I should like conclusions so their being is this. we may assume.

at some one moment. who has more than once criticised my book on the Epic. " It is know. among all the poets who kept these epics constantly alive by their recitations. ! poets did not dare to alter We must begin to argue .' we find that very fine poetry indeed was there before him and very fine poetry indeed was added after him. If Mr. and a process of clarification has really taken place. But here we are. well. will. for me. a single tremendous and unique poet who by the impress of his personality altered the whole thing. and whose works were And treated as almost sacred by the poets who succeeded him. too. Lang would only be content and take three or four I will grant him three or four supreme poets. there I have some difficulty. think the difference limits. want a long period growth and development. then I do Still I between us has been reduced within certain feel a difficulty. Professor Mackail and Mr. If among all the children of the prophets. thanks to my I almost entirely controversial. results I ' clarifying have been Andrew Lang. Lang insist on the enormous superiority of some single man. in moving a vote of friend Professor Mackail.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 18 we may so call him —was very often into his and own incomparable style. to have made my remarks most unsuitable. I trust that you sure that will believe my old friend will forgive me. not to take some existing work. a number of serious classical students. again. gather that Mr. practically verse word for already existing. Mackail that Mr. . . arguments from analogy and partly by others. and at least a dozen who were very excellent poets in their way also. interested in our subject and wanting am business. ' " I fully agree. I. and work bit of poetical saga or inferior ballad it up himself but actually to take up bodily word some large stretch of hexameter Roughly speaking. that there has been a process of and co-ordinating ' in the of criticism. whose works minor Old Testament and by most mediaeval will grant me that . guided partly by trying to realise this in the case of myself and Mr. And we can get a good way towards agreement. similar in some ways to that which of has demonstrably been passed through by some books of the Lang They will probably ask me in return to grant them. I I find epics. too. wherever in the process of development we put our supreme poet. and I that I do feel very grateful to the .

as creative art. When he spoke of the and Odyssey to a single poet. There could be no doubt that the Iliad and Odyssey contained masses of previous poetry. He did not for a that the stories which the poet of the Iliad inter- wove into the Iliad existed until that time merely as stories and had not been put into poetical form.m.30 p. G. as a work of art. The doctrine of artists in this matter coincided . With the whole anthropological argument he had Professor to a paper which little concern. but he should like just to explain one point where he had evidently failed to make himself moment mean clear. with the doctrine of men of science. ought to be at the basis of rest not. The direct contrary of that was undoubtedly the case. and That doctrine was advance in the knowThat doctrine or an analogous one all our study of poetry. Gladstone. that did not touch the question of unity. but he did not think it was disprovable. I have learned from Mahaffy seconded I listened 19 to his paper and it. but doubt in middle life former days was in whom they began to because he suspected the same man had written the Iliad and the Odyssey. In that at the basis of all biological study all by the unity of Homer. who considered a great Homeric scholar. that the evolution of any form of life — we life when we were regarding —and poetry was a function of ought not to regard any organism as a thing part of which might have happened and the ledge and the theory of life. New University After tea small parties were under the guidance of members of the University to made up visit the various departments of the building set apart for the teaching of . said that during part of Professor Mackail's paper he almost thought he was listening to his old friend Mr. Beale) and Council of the University of Birmingham in the Great Hall of the Buildings at Bournbrook. sense he held ascription of both Iliad At 4. the members of the Association were received by the Vice-Chancellor (Alderman C.HOW HOMER CAME INTO HELLAS Professor for the pleasure with which for what Dr. The Iliad was." He the vote of thanks. one. Mackail said he thanked the audience for listening must have seemed unorthodox to the verge of blasphemy. he did not think that himself. It was possible that the greater part of both poems might be so made up but looking at it from the point of view of poetry.

Hon.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 20 Pure and Applied Science. J. also the Hall of Residence for women students. were received at a Conversazione in the Council House by the Rt.m. together with their hosts and hostesses and other invited guests. the members of the Association. At 8 p. the Lord Mayor of Birmingham (Councillor H. . which has recently been erected in the neighbourhood of the University. Sayer).

Friday, October 9th.

The second

At

the chair.

the Association was held in the Old

of

session

(Edmund

University Buildings

Street), Mr.

11 a.m. Professor

S.

H. Butcher

in

Sonnenschein read a paper

entitled

THE UNITY OF THE LATIN SUBJUNCTIVE.
This paper has

1

origin in the conviction that the treatment

its

mood

in

some recent Latin grammars intended

for the use of schools has

been complicated by the raising of a

of the subjunctive

number of issues which from the point of view of practical school
work are irrelevant and that the important chapter of Latin
syntax which deals with the moods is nowadays becoming un;

necessarily

and increasingly

but to

students of Latin.

My

but that

all.

all

practical side

;

is

difficult

not

I will

not say to beginners,

argument, therefore, has a

have been led to certain

I

conclusions of a purely scientific character which I desire to

submit to

my

And though

friends of the Classical Association for criticism.

by no means follows that what is scientifically
and intelligible in practice, yet I
believe that in this case science and practice go hand in hand
why should they not ? and that what I hold to be true about
the Latin moods will also be found teachable.
At any rate I

true

is

it

necessarily convenient

want to

see whether something in the

practical teaching

The importance
assembly of

mood

is

An

not come of

of the subject

classical

scholars

way

of simplification of

it.

need not be insisted upon in an

and teachers.

The subjunctive

the crux and the touchstone of Latin scholarship

and again Latin
1

may

as a school subject

is

on

its trial.

;

An immense

abstract of a longer paper which will shortly be published by
(for the Classical Association), Albemarle Street, W.

Mr. John Murray

The footnotes have been added subsequently
paper.
21

to the delivery of the

THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION

22

responsibility rests

must look to
an attractive

on teachers

not only that

it

light,

of Latin at the present day.

its

human

but also that

its

We

interest be exhibited in

grammatical structure be

But I feel that
gloom at the very start of this
day's proceedings on what the Organising Committee has done

presented to pupils without darkening of counsel.
I

for casting a

must apologise

its

best to

make

a cheerful occasion.

Possibly, however, visitors

to this busy workshop of the Midlands will not be surprised at
our presenting them with samples of this among other kinds

Out

of hardware.

of

great Dr.
tradition

Birmingham came Professor Postgate and
The
are glad to see here to-day.

whom we

Mr. Vince, both of

Kennedy spent the early years
runs— at King Edward's School,

of his school life

— so

nearly a century ago.

Mr. John Barrow Allen was a master in the Edgbaston ProAnd it was in
prietary School, which closed its doors in 1881.

Birmingham that the Grammatical Society was inaugurated in
Dr.
1886, from which emanated the Parallel Grammar Series.
Holden and Charles Rann Kennedy, though they did not write
grammars, were Birmingham men nevertheless. I am, in fact,
almost tempted to plead that Birmingham is the predominant
or at any
partner in the production of this kind of literature
rate that a son or adopted son of Birmingham can hardly help
;

being grammatical.

Not that

all

Birmingham men

see eye to eye on

all

points of

grammatical doctrine, or even agree more among
than they do with grammarians belonging to other places and
themselves

To the latter category belongs a distinguished VicePresident of this Association and personal friend of my own,
whose absence to-day I specially regret because I have to challenge

nations.

some part
Those

of the doctrine with

who

of us

listened last

which

his

name

is

associated.

year at Cambridge to Professor
the metaphysical school of gram-

Hale's powerful indictment of
marians in his paper on " The Heritage of Unreason in Syntactical

Method" must have been impressed by the strength of his argument on its negative side I for one accept his main conclusion
as proven, and I promise him to remove from the next edition
of my own Latin Syntax the last vestige of metaphysics, which,
:

as he noted,

But does

still

it

lurks in an obscure corner

follow that

we

f it.

must accept the substitute which

is


THE UNITY OF THE LATIN SUBJUNCTIVE

23

by the school of grammarians of which Professor Hale
That doctrine may be seen in the Latin
?
Grammar by Professors Hale and Buck. For the metaphysical
"
method they substitute what they regard as an " historical
method. The various uses of the subjunctive mood in Latin are
traced to their supposed Indo-European prototypes and classified
offered us

is

a protagonist

We

accordingly.

subjunctive

thus arrive at seven distinct kinds of Latin
the " volitive
in origin and in meaning

— distinct

:

" anticipatory subjunctive " (these

subjunctive " and the

two

being offsprings of an Indo-European subjunctive) and the
" optative subjunctive," the " subjunctive of obligation or
propriety," the " subjunctive of natural likelihood," the " sub-

"
junctive of possibility," and the " subjunctive of ideal certainty
(these five being sprung from an Indo-European optative).

In

way we get instead of one subjunctive mood seven subjunctive
moods and the pupil is expected to find salvation in distinguishing them and referring every example which he come across in
this

;

one particular kind, or in recognising

his reading to

it

as a cross-

— of

the parent seven. For
example, volo ut facias contains a " volitive " subjunctive, but
opto ut facias an " optative " subjunctive, the verb of the sub-

breed springing from two

or

more

ordinate clause being in the one case an expression of Will, in

Eloquar an sileam ? contains a
the other an expression of Wish.
" volitive " subjunctive because the speaker is inquiring as to
the Will of the

subjunctive of

hearer

;

hunc ego non admirer

obligation

or propriety,

?

contains

because the

a

speaker

what ought to be done as distinct from what is
by the hearer
qui sciam ? contains a subjunctive of
natural likelihood because the speaker means " how is my
knowing likely?" as distinct from "how is it willed?" and
from " how is it obligatory or proper ? " and so forth.
Now if the separate identity of these seven parents stood on an
immutable basis of scientific evidence, any difficulties which the
inquires as to
willed

;

doctrine involves to the student of Latin might fairly be said to

be inevitable.

Tant pis pour

pupil has everywhere to

the march of science.

les

eleves.

In the long run the

accommodate himself

And

it is

not without fear and trembling

as best he can to

only because I venture

—to

call into

—though

question the scientific

validity of one of the fundamental postulates of this school of


THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION

24

grammarians that

I

am

some reasons

to suggest

inflicting this

paper upon you.

way

of this theory are not distinguishable in the

theory supposes

—that

I

want

for thinking that the seven subjunctives

they are

in fact

in

which the

not seven subjunctives

but one subjunctive.

But

let

me

state

my

case in the most moderate form.

These

seven Latin subjunctives which Professor Hale says express
" distinct " ideas are traceable, according to Professor Hale's

own

view, to two sources

expressing Will

(2)

;

the Indo-European subjunctive

(1)

the Indo-European optative expressing Wish.

these two the other five were derived by gradual developments of meaning. How then does it stand with the two prototypes ? Is Will really distinguishable for grammatical purposes

From

from Wish
tell

on what

and

if

so,

us that there

is

a very real distinction.

?

lines

sions not of will, but of that incipient

which

called desire

is

by psychologists

for ever," as contrasted with "

tinction between wish

and

Well, the psychologists

?

Do my

*

;

"

e.g.

and

very
it is

degree of psychological subtlety to those

of will

May you
But

bidding."

will is surely a

takes a psychologist fully to realise

Wishes are expres-

form or element

fine one,

live

this dis-

which

it

attributing a high

who

Indo-

in early

European days used the two moods, to suppose that such a
When the
distinction was consciously present to their minds.
prehistoric man said (wip, or whatever form corresponded
thereto in Indo-European, did he consciously realise that he was
not expressing his will but only his wish

%

If so,

how

that

is it

the Greeks and Romans often, indeed ordinarily, expressed ideas
like " may you live," " farewell," etc. by the use of the Imperative

?

e.g.

English

which

:

all

x a 'P e evTvx«, lppi»<ro, salve, vale, etc. Similarly in
King, live for ever." The imperative is a mood
>

"

grammarians treat as the mood

of Will par excellence

not a single Greek or Latin grammar known to

me

recognises

;

any

such thing as an imperative of Wish as distinct from an imperaNor, I may add, did Protagoras, one of the earliest

tive of Will.

students of the moods in Greek
for giving utterance to a

;

for he found fault with

command

Homer

instead of a prayer in

/xTjviv

1
Professor Hale defines the difference otherwise {Crammar, p. 239,
" Will has regard to something felt by the speaker to lie within
note)
wiah to something felt to lie outside of his control."
his control
:

;

THE UNITY OF THE LATIN SUBJUNCTIVE which shows that he too. 2 commands. establish in my longer paper. grammarians — ought to recognise two kinds of imperative an imperative of Will and an imperative of Wish. like vive memor expression expressions of wish an quam sis aevi brevis (Hor. for ordinary 67) or vive valeque (Hor. not necessary to appeal to the imperative. phrase as vive." " live wisely. lies behind The imperative is my petard with which I hoist the theory that the subjunctive and But The optative the optative have fundamentally distinct meanings. 1 distinction which is if the psychological invoked in order to distinguish the optative from the subjunctive were really valid in grammar. e. I refer will. vale Consider for a (Hor. See Aristotle. 5. where the town mouse is giving instructions to the country mouse as to how he ought to live. then. You cannot command II. xix. though you cannot command a man or a mouse to continue alive. 6." quite well Now tive is the fact that will and wish find their unity in the imperato me a strong argument that a similar unity the subjunctive and the optative moods. 110). generally recognised under of the " prescriptive optative " . on the basis of a psychological classification of the various kinds of sentence concerned. fare well. moment such an a man that does not depend on to continue alive or to his will or lie in his power. What is sauce for the goose is sauce for the gander. Epist. 1 2 Commands 4 . 97). II. tvlOolo pot. will if analysed on psychological be found to be an expression not of wish but of to that use of the Delbriick's name mood which is now it is itself lines. Poet.g. as in " live contented. Sat. like our modern grammarimagined that the imperative mood was limited to commands daSe Bed ians. 25 : Yet in the narrowest sense of the term. are not like the above from expressions of will than there is to our con- Compare with the above-mentioned of command. 6. It takes an act of reflection to realise that. but also make a direct appeal to the This I have attempted to will of the person addressed or spoken of. proper (and also requests and prayers) not only express the will of the speaker. Sat. but of consciousness the Greeks and expressions of wish. But to the of expressions demarcation Romans there was surely no greater These and similar imperatives. command him or it to live in a particular way. I. often has a meaning which. you can sciousness at the present day.

" etc. It seems. does it stand with the Indo-European subjunctive will Now how The doctrine Hale and of Professor the fundamental idea of the subjunctive Here tive. just like the imperative of command. nor wish as distinct but rather a vaguer idea in which the distinction between will. the wilier need not be the speaker Apollo. abeat ? (" does somebody bid him go away ? "). If these subjunctives express let that is it is expressed ? The answer will. is e. then. as of the imperaline of criticism. my take I will is propose to adopt a different I my examples Will.g. and wish had not emerged into consciousness. tences : e. The inflexion. abeam ? it no (" do you bid me go away?"). but rather neither of them as distinct both of these from the other from My the optative expresses will as well as wish. now here. now there. that the optative of wish breaks up under the stress of psychological analysis. is our result ? The imperative expresses wish as in . the wilier is is not expressed by the modal inflexion. who Here the always a matter of inference is to act (indicated Will. nor wilier is it .g. § 299). well as will inference —not will as distinct from wish.). Again. that these much is moods expressed to the ancients not so ideas. then." taceas.— THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 26 Homer." from Professor Hale's category Now. " listen to me. whose ordinarily given is will that in independent sentences the subjunctive of volition expresses the the speaker will of But tongue. t. etc. " go same kind the same kind of subjunctive — becomes longer need express the will of the speaker —Professor Hale interrogative." 1 Because it makes a direct appeal to tho will of the person addressed .e. : Who Apollo imperat ut faciam. e. of the " volitive subjunctive. abeas? ("does somebody bid you go away ? "). is it by the personal The only person indicated by the verb is the person by the personal inflexion m." which is psychologically a command * Monro called it a " gentle or deferential imperative " (Homeric Grammar. : it is away. s. contention from a (for ? his school in general is that new point which of view. when we come to subordinate clauses. the sake of simplicity) from Latin. . us ask.g. What. " hold your this applies only to non-interrogative sen- so soon as the admits that abeas. I think will bring out i. deserves to be called a " will o' the wisp. There nothing in the mood to enable us to identify the is wilier.

" e. note on Plautus.)." " you shall find. when this idea. I think. using that : mean simply the is to be it it is concrete idea that something includes the ethical idea of " ought. my incumbent on the person denoted by the personal t. but something vaguer unknown a broad sense merely inferred from the context." once one grasps this point of everything seems to drop into view. but which the ordinary non-metaphysical hardly have recognised under that description something my is bound to be or to happen Roman would —the idea that as in the sentences " If : you should be the lord ambassador " (Queen Shakespeare's Henry VIII. it the idea of a merely logical or 'physical I will call —the idea which we with our metaphysical terminology might define as that of determination by a law of thought or of nature. " it shall be done.g. Moetdlaria. something like what is expressed by the English verb " shall " in the above instances abeas. the Latin subjunctive expresses. you shall find The laureate leaves them far behind (Swift). quid faciam ? " what shall I do ? " its = " what am I to simply an interrogative use of the faciam which ( = am do to) do ? " means " This is I shall The following types of subjunctive I also meaning of the mood. audias. present." but embraces what " ought " term in " obligation " I By to metaphysicians. Katharine in in the . as to belief so-called " volitive " subjunctives really express. inflexion 2 See what is (to. " you shall go away " eloquar an sileam ? " shall I speak or : . The it." regard as revealers of the bed-rock isolated phrases of the type videas. ance (curiously enough) in precisely the — " you shall see. falls. so shall In it fo'e." " you> shall : His merits balanced.) — commonly called "potential " —seem to me to be analogous to a peculiar use of the English " shall " which makes its appearsame type of expressions hear. 1 or has to be far wider . it is and so commands forth. in particular the subjunctive of the so-called " deliberative " question . etc. invenias (2nd person sing. I think.) " Ginger shall be hot sight fail not. 2 1 i. ." fact. 1907). . e.e. mouth " " As the tree . 243 (2nd ed.— THE UNITY OF THE LATIN SUBJUNCTIVE my own have already indicated I what these They express..g. s. When extraordinary how right place. is I will call it obligation. 27 not " volition " in the psychological sense of the term." flat. " Apollo it. be silent shall I ? that you shall do " Apollo imperat ut facias.

Hale and myself are severally responsible) : e. be like his question: the other Sosia about whom he is inquiring must requirement. " I have etc. I hold. the two subjunctives A simple " shall " seems to me of the conditional sentence. of the British Museum. e. but . .g. post and. his glory with the The English verb firmament "—Professor Mackail' s translation) " shall " originally denoted obligation or debt .") rise .g. Thomas... further. might.g. I : often the best rendering in both the clauses.. Mr. who is Sosia the 1 I am pupil. Latin and Greek future indicatives subjunctives. the to answer to if he is speaking. " .THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 28 And if the subjunctive has fundamentally a meaning someit is easy to see how it should thing like that of the English "shall. ter pereat meis Excisus Argivis.g. and retain in their deas careers their on started reflects that all." tu aimer-as. trace this " shall " idea through a number of the chief subjunctive usages e.. Imperium Oceano. famam qui terminet astris who (" his shall limit empire with ocean. sort of thing." " supposing A to be B." and so we get the protasis. an ") originally faimer-ai. ("If thrice the brazen wall shall Thrice it shall fall.. It may be applied to instances like Ecquis alius Soaia intust. has Latin subjunctive ." {e. e. and one is happened in the case of the confirmed in this view when one all. veloped usages nonam or nearly many venies. qui mei similis siet ? (Amph.g. you have to love. — Ter si resurgat murus aeneus Auctore Phoebo. Nascetiir pulchra Troianus origine Caesar.. be B " easily develops a postulative > meaning—" let A be B. did time permit. it has come to express pure futurity in certain persons (the 1st person in independent sentences and The same all persons in dependent clauses). The relative clause is what the speaker postulates or requires in 856). that Romance languages was expression of obligation or necessity. " come traces of their subjunctive origin after the ninth every future indicative of the hour to love. And the subjunctive of the apodosis (" C shall be D ") seems " A shall indebted for the term " postulative " to my friend and former H." I refer to the little more than futurity " anticipatory " or " prospective " subjunctive (to use terms for have come to express : which Prof.

e." we get. cam-clauses) are to some extent traceable to the same idea owing to a process of syntactical disintegration. and in certain though. is personal inflexion (to. C shall be B.) is part of the "context. Providence to make Latin modal syntax But I am quite ready to admit that in intelligible to us. when the young man Pistoclerus in the Bacchides of Plautus says Abeas . si Abeas the Lorarius in the Rudens says " you not a brusque command but an expression of permission : may go away if you like.e.." of developed usages of the But I am it is difficult — " C ought I brief." This When context. but partly by the environment in by the sentence as a whole i. inflexion per se. it "). . not expressed by the modal Yes but this . different may be shown by comparing a slightly is uttering he velis. any particular context the subjunctive seems to express something more than this shall- Or rather I do not admit it I insist upon it. and in consecutive clauses denoting an actual result. I maintain that some shallwe English-speaking nations ought to bless our stars that we have been provided by the accident of language with a verb which seems to have been designed by and prospective in final idea is clauses) the real key to these. mood Of course in Latin. subjunctive has come to be practically equivalent to an indicative in meaning. and If so. I believe that the apparently formal uses of the subjunctive (such as those found in dependent questions relating to a matter of fact. quoted above. etc. " Supposing number the origin of which theory. 29 any if I those found in simple sentences and (e. In some cases other sftaZZ-meanings are more in place the clause with per eat. by its setting or " context.g. he is uttering a brusqueness is command and a brusque one. 3 Under the term " context " I include everything that stands in For instance. expresses the resolve of Juno. 2 . celeriter factost opus ("Be off.— THE UNITY OF THE LATIN SUBJUNCTIVE to me often * to express merely logical obligation be D." Thus from " A that is B. . the the sentence except the modal inflexion itself." celeriter factost opus in the instance quoted. and look sharp about idea. s. 2 Moreover. so express myself to be D. . For example. So." If we were to insert (instead of si velis) utinam or velim.g. with the result that the 1 Not always. too. the abeas would become an expression of wish . This I have discussed more fully in my longer paper. 3 which the subjunctive stands. to trace convincingly on speaking of the subjunctives of meaning. there are a A may shall But must be C ought to be D. the proper meaning of the mood has receded into the background. t.

way (I maintain) is the same abeas all the accidents mere are etc. possibility." subjunctive is : It is all a matter of the context.— THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 30 if aequissimum est. depends for its expression somewhat as an image on in the sentence on other elements . expression of possibility." meaning propriety or obligation. . meanings of command. and you must necessarily not find fault substitute for non Let us try another experiment with ft. not find fault with. the words non culpes this sense is impossible : cured must be endured. a chameleon whose colour depends on its The environ- Apart from metaphor. as a whole is clearly an expression of ethical But take away the two words non culpes and what remains might just as well be non-ethical in " what can't be cured must necessarily be endured. are simply our metaphysical or psycho- They logical interpretation of what was going on minds— our attempt realise in full to in their unmetaphysical consciousness what to them was at most semi-conscious or sub-conscious. ment.. No. : could quote parallels for this use of the subjunctive did time permit me to furnish the evidence on which the apparently (I But with " what can't be dogmatic utterances of the present paper are based)." culpes an expression which has distinct associations with com: mands ne culpes. it would become an expression of obligation But the abeas if vix. an or propriety The full through. To illustrate still more clearly the influence of the context in determining the full meaning of a mood. 176. t^e retina of the eye suggests but does not in itself convey the . that too into a This at once reacts on the feras and turns " bear and do not find fault with command what cannot be cured." be cannot one of those sententious sayings of which the Romans were so " you should The sentence fond. (Publilius Syrus. The mood merely suggests an idea which. the subjunctive modal inflexion only one of the factors which go to express the meaning of the sentence as a whole. these sentences. take the sentence— Feras —non culpos —quod mutari non potest. wish. Ribbeck) (— ought to) put up with. and the distinctions between these ideas were hold) not consciously realised by the Romans when they uttered of the context (I . is if it needs to be rendered more explicit. what " what can't be cured should be endured "— altered.

Had there not happened to be distinct forms for the subjunctive and the optative in Greek and Sanscrit. mean something But if this — my In longer paper I have pointed out some of the special kind of linguistic pedigree-tracing culties involved in this . The course of development I should therefore describe as a process from a unity of vague meaning to a No doubt. then. we should probably never these I have heard attempts at psychological distinc- of these elaborate tions of meaning. where the distinctions between the various uses of the subjunctive and optative have been defined with a rigidity of which no Greek or Roman ever dreamt." standing by itself. duit des. tracing the genealogy of a person whose remote ancestors had a double or treble personality like asking whether the ancestor was Hyde as distinct from Jekyll or Jekyll as distinct from Hyde. Try the effect of removing the if -clause from the sentence in Queen Katharine's speech quoted above (p. det The last are limited to formulae of prayer and expressions of wish.: THE UNITY OF THE LATIN SUBJUNCTIVE 31 idea of a solid object. . always attach different mean- This fundamentally false assumption yet two distinct forms may is constantly made . ii. . the earliest Indo-European times example. and have been only gradually differentiated And this view is in use through a long process of development. at a certain multiplicity of more or less distinct meanings. stage in the history of the languages grammatical theory (chiefly of Stoic origin) stepped in to bring together in one or more paradigms forms and meanings which had not been consciously thought of as 1 the two aorists of Greek. no reason why vergleichende Grammatik. 562). 1 whose synonymity (Brugmann. be synonymous. For dates from . was so with the Indo-European subjunctive (and I may add the optative and the imperative) the task of tracing It is like their descendants in Latin becomes a hopeless one. 9) "you should be lord ambassador. p. But it is a great mistake to assume that to different forms of a language there ings. and it is not till we come to the classical period that duis. Kurze There is. stage in the process of differentiation has been reached in our modern lecture-rooms. duit have the same general range of meaning as the subjunctives dem. might quite different from what it means in its setting. the subjunctive and the optative inflexions may not have been synonymous at some very early stage (both of them denoting the same vague idea of " obligation "). confirmed by the fact that the farther we go back in the history of Greek and Latin the more we find the meanings of the subjunctive and the optative forms overlapping. duis. diffi- but must pass by here. In Homer there is far more overlapping than in Attic Greek in Plautus the optatives duim.

nor indeed would related to one another. In any case. vol. xvi. and I I desired to lay throw myself on your mercy. by evidence that the Homeric poems and the Latin Subjunctive had been made up from a number of different sources. Hale would agree with . In both cases history rejected the plea. in practice.] . in Harvard Studies. [I have avoided speaking of " original " meanings of the subjunctive and optative inflexions. principles will work would take too long to enter into the question how the subjunctive should be treated in a school grammar. popular instinct might be said in both cases to have and so to create a new theoretical unity or But these meanings were in reality related to one another any grammatical theory about them. between Professor Mackail and Professor Murray. which makes : will it no longer be possible to its appearance in certain kinds of sentences according to some mechanical rule So gets. unities. believing as I do that the meaning which I have assigned to the subjunctive will be found useful in practice as well as in theory. because I do not know whethor originally Their (in the strict sense of the term) they had any meaning at all. reviewed in The Year's Work for 1908. Professor Mackail had pleaded for a single Homer. by Oertel and Morris. his a protest against merely mechanical interpre- tations of the subjunctive. (" On the Origin of Indo-European Inflection"). —and that far I whole grammar am is is about as far as the ordinary schoolboy me sure Prof. meaning or meanings may have been acquired by a process of adaptaFor a recent statement of this point of view see an able paper tion. it ought to mean a liberation of school teaching from some of the briefly burdens which have been imposed on And I think But it it rough outline how I see in in the my name of science. Professor Conway congratulated the Meeting on having been privileged to listen to so witty the way and lucid a paper. my views before this Association . If the point of view which I have and imperfectly set forth has truth and solidity in it. But. prior to grammatical theory have been able to unite thorn under a common namo had they not been in themselves related. which pointed to a freer conception of a chapter of Latin teaching which had often been a burden. on the other hand. One thing I am clear about treat this mood as a form without meaning.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 32 One word in conclusion. The question somewhat resembled the issue raised on the previous afternoon. and Professor Sonnenschein now pleaded for a single Subjunctive.

particular categories of meaning. but it seems to me that to deal with it adequately would require careful consideration. The distressing thing was that destructive criticism of grammatical theory nearly always right. such as (1) erimus (2) simus. for a particular set of uses. Reid. as Professor were thoroughly metaphysical. especially as the phenomena attractive picture of a single of sequence showed that by the time of Cicero. ausim." and " I only wish it might be. have gone beyond the covers many of his own Latin Grammar. the mood Romans But he did not think it would ever be desirable to class such different meanings as " I command that it shall be. of the categories. Professor Sonnenschein in his turn had criticised very justly the seven categories which Professor Hale had set up. so close as to enable us to in Latin the Mood had one definite central Professor Hale last year had very been. He was nearly always convincing and would very much like to (the speaker) accept Professor Sonnenschein's own subjunctive. in say that at any one time meaning. just as in case had it gone quite all the way. —" intricate. (5) regeremus. Homer the artistic grouping and shaping of a later bard or bards did not completely conceal the separate Lays out of which the poem was compounded. (4) regamus . He concluded by respectfully congratulating Professor Sonnenand suggestive way in which he had schein on the stimulating opened the discussion of what was a very very practical and important question. though in neither That is to say. . rexerlmus . (3) amemus and regemus . and had a definite conception of the as a unit. but also a have listened with great interest to Professor Sonnenschein's paper. What seemed to him the only safe method was to explore as far as we could the earliest meanings and uses of the different forms. and he had hunted but in truth he need not rather far in order to find examples . brilliantly criticised the metaphysical tendencies of his predecessors. S." under a single rubric. so in Latin the grouping of different uses together into a correlated system or " Mood " had never his opinion.THE UNITY OF THE LATIN SUBJUNCTIVE 33 gone some distance in creating unity over again. There Professor J. where Sonnenschein pointed out. and then in the second place to study how far these different uses had so influenced one another in the popular mind as to establish definite relations between them for and (6) rexissemus . I 5 .

but which Professor Sonnenschein has not mentioned. the causes of which are inscrutable to us. a wish is very often equivalent to a command. that the subjunctive has many components derived from different sources. yet users of But tinctions. one or two points which I think very important. desire. I think. credulity. in fact he seems to admit. of the its causes can often phenomena of the Latin subjunctive are due. is kinds of feeling can be run into one another wish. But he does not lay enough stress on the fact that languages are learnt by habit and not by conscious thought. Their use by those who is a matter of tradition and not a matter of reflection. spreads itself all over the field. You may say " Go out ". . But Professor Sonnenschein's I must not continue on this theme. The fact that it is so is indicated by the relation of the speaker r Syntax has to be regarded very often from the point of view of the relation between two persons. so the syntax of language indicates a gradual disintegration by habit and fashion . and one generation gradually changes the syntax and hands on the change to another generation." for you do not want to deliberately the the stronger form. and the process is very like the processes of phonetic change not be discerned. would like to put before this assembly is that. but instead you say. supposition. to the person addressed. A great —that many is to say. Again. " Suppose you go out. to that gradual process of change. Another matter which many I think of some importance this — that —command. And that kind of feeling. ! commit 3 ourself to the brusque form. speak them While a great mood like the subjunctive varieties of thought. He it as a often uses wrong form because he does not choose to use You may have come into your room a beggar who annoys you very much. it is made to express many are not conscious of these dis- cross-examined. user was not conscious of all I think the fact that the ordinary that the subjunctive implied is not which Professor Sonnenschein attributes to it.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 34 are. they would be bound to admit if that the distinctions existed. command When a person has he sometimes of set purpose puts supposition that the person should do something. of the importance Another point I just as the phonetics of language indicate gradual disintegration. however. sion chosen a right to is —and very often the expres- deliberately not the right one. He has not disproved. if you look at the history of Latin syntax.

" S. he would give us some indication of However. any more than they could psychology. conscious or sub-conscious. afraid word I am shall further. illustrate his Professor paper largely from Plautus. He himself doubted if they could altogether banish metaphysics. but without the clue the Homeric syntax they could not have found any sure basis for the subjunctive as Sonnenschein did well to it exists in later Greek. " Listening to this paper made me curious to know how Professor Sonnenschein would deal with for — Mr. the secondary tenses of the subjunctive. from Plautine usages threw almost as junctive as . in real mood. yet also with a regularity so remarkable that in classical Latin they were seldom. Forrester. of Professor Sonnenschein's such a unity in the Latin subjunctive. to the fact that his paper be glad if I think the examples suppose that was due I was a summary. In any case it of the subjunctive perhaps be taken as a corroboration of this they opened up interesting analogies. struck attempt to discover But for Homer we never should have imagined that the Greek subjunctive was at one stage of its development a strong future which may be denoted by " shall. The Homeric uses was properly a might view." The Chairman said that he believed in a unifying work in the popular mind which determined the uses When they found a an immense variety mood like of shades of instinct at of a meaning. I should how he would deal with the secondary tenses. they might by the success was some underlying fairly infer that there He was much idea of unity. and is I shall be glad to see any simplifi- cation of the teaching in regard to the subjunctive. A protest had been made against importing " metaphysical ideas into grammar." From those " shalls " of Homer they were able to deduce of all the Attic uses of the subjunctive . R. His examples went far towards establishing the probability that " shall " mood. much light on the Latin subHomeric usages did on the Greek. used indeed with if ever. he gave us were all primary tenses only. I should like to consider it have to thank Professor Sonnenschein very what I have learnt from his interesting paper. the subjunctive. much : seems it I But I am frame of mind on the application of the in this Still 35 and artificial." THE UNITY OF THE LATIN SUBJUNCTIVE paper an important one. doubt whether the subjunctive or indicative ought to be employed.

as those Homer. its He says the subjunctive colour from its upon the is environment. moods were already sharply optative. in proposing a vote of thanks to Professor Sonnenschein. In tracing the meaning of moods or tenses little light was gained by examining the etymological meaning of the suffixes. the French faimerai. he should say at what time existed the unity of the subjunctive that he starts with. and further it can be inferred from the how the meaning of subjuncwhich can be shown to be later is derived therefrom. like a But something besides the context which comes in on each : is is memory. I think Professor Sonnenschein in putting forward his views should have given us a date . had established between them a natural link of thought. further than the simple instance cited by Professor Sonnenschein. as in so many other cases. has laid emphasis importance of the context. to meaning see that the form did not give the key to the actual philological analysis of the The fundamental meaning of mood or by noting the living usage of a language. said " There are two points I should like to refer of the tense. and without placing any undue strain upon the sense. chameleon. written or oral. tense could only be discovered : to. in words tives which have my heartiest agreement. The Greeks were no doubt more metaphysical than the Romans illustrations might be drawn from the distinction between the subjunctive and . Professor Postgate. He had brought together a number of usages of the subjunctive which at first sight seemed to stand apart. though it would be false to conceive of the people who so employed these modes of thought as conscious metaphysicians. for there. he his idea. They were greatly indebted to him for his paper. Professor Sonnenschein.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 36 the use and interpretation of the moods. origin was one thing and usage They need not go another. " The other point is this. judge — first how his theory Then we could about that date agrees with the previous uses of the subjunctive as data of other languages. But in all distinguished in syntax which attempts to render the finer expressions of thought. a kind of metaphysics entered. When a person uses a grammatical not concerned only with the immediate expression of this That form has its associations with uses on different . which takes there is occasion form. Professor Sonnenschein had approached the subject by the right road.

in seconding the vote of thanks. It was the empirical unity of a set of modal inflexions expressing modal relations which naturally grouped themselves together. approximate unity. said that he was glad to take the opportunity of saying in a few words how it man struck the plain after listening to the experts. What is the subjunctive ? Professor Sonnenschein had stopped The subjunctive was not a thing was a metaphysical abstraction. They seemed to differ. He found himself in agreement both with Professor Sonnenschein's main thesis and with Professor Conway's remarks that followed. it certain convenient headings. was carried by acclamation. The fact of there being a showed that it must have a unity. I not metaphysical. But modal relations were infinitely vague and complex formal grammar only followed them roughly. think metaphysics has no place in I — which grammar should be taken into account and for which allowance should be made whenever it is reasonable so to do. while it excluded others thus the so-called " future indicative " and " imperative " were not . Professor Sonnenschein. then. said that it would have given him great pleasure to indicate his of thanks attitude on the various interesting points that course of the discussion. in acknowledging the vote of thanks. but lie at the root of the whole discussion. and the naming. The subjunctive of the grammarians included the bulk of these inflexions and grouped them under short of asking that question. because the invention and use of the word meant the recognition. consideration logical because — This. because they approached the matter from different sides. of such a unity. and so the unity of the subjunctive was only a rough counted as parts of the subjunctive. " subjunctive " at all . . tions threw much He light they seemed to him to The vote did not know whether these consideraon the points that had been argued. a formal expression of the aggregate of certain modal inflexions which had been grouped together by grammarians.THE UNITY OF THE LATIN SUBJUNCTIVE occasions and in different surroundings in the past . is an important psycho- say psychological. at which hour they . but he because it felt was already past twelve had come up in the that he had no right to do so o'clock. At the basis of the matter lay the question." Professor Mackail. 37 and these echoes of previous usage powerfully modify his selection between possible forms of expression.

" si non periret immiserabilis. partly to complete the report. statement on the matter that he might publish. the whole he the speakers felt . 1 Printed on p. guided by the advice of Canon Bell. at Cambridge. say. at the previous meeting of the Association. final Professor Conway presented the Report of the Committee on the Pronunciation of Greek. " it should have been done. The past to be very brief more of : imperfect subjunctive corresponded in past time to the present subjunctive in present time: e. in regard to the point raised secondary tenses of they caused any difficulty to his theory (on the contrary they strengthened the case). that the the subjunctive had been omitted not because he believed that he had a good answer to make.g. The Committee did . " if the Trojan youth should not perish unpitied " (prospective of the past). and partly to meet some of the criticisms last year. " you shall go away"). the now. 1 and reminded the meeting that had been approved already it and approved unani- in principle." fieret. He pointed out the slight changes which had since been made. eloquerer an " silerem ? " ought I to have spoken out." videres. "you should have gone away" (the past of abeas. " that you should do it. 100. mously. adoption of the sound of u in Latin as being the alternative open to least objection. or to have been silent ? imperavi ut faceres. but simply and solely because he had had indeed. same vowel modified slightly though for French in adoption. " you should have seen. he had had to cut out three-fourths or what he had written in his longer paper. from any the speakers all He had got valuable hints and he would make use of them in . on its wording in a few details which had been offered The Committee had further recommendations about the Greek mended the sound of the v.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 38 ought to be getting to the subject of Greek Pronunciation. abires. On encouraged by what had been said by most of and on the points in which they disagreed with him He would just by Mr. contained He directed attention also to the cautions in the report as to the sent the Greek accents experimental attempt to repre- in pronunciation. Forrester. yet in any school in which this was it still felt to its recom- for general be so difficult Committee recommended the as seriously to hinder the teaching of Greek.

THE PRONUNCIATION OF GREEK not wish to prevent experiments of that kind. but that certain points be reserved for future con- These points had been touched upon by Professor was open to members to discuss any other minor matters that occurred to them. It brought with the advantages in connexion with the teaching of modern The compromise it. Any large question of that kind was foreclosed by sideration. and meanwhile thought it well to offer a few observations which might serve to guard such experiments from some serious dangers. : approved. He reminded the meeting that they There might be a were holding over the question of accents. too. The Chairman pointed out what the limits of the discussion At the last General Meeting the following resolution was carried in regard to the original draft report on Greek pronuncia" that the general principle embodied in the Report be tion were. way recommended by both simple and practical. Professor Burrows said that he had great pleasure in supportmade by the Committee since uhe last meeting ing the changes of the Association. Miss Wood seconded the adoption of the Report." Conway. but the whole question as to pronunciation. which the Committee had made in regard to w and -q would be a help to many. of the value of adopting in the pronunciation of Latin and Greek certain sounds in French and German. it vinced. whether the modern Greek pronunciation of the vowels and diphthongs should be adopted or not. such as the u sound. Speaking from the point of view of a practical teacher. of Greek must feel the great difficulty involved in teaching the use of accents apart from pronunciation. but it 39 did not consider that the time had come for any general recommendation. she felt how desirable was that the pronunciation of Greek should be assimilated She was conas far as possible to the pronunciation of Latin. Greek in and had found it all For some approximately the it fifteen years he had pronounced the Committee. The . It was a comfort to feel that those extra refinements which would be refinements on existing Welsh or Scotch languages which the Committee claimed for — or North-country pronunciation —were not obligatory. It the previous resolution. because clear statement about accents. future report on that subject. could not be reopened. if She would have a any teacher like to possible.

as was. of who on the German ch any language or indeed in of Western Europe with which he was acquainted." The Chairman pointed out that the German sound of ch at the natural solution would be to The Rev. which was directly obvious to everybody. but with the h sounded. W. the back upon the aspirated said that. mendation with regard to accentual pronunciation " should be added to the resolution. had intended comment or criticism. That was especially reasonable with such words as aTlxyu*.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 40 Report was a thoroughly English document. ground in that at the beginning of a auch was unknown in German word the sound itself. it had it said about accents. and aTe^vcos. Sloman. whatever times mean its precise value. say nothing more. and 6/x. breathing the very spirit of He was compromise. only to fall were impossible to give beginning of a word. phonographs. there clusion that " there is no doubt whatever " that in the classical period there was no such thing as stress. suggested that the words " but would welcome a recom- to put himself He C. Those of them who went a good deal to Greece might produce that sentence from whenever those sad arguments arose with their modern Greek friends. The distinction in accent. aAAa and dAAa. he ventured to submit an amendment. it introit was a great help to have the remarks at the end of page 5 recom- mending a distinction in stress accent in certain classes of words. might be possible even for those who were not musical to duce the musical system of accentuation. exactly what glad the Committee had said He only hoped it would Rouse would provide them with Professor Browne had done the day before. Compton if it in order. o/xw. While he welcomed the Report as a whole. But. did undoubtedly in ancient a difference of pronunciation. whereas in the second . and was particularly glad that the letter £ was for ever was nothing to show them on what grounds the Committee had arrived at the con- established as a double consonant. At this point a letter was read from Mr. desired to move that on page 6 of the Report line 10 should read " ch in chovus nearly as in English chorus. and point out that they were not all in the dark. and could under present circumstances reasonably be represented by stress accent. though he make a few remarks by way of k.ws. as If Dr. but did make some little concession to the modern tongue. page 5. A.

stress Pointing to the bridge over the river. In English they knew that poetry was not pronounced absolutely according He to metrical rhythm. practically In modern Greece pronunciation by accent was universal. A few years ago lie happened to be looking absolutely universal. The upon him was that it was all chimerical. to the pronunciation of regard In ? ing Greek pronunciation which he had heard objection only the stress accented syllables by names of those things was. used in order to facilitate the pronunciation of the language by They told him that the Greeks accented their words foreigners. The*CHAiRMAN. the shepherd called Sperchyoss. whether was it river itself He via or -noXoxo. in the Golden Age.THE PRONUNCIATION OF GREEK 41 by accent was. ye<f>vpa ? Next he asked him yc<f>vpd (with stress on the last vowel)... were commonly what Greek pronunciation then was. How The iraXaid.d.. asked that the whole thing might be reconsidered. or Let them be when accents he knew. " How are we poetry ? " He believed that the last word on the rhythmical to get over the metrical difficulties of reading reading of Greek poetry had not yet been said. order that Roman barbarians might learn to pronounce sentences with a musical tone. -Kakaid.C. He was told that such was the pronunciation in the fourth century conclusion forced B.' pronunciation on recommendation welcome a Professor Mahaffy said that he had often attempted to get ' : ' modern Greeks and modern scholars to pronounce sentences according to musical accent and not according to stress. to speak Greek as to find out it not think they ought to attempt He did was spoken in the fourth century B. and that that theory was found in i n Dionysius of Halicarnassus.. He of Dionysius as verbally inspired.C. close by him. did not accept the statements He thought that what they 6 . century a. and that they might have more light than the Committee had yet thrown on accentual pronunciation.C. so far as B. he said to a Greek shepherd The shepherd instantly replied. was it that the had survived in that way in the mouth of with the latest theories regardunacquainted a simple shepherd. content with the third or the second century first began to be written. yecpvpd. said. down upon the river Spercheios from the Pass of Thermopylae.— " The motion before us is— That the Report but the Meeting would be adopted with these words added by accent. and. he supposed.

affect should Babrius ? The d^vttds was a Herodas answer was simple. the last syllable being lengthened and the previous one shortened by the stress. Postgate member of the Committee two speakers. to give much attention to refinements in the to was not practical which even It school. What the last foot had to Why mean ? have been bound by a rule which did not That law who preceded him by Herodas. did that it its first syllable. he agreed with . the Greek fabulist. Mr. observed a noticeable limitation in the construction of that metre.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 42 should aim at.. who might be placed in the second century a. — Dionysius' state- difference in the musical pitch being a fifth. was the Greek that was possible Komans in the second and third centuries. of the history of certain it was essential that the last foot should be a Babrius.C. After all they must learn Greek with reference to its use at the present day. on was not found in the scazons of several centuries. told them that the Greek accent was a musical accent. that they might talk to the people there and understand what the people said. word accented on the last syllable. did not lengthen the shorten the preceding syllable. iambic. In his treatment of have an accent. He was in favour of giving up subtle theories for the practical benefit of scholars when they went to Greece. certain people of intelligence could not grasp. but he wished to offer a tried to introduce it He had and he had few suggestions. no doubt that the tonic accentuation was classical. ment was confirmed by what they knew There was a metre in Greek called the scazon metrical forms. being then a musical one.d. It was perfectly admissible in Herodas. R. as a single word would show. but. in which spondee. Elliott agreed in the main with the report of the final or Committee. for in his time it was pronounced aphnlds. T. acute or circumflex. and would be inadmissible at the end of a scazon of Babrius. after experience. the total amount of Professor said that as a he rose to answer the criticism of the last . himself. To the question " What right had the Committee to say that the accent of the Greek language had changed from a pitch accent to a stress accent and what right had they to say that there was a musical accent at all ? the answer was brief that Dionysius of Halicarnassus. as a practical thing. who lived in the first century B. since the accent..

believed that in early Greek the pro- extent according to dialect. that of % a s German ch. which was much further from the classi- pronunciation as cal pronunciation. He supposed it began when Erasmus. German or any other. the pronunciation of 6 as English th. . + . deny that (o£os. considered recent attempts to ever arose from zd were unsuccessful Se for. J. etc. Accentuation was the soul of a language. evidence pointing otherwise that must be first from Classical £ arose cf. once the accent was taken away.a^s in Plato. He wanted to say a word in regard to accentuation. cf. described how Greek should be pronounced. for the sake of distinction. The discussion as to the pronunciation of Greek had been going on for more than three hundred years. and would with the pronunciation of also involve an undesirable confusion As to the aspirated consonants. . nunciation of C zd still He £ *'A0r)va(v)<. and. . Dr. Dawes thought that what the Committee was doing was a retrograde. French. (1) it was in inscriptions Aio'£oto? . perhaps from and to some its origin. It would also obscure As to short a.eyas) (3) gi . (4) i there was strong accounted ast-s) (tvyov. was found 'Ai^Va^e = as well as Ashdod was represented as *A£wtos in Herodotus. p + h. S. (2) di (Zeus. and <£ as / was best. from the practical point of view.. English. In regard to £ he thought difficult. Erasmus meant it as a play upon the wrong way in which people were speaking Greek. Goth. Whatever the language might be. As to nunciation like the ci. he thought their pronunciation as t + h. varied according to He . (jacl&v. //. for whom.THE PRONUNCIATION OF GREEK 43 other practical teachers that for ordinary English boys and under- was absolutely impossible. *to8 ivyov).. was too difficult for ordinary English learners. Aios) sandhi. in a satirical dialogue between a Lion and a Bear. . cf. a of aha did not make enough practical distinction for English learners from the long a of father. not a forward movement. Aioo-Sotos etc. and Auramazda as 'fipo/x. These and other reasons were in favour of the view that £ in these and other cases represented a pronunciation more akin to zd than to dz. he believed it better for practical reasons to pronounce it like English a in at the proposed prograduates it metres for them. certain that its proposed pronunciation as dz that generally prevailing in classical Greek . when not found too by no means at. first he preferred the pronunciation as ey in grey to the proposed * in ice.

He agreed with Professor Ross. "It is a pity that the term 'Neugriechisch' (modern Greek) was ever invented. In England they had the fight in In the middle of the eighteenth regard to Greek accent long ago. He went on to remind the Meeting that they were engaged in an eminently practical attempt at reform. Report were accepted as that the pronunciation of If the would be the Greek vowels and diphthongs would it stood. with which the pupils were already As to further counsels of perfection he would remind what Blass says " I am perfectly convinced that if an : ancient Athenian were to rise from his grave and hear one of us speak Greek on the basis of the most scientific inquiry and with the most delicate and practised organs." The Chairman pointed out that it would not be in order to discuss the general question of ancient and modern pronunciation as regards accents. century some books were published in Oxford without accents. the natural result follow very nearly the pronunciation of the corresponding vowels and diphthongs familiar. one of the earliest Professors in the University of Athens. away with accents. then. them of in Latin. he would think our pronunciation horribly barbarous. He had himself found no difficulty in teaching Greek pronunciation according to the idea being that they could do could not do accent. The particular amendment before them. putting the question of accents aside. the easier it was to teach it. they had rejected a good many things which on strictly scientific grounds they might have recommended. it expressed a desire for a recommendation by the Committee on pronunciation by accent. for while accepting the Report as a whole. Taking that ground. however. The more one understood the tone (rdi/os) of a language. Greek was in a perilous position. was quite in order. to bring the scheme of pronunciation into as near accord with the scheme of Latin pronunciation as could be reasonably done. But if he heard a modern Greek . so they had attempted in the Report to limit themselves to recommendations which they believed could be carried out and which would not impose such burdens upon pupils as to endanger the future of Greek study. The general principle on which the Report was based was. who once said to him. but not otherwise.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 44 the language was ruined. They might in printing. They away with accents.

" did not think the Committee would object.m. the was carried with three dissentients. for which he ventured to doubt whether a Committee was the best kind of author. After further discussion the Rev. it was simply the expression of a pious opinion. The amendment having been withdrawn. Gilbert Murray's English translation by Miss Horniman's Company was given in the large lecture theatre of the Midland Institute before an audience which numbered about eight hundred and fifty. . He reminded Compton agreed to the meeting that the amendment enforced nothing upon the Committee . A copy of the programme is printed on the following page. and the request put forward in the amendment would really involve the writing of a considerable book on technical and difficult subjects. to report on the question if it were so of accent.30 p. withdraw his amendment. Professor Conway pointed out that the Committee had already had heavy work.THE PRONUNCIATION OF GREEK 45 he would not indeed be so loud in his censure simply because he failed to observe that this is He supposed to be his own language. W. desired. a highly original resolution successful performance of the Hippolytus of Euripides in Dr. At 2. C.

Ion third.C. etc. 1908. Legg. The scene is laid in Trozen. Phaedra Huntsman A Henchman of . was Archon. 429). The scene designed and the play produced by Lewis Casson.. Lewis Casson Evelyn Hall Hilda Bruce Potter Doris Horrocks Violet Critchley Lilian Christine Hilda Davies Enid Meek Hippolytus Chorus Leader Chorus of Trozenian women Huntsmen.. The incidental music by Granville Bantock.: THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 46 THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION. second. daughter of Minos. wife of Theseus bastard Hippolytus. Olympiad 87. king of Athens and Trozen Jules . PERFORMANCE OF THE HIPPOLYTUS in OF EURIPIDES Gilbert Murray's English translation by Miss Horniman's Company. The stage fittings and limelight effects by George W. The costumes designed by Penelope Wheeler. Attendants. Dramatis Personae Eenita Lasoelles Sybil Thorndike The Goddess Aphrodite The Goddess Artemis Theseus. Shaw The play was first year 4 (B. Birmingham. Owen. under the direction of B.. in the large lecture theatre of the Midland Institute. Iophon . acted when Epanieinon Euripides was first. and executed by Ada M. and the The Nurse An old son Penelope Wheeler of Theseus Amazon Hippohjte of Leonard Mudie Dorothea Spinney Edward Landor . General Meeting in October 9th. king of Crete . Phaedra. Iden Payne.

as follows From Dr. President of Magdalen College. I should like to pay the tribute of warm and lifelong friendship and to express my deep regret and condolence with you all in the sad loss you have sustained by the death of my old friend Professor Churton I always considered that Birmingham did a national Collins. H. that unselfish and enthusiastic lover of good literature whether found in the ancient or the modern Classics. if you will allow me. Asquith) took the The audience numbered about two thousand. " One thing more I should like to say. by recognising officially the merit of that great teacher. and I regret to miss the memorable occasion and opportunity of hearing the Prime Minister (a Scholar of and with the Balliol of Classical my own work of which I time and one of the very foremost Classical Scholars in the Oxford of my of the Association deliver what undergraduate days) as President is certain to be a most interesting much Totied. away. Sonnenschein (Hon.MEETING IN THE TOWN HALL Friday.15 p. : Warren.m. I Birmingham to-morrow ? regret to miss the meeting in always regard as a neighbour University. always address. and this greeting. October 9th The President (The Right Hon. Professor absence. H. Vice-Chancellor of the University of Oxford " Will you express to the Classical Association and to : friends in it is Birmingham not possible for Association which I regret it for is many Birmingham. have some personal acquaintance." service 47 . H. But a Vice-Chancellor is in duty be I cannot morrow the autumn term begins here.) read letters of apology for chair at 8. T. Sec. I can only send you. which I my me my very genuine and keen regret that to be present at the meeting of the to be held in reasons.

" Having had the honour last year of offering a hearty welcome to the Association at Cambridge. I publication of think that it it The Year's Work in office. Arthur Strong. I doubt not." Letters of apology for absence were also received from the Hon. among all English towns. address to Hall of Birmingham think. to attend the meeting of the official Classical Association. Classical would be a serious misfortune if the way during the coming years should in any lack encouragement. Professor Henry Jackson. H. Professor of Biology in Leeds and Chair- the Education Section of the British Association : " Every friend of learning rejoices to see what you are doing to vivify studies which not their hold many years ago seemed to be losing on the attention of the English people. I entertain a confident hope that you will succeed. Professor Ridgeway.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 48 From the Rev. and others. I now desire through you to convey to those present at Birmingham this expression of good wishes for the success of the meeting and the furtherance of These wishes. S. " It with is quence of : much regret that I find myself unable. are shared by its who have all at heart the reform of Classical teaching. Miall. Professor Myres. S. aims. H. this is perhaps the . ' k Dissociated as I have been perforce during the last two years from Classical Studies by the absorbing cares of I value highly the great usefulness of and Studies. in conse- engagements." From man of L. The Right Hon. E. Mrs. Roberts. Master of Gonville and Caius Cambridge College. Sir Walter Phillimore. " Birmingham. Asquith then delivered Address " : That it is my privilege as President for the year of the Classical Association to deliver assembled I his Presidential in the Town my its members may be regarded. "It of is happy omen that the Association this year has the countenance and support of His Majesty's Minister of first State. C. as a striking illustration of the interdependence in country of culture and practice. Professor Exon.

or ceased to take a lively interest in the progress of criticism and discovery which is every year throwing new light on their meaning. It seeks also to co- ordinate and bring together the ever-accumulating results of the labours of British and Foreign scholars. which. brought about a radical change. Sonnenschein. nunciation of its execution. and our Universities and in most. however. But which of us does set up a University offence — Birmingham has not I myself. Butcher. " ties. when I remember that I am in the chair which was occupied by Dr.— THE PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS one most associated popular thought and speech with in the strenuous interests of business and politics. And although. may well excite of iconoclasts and revolutionaries The reformed scheme has been adopted. for a long time waking hours — past. The Classical Association has a double side to its activi- It seeks to examine and improve our English methods of studying and teaching the Classics. in the course of two years. of useful experiments in who has been a pioneer the art of teaching the ancient and has done as much as any one to organise and develop the work of the Classical Association. and a Professor of Greek and Latin in the person of Dr. have been compelled to spend may I 49 feel to-night the gap on our platform due to the regretted absence of its illustrious Chancellor ? much — a University with a Faculty of Arts. if my phrase without use an ancient non in Platonis republica sed in Romuli faece. if is in not in of Latin prouse practical all. which. first head it Under the has already. left it open to the schools to retain schools. into Moses' seat. and laying deeper and broader the foundations of their imperishable fame. in of our public It was recommended for use in secondary schools by the Board of Education in a circular issued in February 1907. yet I can honestly say that I have never wavered in my allegiance to the great writers of antiquity. I am painfully sensible that one who is not even worthy to be called a scribe has stolen languages. 7 . both in the magnitude of its scale and the rapidity the envious admiration in other walks of life.

Too often in the past the only permanent mental gain from the hours devoted during many years to the learning of Latin . and which has done not a little to isolate English scholarship. those most commonly made being (1) the distinction between u the vowel and v the consonant. You have thus. it will be found equally easy to rout the forces of Conservatism. are practically unanimous as to the necessity of retaining the study of Latin. difficult ground. the Association is now attacking the problem of the pro- schools — nunciation of Greek. in effect. Broadly speaking. and a in first such a way as real intellectual discipline. even those the name of satisfactory who speak to in natural science. no less than 550 use the reformed pronunciation. In 24 out of the 550 the scheme of the Association has been adopted with modifications of one kind or another. in the course of two years made a clean sweep of a system of mispronunciation which has prevailed in this country for more than three centuries. the soft c and g before the vowels e and i. Of these. it is obviously of the importance that Latin should be taught to be a propaedeutic. It is observe that the best authorities. it may be said that the use of the reformed pronunciation has become normal in grant- earning schools. this in It will more broken and be interesting to see whether. "Side by is side with these large reforms. will be interesting to you to know the It results. Encouraged by this success. the details of which will be set out in the forthcoming Report of the Board.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 50 if they pleased the traditional English pronunciation. and (2) the retention of the traditional English consonantal sounds as. When one remembers how few of those who at present are learning Latin in school can by any possibility develop into scholars in any real sense of the term. for instance. prosecuting a less the Association ambitious but equally useful task in seeking to secure that the highest educational value shall be got out of the time which schools to given in most English is the teaching of Latin. Returns have been received from 577 in which Latin is taught.

have been brought about in this country both in the conception and the practice of classical study. from time to time. their yield. the field has now been . the results of the researches and discoveries of those are. whose Early Age of Greece has laid me. the Association has charged with another function — that of bringing together itself in a coherent and connected form. Numismatics. Rouse. after the death of Porson.— THE PRESIDENTS ADDRESS what trivial is — a good memory and just as well forgotten. become at once apparent to any one who looks at the admirable annual compendium which is edited for the Council by Dr. Its subject is the relation Classical of archaeology to classical studies. " Let me make my meaning clear by an illustration. of which were a happy guess at a new a corrupt passage. among many others. how important indefinitely varied it is is who are engaged How many in the different fields of scholarship. The subjects treated are indeed almost bewildering in their number and diversity. as he appears to hold. Textual Criticism even this comprehensive catalogue by no means exhausts logy. as I said just now. English scholarship rapidly degenerated into pedantry and verbalism. MythoEpigraphy. I was reading the other day a discourse delivered to the Association of Scotland by Professor Ridgeway. His main thesis appears to be that. or some tour de force in the elegant and futile trivialities of Greek and Latin the highest achievements reading in versification. and that of many here present. Grammar. History. has been one of at least dubious value for 51 " But. It of all a better and closer is a perusal of this volume which has suggested to me one or two reflections on the changes which within my own memory. Sculpture. the various forms of activity which the learned countries are devoting every year to knowledge of the ancient world. "If. those fields and yet how that the work done in each should be brought work done in all the rest. under a deep debt of obligation. Archaeointo reciprocal relation with the will logy in all its ramifications.

The revelation of the existence during centuries. scholar's a productiveness what all think that Professor Ridgeway I may I of classical scholarship we knew of the that this in country.c. and probably is. when practically call history early of Mycenae and Crete was to be found in the Iliad and the Odyssey. of which now We nearly the first traces were unearthed at Mycenae and Tiryns this and Hissarlik. the earlier part. or of sense its the proportion. believe that they can trace Minoan epochs.. to mention only a examples. result is is his in opinion largely to be attributed to the introduction and acknowledgment of archaeology as a necessary part of the equipment. compelled a revision of the traditional notion. were these out many of days the in possible Conington's Lucretius.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 52 and broadened. such Virgil. stretches back into an almost immeasurable past. has. of this almost unsus- pected Aegean world. which begins with the sack of the later Palace at Knossos about 1400 b. corresponding roughly with its the so-called Mycenaean of the mainland. Jowett can had and and books as Yet few Munro's Thompsons and and translations of Plato. and which. possibly during thousands of years. the case that through stages of development and decadence and Crete before his school so-called it crossed to the Argolid. and JebVs Sophocles. perhaps lasts to 1000 b. recovering. of twenty years is it hardly an exaggeration to say that in domain the pen has become the servant of the spade. in the pre-Schliemann era. which. of course. English scholarship has recovered. before they reach the era called Late Minoan III. But there be no doubt that Schliemann and his successors have what can only be described as a revolutionary influence. each with a no it went in the Cyclades Mr. may It be. saw the light.c. in which most of us were brought . at editions any is disposed to underestimate both the range and the little rate. have to some extent altered the bearings of English During the last indeed of universal scholarship. know that the pre-Homeric civilisation. Evans and less than eight characteristic art of own.

in setting aside false interpreta- what used to be and generally But to the recasting the perspective to the Poems. whether pictographic or factorily in the bronze age. in the picture which Archaeology has of historic Greece. a Greek race stature understand. " Prehistoric archaeology in the region of the Aegean has indeed raised more questions than it has solved. if I may venture to say so. wall decorations and was ments. much that is still obscure. who were and did not burn help us. admits that at present no definite answer can be given. and. who everything that is a Hellenic has relevant to the subject. none of the Cretan scripts. Burrows London : John . for. M. its and hydraulic arrange- in its sanitary if the surpassed in the later days of ever. and the effect seem to become more rather than less disputable with the progress of research. with shaven race. their deciphered. waist. To say this is not to disparage or undervalue the service which has it rendered. 1 Crete. of the successive waves of satis- described as In ? which the origin. still more that is highly conjectural. 1908. still in ? and narrow in and who buried Their language does not dead. have linear. as I short faces. There constructed of what may be called. in pie-Achaean ages. tions. We gather from that which remains of their art that the men who erected and lived in and about this wonderful building were a dark-skinned and long-headed Greek art. as yet been Can they be properly Is their art to be called Greek Art migration. in giving historic actuality regarded as manifestly legendary or in The Discoveries in Murray. were swept they out of race ? To these questions collected in his excellent absorbed or existence dominant or a contributory factor Professor book * either in the historic as Burrows. the succession. to fictitious. The great Palace at Knossos.THE PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS up. rarely. is. particularly to Homeric scholarship — in correcting crude theories. by R. that we have in the Homeric poems the 53 first records no doubt. without prejudice.

reveal him as the master of ancient a readable and even an attractive style ? or the Philippica of Theopompus. translated by Gilbert Murray. though surprising. It to perish. if rediswarmly welcomed by the educated world. and his those or discourses ' equally remarkable Meropis. if tradition is credible. still seems tempting to speculate which of is works that we know to have existed would. in due its and uses proportion all but . which. etc. be his particular calling excavation — should particular potsherd belongs. Professor (as Ridgeway rightly says) must be kept in an ancillary position. that so few of the lost literary treasures of the ancient world have been The recovered. which has preserved so much apparently so left hopes. We would gladly exchange a little — Minoan pottery for some of these masterpieces or indeed for some genuine product of the chisel of Phidias early 1 Greek Oxford : Historical. . according to Wilamowitz von MoellendorfTs recent Oxford lecture. contained more than the special merits of Herodotus and Thucydides. often has so been) to obscure and almost to obliterate the writing of The genius. be most The lost Attic tragedies ? or the comedies of Menander ? and dialogues of Aristotle. much. Writings. time in wrangling over the question to which of our nine Minoan epochs a hypothetical as elaborating in may about the different usages theories The shadow av and ovv. which. — textual criticism. is " Amidst all the digging and scratching and scraping that have been going on during the last twenty years on all sides of the Mediterranean. these aids the true rare. Clarendon Press. the covered. never be allowed (as it of whatever grammar. It must not occupy the foreground and dominate There may be as much pedantry and waste of the scene. of the commentator. perhaps it ought not be to it is disappointing. which was actually in existence in the ninth century. 1908. and mock our to caprice of chance. and scholar scholar values true each lights.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 54 student of ancient archaeology literature.

the so-called Classical authors were a select. almost an aristocratic body. I suppose there was not a sentence or even a line in the Ethics or the Republic. Herodotus. every possible interpretation of which was not as familiar to the great Oxford coaches as are the traditional openings in The well-regulated student chess to a Lasker or a Tarrasch. which tempted him to roam afield. " In truth the great writers of antiquity remain. and Cambridge. literary . and the third may possibly have There is. or of the . the Attic dramatists. to reward the patience or the good luck of some fortunate member of the indefatigable and undefeated fraternity of the spade. a growing tendency to extend the range of There is no fear of the great masters of charm being dethroned from their seats Homer. who were immersed life. at both Oxford to be a scholar. new lights upon their environment. as it were from outside. he was warned against the double danger of a too superficial knowledge of his authors and a vitiated style. was kept somewhat rigorously within this carefully fenced domain. their own best interpreters. If he showed vagrant. Thu- classical reading. Intensive cultivation of the writers of - the Golden Age was versate diurna. contemporary with Virgil and Horace. and intelligible what was all but meaningless. migratory tastes. ' glad to say. I am been. Nochima It probable that very few is in the great versate mcmu. it may be 55 that these things are still only in hiding. which have in not a few instances what seemed to be fantastic. They were studied with a minute and even meticulous care. style and of power. But perhaps a still greater service has been rendered in our time to English scholarship by the made real wider knowledge and more comprehensive survey of ancient literature itself which is now required of any one who aspires Thirty or forty years ago. Augustans ever read a line of Strabo. or of Dionysius of Halicarnassus.THE PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS But or Polyclitus. as they have been and always will be. Archaeology has thrown. of us was the rule of its motto. — though anonymous author of the treatise on the Sublime two of them were certainly.

for they belong trievably to the proletariat of literature. Livy. may I not say.— THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 56 cydides. There are many authors. think that in days gone by we have been a But little I irre- venture to too subservient to tradition and convention in refusing to admit the title of original and interesting writers to be ranked with the Classics. and Plato. will always maintain an undisputed ascendency. history of men. of ' the accurate study of the language. Sandys. Cicero. the accomplished Public Orator of Cambridge. Lucretius and Catullus. that what we call the Classics whether as instrument of education or as field for research have come to be treated with a larger outlook. even though a man should put in peril the purity of his elegiacs and iambics. ancient as well as modern. " Lastly. to use his own words. who made up the last and the lowest were proletar'ti. our title . and Latin prose. and for the first time supplies English readers with a luminous and or of his Greek connected narrative. Sandys reminds us of what. But. who are those more read than they deserve to be. and of all they had to teach us as to the nature and Dr.'' even some members of the Association may have forgotten the true origin of the term ' Classical ' which forms part of and which has given its name to a whole field of In the Nodes Atticae (XIX. without any disparagement of the great scholars of our youth. 15) learning and research. Aulus Gellius describes a certain author as classkiui scriptor. possibly. And the History of Classical Scholarship by Dr. and Tacitus. literature and art of Greece and Rome. non proletarius. supplies a need from which we have all suffered. what a mine of interest. 8. literary as well as historical. in a more . a metaphor which apparently goes back as far as the division of the Roman people into classes by Servius A citizen in the first class was called classiais Tullius. his scholarship is one-sided and incomplete unless he makes himself at home in less familiar epochs and in fields that have been less assiduously The two fascinating books of Professor Dill show tilled. lies open for exploration in the later centuries of the Western Empire. at Rome. the Augustan poets. and.

THE PRESIDENTS ADDRESS scientific spirit. There is no form of study least of all the study of language and literature. There is nothing more irksome to the natural man than to have the presuppositions on which he has lived rooted up and cast upon the rubbish heap. In like manner the facile and attractive simplicity of many of the theories which had crystallised almost into dogmas as to Greek and development of Greek had to yield to the sapping operations of the comparative method. For the efforts literature of the two great European races of the ancient world can never lose supreme attraction. of their knowledge and other departments relations to other forms of indeed a is the of characteristic movement of our time. and is found in the new setting of a larger scheme of knowledge to be hopelessly out of perspective. which are the vesture of men's thoughts and emotions that origins. has — — can afford to isolate itself pedantry and sterility. prima porta its and of . the order poetry. " Here is a work which is without incurring the risks of worthy of the co-operative of this association of scholars. less in I was much struck reading the brilliant address delivered this to the assembled votaries of Natural Science President of the British Association. 57 with a quickened consciousness This of investigation. of absorption or supersession. them it is lingiiarum its true. But this is the often unwelcome service which Science is always rendering to the world. Greek religion. by the Mechanical theories and explanations no longer satisfy the well-equipped biologist and botanist who has to deal with the problem of living matter even in its most rudimentary forms." 8 notitia . in the est incommunicable splendour famous words of Roger Bacon. Aristotle said long ago that the being that could live in isolation was either below or above humanity. sapientiae. and as to a hundred other points. still with this autumn is no longer any question of mutual exclusion. It is more and more recognised that the many mansions which go to form the Palace of Knowledge and Truth open out into each general intellectual There other.

Asquith has done us in giving us so much of his valuable time at a moment It is. Asquith for his interesting address. the one a Birmingham man by origin and the other a Birmingham man by occupation. And once again. because the Classical Association has special connexions with Birmingham : I believe that the Association emanated specially from the brains of Professor Postgate and Professor Sonnenschein.—" have been and propose anticipate and I desired. and succeed or fail we feel we all said. Asquith Oxford. and I hope we shall never forget it. when he must have so much upon his mind.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 58 The Right Rev. Whether we quite sure that Asquith will succeed. and examples of of I undergraduates on a certain occasion discussing their contemporaries. at School assures us that the classics were not taught in a mechanical by him. a group lection of as one of the very rare have a most distinct recol- upon Mr. gratitude that me course. So that Ave have a special reason to be proud of the Classical Association. am I also very glad to be able to propose this resolution in Birmingham.' " I suppose that our brain positively reels. training of the past. we were vote of thanks because. to rise a resolution which I have in which you no doubt you will all That the best thanks of will heartily join. I am sure And now we must top dog confess — I is mean at the present moment not the cause of the the cause of Classical Education. if we attempt to conceive what must be the anxieties and responsibilities of the Prime Minister and therefore . the Bishop of Birmingham. we have in Birmingham. But I am quite sure that it needs all our . together under conditions which involved at least as much We were undergraduates together at fellowship. without asking leave of the President. although I suppose he was a scholar or narrow spirit of the old school. to a special pleasure to be allowed to propose this if we were not boys together. of like this. that he has succeeded we are heartily glad that he is prepared from his elevation to give a helping hand to a cause which. intimate I look fulfilled prophecy. it must be with the most infinite we accept the kindness which Mr. a great Whatever has to be said about the classical any rate our record of the great scholars who were made under Prince Lee's teaching at King Edward's classical tradition. in spite of this brilliant assemblage to-night. — ' this meeting be given to Mr.

I am quite sure. were listening this afternoon in the Midland Institute to the performance of the Hippolytus. which just preceded at the time we its are to maintain classical studies which they once held. As we we are really to maintain the worth of classical study. it . if must we and Humanities the name of be because it deserves its old of our manner reforms in make such want as far as possible to and meaning value human their real that teaching the classics and permanent human worth may be made manifest. responded to the deepest human feeling. I was thinking of the Association which is going to hold its meeting in Birmingham next week Association. for which we owe such grateful thanks to Dr. the mass of Was ? it not a pro- to say. sure that it would be a great mistake if I we allowed am quite the classical cause to be identified with the cause of archaeology or of digging. that it touched the deepest human chords.—— VOTE OF THANKS TO THE PRESIDENT energies if 59 we are to maintain classical studies in the place which in Birmingham they held If brightest distinction. the Association which the Workers' Educational is trying to bring our Universities into closer connexion with the aspirations after knowledge of the workers. Gilbert Murray. interesting Association and what . valuable as archaeology and digging are. that it probed questions that are at the very foundations of human progress that it those great questions of the invisible world foundly modern drama and deeply human to be understood. not profoundly if classical men who want study is to be educated . that is quite sure that. I am prepared to give my humble assent to all that was said by the Prime Minister in his very interesting address. " Ladies and gentlemen. ? if —was I am it. athirst for foundest sense human. 80 far from doing that. we must about the task of making men understand what in anything like the position set vigorously is their real value. I gather that in this Association is it at least not uncustomary to use the opportunity of a vote of thanks for a violent attack upon the person to whom you are proposing the vote of thanks. is there any one of them who could have failed to feel that this drama was in the prowas this. supposing they had listened to this Hippolytus. I was thinking It is a very this afternoon — Suppose you had brought any of those working men knowledge into the theatre this afternoon.

THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION

60

are to be united in real appreciation of the value of classical
come about because those who are responsible

study, that will only
for its teaching

make men

classical studies are the

the thoughts of the

feel

that in a great and deep sense,

Humanities, that there are to be found

men who

stirred the depths of

human

feeling,

and who asked the great questions which we shall for ever be
occupied in endeavouring to solve. I do not know whether
others were struck by it, but certainly when I was reading the
fragments of Lord Acton's great work, the History of Liberty,
in that volume of broken essays which is all we have got of
that great book which will never be, I could not help feeling how
impossible it is to understand the deepest and most modern

wants of men without the mind continually going back to those
Greeks who asked the questions which it is for all ages of

humanity to seek to

solve.

say we are heartily grateful to the Prime
Minister for having said what he has about the width of range
If I may make a confession,
in the study of classical authors.
"

And

once again

I

ever got really enthusiastic about Latin till I
I still venture to think that hardly
began to read Tertullian

I

do not think

I

;

and I
remember
not
we
do
am sure that we make a great mistake
that the classical languages, at any rate the Latin, went down
to a very late date getting continually new leases of life.

any writer

of Latin

is

more

interesting than Tertullian,
if

"

our

What we want
educated men

freely, for it is

only

classical

education to do

is

surely to give

the power of reading classical languages
we get free power to read a language that

if

and then we can grow in discernment of
really use it
meaning according to the measure of our special aptitude for
But the first thing is to read the
niceties of appreciation.
languages and I do for various reasons desire warmly to propose
this vote of thanks to the Prime Minister for his valuable and

we can

:

its

;

interesting address."

Mr.

S.

H. Butcher,

in seconding the vote of thanks, said

should like in one word,
said,

first

of

all,

:

"I

to repeat what the Bishop

and to assure Mr. Asquith that the

Classical Association

does appreciate very deeply the courtesy and kindness which
have induced him to keep an engagement which he made a year
ago.

At that time,

I imagine,

he did not foresee that he would

VOTE OF THANKS TO THE PRESIDENT

61

be Prime Minister of this country, nor could he have foreseen that this would be a very critical and anxious moment in
and yet neither business nor anxiety has prevented
politics

now

:

him from coming
" In

here, to our delight, this evening.

interesting

his

and

luminous address three

points which he emphasized come home
we now begin
First, that
reminders.

to us
to

see

four

or

useful

as

all

in

its

true

historical perspective the place of Greek civilisation, thanks

Next, that the study of

especially to archaeological research.

literature must always be supreme over archaeology and the
allied studies.

Thirdly, that

we should encourage through

Association an extended, a more

human

this

range of reading than

has hitherto been the tradition of classical schools. Also I think
he suggested the idea, which I believe to be profoundly true, that
these

ancient languages

which are in close

and

and

literatures

vital relation

human study and human

are

organisms

living

with every other branch of

activity.

" Now, ladies and gentlemen, those

who

are interested in the

classics must feel a natural glow of pleasure, when we get among
us, as we have this evening, a classical student who has risen to

the foremost place in the public

would

like to believe that

he

life

is,

because he has had a classical education.

would say that he

is

antiquated training.
is

true,

it is

Some

of his country.

what he

is

of us

partly and largely,

Others,

I

imagine,

what he is in spite of having undergone that
Anyhow, whichever of those two things

certain that his tribute to the classics this evening

has a value derived not only from what he has said, but from
what he himself is. There are some people who think that any

man who

has been trained in the classics

dreamer, a mere dreamer or scholastic

is

sure to

idler.

That, I

become a

am

con-

what others believe, that
the study of the classics fosters a temper of mind that is narrow
and of limited sympathies, and even reactionary, especially in
I heard some little time ago of two classical men who
politics.
were crossing the Atlantic they were talking about Homer and
An
of the extraordinary interest that still gathers round him.

vinced,

is

not true.

Nor

is it

true,

;

American

listening to the conversation observed,

who your Homer

was, but

go-ahead kind of party.'

anyhow he seems

Now

I

would not

'

I don't

know

to have been a
like to

apply to

THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION

62

such an august personage as the Prime Minister this particular

form of expression
is

not only a

ideas,
desire.

and
I

" In the

add

in the

of

man

;

but this we

may safely say, that Mr. Asquith
man of action and a man of

of letters, but a

some

ideas that are quite as advanced as

of

us

beg to second the resolution.

name of the Classical Association, and
name of this great audience present,

Asquith to accept our

The resolution was
Mr. Asquith.

warm thanks
carried

— " Ladies

I

am sure

I

would ask Mr.

I

may

for his lecture this evening."

by acclamation.

and gentlemen,

thank you most

I

heartily— first and foremost for the patient and indulgent consideration with which

you have

listened to

was a somewhat amateur discourse
thanks, the value of which,
to

me by

the fact that

if

illustrious a scholar as

true that

when

may

what

and next
say

so,

was proposed by

it

fellow-student, your Bishop,

and

I

;

am

afraid

has been enhanced

my

old friend and
and seconded by so distinguished

my

friend Dr. Butcher.

undertook to perform this duty

I

I

for the vote of

It is quite
I

could not

anticipate either that I should at this time be the occupant of

the post which I have the honour to hold, or that the date for

my

engagement would take place at a time
and difficulty. But none
the less I can assure you it has been a very great pleasure to
me to divest myself for an hour of all those cares and preoccupations, and to find myself once more in that old companionship,
the fulfilment of

of considerable international anxiety

the charm of which never
together those

fails,

the companionship which unites

who have once imbibed

the taste for the literature

and the language of the ancient world."

At 9.45 p.m. Professor Waldstein delivered an address on
" Herculaneum," illustrated by lantern slides. In referring
to Mr. Asquith's address, the lecturer remarked on the striking

agreement of their views on classical studies.
The only point
on which he ventured to differ from the Prime Minister was in
his conception of the true province of archaeology.

Classical

archaeology was not only or chiefly concerned with fragments
of vases.

Though

in

its

ethnological aspect a vase-fragment

might be as important as a statue by Phidias,

classical archaeo-

HERCULANEUM

63

logy was mainly concerned with the manifestations of the classic

mind

in the

domain

The study

of art.

of these

monuments

,

the artistic remains of the Hellenic genius, was as essential to
the complete understanding of the Hellenic past, as was the

study of classical literature. He then proceeded
" Herculaneum is to be excavated, and in our own day.
:

my

Leonard Shoobridge and

and colleague Mr.

friend

The

laboured for will be accomplished.
those

What
I

living generation

have

and

immediately following us will therefore not be deprived

of the great treasures of culture

that site

which we know

lie

buried under

nor will the increase in the value of the land,

;

and more built over, make
difficult than it is at present.

the future excavation of the
I

am

site

more
more

not carried away into ex-

aggeration by the enthusiasm for a cause to which I have devoted
myself for some years when I say, that the excavation of Her-

culaneum

will

be the most important of

all

excavations hitherto

undertaken, and that these excavations will constitute the most

important

have

classical

event of

all

times.

I

hope that before

I

concluded this short address this evening I shall be able

to convince

you

for I shall give

have just made
and enforce them
the treasures that have

of the truth of the statement I

you the reasons

for

my

;

beliefs

by bringing before your eyes pictures of
already been found on that site.
" I believe that nobody will nowadays deny that the greatest
advance in

classical learning in the last fifty years

has been

achieved directly or indirectly by the development of the study
of classical archaeology,

excavations.

New

life

and

especially

by the

results of recent

has been given to classical study through

archaeology in that, in the

first

place, ever since

Winkelmann

upon the civilised world the
true nature of Hellenic art, the specific and distinctive characteristics of Hellenism, which had previously only been realised
through the study of literature and philosophy, were brought
home to the Western world with a directness and intensity
before that unknown. Moreover, in a less direct way, new life
and

his congenial spirits impressed

has of recent years been given to classical study in that, greatly

through the influence of the archaeologist, the inductive methods
of observation and research have been embodied, and have thus
brought

classical

study into harmony with the

scientific spirit

Montelius. widened the vision as regards the lower limits in the history of classical civilisation. much work remains for the future as regards the upper and more recent limits of the classical age. and beyond that of central and northern Europe. It is a disingenuous libel to speak of the classical students of our day as schoolmen. age and other ages relation to other civilisations. given back to us centuries. down to the neolithic nay. To illustrate what mean by an I historical analogy nearer to our own times. has. by Fallmerayer. nay millennia. " The development of archaeological study and of excavation has. has been made manifest. the monumental with the earlier phases of civilisation. or as mere dilettanti and narrow literary exquisites. But with regard to the earliest periods of classical civilisation the work done by Schliemann. and the excavator. the whole Mediterranean basin. the knowledge of which was absolutely withheld from the The connexion generation immediately preceding our own. " A still more recent development of classical study. I would beg you to suppose that the Renaissance in Italy and the Elizabethan age with by historians and scholars as England had been dealt in if they both stood quite by themselves. mainly due to the influence put it of the archaeologist unnatural isolation in which when they claimed it. to put it coarsely. the paleolithic ages of man. Evans. also impressed a truer conception of the universal history of man. its established. disconnected from the previous and succeeding ages of Italian and English history. by Hodgson. In spite of work done by Gibbon. that the classical age has been freed from the aroused an for it it had pleased previous ages to opposition as unjust as artificial organic connexion between the and countries. the relation and Graeco-Roman civilisations — and that of Egypt and the East nay. of early Greek civilisation. is. has been defined subsisting between the Greek .— THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 64 of our age. and above all by Dr. to negatively. By reaction it has improved the methods . has fix quite exceptional conditions and thus classical it is The harmful. Ridgeway. has been re- endowed it with a truer and has life. by Wickhoff and Strigovski. of late years especially. and mere gram- marians. and that this isolation had led to a narrow and an exaggerated concentration upon these single periods in the history of nations. Reinach. pedants.

above 9 . literature. with classical history. and archaeologists.HERCULANEUM 65 work and study among the local antiquarians of central and who are no longer actuated by the amateurish spirit of local patriotism. however scientifically and soberly. Now fife. art and philosophy. not the subject we choose. truly characteristic or casually indistinctive. . owing to the newness and the consequent vividness of interest Though pertaining to the prehistoric aspect of classical study. above all. to distinguish between what is essential or accidental. the essence. and in this scientific method it is. is and we are never the recognition of these central And not the end and goal of classical study. It is thus the method which makes us scientific. the truly characteristic feature of classical its aesthetic scientific if features is and philosophical supremacy we ignore this. and from our hearts we wish the great study success as we tender to them our in this line of Nevertheless I venture to strike a enthusiastic appreciation. " All this workers is pure gain. of losing sight of the true essence of classical antiquity. important to recognise the essence of the thing we are studying. if . are in danger of losing the sense of pro- portion. We note of warning. at times may it be right to insist upon the fact that the Italian Renaissance and the Elizabethan ages form an integral part of the historical development of Italy and of England great lesson and flower may be taught when we of culture art of the Renaissance though a some way connected with the gropings the fact remains that the literature and was of half -civilised people. as it will of all periods of highest civilisation. we must. but are becoming scientific observers of northern Europe. then that we are scientific. All that and in It is we have to see to is that we are truthful in our discovery our exposition of these aesthetic and philosophic qualities. and highest beauty the in the later phases of produce men can that of the best models of study for the civilisation. " I wish to say boldly and emphatically that the aesthetic and philosophical side of classical life will always remain the essence of classical study. learn that the highest fruit in and of the heyday of English life are supreme excellence of their artistic chiefly worthy thought as manifestations of of their the depth production and and thus as lasting and living truth. I maintain that in dealing.

Here life was arrested in its prime. than all the great sites I have mentioned put together. sites as the rich treasure which such us. of the ancient Greeks primarily from this point of view that I consider Her- culaneum to be the most important site for classical excavation. hermetically sealed for us to restore it to its pristine . and were ransacked of The hand contained. " This is due to the nature and prominent of its sepulture during the great Remember eruption in the year 79 a. and more specimens of ancient manuscripts.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 66 be concerned with the aesthetic and philosophic aspect of all. is not a rash statement I would but point to the simple that the imperfect excavations carried on in the eighteenth century at Herculaneum have yielded in one villa alone a greater number and a higher quality of ancient bronzes. and.d. not even as great as many of the other Campanian to hold (whatever finds belonging to the lowest layers may cities. Alexandria or Pergamon. The sand of Egypt is Hellenic. Delphi or Olympia. Let us encourage as much as in us Hellenic civilisation. not only to the devastating hand of time. the nature of such that. the manuscripts come in " All these unfavourable conditions do not obtain at our Herculaneum. the soil is all the treasures they of the iconoclast has since destroyed what Moreover. but that they were continually overrun by more or less barbarous hordes during the whole of the middle ages. by chemical disintegration. sober study of the prehistoric periods of Hellenic civilisation a lies . To prove to you richer harvest of things of Hellenic beauty literature that this fact. ancient sites of life that all the well-known were exposed. prize but Egypt was not specifically all Oxyrhynchos have given a sporadic and imperfect form. highly as kinder we . I venture the prehistoric periods bring) that its excavation will yield a and works of Hellenic and thought. but the head and forefront of classical studies will always be the highest and philosophy literature. it has destroyed or disfigured most of the buried works of art and of literature. art " It is and Romans. than were derived from Athens or Rome. What proved so fatal may turn out that great catastrophe subsequent generations of civilised to its inhabitants during to be most fortunate for men. Though the ancient city does not claim great specific importance. the rapacity of the savage had spared.

and many others. whereas Pompeii was a provincial and commercial town without any life of higher culture. it can be proved that. forming. unfortunately Now for us. given in Pliny's letter. there must be further villas. " These conditions of sepulture are furthermore much more From an account more from the evidence of actual excavation. Herculaneum. you absolutely by the objects found there which I shall bring before you in a few minutes. ashes and water mixed (not lava). the substance that more favourable to the perfect preserva: bronzes retain their delicate when they were made. In one villa there is so I shall prove to the majority of the beautiful works of art which I shall show you this evening were discovered in the eighteenth century. tion of the objects thus buried patina as on the day not melted glass is That this Moreover. therefore. to carry off some of their most cherished treasures. and not completely covered only to a height of twenty feet and that. the library of a specialist in epicurean philosophy. was completely covered with by what is best described as a great stream mud. on the other hand.HERCULANEUM We vigour and beauty. nay. we have reason to hope that all the standard authors villa of antiquity might be represented among the finds. we know that Pompeii was covered by ashes and lapilli. to expect. —nay. We hardly dare allow our imagination to realise the great treasures that may await us there. and still — — did return. not a specialist. with the exception of some . " Furthermore. marble is not calcined. and 1700 more or less perfect manuscripts. " Since the rich harvest in ancient works of art was reaped on this site in the eighteenth century. to a height of between seventy and eighty feet above the roofs of the houses. that the actual life 67 have reason to hope. the smaller Herculaneum was a resort that drew to it cultured and prominent Romans such as the Balbi. the inhabitants could return. of this ancient community is there preserved to us as it flourished more than eighteen hundred years ago. even papyri can be restored to legibility. Agrippina. and favourable at Herculaneum than at Pompeii. Should another have belonged to some ordinary Roman of culture. Even the one villa found was not completely excavated in the eighteenth century. greater suddenness of liquid which in Pompeii remained covered Herculaneum is visible. Lucius Calpurnius Piso.

that any one can find fault with me Meanwhile if I I express do not think my regret that the plan of such a great international excavation was not adopted in this case. us hope that there will be no further delay. as I have given them in full in a But book which Mr. and would have bound them together. " Now let me demonstrate to you ad oculos. It was therefore. in the rejection of great such a proposal. by illustrations.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 68 slighter attempts. For art and science and culture are the real links uniting us. as you probably all know. . Shoobridge and I have just published. But the work has not yet begun." Here a demonstration of slides followed. for the progress of civilised humanity. Let to direct the work. if possible still more deeply. made. is the fact that such an international co-operation on the part of all civilised nations would have done more for the advancement of peace and goodwill among civilised men. for I am convinced that only by such means can the work be carried out adequately. the work being concentrated on Pompeii. I can say with join me in my expression —and am sure you success to attend this great enterwish of the hope — that sincerity will all I I prise of the Italian all Government. important my means of some reasons for considering Herculaneum the most classical site. the excavation of Herculaneum. The reason for this is the simple fact that the town of Resina is built above the site. I need not dwell further on my reasons for this belief. that I conceived the plan some years ago of uniting all civilised nations to co-operate with Italy in It was to be an international and governed by the laws of. than all the peace conIt would have been a real union of ferences and congresses. and that the expense of such an excavation would be so enormous that neither Italy nor any one nation could be expected to undertake such a task. and no great and concentrated for the last thirty years all effort has been excavation has been completely abandoned. It is now more than a year and a half ago that Italy decided to do A commission was then appointed it by herself. the several nationalities working together in one great cause. what I deplore. national excavation was twice on the eve of realisation. and at once. You are doubtless all aware that this scheme for interItaly. enterprise under the leadership.

The Council attaches the highest value to this publication. the Council has considered what relations should be formed be- tween such Associations and ours. E. October 10th. at about 1350. Edmund (A) Street. Harrison read the Keport of the Council. "It is with special pleasure that the Council has heard that another Local Branch of the Association (the third) of formation. S. " The second volume of The Year's Work in Classical Studies appeared early in the year. now . 10 a. " The Local Correspondents of the Association now number 49. " The Council has been in communication with the organising Committees of the South African Classical Association and the South Australian Association.Saturday. stands . and thinks that a wider diffusion of ciation. which stood at about and the 1140 in October 1906. The third session of the Association Buildings. and the proposals of the Council will be submitted to the General Meeting of the Association as amendments to the Rules. as follows : " Once more the Council can report a very successful year's work. A considerable number of members took advan- tage of this but the total sale was offer. and was again offered to members at a reduced price. and at about 1250 in October 1907. BUSINESS MEETING. is in process under the name of the Liverpool and District Branch of the Classical Association.m. Butcher in the chair. Mr. Seeing that the members of such Associations in the Colonies cannot often attend our meetings. still disappointing. The General Meeting held in Cambridge last October was well important work has since been done in Committees attended membership of the Association. was held in the Old University H. Mr. It it will further the objects of the Asso- has therefore been decided that for the present The m .

" In regard to the petition presented by the Classical Association to the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge in 1906 to take into consideration the abolition of the separate Greek Grammar paper and the Previous Examination respectively. is now again submitted after certain changes in details.: THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 70 Work shall be issued free of charge to all members of the Association who may apply for a copy and pay the cost of postage Year's This will involve a heavy burden on our finances. that the matter is still under consideration by the Hebdomadal Council. The Council principle of the petition. which was appointed by the Council in accordance with a resolution passed at the General Meeting of 1907. the action of the University of Cambridge on the lines recommended by our Report was recorded last year and the Council has now to report that at Oxford a statute embodying the at Responsions the substitution for . was promulgated in Congregation on November 26th. D. hoped but it is to be " The Balance Sheet for 1907 was printed in the last volume and packing. " Two Keports of Committees are submitted herewith " of (1) The Report on Greek Pronunciation. Professor T. A and is now submitted for approval. . and it of an easy paper in unprepared translation. " The Council records with deep regret the deaths of two prominent members of the Association. 1907. 2 its most of Birmingham classical education has lost one of paper on a He was to have read enthusiastic champions. 2 Printed on p. however. 119. 112-14). Seymour of Yale rendered the Association valuable assistance in connexion the scheme for the pronunciation of Greek. though not in the precise form suggested by the Classical Association. the general principle which was approved at the Cambridge Meeting. " (2) An Interim Report of the Curricula Committee. • Printed on p. and a letter with from him on the subject will be printed in the next volume of By the death of Professor John Churton Collins Proceedings. understands. 83). that an increase in our membership will result. of Proceedings (pp. non-placets. and will probably come before the University again in some revised form. 114. corresponding Balance Sheet for 1908 will be ready at the end 1 of the present year. but was rejected on a division by a majority of 24 (placets 59.

me during his tenure of editing the Proceedings has done that work admirably. then come volume " of Proceedings. Flamstead Walters. Professor W. £400. and additional subscriptions have since A complete list will be published in the next in. 97. of his retirement. and I am in filled sure that with the wishes of the members of the Association that some expression of gratitude to him for be formally recorded. and he addition of the The Council records with gratitude the efficient services which Mr. C. for next year will be. Printed on p. his services should this opportunity of And I am glad of thanking Mr.' and regrets the necessity " The amendment having been duly seconded. the Report." After a statement of the finances up to date. the Treasurer for the year proceeded : " You would like. know the actual roughly speaking. The normal expenditure 1 It expect. Harrison personally for the exceedingly valuable help which he has given On him requiring a clear head. was unanimously adopted. — " As Hon. Harrison has rendered as Secretary during the past three years. that sum being in addition to the £200 which we had invested before the meeting this time last year. The Proceedings contained the Balance I Sheet as stood at the end of the year 1907. Harrison ? I propose one addition to office of duties his Secretary which he has efficiency for three years in accordance by compelled is . following words to the Report I ' : in all matters has also fallen the duty of office move the .BUSINESS MEETING 71 Greek as a Factor in Popular Education at the General Meeting of the present year. Treasurer have to ask your approval of the Balance Sheet published at the beginning of the year. it The net balance was over £100. A list of the contributors to the local Guarantee Fund is already in the hands of some members. as thus amended. 1 Professor Sonnenschein. I think. the Report Cambridge to resign the with so it much would be — " May Mr. to is. " The Council desires to put to the citizens of on record Birmingham who by its sense of indebtedness their liberality have made excellent provision for the entertainment of the Association on the occasion of the General Meeting of the present year. about . I normal income of the year.

Dr. then. It certainly decreases the work that I am put to if members use those bankers' orders. and it will cost us this year the increase of the The Year's Work liabilities of that the expenditure we shall £60 like : so that the Association on account of be something will cost us last year it something like £50. something extraordinary happens. Well. (Cheers. because £80. asked your help in that way last year on my behalf.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 72 —that £350 taking into consideration the very large expense is. moving your approval of the Balance Sheet as presented the last volume of the year's Proceedings I wish to put " In in my on record very great indebtedness to Mr. if we look back on the last year. unless be be £350. But it will not be an increase of £100 expenditure. put to next year.) We I am going to have had a good . then. Kenyon. I think. " I have to record my thanks to the members of the Association who have so kindly taken up the use of bankers' orders. and I am glad that so many members have taken it up. propose to you Lord Cromer. The actual cost to the Association for that will be about £100. all members of the Association should do their best to keep the increase of membership going." The Balance Sheet was accepted. Pantin for his kindness in auditing the accounts. — a very distinguished that there Greek is for his name — which I am going to put before you. which ought will to leave us with a balance at the end of next year of about £50 on the year's expenditure. evidence that the person in question would read own pleasure on a desert island. Arthur Sidgwick dividing scholars into those who would or would not read Greek for their own pleasure on a desert island. I think in regard to the name and it is us. said : — few years. Dr. in proposing a President for the ensuing " I think that this Society. my predecessor. has been particularly happy in its Presidents both when we had Professor Butcher from among ourselves to rule over and when we have gone out to the rulers of the great world and asked them to be our Presidents for the year. Gilbert Murray. I remember my old friend Mr. we shall be put to in supplying the third volume of The Year's Work to all members that apply for it. I estimate.

I think could read Greek and Latin books when governing any one who Egypt would certainly read many more such books on a desert island. 10 . Warren. not indeed on a desert island. Museum.ELECTION OF OFFICERS 73 own published translations of the classics. I have. H. And the third is that of Dr. then. of the British valuable services as Whether or not these three gentlemen would satisfy the test that has been suggested by Dr. I think they would take advantage of what they could pick up " The motion was seconded by Dr. —" I have to propose that the existing Vice-Presidents be reappointed. Canon Papillon. — " The part which the officers of the work and its usefulness cannot easily be exaggerated. the greatest pleasure in proposing to you the name of Lord Cromer for our future President. we should have had the evidence of our own ears The second is that of Dr. with the addition of names which I think will commend themselves to everyThe first is that of the retiring President. I largely depends. Canon Hobhouse and carried unanimously. Professor Mack ail. President of Magdalen College. is known to have taken in various more or less abstruse classical books written by members of the Society and others. The Treasurer. who has rendered long and Treasurer and as a member of our Council. that. of the University of Oxford. H. he interest he still read Greek and Latin literature and . the Right Hon. Had we known nothing of his career as a scholar. Asquith. but when governing deal of evidence from his and from the Egypt. Oxford. Postgate and ! carried unani- mously. Kenyon." The motion was seconded by the Rev. last night to assure us. I may say that if any fragment of Homer happened to be wafted to that desert island as the result of disintegrating criticism. Murray as to reading Greek for pleasure on a desert island. It is upon the joint Secretaries and upon the Treasurer that continuity of administration and policy very Association take in its We have been hitherto very fortunate in having had a comparatively small number of changes in these important offices. and the continuity has thus been assured which will no doubt continue through succeeding changes. and Vice-Chancellor three body. The Rev.

and Mr. is able to continue his services. is H. Tellers. Fellow of J. V. of . therefore. Sleeman. Bellos. Arnold . : The Professor E. Dr. see below. D.) The Chairman at this point mentioned that a document had come into their hands that morning from Dr. as F. willing to go on with the all fulfilled with so much and zeal efficiency ever since the formation of the Association. our retiring Secretary . " The Council were faced recently. Harrison. I will propose the names of Professor — Myres and of Mr. The Chairman. H. and as Sleeman be elected as second Secretary. Winbolt. move Walters. as the Association has a few minutes ago formally recognised. Council." These seven names having been seconded. In his work he has been assisted. Sidney Sussex College. who has been nominated by Canon Bell. Mr. Head Master of St. as a formal matter. Olave's. " The motion was seconded by the Rev. who has been duly nominated by Professor Bosanquet. W.' ' that Secretary and that Mr. for a time at duties which he has events. Cambridge. a ballot was then taken. Winbolt. 79. should be appointed by the I beg. and carried unanimously. E. Mr. and in order to give the meeting an opportunity of voting. Professor Henry Browne. D. " Two other nominations have been sent in Professor Myres of Liverpool. and there done just now — " There is are five normal vacancies on the a further vacancy created by what we have in electing Dr. J. proposed by the Council that Mr. to Association to take his place. G. pleasure in moving his re-election. Mr. and Mr. Therefore. Harrison. Professor Sonnenschein be re-elected. Chambers. C. Mr. Kenyon and Professor Mackail being elected as (For result of ballot. with the foundation of which he was closely connected. I am very glad to think that Professor Sonnenschein continues. G. p. with the prospect of losing both the existing Honorary Secretaries. and I somewhat to have great their alarm. C. by Mr. Harrison other duties to retire from the is now obliged by the call and it of joint secretaryship. Kenyon nominations of the Council are these as a Vice-President.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 74 am glad to say. Assistant Lecturer here in Birmingham . Hogarth . Treasurer Professor W. Rushbrooke. L.

and 16 to the Vice-Presidents created under this President of any body so associated is shall not apply If rule. to a local limitation of England and Wales was proposed. upon their applica- The Council of the same. the document into consideration. make rules to follows (1) this possible are submitted to you to-day. nor shall they have any of the rights or privileges of members beyond such as they shall enjoy through the operation of this rule. as : New " Rule (No. similar bodies to ourselves New have expressed a desire to be in closer relation with us. it was contemplated that this alteration would be one in accord with the future history of the Association. each case determine the contribution payable by any such body. and the privileges to be enjoyed by its members. the Council shall have power to invite that body to nominate a representative to serve for a limited period (not exceeding one year) as an additional of Council (2) beyond the number 15 mentioned in member Rule 3. But the members of the associated body shall not be deemed to be members of the Classical Association. 12.: : ALTERATION OF RULES Alexandria. — " We have now to consider the sequel movement taken up by the Association at a former meeting. " ' The provisions of Rules 8. Since then. the unable to attend the meetings of Council. When a change in the name of the Association by dropping the Professor Postgate. as you have heard from the Council's Report. The President of any body so associated shall during his term of office be a Vice-President of the Classical Association. 20) The ' have power to enter into Classical Association shall relations with other bodies within the limits of the British Empire having like objects tion to the Council shall in with and by vote its own. 10. which was obviously intended 75 previous the for The Council would take day's meeting on Greek Pronunciation.' Addition to Rule 7 " After the word " University " shall be added the words ' .

Vice-Presidents or their representatives. the British objects like in the Council's —the Report Association of South Australia and that of South Africa. 10. all such the next shall decide the joint contribution to be paid and the privileges to be enjoyed by its members. where it is will it enact that the do not apply to the new The last proposal proposed that after is the word any place within the limits of the British Empire which has been recommended by a I think most present will agree special Resolution of the Council. or whatever word may be chosen would have complete autonomy just as before they Next it was felt that the President of such affederating Associations should have some formal bond of connexion with our Council. was thought. it was felt that the Council should be free to deal with applications on the merits of each case. by making its Now. in the other bodies within ' Empire having first you have heard read out the First.' You will note that the contribution (if any and to whatever extent) — that is. by the whole body. At present we are limited to some city or town in England and Wales University shall be added the words. rule. it President one of our Vice-Presidents. and will be payable by the Association not by subscriptions from the individual members of that body. 11. were affederated.' that in the future we might with advantage have a rather wider range of choice for the place of our Annual Meeting. and the most convenient method in such cases." THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 76 "or at any place within the limits of the British Empire which has been recommended by a special resolution of the Council. the bodies is why Classical Again. and : 12. and this sentence says. it might happen that a President could not attend our meetings. This case is provided for by the last paragraph. The Associations affederated. and yet both the Council and the afiederating Association might feel it desirable that the latter should be represented on the Council. of attaining that end would be.' " I pause here to elucidate some of the points which are raised by this the proposed new limits of our own' are. " The intervening sentence is simply a clause of caution to prevent the representatives of afiederating Associations being treated as ordinary Vice-Presidents provisions of Rules 8. an addition to Rule 7. ' ' or at . ' The Council with whose names instance.

" Mr. them. T. members to supply every would very likely fail to obtain all its publications. — the contributions to the Imperial maxim fleet. as he had been connected with the University of Melbourne for several years. said that he intended to urge his own rule. He was glad to hear Professor Postgate's statement that the contribution payable by an associated body was to be a lump sum from the whole body. is one which should commend itself without argument to the members of option. many minds to an important matter. to the Classical Association was that its publications would thus get into the hands of classical students on the circumference of the empire. Mr." Walters. E. " In seconding this proposal to add to Dr. to take advantage of the new wise that certain points had been left it was not clear how the bringing of kindred bodies into affiliation with the central body would work. of rules. He New thought vague. And as there is we have added the other clause. . in fact. thus. he took special interest in what was put forward.ALTERATION OF RULES which This proposal will enlarge the seat of a University. He knew something of native . and making the influence and authority of the Classical Association felt throughout the whole range of British influence. an old that there should be no taxation without representation. have very little meaning of the change I — C. F. like the vagueness attaching to . colony. Postgate's clear exposition of the result of the application of Professor W. R. The subscription payable by affederated bodies should be fixed high enough to enable the central Association member with If the sub- scription did not include the cost of those publications. because it South Wales. discussed by the Council in its details.' is our powers and give what I 77 think will prove to be a very valuable The policy of casting our net as widely as possible. Garnsey. and not a payment of individual subThe advantage of such bodies becoming federated scriptions. it will of the Classical Association resident in Australia. speaking as a member too. The Report has been carefully and it is submitted as the the Association here assembled. You may say there is a little but this was vagueness about the contributions to be made intentional somewhat. that the Presidents of the affiliated Associations represent those Associations on our Council become quite an Imperial Council. R. Elliott said that.

Asquith the President. and we have been three months ahead ever since.' this year begins at . feeling. I should also like to take this opportunity of explaining what must be a regrettable accident when the time of the present meeting was fixed last year it was fixed under the impression. —" I beg to move that the date of the next General Meeting be fixed provisionally for Friday and Saturday. at The meeting in Manchester put us three months ahead. the feeling was that they were snubbed by English people. Manchester our meetings were held in December or January. The resolution was put to the meeting and carried unani- mously.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 78 Australian scholars and also of undergraduates. I have in my hands a letter to my colleague Professor Sonnenschein from one of the Oxford members of the Council say that it from which I may read a few lines ' : I can only has been a shock to us here to discover that under a statute of Archbishop Laud Michaelmas Term so exceptionally early a date. Garnsey that the Council had given special attention to securing that the allied Associations Empire should receive the two publicaon favourable terms. The proposal before the meeting would do much to relieve that . Mr. making definite proposals. rightly or wrongly. That impression remained when the final settlement of the date was before the Council. 1910. It is now proposed that we get back to our old habits and old the turn of the year. and attaching great importance to being able to obtain in different parts of the tions of the central Association the publications of the Association. The Chairman assured Mr. we are three we paid to Until the delightful visit of our time. Harrison. months ahead I that this proposal involves holding no The fact is. and that the place be London. with whom he had come into intimate relation and. place. January 7th and 8th. I believe universal at the time. would explain how it is meeting during the next calendar year. Professor Conway said that the Council had received a letter from the newly formed branch in South Africa. E. but also for the University of Oxford. that the date of the meeting was convenient not only for the University of Birmingham and for : Mr.

" Professor the word ' Sonnenschein even ' misapprehension. Mr. is of Latin. Sonnenschein. Professor moved mittee. said "I : desire to call attention to in the Resolution. Hogarth. Professor Arnold." The Chairman brought the business meeting to a close by announcing the result of the ballot. Harrison. it is our clear that they . has its value. Professor Myres and Mr. Sonnenschein then moved the following Resolution.: THE VALUE OF LATIN 79 who number who for " I hope that representatives of the University of Oxford here are — and I am afraid a regrettably large this reason are not here — will accept this explanation and acquit us of blame for fixing a date which turns out to be unsuitable for them. Mr. Chairman of the Comthe Report of the Curricula — " That Committee be received and entered on the Minutes. Professor based on the Report " That the Classical Association welcomes and desires to make widely known the evidence which has been by the Curricula Committee as to the value of collected even a short course of Latin as a training in thought and expression. 106. formally. Chambers. " From the answers of some of 1 Printed on these p. The Resolution merely commits us to the position that even a short course of Latin. or even that that it is all is desirable in other schools." This was seconded by Professor Conway and carried unani• mously. and a means towards the mastery of English and the acquisition of modern foreign languages. The largest number of votes had been cast for Mr. in order to By guard against using this form of words the Curricula Committee does not mean to imply that a short course such as who is contemplated in this Report. Rushbrooke. sufficient for pupils are going in for a full classical course in schools of a classical type.m. such as is referred to in the answers of correspondents. (£) At PRESENTATION OF THE REPORT OF THE CURRICULA COMMITTEE 11 a.

Arthur Jamson Smith. On the whole I do think with our which are difficulties understanding the by non- felt structure English of and that they are largely assisted by even an elementary knowledge of the fundamentals of Latin syntax. on The cat I also i at liberty to turn sentences is no knowing v hat bit the dog will ' is happen. I remember that in the early days of this University. this seemed to my non-latinised pupil to be of the nature sentences. Soil unsero Spracho versinken im Pfuhle. there as well say that bit the cat. very considerable. to fort hih tier Schule. will find a recently It days that whatever phrase of my Head Master old friend of the Camp King Edward's School in Birmingham. it was my unhappy lot to lecture on logic as well as some other subjects and I remember one of my pupils coming to me with some indignation in regard to an example which I had given for practice in throwing propositions into logical form. said he. ' .THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 80 regard Latin grammar. in may use an expression of my own. if I may speak of the Mason College as the predecessor of the University of Birmingham. which struck me as particularly interesting The symbols representing the phenomena in Latin make Latin preferable to English even for Hill Branch of ' : the purpose of teaching English Grammar. Dann treibt nur die Klaseiker von think. Der wird auch des Deutschen Meister nicht sein. I insisted. 3) you Mr." here of some lines written by a German Ebner Eschenbach.' ' boy of the creed of the board-school of those of the nature of " In the Report (p. . correspondents that the latinised pupils. The instance was Great is Diana of the Ephesians which. when you throw it into logical form. the Baroness : Wer Griechisch nicht kann und besonders Latoin.' ' is If. becomes Diana of the Ephesians is great. found by experience — I — understanding why after any verb is objective case. are . which apply. mutatis mutandis. upside down. ' of an act of violence.' Well. English I I am reminded lady. I if as a kind of visible logic. till serious diffi- the verb 'to be' should not be followed by what they called the comes The dog ' am looking back my pupils brought some fifteen or twenty years that some of up in the elementary schools of Birmingham had culties in You might the same as was part an object.

when you human way of consider the frame as consisting of flesh and bones. that the best building up that frame must be by way of a diet of meat and But the experience of civilised nations shows that it is bones. " Many of us have read recently a correspondence in the Morn ing Post headed The Reform of the Secondary Curriculum. no doubt. not meat but wheat that makes the best human flesh and bone. really represents more than one opinion— as indeed do the answers of several others of our correspondents. of the literary point of the view in the study of the we of the Curricula Committee have insisted as strongly we could in a previous Report. " I note that importance Goethe says On Literatur. Mr. seems to me very important as to the value of a modern basis of Latin for the study of Miss foreign languages. ' the Curricula Committee stands for the reform as well as for the 11 .' The application of the simile to the subject under discussion is experience has shown the value of the direct and practical . therefore. Sanders took the testimony of a number of modern language her teachers with whom she had been brought into contact .THE VALUE OF LATIN " The testimony of Miss 81 now Head Sanders. " We are often told us hope that in his recent it is nowadays that Latin a case of the is survival of the ' Let a survival. did Goethe.' Zielinski book Die Antikeund Wir ('Antiquity and Ourselves') me as a very powerful and suggestive simile. For instance. rate we of the Classical Association can echo with perfect sincerity the prayer of the great German poet Goethe : Moge das Studium der griechischen und romischen Literatur immerfort die Basis der hoheren Bildung bleiben {Spruche in Prosa). integral part of the curriculum of all secondary schools . more general and the provender which has been traditional literary— the direct less —intellectual At any in our schools. Mistress of Tunbridge Wells High School. ' You might suppose. not Linguistik. fittest. answer. has what struck He says.' Well. which you will find on page 4 of the Report. Holme twenty-three head masters of Dewsbury took the evidence of schools of the type which were of especially contemplated in our inquiry. But we also believe in the classics as — — study of the ancient languages or at any rate of Latin as an and so.

to see to it that all secondary schools are remodelled on these lines though he would allow History. French. and as the Prime Minister But our reforms proceed on different from those advocated by Mr. and that in his opinion every boy who can profit by them should still have the opportunity of doing so. Benson. Modern Geography. should be seven only —English. or historical. that is . In his scheme Latin. to say nothing Post of September 4th. and simple Bible teaching and he wants a strong Commission. as reminded us lines is stated in last night. 2 In his letter of Oct. Elementary Science. . boys of ability above the average to ever that ' lay special stress ' (what- may mean) on one or more subjects —linguistic. apparently a Royal Commission. says Mr. 1 . There mathematical. Mr. scientific. 1908. The subjects of instruction for the average boy. A. phrase ' linguistic subjects. in the methods of teaching has always been one of the objects of the Classical its Rules. And in later letters to the Morning Post (Oct. Benson would allow 1 lay special stress to the average boy. but in regard to say the great mass of boys in secondary schools. Benson goes on to say explicitly that classics have no place in the curriculum which he has sug- programme a little too much at large ? much in the air. . 24th Mr. 14th and Oct. . seems to It to this ' me ' ' specially characteristic of secondary education is ' very only to be learnt in such a correctly written ' boy who confines irreducible 2 —and I way as to be ' —for even French fluently read and doubt whether your average school- his attention during a long school-life to this minimum will find his school studies more interesting than they were in the bad old days of Latin and Greek. Benson in the Morning Association." and which will hereafter be worked out in greater detail in the form of a time-table. Greek.' boys of superior ability to ' is some ambiguity in the on which Mr. has no place in the curriculum of the average boy at of a secondary school.' THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 82 maintenance of Improvement classical studies. Benson says that he would by no means neglect the literary side of French studies." How the inclusion of it is to be effected in practice under his scheme he does but he speaks of his scheme as one which is at present only not say " experimental. Cut down your curriculum irreducible minimum by leaving out of it all that is Is not this gested. But In a subsequent paragraph Mr. Benson says that he has no animus against the classics. 24th) ho explains that he intended to include Latin among " linguistic subjects. Arithmetic. at any rate. C.

" I am aware of the great practical difficulties which have to be faced in any scheme of this kind but I hope that the Curany rate give its consideration to the question whether it is possible to go ahead on these lines. I Mr. to cut out school curriculum is which result from learning several same time. C. " And of the may and ought by removing some here I would suggest that something to be done to economise time and energy unnecessary different languages difficulties pari which passu. now been officially adopted by the Reform-Gymnasien of Germany. two or three languages should begun at the same time. and another interval between commencement of the second language and the commencement of the third.— THE VALUE OF LATIN there one suggestion which is 83 should like to make. of the terminology in the teaching of different This is not a new question but it has recently risen into new importance owing to the fact that the principle of a common grammatical scheme for all the languages taught in schools has . there not another possibility The great point ? is. all That we are bound. In arise in studying several using this phrase I am. seconding the resolution. that the highest educational value shall be got out of the time which is given to the teaching of Latin as of other subjects. not suggesting that be commencement of the second. Now I feel strongly that we ought to take in hand seriously the problem of a simplification the the and unification and classifications employed grammars. On the contrary." because the Committee ricula Committee will at . Compton. But that two or three languages have to be taught side by side in the later stages of the school course seems inevitable and not undesirable. under the lead of the Goethe-Gymnasium at Frankfurt-am-Main. as the But is Prime Minister said last night. W." The Rev. . the Curricula Committee has insisted (in its Report of 1907) on there being an interval between the commencement of the first language and of course. Benson not alone among educationalists in complaining of the per- is plexities or confusion of ideas different languages at the consequence. as a but one of these languages from the a conclusion which few will accept. said that the Report was headed " Interim Report. with a view to getting rid of the unnecessary perplexities and difficulties which at present confront pupils who have to study more than one foreign language.

" Professor E. By method which the Curricula led our thoughts largely on a going round to those we who new are teaching in the schools and asking them what they think of the value of Latin. coming to these matters with fresh minds and under circumstances somewhat different from the men.. Leighton. some attention should be paid to the literature." should embrace nothing at Mr. I think. Arnold. THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 84 was going to carry on further deliberations in matters akin to what had already been reported on. best passages and the best authors for reading in such schools as The any such considerations was the burden allowed only three or four years to the study of Latin. was in the not very long run the easiest way of teaching the elements of English or German. ' I was particularly that Latin in the curricu- time by abolishing English of have certainly always found that drill in elementary Latin. Resolution. They thought that even in schools where no advanced knowledge of Latin was expected. greatest difficulty in inflicted by examining bodies. or of any other grammar have to grapple with. the Committee has obtained evidence that training in Latin affords excellent preparation for teaching English and modern foreign languages —a fact^which. I all —" I that was called " useful." have pleasure in supporting the have read the Report with a great deal of interest and what particularly interested me was to see how ladies. including a very resolute struggle with the three concords. They hoped that good might result in that respect from passing the Resolution " that the Association desires to make widely known the evidence which has been collected as to the value of even a short course of It was hardly incorrect to say that a sound education Latin. their lives Another ! difficulty suading the British parent that any kind of utility could be got out of the study of anything so " useless " as Latin. — " The Committee has adopted has tack. They were therefore considering the preparation of something like a definite scheme embracing what appeared to be the of Latin reading. arrive enthusiastically at the same opinions that have been driven home pleased to read Miss Purdie's remark. L. only they could educate ex- If amining bodies to examine as they much happier than they were would be was that of per- liked. V.' I to us. lum saved an enormous amount grammar. R. was not so prominently in .

have therefore some reason to hope that we can if lay down the lines of curricula for secondary schools. the Associahave the power of enforcing what it thinks right. and I suppose we all remember that in our schooldays the worst English style that could be thought was that commonly current in the translation of Latin books and such English is. Latin being no exception. of last night would feel that they were attending A Grammarian's Funeral. Wales One Examining Body. and say in rough what should be taught and examined upon. 85 and as openings into certainly as important as ever. we were attending the funeral of effete methods of teaching. many been rather inclined for This point of view I think we have years to lay emphasis on the value of Latin books in themselves as literature history. " As one who is anxious for the welfare of the Faculty of Arts students of which have steadily been inin this University creasing in number of late years. and of keeping out exceptional and strange words. still accepted by teachers in Latin I believe that one of the first as good enough for the purpose. more or less. and has produced a pro- the lines the Classical Association suggested. be expressed in the best possible English. is But the Keport throws us back upon the value of the grammatical part of Latin study. —has taken that gramme based on We at any rate —the University of hint to heart. I fear. Association a year or two ago the teaching of grammar laid stress The Classical on the importance of confining questions to those and idioms which are familiar in the authors in words most regularly used in the schools. can assure you that your visit has been of the utmost value to outline tion will — ' — — . which I think has been lately less appreciated than in the previous generation. engaged I suppose all of us who of expression and of books now commonly used a great variety of doctrine not which is to those own are must confess that in the matter grammatical accuracy we find in the text- in the teaching of Latin all of consistent or indeed quite intelligible either to us or we teach .' But I take it that. that the author's meaning should of . and so the teaching of Latin be made a discipline in English speaking.I THE VALUE OF LATIN our minds before this Keport was drawn up." " No one attending the brilliant gathering Sir Oliver Lodge. things we must set our minds to is to see that bad English is driven out of the Latin class.

barely necessary for us But. We know what is meant that there must not be too close attention to the idea — of utility term many ' . as Professor Sonnenschein has said. although overshadowed. I suppose. Associates. That is why you meet in different places. —without order to get the benefit of your ' it were. They are so easily quoted and misunderstood. of the most eminent scholars must contribute to that end. as they usually do. are liable to do harm. you do not always wish to meet with closed doors admitting members only. have a right to be present to-day because I was specially invited by Professor Sonnenschein to attend. has a very real The Faculty of Many people here realise that in this University we do not by Engineering and Metallurgy alone and. Arts mission and duty to this community. if they get into the papers. as I useful of ' is should prefer to put a very wide one. as notion of what we may call quite so much outsiders as the We stage of classical studies. classical subjects is a tendency in some quarters to think that in we much overshadowed by the magnitude are so of a neighbouring University that to pay much it is attention to them. it. But this wholesome sentiment might be both strengthened and widened and a visit. the definition of the As a matter of fact. who could join for the one meeting only any pretence to be scholars — in deliberations.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 86 There us here. — . and why. you had a class of temporary or local members. like this. a great the arguments for classical studies that have adduced to-day were to the effect that they are useful been — useful in . food and the resulting tissue need not be of the same nature. that I parents must be taught that the boys at school are to learn nothing useful ? I suggest that observations of this kind. People in the locality who are not members take an interest in hearing and seeing distinguished people so if you would allow me to make a suggestion. in imitation of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. to get behind the scenes. who might be called live . or. we must not consent to be extinguished. I cannot but think that it would be useful if. and to get a atmosphere of the present ' should thus not we have perhaps done on feel ourselves this occasion. May I therefore incidentally comment on a remark that fell from Mr. Compton. For I take it that your meetings are to some extent of the nature of a missionary enterprise. .

THE VALUE OF LATIN

87

enabling a pupil to understand English grammar, in assisting
him to learn modern languages, and so on. But, quite irrespective

any question of utility, I myself hope much from the course
which we are beginning now for the study of the Greek classics
so as to enable people to begin the study
in English translations
of

;

from that end, to

realise

the meaning and contents of the ancient

books, to cultivate a taste for literature

develop into scholars.
scholars

may

people cannot be

of

—that must always be a privilege of the few — but, never-

theless, let people

embedded
enthusiasm

human

and then a few

;

The great bulk

once realise the beauties and the humanities
they will understand the

in the ancient literature,
felt for it,

race,

and they

they
will

will recognise it as

an

asset of the

let it die."

not willingly

MacVay (Classical Mistress in the Wadleigh High
New York).—" In America pupils have only four years

Miss A. P.
School,
for the

study of Latin in secondary schools before passing on
We have found the testimony practically

to the Universities.

unanimous from the teachers of English, of French, of German,
good resulting from the pupils' four years of

of History, that the

work is very apparent in all the other branches they
take up. For instance, in my school in New York, the pupils
who do not study Latin are less desired by the teachers in the
They always say Let us have those
subjects I have mentioned.
who have studied Latin, and if possible those who have studied
Latin and Greek. We in America recognise our debt to England
Yesterday's
for inspiration and guidance in teaching the classics.
Curricula
about
to-day
this
and
discussion about Pronunciation
to
pass on
hope
and
I
interest
keenest
I have followed with the
classical

;

something of what has been said to my fellow-teachers in America."
Mr. K. T. Elliott said that one thing they should seek to do
in their public school teaching of Latin

was to combine

it

even

in its earliest stages with comparative philology, the great value
of

which

for

boys was that

it

taught the reason of things

;

and

the reason was often more important than the fact.
Miss Rooke.

—" I

also

would plead

for

a closer connexion

between Latin and French in schools. Some teachers of Latin
seem never to have heard of French, and some teachers of French
to have no idea of Latin.

It

would be well

if

the teacher of

Latin could take some part in the French teaching, to show the

THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION

88

connexion between the two, and the descent of the Romance
languages, thus

aiding

the

study of the latter and further

stimulating the pupil to acquire Italian and Spanish later."

Dingwall thought that those who held the opinion
that the study of Latin made it unnecessary to learn English
grammar rather minimised the difficulty of learning English
Mr.

W.

F.

He

simply by a study of Latin.

believed that the use of the

superfluous but in a sentence like " I
will

come," and

whom

understand

I

do not doubt but that he

the incorrect use of the relative in " Mr. Jones,

has

left

already,"

were due to a certain

extent to Latin.

The Chairman, in bringing the discussion to a close, said that
an immense amount of light had been thrown on the value of
the study of Latin by the experience they had got from those
who were engaged in the teaching of women. He had been for
some years past immensely impressed by educational reports

drawn up

in all parts of

America as to the growing

belief in

Latin

as a basis of linguistic education.

The Resolution was then put to the meeting and
unanimously.
Mr. R.

Gary Gilson.

—"

I

carried

have been entrusted with the

pleasant task of proposing the second Resolution
" That the Classical Association welcomes the Report of
:

'

the British Association Committee, 1907, as recognising the
value of literary studies in the School and the importance
of

training in English,

and

also as a protest against the

danger of an overcrowded curriculum.'
" Most of us have probably read the Report of the British Association, Section L, with feelings of satisfaction, not

We

unmixed with

had been told by many eminent authorities that
British education generally was in a bad way a proposition
to which I am always ready to assent, for it depends on

surprise.

and that the particular way in which
was so bad was that the curriculum was all wrong. We have
now before us a model curriculum, in the framing of which some
at least of our most energetic critics have taken part and the

the standard of reference
it

;

that the time-table thus suggested corresponds
so closely with that in use already in many English schools, that
I feel, therefore, a
it is no easy matter to detect a difference.

surprising thing

is

"

:

OVERCROWDED CURRICULA

89

as a schoolboy might, who should be sent up to the head
master expecting a thrashing, and receive only an admonition
Nevertheless I do heartily
to go on doing as he had done already.
little

welcome this Report, because for the first time it affords a common
ground on which to build something of constructive value. So
long as some of our critics talked as if the whole object of educaIt
tion were to make engineers, such ground was hard to find.
is

otherwise

now that we have

a reasoned statement of this kind,

allowing a considerable portion of time to be devoted to literary
subjects.
of

This gives something to work on, and affords a prospect

agreement on points which

may

sections of the Resolution deserve, I

still

Both

be in dispute.

think, your hearty support

that which refers to English, because of the plain fact that the
first

good education

essential in all

mother tongue

;

and that which

the curriculum, because
the time.
'

Half our

it is

is

training in the use of the

refers to the simplification of

perhaps the most crying need of

difficulties arise

from what

is

here pronounced

the ill-founded belief that the curriculum should be an abstract

all modern knowledge.'
The Resolution was seconded by Mrs. Verrall, who said,
" I should like to emphasise
what has been said in

of

protest

against an overcrowded curriculum.

our Report we say,

'

We

are at one with the

British Association in recognising that there

is

On page
Committee

7

of

of the

a need of secondary

schools of different types and with different curricula or combinations of curricula.'
tional

If there is

a general trend towards educa-

improvement in the direction

the choice of schools in later

portant that the authorities

who

widening and not narrowing
becomes more and more im-

of

life, it

are going to

manage those

schools

is no
what is to be learnt by children under
we must teach them in the earlier schools all

should agree as to the preliminary training.

For

if

there

general agreement as to

twelve years of age,

the subjects to be taught in the later schools or begin specialisation in the nursery.

That

ment beween the education
in schools for those

is

an additional argument

for agree-

authorities as to a desirable curriculum

below the age of twelve.

I

should like also

to emphasise the importance of a training in English.

One never

speaks with a Frenchman of any class in society without feeling

an admiration, tempered with envy, at the command that he
12

THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION

90

shows, compared with an Englishman of the same class, of his

own language.

The reason,

not far to seek.

I think, is

Till quite

recently the last thing that an English child has learnt has been
English, whereas the whole basis of the French child's education
is

own

his

power

How

language.

of expression in

memory

is

can we expect children to have the
good English, unless at an age when the

we

tenacious

familiarise

them with good English

?

Quite apart from the linguistic training that can be given bv
teaching Latin, training can be given by allowing children to

read and be familiar with English literature.

them

This will help

in their classical training as well as in other things."

The Rev. Professor Mahaffy said that the idea under which
they had been brought up was that there were some very important essentials and very hard subjects which no boy would

them in his youth or at
and that the subjects which could be acquired later were
the elegancies and delights of life.
He thought that if among
be likely to learn unless he had learnt

school

;

a great quantity of subjects something should be given up, then

the things to be given up should be those most likely to be studied
hereafter.

Attending

brilliant lectures

not University Education.

and the boy or

girl

who

on English

was

literature

There was no real hard work

in

it,

did not master what he or she did not

was the boy or girl not worth having.
W. H. D. Rouse thought they would run the risk of a
severe fall if they took the hue of defence that Latin was a good
way of teaching English. As a matter of fact, it was found to
like,

Dr.

be true economy to separate up the subjects of instruction

combine them

;

to

later, if necessary,

would not be found a matter

The teaching

of English laboured under the

of great difficulty.

disadvantage that people regarded not what was actually done
in the schools

those

which taught

who had been

how they would
that
a

if

way

it,

but the preconceived notions of

trained in Latin and Greek

teach

it

Formerly

themselves.

English were studied in school,
as to create distaste.

He

it

Professor Mahaffy.

It

He took an
seemed

would be studied

to

not capable of inspiring enjoyment,

like

in

such

all.

A

a critical paper on

entirely opposite view to

him that
it

as to

was assumed

did not think that at

paper on Shakespeare need not be set
the text of Aeschylus.

grammar
it

if

a subject were

ought not to be taught to

and so had only some four years' work As the majority of their pupils came from elementary to show. Hubback (Head Mistress of the City and County School. Why 91 not be useful educationally a thing should and at the same time enjoyable.— OVERCROWDED CURRICULA the young. not merely in schools that prepared pupils for business. for Livy. They wanted . In her own school they taught 14. K. but even in schools which carried on education to the stage where students entered the University. J. Chester) reminded the last speaker that the schools in made possible by the Act of 1902. From the majority of the secondary schools which took the London University Schools Examination. or Virgil. The only interpretation that could be put upon it was that in those schools no Latin was taught up to If they were to do the necessary standard of the examination. were not formed two years later. way by which all. it any rate for elegant vocabulary of Xenophon or Cicero was really not more ennobling than the names for common things. they must see that own people were placed on the Local Education Authorities. just find the language could If they could do a be that by using a vocabulary entirely connected with daily life the acts of rising. the difficulty of getting them into secondaryquestion. the doors and windows then they should not be ashamed of using of the room The more literary and the preliminaries. their Miss C. anything to prevent overcrowded curricula. standing. schools at 12 or 13. said she wished to repudiate with the idea that parents should deliver up all her strength their children to schools to be taught things which were absolutely useless. Fotheringham said he did not think was it realised to what extent Latin was crowded out. he could not see at He did not think they ought to expect a schoolboy beginning Latin to appreciate or A Cicero. not a single candidate offered Latin. preliminary to the appreciation of They must was to understand the meaning. J. until school ways could be Latin from the age of Mrs. sitting. It might be worth best — while for the Curricula Committee to consider the best way to teach the understanding and the use of Latin to beginners and to shake off Mr. M. all preconceived ideas on the subject. Eckhard realised. style necessary the of style taught simply beginnings the of understanding.

but he pointed out that by the influence of the Classical Association. per annum . as in recent years in the North of England. and again in 1908. by the present regulations for the examination in Latin. number of candidates in candidates taking Latin. so far as they had discovered. and by no disabilities on students of Science or Commerce candidate for an Arts degree should enter securing that every lation for candidates going in for Arts or Medicine. and rightly so. the increase it was a voluntary subject. in his having in for their Matricu- own opinion. made linguistic drill. Sonnenschein pointed out that in Birmingham they good example by making Latin compulsory at Matricu- and the regulahad been found to work admirably it involved no difficulties It imposed or disadvantages. so long as they got back from the schools educated boys and literature . tion . in each year. as entirely excluded the humanising literary teaching which it was involved in the reading of a great book. . which made itself felt in of Latin in the schools it had been better methods of teaching. the might be very largely increased. although was 50 per Professor had set a was about 30 per whereas in 1906. the subject extremely unpopular. was the unsatisfactory nature of the training in Latin which was encouraged. valuable as it was on other grounds. Conway Professor observed that the decrease in the study of Latin in schools in the neighbourhood of London was immediately due to the action of the University of struck Latin lation. He held that it was essential that not merely efficiency in Unprepared Translation should be demanded. He did not think the time had to restore Latin to its come for asking the University position as a compulsory subject. even of a simple kind. in which both Set Books and Unprepared Translation were required. but to love and they were quite willing to leave it to the Classical Association whether it should be through Latin or Greek or English. . the increase in the total cent. but that also a reasonable choice of Set Books should be offered if the teachers were to make the subject at that stage really profitable to their Mere pupils. if not demanded. study in fact In the Matriculation Examination of the four Northern Universities.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 92 their children not to learn Latin or Greek or English. girls. cent. and off the list of London compulsory subjects also to what.

We have to get Edward's school. Mrs. the Council of the Midland Institute for the use of their lecture theatre for the performance of the Hippolytus . The Kesolution was then put to the meeting and carried nem. Professor Mahaffy. to the contributors to the Guarantee Fund. versity Buildings . Mr. and amusements. Sonnenschein members . for his reception at the Council House and for the loan of the Town Hall the Vice-Chancellor and Council of the University of Birmingham for their reception at Bournbrook and for the use of the lecture theatres in the Uni- mention are : . Granville Bantock for the music to the Hippolytus. the Lord Mayor. the Hon. the President and the Hon. Secretary of the Hospitality Committee. thanks for the hospitality extended to the Classical Association. It is forty years now since I first came here to attend various meetings. Gilson for the use of a conversation and writing-room at the King I know from long experience what troubles and annoyances our worthy hostesses have had to endure. in closing the discussion. its and therefore no one hospitality of this great city. Secretary of the Local Organising Committee. That the Meeting expresses ' deep gratitude to the University and City of Birmingham. I know from our own attempts at Dublin how much many people put themselves out for their temporary guests. A. . Chamberlain and Mrs. which he composed specially for this occasion . Mr. said that he looked forward now with great hope to good results that the repre- had come into touch with sentatives of science and Committee of the British formed one another through the newly of literature Association. C. Vince . knows better than I do the splendid The Resolution which I propose is. to the Local Organising Committee and the Hospitality Com- and to the private hosts and hostesses for the services which have rendered The special names I am told to this meeting so great a success.VOTES OF THANKS 93 on his first year's course of study with an adequate equipment of knowledge it kept up the standard of the Arts degree. The Rev. Mr. but I am older : than any of you in enjoying the hospitalities of Birmingham. the University Club for hospitality to of the Association during the General Meeting . congresses. said " I am a very young member of this Association. The Chairman. in proposing a vote of con. mittee.

. as indeed he hoped might be the case every year. He has. expressing a command or prophecy. as to make in this great city. perhaps more success- than any that had met before. as great Birmingham and Professor an organiser as he is Birmingham has also been known and through Professor Sonnenschein for which you have already thanked a scholar and a grammarian. The Resolution was carried by acclamation. together . generally to break through the habits of organised society. devoted not days. Sonnenschein. but weeks and months. observing that the way gathering had been in every successful. vote of thanks to Professor Sonnenschein. couch in the subjunctive mood. as the home Sonnenschein has shown that he is of organisation. I feel. our hosts have behaved as disturbed and put out and pleasure will welcome were natural for them to be it if and But they have entertained us with such good .—a THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 94 we have to bustle through breakfast we have to shift the dinner-hour from up at unseasonable hours in an indecent way . . I have now to bring before the meeting ought. He thought that the thanks of the Assoful ciation were especially due to Professor whom must and Mrs. the gentlemanly hour of 8 to the uncomfortable hour of 6. has been arranged. I know. but which at all events he might put into the optative the very strong desire which all members of the Association felt that its meeting in Birmingham might do at least something to stimulate the movement for founding in the University of Birmingham a separate Chair of Greek.—" will be glad to carry has long been known it as a separate Resolution. and I In the and Mrs. but none the less you The Chairman. us believe that It is we are all perfectly with heartfelt pleasure that I propose this Resolution." Professor Conway seconded the Resolution. to thinking out and carrying out all the details which this meeting required. Sonnenschein have worked do not know to which of them most thanks matter of hospitality he . the great burden of organising the have fallen wished to be allowed to express his gratitude to Professor Sonnenschein by a reflection which he would like to on He meeting. as the home of hospitality the organised hospitality. the citizens of Birmingham. It has already been partly anticipated by Professor Conway. to stand by itself— which another Resolution.

VOTES OF THANKS Anyhow. said " I simply look upon myself as a convenient piece of machinery : for helping the Association to get along. . Without even asking for a seconder I will ask you to carry this vote of thanks by acclamation. in his capacity as Secretary. in acknowledging the vote of thanks. —" I feel it would be improper if I did not utter one brief word of very heartfelt thanks. tinuous from our foundation . that he has been for the last two years else I Chairman of the Curricula Committee. and. But to Professor Sonnenschein we are indebted for something more than for his services during the last few months in organising our meeting. Chairman. on behalf of Mrs. yet." Carried by acclamation. he is the only officer whose services have been conSecretary he was one of the first organisers. and that the great reforms that are being carried out at this moment in the schools of England are due in great measure to the Reports which his fruitful ideas have done so much to inspire. for which we are indeed grateful. — — . our Hon. ever since the foundation of the University of Birmingham. amount I can only say that the work that the meeting has involved for us has indeed been a labour of love and an exceedingly interesting sort of problem it was almost like a game of chess how to fit large of . are pursued within these buildings ." Carried by acclamation. He has been from the first. or obligation to the classics . who as Chairman of our Council for several years has been unwearying in his attendance at its meetings. any 95 special classical tradition. The Chairman. Sonnenschein and myself. too. as you know. would remind you. for the exceedingly cordial Resolution which you have passed. — " I wish to propose a vote of thanks to our Dr. Rouse. the welcome Birmingham may not have result has been a civic and credit are due." Professor Sonnenschein. a sense of sympathy has sprung up between all the studies that and to that sense of the value of learning to a great commercial community we may ascribe that wonderful hospitality which we have here received. he has devoted more time than anybody on our Council to forwarding the interests of the Association. and indeed one of the founders of this Association.

Charles Dixon. Professor Sonnen- schein. Harris. Miss Burrows. There is another name which is not likely to be forgotten in connexion with the General Meeting of this year know that but only a few of us . to him the success of that meeting. the Lord Mayor of Birmingham. Mrs. Mrs. C. Mrs. as of many other meetings in the Birmingham Town Hall. Dr. — Note. has In regard what the Chairman and others have said about the foundation of this Association. Hughes. George Cadbury. The Rev. Chamberlain (President). Sec). Mrs. should be mentioned I think the name Professor Postgate of he was the prime But he invited my co-operation in 1902 a time we two ran it together the lion's share of the first in that connexion : initiator of the idea. I grateful for Birming- know that many people in Birmingham are exceedingly grateful to the Association for paying them this has been the opportunity of forming and of renewing visit. Sec). Vince. The Right Rev. Beale. Gilson. — and for work in the initial stages falling to him. Sonnenschein. is in large measure due. Mr. Osier. and classical studies. Sonnenschein (Hon." The proceedings then terminated. been brought home to the city in a very forcible way. Canon Hobhouse. It many delightful whole feels human friendships. Dr.l Sir Oliver Lodge. Dr. Wilson King. Mrs. Mrs. J. Mrs. Lady Lodge. Mrs. . Rnnl.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 96 the people into their proper locations in the various meetingplaces and Town Hall meeting we received most valuable expert assistance in private residences. who is In the work of organising the a Vice-President of our local Branch . . Mr. the Lord Bishop of Birmingham. Hughes. And I think Birmingham as a that the real meaning of interest. C. A. Burn. from Mr. Principal The Rev. R. The arrangements for hospitality were made by a Committee consisting of Mrs. to their also perhaps their educational value. The chief arrangements for the Birmingham Meeting were made by a Committee consisting of The Right Hon. Vince (Hon. Mrs. I if the Association is the Hippolytus. Gilbert Murray devoted nine days of unremitting labour to superintending the rehearsals of should ham like to add that hospitality.

Canon Hobhouse. Kenrick. the Lord Bishop of Birmingham. Professor Ashley. The Rev. M. A. Sonnenschein. F. Esq. R. The The The The Butler. K. Prof.SUBSCRIBERS TO THE GUARANTEE FUND The following subscribed from ten guineas to ten The Chancellor to the Guarantee shillings Fund amounts varying : of the University. Mrs. Dawes. A. Macaulay. Taylor. G. Annie Clark. Hughes. Esq. The Rev. A. Esq. Jamson Smith. H. Rowland Hill. Walker. J. Esq. Esq. J. Esq. Mrs. C. Esq. Esq. Collings. Ralph Heaton. The Right Rev. Sir Oliver Lodge. W. A. H. Dixon. A. The Right Hon. W. Gilson. Esq. Professor Barling. V. W. C. Esq. E. Jesse Very Rev. Esq. Esq. H. J. R. The Rev. Rev. Reynolds. Ebenezer Parkes. H. Esq. Miss Harrold. Esq. Beale. F. 97 13 . Bayliss. MacCarthy. F. S. Right Rev. G. N. Canon Carnegie. Esq. Miss G. Chamberlain. Pinsent. William Kenrick. Lloyd. Archdeacon Burrows. T. Professor Malins. Professor Hughes. Esq. S. R. George Hookham. Esq. E. Esq. J. George Cadbury. Homer. Sydney Walker. The Vice-Chancellor of the Uni- versity. Esq. H. Philip Hookham. Ferard. the Right Hon. Anonymous. S. J. Clayton. C. The Right Hon. C. Pinsent. Smith. Professor Priestley Smith. Esq. Mitchell. Dr. Mrs. Esq. Heath. J. Tarleton Young. Monsignor Parkinson. C. Esq. Rathbone. H. Father Norris. A. Esq. Rev. T. The Ven. Alderman F. Anonymous. A. Esq. Professor Saundby.

.. etc 79 88. ......COMMUNICATIONS .........—ACTA Alteration of Rules . .. .... 93 95 62 37...... Herculaneum How Homer AND DEBATES came into Hellas PAGE 62 5 Presentation op the Report of the Curricula Committee 79 The 48 President's Address The Pronunciation of Greek The Teaching of Greek Choral Metre The Unity of the Latin Subjunctive ... Balance Sheet accepted Election of Officers and Council Place and Date of Next General Meeting Reports 75-78 72 72-74 78 : Committee on Greek Pronunciation (adopted) 45 Council (adopted) 71 .... .... 95 94 ...... ...... 38 1 21 B....... To Professor Sonnensohein To the University and City of Birmingham. ..INDEX TO THE PROCEEDINGS A.. Curricula Committee (Report received) Curricula Committee (RESOLUTIONS carried) Votes of Thanks : To the Chairman To the President ..... .....

F. H. 78 Hobhouse. 73 M C. Rooke.e. R. . D J. Forrester. 48. L. Right Hon. 1 Reid. J. . 91 Waldstein. 74. 35 Verrall. P. Sir Oliver the 1. 44. 93. 20 21. 90. S. Sayer. W. 83 32. E.89 . 87 Elliott. E. J. J. J. Murray. 79.39 Chairman on Thursday afternoon. . S. . . Beai. Miss Kenyon. Burrows.45. . . P.94 Dawes. F. . 74 87 . 01 F. 43 . 95 . . 73. Right Rev. 93 72 73 • 36. 88 of Birmingham) . Papillon. T. Dingwall. 77 Walters. L W. 45. FOTHERINGHAM. S. 69.62 . C. 47. H. R. . 42. Lodge. 75 33 . R. . 40. 87 . . . H. . Canon Asquith. C. Friday morning. A. H. C. S. E. and Saturday morning. 77 . 71. 88 Wood. . 73. . 79. 84 . (Vice-Chancellor of 69. Mahaffy. 19. 60. Mrs. W. 41. . 88. 35. C Conway. Eckhard. R. 95 Postgate. Gilbert P. 94. GlLSON. S. J. G. M. Butcher. 92. 37.78. 77. H. R. 41.84 . 95 42. J. Birmingham University) Birmingham. 78. . Canon T. 85 5. 39. . R.58 . . K 19. Mrs. (President) Harrison. . J.INDEX 99 -NAMES OF THOSE WHO TOOK PART IN THE PROCEEDINGS PAGE PAGE Arnold. Miss A. . . . 62 . 71. 47. 92. Hubback. COMPTON. H. Garnsey. V. 21. (Lord Mayor 90. C.38. . Bishop of Browne. W. . W. H. R. Miss M. 14. . Mackail. G. E. 74 Leighton. MacVay. W 74 39 1. Miss Rouse. 1 19 . 91 Sonnenschein.

in October. and at the 100 .THE PRONUNCIATION OF GREEK The at following Report was adopted at the Annual Meeting held Birmingham. but as approximations which. in October. The following suggestions are not put forward a complete scientific teaching pin-poses. The Pronunciation Committee reported which has already on of the Latin Classical Association. and is now published by the authority of the Association." The following scheme and approved is in principle that presented by the by the Association but completed and slightly modified in one or two more difficult to details. from any recommendations. On the problem of accentual pronunciation the Committee abstains at present well Committee. Pronunciation. as constituting scheme. 1908. but thinks it submit one or two cautions and suggestions for the may feel themselves in make experiments with a view to some advance guidance of any teachers or students who a position to towards the ancient pronunciation. for may be regarded as practicable. 1907. powered also " to consider what changes in nunciation of Greek should be the recommended is em- present profor general adoption.

nunciation of sounds of the Committee feels that the open sound (of iv in the fifth is 17. mhne). as o in not. own.THE PRONUNCIATION OF GREEK same time 101 as a great advance on the present usage. as e in fret. a and a. in fit. as a in aha. Eng.C. is is 1 0. I. as i in Fr. not that of the ordinary English 3. Vowels. r/ and w may be pronounced as the corresponding vowels in Latin a. home. For both of the English sound in mate and incorrect. nearly as t. in the quantities n'vw. i and t. the short vowels strictly observed. Vfieis'. sees no though preferring the open pronun- sufficient reason for excluding the obviously convenient practice of sounding w just as Latin Greek and Latin the diphthongal character vowels in mate and home. as ee in feed. the slight u sound in home. piquet. %<*'/>«.e. in -n-at^p. may well be no doubt that the pro- century B. e and o. Quantity. But in any school where the rj by practical pupils have been accustomed to distinguish the French e and e in il e. As Latin. ciation. unless indeed they happen to be . which historically correct for is In the same way there adopted. a in mate. t. o. But the dis- not one which any but fairly advanced students need be asked to notice. e) Eng. meta. y (long w : as a in father. vBwp. 9> of the vowels should be For example. i as e in Lat. But since the precise degree of openness varied at different epochs. both for clear- ness in teaching and for actual likeness to the ancient sounds. and to is dictated The pronunciation recommended for considerations.e. k'ivu). broad. the Committee. i. Roma. Eng. (long o) as O in Lat. was the open sound of oa in Eng. a. the slight crepancy i. should be carefully distinguished from the x°P° long vowels in 0/JaT/x'a.

used to denote . except th. OO in mOOn. in HslUs. Fr. ow in gown iD tune. this obscures the distinction \ovid. k. ui in 7] w the oil. 1 as Eng. S. early stages of instruction in French if it is felt that the effort to acquire the sound would involve a serious hindrance to progress. The ei. though in to Fr. Consonants. 7 (before 7. took. precise sound of Attic Greek and it is difficult ei was never confused with maintain the distinction clearly to English students to pronounce fact must have been nearer it The Greek 'A\0e<os grey. ankle. av = ev =eu. French U in me v as French v as In recommending ii in grun. k. Latin. till OU Eng. rf it is but in a late period. nearly as ew in/ew. u ov as Eng. is But and German. /3. k. nearly as Eng. Commit- correct production is successfully taught in English schools in any school where the sound stage at which Greek in strange to the pupils at the is begun. Imi. t.it b. and g raspectively in and x) is the nasal sound heard in Eng. as Germ.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 102 already familiar with the pure vowel sounds of modern Welsh or Italian. between words loose). Diphthongs. and 7 as p. in rOUe. it eye. perhaps best for as Eng. though and like \vid that. d. ey in Latin Alpheus. ee in passee. the (short as oo in Eng. u in du pain. =9+ vi = v + 01 In i a as Fr. t. Fr. sound for the Greek this by the fact that tee is partly guided now widely and Germ. ai =a+ 1 nearly as ai in Is&iah (broadly pronounced). au is to determine. first vowel was long. Eng. uu. oi in emSiil. and the second only faintly heard. or its the v. anger. for the time. the Committee can only suggest u v should be pronounced as Latin long as oo in Eng. it.

tive pronunciation of x> #> was It as k -^» p followed by a strong breath. always as Lat. has has made 103 /3. of which pronunciation of 8 and in England aspirates now current 6 pronounced as th in German acquiring the sound of the later sounds are accepted. districts of Greece. But the of these practical choice . of (ppovto? to it is into the trhaiva. y been. (paaryavov. as in auch. p. when if it is is as ^' *' not prepared classical this pro- in Greek accidence that why otherwise is pronounced be <paivw If the reduplicated perfect is be pronounced faivw.c. ft. or of German ch. ds in treads on. of 6pi% to seen that 6. English thin. In the course of changed by degrees most in to that of fricatives. f as Eng. Aspirates. I. has gone. it is readily understood Trewhrfva down tnat no doubt that the adoption of comprehensible. 1 no change in the common will be required. a<r/3e<xTo?. This may be done by giving x the sound of kh. ps £ as Eng. and ^ as Eng. the perfect. except before s where the sound was as in Eng. dz in adze. 0. but it will remain desirable to distinguish between the sounds of k and x. and x T/u'xa and the becomes like to intelligible This contain a real h-sound. carefully considered the pronunciation of The Committee has the aspirated consonants in Greek.g. pronounced The anomalous. r. there certain that the primi- is relation of aQiorrjiu hBo9. (Eng. S in mouse). 1 The dates and stages precision. much nunciation makes but . why advantage seems to be one of the reasons it has been adopted in practice by a certain number of English teachers. P*^» Committee this pronunciation lasted Further. The Committee being changes cannot as yet be settled with seems to be between the earliest and the latest values. X in wax.THE PRONUNCIATION OF GREEK v as Lat. : in lapse. which are at present confused &ko? and fix 09 Kaivw an(^ x a ^" w : ' now pronounced alike. the is ch. e. thongh there is no doubt whatever that a distinct h was heard in all these eounds long after the 4th century b. 5 and fi. perfectly obscure is **h. is I'oTTjfJu. and If the time the pronunciation x becoming f. eaftos. \. a. and the deny that to period. n. Tefijva. m.

of sounding x and 0. not. 1 loth to do anything to discourage the primitive pronunciation of the aspirates. Scotch. and the 6 as it is in other positions (this applies both to students who adopt the fricative and to those who adopt the primitive aspirate pronun1 It is at the beginning of words. is paroxytone something is may dactyls stressed. remote from that of the Greeks themselves if we gave to their accented syllables the same stress as we do to the accented less syllables English in quantity example. respectively as Scotch ch and English /. ciation 3 This paragraph is taken by permission from The Mestored Pronunciaand Latin. Cambridge. is in no conflict its the metrical value between accent and be said for stressing moderately the accented syllable. There is no doubt that in the Classical period of Greek the accented syllables were marked by a higher pitch or note than the unaccented.D. Therefore.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 104 would. and The Committee. 1908. ' This had actually happened in spoken Greek by the 2nd century A. though Irish place-names. therefore abstains from recommending mon any change in the com- pronunciation of the aspirates except in the case of %• Accentuation. it is doubtful whether he should attempt to represent them in pronunciation for in many cases we should make our pronunciation more. and so distinguishing e. 4th Edition. or (2) where the fricative pronunciation is adopted. for when the penult (Kexpyfitvot) long antepenult destroyed. has not been able to would be easy to introduce satisfy itself that it into schools to which it is strange . unless the student effort a musical value to the Greek signs is capable of giving of accent. 66 with a stronger current of breath and more muscular " ccent. koXws and *. of the letters in other positions). not . raina and Tacna. recommend the latter alternative as being more familiar in German. 3 not easy to determine precisely the sound of x# <t>0 (x^''> <j>0Lvo%) and the Committee therefore thinks it best to leave the option of (1) sounding the first consonants as k and ir respectively. that is.a\w?. in this position also." . on the whole. Aios and c?os.g. tion of Greek . the quantity of apt to be shortened and But where there (tt^aOi'i). and not by more stress. and it is this pronunciation of opinion that it is not advisable to recommend anything at present that might inIt crease the labour of the teacher or the student of Greek.

theatre. Chairman. ch in noch. Gilson. Butcher. RlJSHBROOKE. 0. S.. A. ph in Philippus as in Eng. S. Hon. G. Bub where the aspirates (t + pronunciation of h. S. and x i n Greek . cessfully adopted. f With reserve as to the pronunciation of v. P. thinks that in any case it is for teaching that the sounds should not vary from those given to 9.ADDENDUM TO THE SCHEME OF LATIN PRONUNCIATION. H. recognising that the precise sound given at different periods to the different aspirates in Latin from Greek (thedtrum. The Committee. R. Philip. the % in Greek as true as in English boat-house) has been suc- Committee does not wish to recommend that any other pronunciation should be adopted for th ph ch in words borrowed into Latin. POSTGATE. y should be pronounced as Greek v (see page 102). of practical and therefore on the whole recommends the fricative pronunciation. 105 14 . C. Winbolt. i. Robinson Ellis. chorus) is difficult to importance determine. etc. * With reserve as to the pronunciation of ei. Sec. J.e. H. E. R. A. Du Pontet. Wood. SoNNENSCHElN.f M. or Scotch ch in loch. Conway.* W. C. ch in chorus as Germ. th in theatrum as in Eng. A. words borrowed into Philippus. E.

1 summary Latin is considered as a class subject begun at the It may be assumed that each lesson lasts about age of about 12-13. 106 minutes is allotted to preparation . representative of very various types of schools. elected Council. January by appointed resolution of the Professor Sonnenschein as 18. and whether.INTERIM REPORT OE THE CURRICULA COMMITTEE Your Committee. and not selected by us Latin as an educational subject as believers in the value of : Latin study what "(1) In a four years' course of minimum number girls at Our given to Latin. Committee and to a of other teachers. formulated members the following of our when has any the subject questions. Pantin tional value business was to take into consideration the question of a Short raised time classical sufficient a few educational first We value. forty-five minutes. 1908. its Chair- The Ecluca- man and Mr. all are given. is hours a week which were sent to number Secretary. at the General Meetin & held at Cambridge (October 1907). by Professor Postgate. and that about thirty for each lesson. whether in the case of pupils whose education is not mainly Latin'* only as its is the of weekly lessons necessary to enable boys or the end of their school course (a) to read the easier authors with a dictionary ? reach the standard of tha (b) to London Matriculation examination the same difficulty) ? (or any examination of about " (2) In a four years' course of Latin study in which three or four lessons are given each week do you find that the average pupils gain such help towards the knowledge of English and other modern languages as justifies the time devoted to Latin The 1 following In this is a summary of the " ? answers received.

Mr. Lipscomb (Bolton). Mr. but they do not think that the standard of the London Matriculation can be attained by the average pupil in that time. This view was also expressed by six out of eight teachers engaged in certain of the smaller secondary schools in London. Easterbrook (Islington). first year." Edward's Grammar School. while endorsing the above strong recommendation. obtained answers from twenty-three Taking an average. if the course is carefully planned. sentative. Mr. A. Some minimum number of teachers find that the power to read the easier authors with a dictionary may be attained.: REPORT OF THE CURRICULA COMMITTEE 107 Question I A daily lesson is strongly recommended by many. Mr. is to the effect that four lessons a week for three terms have more value than three lessons a week for four terms. Dr. Question II The answers to this question show that there exists a strong and wide-spread feeling that even a short course of Latin is The following answers are selected as repreof great value. consider that in no case less than four and seldom less than five lessons a who week are sufficient. Went (Leicester). Mr. Birmingham) considers necessary during the first year. that a daily lesson is Miss Gavin (Notting Hill) considers that four lessons a week. Mr. including Mr. Jamson Smith (King Camp Hill. Several teachers remark that a daily lesson is specially desirable in the Another important remark. Paton (Manchester). two years and five for the two following are necessary for the average girl for (a) and (b). Layng (Abingdon). Canon Swallow (Chigwell). and after five. that at least four lessons for the first Miss Hastings (Wimbledon) regards the lessons to be four. Williamson (Manchester Grammar School) " My experience is that. as regards the understanding of English and English suggested is literature. Rouse (Cambridge). says : of lessons required for I (a) The Rev. Playne (Woodford). Holme (Dewsbury). the number " is four." . E. with three lessons a week in four years. even the modest knowledge of Latin an invaluable asset. A. Mr. in which several concur. for I (b) is Head Masters.

phenomena make Latin repre- preferable to English even grammar. Armstrong says : that much of his time is spent in doing what schools should have done for his pupils: this is of course put forward as an argument against Classical education. or were taught to look on it as a useless survival. than one who has not had Latin. Mr. Liverpool) " It is our experience that the Latin lessons help both directly : and other modern who has had a Latin course acquires his Science much more quickly." Mr.: : THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 108 The Rev. are strongly in the affirmative. and I believe that the knowledge of Latin gained by the average boy is of great value to him in studying English as well as French " (Mr. e. Mr. F. Went). C." the smaller London secondary schools the replies were same effect. The Rev. Went.g. are always sneering at the schools for turning out boys who cannot express themselves Prof." Canon Swallow (Chigwell). It would be interesting to know how many of these pupils learned Latin at school. and that its study is a help to the formation of good — my would be deplorable if Latin were neglected in schools of this kind. A. Francis Xavier's College. after consulting Mr. S." indirectly to the knowledge of English and languages." " In opinion it : " I regard Latin as far the best instrument for giving general conceptions of senting the for the purpose of teaching English From to the The symbols grammar and etymology. with two exceptions. who questioned twenty-three Head Masters "The answers to Question (2). Easterbrook. And we further find that a boy Mr. Botting (St. Probably most did not. Playne " are unanimously of opinion that Latin should not be : We given up in any case by boys going through the four years' course. : School recently. and better. Prof. and Mr.J. G. A. (Rector of St. Armstrong in sense of form whatever. Paul's School) " Without a fair amount of Latin a boy seems to develop no Scientists. Holme (Dewsbury). Jamson Smith (Birmingham) English style. Lowe (City of London Freemen's School) writes " As English Master I am decidedly of opinion that boys gain . Joseph Browne.

" learn Latin. Mood. intelligently studied. Miss Gavin (Head Mistress of Notting Hill High School) girl. For the pupil who starts with ideas that are not clear the gain is obviously greater. " My experience is that it is worth a girl's : while to take a two years' course of Latin. the use of Pronouns. " (b) that the constant use of the highly developed inflexions of Latin produces a clearer grasp of the difference between the much English parsing. and lastly (though this applies only to the girl made some advance this in- Latin) the development of who has modern these can only be imperfectly understood by the who has not studied Latin. Tense. the nature of Subordinate Sentences. Historical Grammar." .' even as derive no benefit not the average among for these reasons and girl. makes impossible the ignorance the meaning of English words which so often startles one. It is especially when the higher work is reached that the inferiority of the girl who has not had this background Latin appears of in their opinion. as the gain to her other languages is very considerable.: REPORT OF THE CURRICULA COMMITTEE A a great deal by the study of Latin. but no other language gives her the same opportunity of the practice that makes these ideas so familiar that they become pax-t of herself. should not learn Latin at but she all). and entirely disappears. 109 few boys here do not and I have invariably found that these boys get only a superficial knowledge of the constructions in English. — all in French in verse. now Head Mistress Tunbridge Wells High School) of " Our answer to Question 2 emphatically is regards a two years' course (the girl from these two years exists. never feriority." Miss Sanders questioned a number of Teachers. and found them unanimous a short course of Latin is Modern Language in their opinion that even invaluable in the help it gives a girl when she begins German. others : " (a) that a very short course of Latin Reading. and in clearing away difficulties as she advances in both German and French. She may have previously gained clear ideas on Case. rhythm . literature. and gives a of first conception of the genealogy of words. Miss Sanders (Blackheath High School . It is found that parts of speech than English Grammar lessons can safely be given up when Latin is begun. Voice. who can is ' yes. the effect of the order of words.

: THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 110 Miss Rogers My " (St. formerly North London Collegiate School) of the : me " It seems to impossible to overrate the advantage of an knowledge intelligent even a little Latin. Paddington." Miss Wood (St. by Miss Burstall. as it is invaluable even supplies the training in grammatical precision and exactness which it is difficult to give under the new systems of teaching modern languages. though she . Paul's Girls' School) experience that the study of Latin is to children of very moderate ability. is : having learnt Latin. the Modern Language Association on German remarks. . a one regret ignorance of it." At Jan. Pome have a lies like great rock at the basis of the civilisation of Western Europe. which we quote 1908. Head Mistress of Manchester High " Latin has such value in grammatical training and School as an aid to the study of English. Mary's College. in her youth. (I deplorably prevalent English The !). it its seems hardly necessary to say anything. are from the April number of special value because the Association is interested in furthering the study of the modern rather than the ancient languages. am speaking of only the four years' course) to correct the still in . The following of Modern Langvuge Teaching. and strict Latin syntax enforces accuracy and clearness thought as no other language study does. languages. Leeds) was greatly in sympathy with the study said that. "Miss Lowe (Head Mistress of the Girls' High School. in the meeting of 7. since without it a language must remain only half advantages in the acquisition of the Romance of great deal of the English Of understood. I am also of opinion that the translation of Latin prose authors into English is one of the best exercises in English composition that can be devised. even a many heard little We Latin. There seems to be no other study that can serve equally looseness and vagueness English (even of expression so non-journalistic logical character of of . an extract from English High Schools for Girls. a discussion took place on the position of English Schools." Other testimony to the same The following effect may be quoted. that even two years of it We have never heard a woman regret are worth having. and no person is completely educated who knows nothing of Latin.

.. appointed to advise as to the curricula the British it report Advancement of the British Association for the for the former in it of gives to and the provision which the school curriculum." many In view of these and received. she hoped the Modern Language Association would be careful what position they took up with regard to the place For one thing. and reported at the Leicester meeting in 1907. . be said that classical study was. of Secondary Schools (in the of Association. It was a preparation for German. misconception of the aim of classical teachers of the present day. German. makes of Science. We are This Committee was appointed at the York meeting in 1906. She would go further and an enormous amount of time. In her own . with then studied Latin. but many teachers are trying to induce boys and girls to appreciate works as masterpieces classical of literature. We desire Gommittee to welcome the recently issued Bevort of a the of of Committee. assert that including Latin in the curriculum saved . German experience she had found infinitely better results in when the children began French. 1 it . and it saved time by abolishing English grammar and it also saved time by preparing for an appreciation of the great masters of .REPORT OF THE CURRICULA COMMITTEE of 111 German. say ten years ago. Latin and Greek are no longer the dry bones of the past. than when the order was French. there seemed to be some of Latin in schools. than it to is it may is found Speaking thrive there improvement need of is especially But we more is in favour feel that if the improvement study the methods in elements. " Miss Purdie (Exeter High School) wished to corroborate the Lowe with regard to taking first French and experience of Miss then Latin and then German. of we have similar opinions which seems clear that even a short course of Latin in our last report (1907). She could English literature. and then German. Latin.. ^xt boys' schools). 1 re p 0r t i3 first instance the curricula The outstanding feature the recognition which literary as well as to scientific studies. it valuable by teachers in schools of generally. teaching. Board Education of for not be too grateful to the opposing the tendency to give up Latin. As to what kind of we have already expressed our opinion of the desirable is various types.

is introduced. is a practical In any case. a modern language before Latin carries with it some important advantages we have already recognised. it being of opinion that a great deal depends upon the method of teaching Latin which is adopted and upon the opportunities offered by the home. though we were unable to recommend as of universal application. sixteen hours per when a third foreign language. a modern language is the expressed first the opinion that foreign language learnt the study of Latin should not be postponed beyond the age of the Committee of the British Association holds that eleven . the opinions quoted in the earlier part of our report show how widespread is the conviction that Latin is an admirable educational instrument. and the allied question whether a modern language should be begun before Latin. Our experience is that a bright boy of ten years of age from a cultivated home may quite well begin Latin without any loss to his general the study development is postponed the years 12-15 . its for adoption. an integral part and should as a general rule be retained as of the curriculum of secondary schools. it would be a wise educational experiment to postpone the systematic teaching of Latin as an ordinary school subject twelve years of age. we are till will prove sufficiently Possibly these differences at one with the Committee of the British Association in recognising that there is a need of secondary schools of different types and with different curricula That the principle of teaching or combinations of curricula. till if 12 the pressure during At the age of we the same time 12 necessity in the case of a certain type of school. should be begun. and there till is a serious danger that the age of may become recognise that postponement too great. As to the age at which Latin ancient or modern.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 112 prepared to accept the recommendation that out of a total of twenty -six school hours per week thirteen hours should be allotted to literary subjects prior to the age when Latin is begun and we consider that after Latin has been begun week is sufficient until the point is reached . there are differences between the report of the Committee of Association when and the report Association British the Committee presented of the Curricula to the last general meeting of the Classical (October We 1907). " It is not without reason that we turn early to Latin for the gram- . and that such a change successful to warrant might be adjusted .

Witton. P. E. Paton. Verrall. xx. E. H. de G. all Such differences as exist between the programme of the Committee of the British Association and the objects of the Classical Association seem on the whole to be differences of The Classical Association has detail rather than of principle. Pantin (Secretary). Report on the Teaching of Classics in Prussian Secondary Schools (to form part of vol. A. Sonnenschein (Chairman)." We 113 own language nor French * join heartily with the Committee of the British Association in deprecating overcrowding of the curriculum. L. of Special Reports on Educational Subjects). 11. W. Ramsay. M. Mansfield. H. C. Hoet. B. Sanders. We are therefore ate may and reasonable co-operation the rival claims of and the Natural Sciences as subjects of school education criticism Classics be reconciled. p. Classics in a narrow or exclusive never advocated the claims of hope that by dispassionto encouraged spirit. W. G. Burge. E. Swallow. Page. C. R.REPORT OF THE CURRICULA COMMITTEE matical training which neither our can supply. A. D. T. A. Adele F. E. F. W. F. A. David. A. Bell. 1 15 . Williamson. COMPTON. as well as specialisation of studies before the age of eleven or twelve. Master of Marlborough College. E. Frank Fletcher. D. W. M. H. by Mr. Ethel Gavin. J. D. Rouse.

Interest on Investments (less tax) £298 18*.— THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 114 STATEMENT OF ACCOUNTS. Africa For The Year's Work (491) Small overpayments .. 5d. 1906-7 (61) „ „ 1908(583) 1909(45) 1910-12(54) Donation Subscriptions paid direct into bank (1908) Life subscriptions Libraries For Proceedings from S. £ Entrance fees (1..35) Subscriptions. New Zealand 3^% Stock £200 India 3£% Stock £100 Deposit at Chartered Bank : Balance from 190/ . Credit and Receipts.

(grant „ „ Birmingham C. The Years Work (to June 30.. 1908 s.. . of entrances) „ „ 17. „ Bank balance. „ Liverpool C.. 2d. £ Printing Postage ..STATEMENT OF ACCOUNTS JANUARY 1st to DECEMBER 31st. ii. Expenditure.. December . less profits ' (£1 10*. 1907) iv.. To Manchester C. on ' Pronunciation of Latin ") Proceedings sent to South Africa General expenses of meeting at Birmingham (less expenses Proceedings.A.A. vol. 1908).A. 115 1908. (October 1906) Travelling expenses (members of Council and Committee) Vol. paid for by guarantors) Returns of members' overpayments Bank charges . Year-book Clerical assistance Reporting (Meeting..

iI I— < o A O — -< 5 o Q S4 C c s o Q .

APPENDIX 117 .

.

" As for The very first the American 1869. in of ' pronouncing the Latin and Greek Languages. Assoc. first meeting paper presented at the very Philological Association. Phil. Extract from a letter of late tJoe Prof. were using the Modern Greek pronunciation. D. without trouble of mind. under German influence. 119 effort was and now the then an to reproduce both parts of the diphthong . None but the A the old-fashioned pronunciation. two or of the vowels were coming in three prominent scholars. the ' Continental' sounds and. some have given it as dz. "Between 1869 and 1875 the matter was discussed at great . T.' (See Transactions Up to that time the old 'American' of Am. . The chief divergencies of late have been late years as it : " (1) Some have paid more attention to quantity and others to the written accent " (2) While most have pronounced £ as English z. have been disposed to use the Modern Greek pronunciation but this disposition has not been so marked of — was twenty years ago. giving the vowels and diphthongs with a rude approximation to what length we suppose the old men kept to original sounds to have been. Yale University. Seymour. Most American scholars understand each other's Greek now. APPENDIX. few of the students of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens. Then almost all teachers in educational periodicals. etc. to Prof. Postgate (1907). pronouncing a in general as a in make. and a very few as zd " (3) ei used to be pronounced as i in wise made .) pronunciation of Greek had prevailed neglecting the written accent. ttjv as teen. — But gradually. on the other hand.. who had spent a year or so in Greece. . agreed to adopt a pronunciation based on Blass's work. on their return. was on The Best Method of Greek pronunciation in America.

E. which variation only is the as to « uncertainty class-rooms the " Some (4) two insist syllables of it. but in general he says either Ti'0e/u or nOrjfii " happy about our pronunciation of Greek. in some parts of our country a short almost non-existent. however. naturally enough. When his attention is called to it.APPENDIX 120 « and ordinary pronunciation entirely confuses rj — which seems (Only one or two extremely bad. and there.' Of course we urge neglecting the elementary teachers to be careful and precise but they ' — feel as if the colleges expect the schools to do rather more than the schools can do. scholars so distinguish et and -q that I can observe it when they me to to be quote a sentence) and . He cannot give very much time to details of pronunciation without weightier matters of the law. in view of the chaos which we were in thirty years ago. pronounced either as rav or as twv. paedagogically. a teacher may say ti'%u. is local pronunciations. are not We ' ' not inclined to urge any change at present. is regard to v some giving as k — but due chiefly to ignorance or that not entire uniformity with German ch and others The other variations are carelessness. Our teacher must use good judgment. In our " So we have a very fair approximation to uniformity. We very disagreeable.g. or to some American as the not so disturbing.." . on a pronunciation of ei which really makes though the more careful of them make this a diphthong with the emphasis on the first element. and in particular because of the limited time which our boys have 1 am in the class-room. I regret to say that sound tov have it is is the attempt to persuade boys and teachers to mark both quantity and accent in their reading of Greek has not been very successful.

R. LL.B. LL. Finlay. G. Robinson Ellis. R. Mackail.D.. The Rev.A. F. G. Henry Jackson.D.D.D. D..C. 121 16 .D. Lord Justice Kennedy. LL.C.L.C.C. LL..A... M. H.C.S. Lord Collins. Professor of Latin in the University of Oxford. The Right Hon.. D.R..L.M. K.. Museum. The Right Hon.. S.B. Mr. the Earl of Cromer. Sir Archibald Geikie. LL.. Chancellor of the University of Oxford. M. Lord Bishop of Birmingham.. K.. M. Butcher.C. Hicks. L.. The Right Hon. The Hon. Professor of Poetry in the University of Oxford.S.A..O. LL.D. Canon E. Kenyon. Litt.E...D. Professor of Latin in the University S. Conway.L.. the Earl of Halsbury. Litt.L.D...R.P. Professor J.D. Litt. Litt. Gardner Hale.D.M.O. F. M.A. O.D. G.D.I.C.. British W..D.D.S. D..L.C.. P. D. B. D.L.. The Right Hon.S.. H. M..C. G. Charles Gore..Litt. D.L.I. J. K. Lord Curzon of Kedleston.D. LL. LL..A.. P. F. of Manchester.C. LL. Regius Professor of Greek in the University of Cambridge.. D.M.. M. H. D. O.C. LL. Professor of Latin in the University of Chicago. Asquith. G. The Right Hon. Sir R. M..OFFICERS OF THE ASSOCIATION FOR 1909 PRESIDENT The Right Hon. D.G.. LL. Postgate.D. Litt.S...C. VICE-PRESIDENTS The Right Hon. F.. K.D.L.C.P. Justice Phillimore. The Right Rev. W.Litt. D.C. Bart.

Herbert Warren. COUNCIL Professor E. Bart.D.. Master of Gonville and Caius College. A. St.A.L. M. M.A. Bangor. Verrall. M. Esq.. Sussex. Master of Peterhouse.. MA. W.. V. H. D. M. Professor J. Cambridge. Trinity College. J. D. The University... Ernest Harrison. J.A.. Litt.D. President of the British Academy. H. Olave's Grammar School..A.... Vice. Cambridge.Chancellor of the University of Oxford. HON. M. LL.A. Manchester Grammar School. Sonnenschein.... Esq. Barnsley Road.. G. 3. Gonville and Caius College. M. A.. Esq..C. Haverfield. Bailey.Litt.. President of the Royal Academy. Myres. C. T. Sleeman. Forest Row. S. Balliol College. Arnold. E. MA. D. SECRETARIES Professor E.. E.. M. Cambridge. D.. Esq.C.A..A. W.D. Professor W. Esq. LL. Esq. Cambridge. M.A. Sidney Sussex College. Esq. T. Lyttelton.A. Eton College.A. M. G. Douglas House. Litt. Williamson. Director and Principal Librarian of the British Museum. L. M.L. Birmingham. J.D.. MA. D. LL. Professor F. Oxford. ... Chambers. 7... The University..B.. Maunde Poynter. Daniel..C. Elamstead Walters.A. Esq.. Maida Hill West. The Rev. Litt. Cambridge.C. Ridgeway. Rushbrooke. Oxford. HON.D. Roberts. K. Bucks. D.D.. C.A. Page.. Edgbaston. M. Hogarth. I.L.. Charterhouse. C. MA. University College. Wycombe Abbey School. the Hon. Sir E. W. London. Liverpool. W.. TREASURER Professor W. Mrs. Ward.D.APPENDIX 122 Sir Edward The Rev. Brasenose College. Cambridge. M. Litt. Thompson.. E.. A. Miss C. Birmingham.

123 majority of votes. The Association shall consist of a President. It shall be within the competence of the Council to rules for its own the Council shall be determined by a Chairman make procedure. a Treasurer. and.— . 5. 28th. The Council shall meet as often as it may deem necessary. 1. RULES Adopted at the General Meeting of the Association. 1908. The Council shall be entrusted with the general administra- tion of the affairs of the Association. Vice-Presidents. in 2. and. and at every meeting of the Council five shall form a quorum. To encourage investigation and call attention to new (d) To create opportunities practice of classical discussion of its scope discoveries co-operation among for friendly intercourse all lovers of classical and learning in this country. two Secretaries. . . tion shall be members thereof. 1904 and October 10th. upon due notice issued by the Secretaries to each member. provided always that questions before to have a casting vote. particular (a) : To impress upon public opinion the claim of such studies to an eminent place in the national scheme of education teaching by free (b) To improve the (c) and methods. first at the General Meetings of Amended January May 5th. and ordinary Members. and shall be ex officio members of 3. 4. The name of the Association shall be "The Classical Association. 1906. the Council. shall have control of the funds of the Association. subject to any special direction of a General Meeting. the . a Council of fifteen members besides The officers of the Associathe Officers. 6." The objects of the Association are to promote the development and maintain the well-being of classical studies.

and shall not be eligible for re-election until after the lapse of 10. For the purpose of establishing a rotation the Council shall.APPENDIX 124 7. or at any place within the limits of the British Empire which has been recommended by a special resolution of the Council . but vacancies occurring in the course of the year may be filled up temporarily by the Council. Secretaries. Vice-Presidents. 17. The annual subscription shall be 5s. and Council shall be elected at the General Meeting.. 13. upon meeting. The General Meeting of the Association shall be held annually in some city or town of England or Wales which is the seat of a University. and the Secretaries shall be elected for 1 1. 8. The Council shall have power to remove by member's name from the list of the Association. one year. Ordinary members shall be elected by the Council. There shall be an entrance fee of 5s. the Treasurer. 12. five years. . and on retirement shall not be eligible for re-election until after the lapse of one year. 14. Members of the Council shall be elected for three years. provide that one-third of its original members shall retire in the year 1905 and one-third in 190G. Members who have paid the entrance fee of 5s. but shall be eligible for re-election. Membership of the Association shall be open to all persons of either sex who are in sympathy with its objects. and no motion shall be made or paper read at such meeting unless notice thereof has been given to one of the Secreweeks before the date of such meeting. the place to be selected at the previous General Meeting. The Vice-Presidents. 9. Alterations in the by vote at a General Meeting. The Election of the Officers and Council at the General Meeting shall be by a majority of the votes of those present. vote any Rules of the Association shall be made notice given by a Secretary to each member at least a fortnight before the date of such 19. notwithstanding. 16. The President shall be elected for one year. The list of agenda at the General Meeting shall be prepared by the Council. may compound for all future subscriptions by the payment in a single taries at least three sum of fifteen annual subscriptions. payable and due on the 1st of January in each year. The President. the Chairman to have a casting vote. Treasurer. 15. 18.

the T shall enjoy The through the operation of this rule. 10. the Council shall have power to invite that body to nominate a representative to serve for a limited period (not exceeding one year) as an additional member of Council beyond the number 15 mentioned in Rule 3. The Classical Association shall 125 have power to enter into with other hodies within the limits of the British Empire having like objects with its own. nor shall they have an} of the rights or privileges of members beyond such as they office be a Vice-President of the Classical Association. . of any body so associated is If the President unable to attend the meetings of Council.RULES 20. upon their application relations The Council shall by any such The be enjoyed by its members. the Council and by vote of the same. and 16 shall not apply to the Vice-Presidents created under this rule. 12. provisions of Rules 8. to in each case determine the contribution payable body and the privileges to President of any body so associated shall during his term of But members of the associated body shall not be deemed to be members of the Classical Association.

*Alford. Rosendal. Wolverhampton. G. J.D. Otago University. M. W. R. B. F.... C... E. 1909 %* This list is compiled from information furnished by Members of the Association. Agar. School House. Dervock.. Commercial Travellers' School. J. R. 65. Adams. Fermanagh. D. W. Allen.C. *Alder. Oxford Eoad.R. M. Sir T. M. W. Summer Lane. A.B. B. M. Portora. M. Gloucester Gardens. Pinner. Oxford. Miss A..A. T. S. and Members are requested to be so kind as to send immediate notice of any Change in their addresses to Prof. Tlie Members to whose names an asterisk is prefixed are Life Members.. Allen.. M.A. Ashgate Road. A. Sheffield.. Maida W. Miss. M... Prof. loith a view to corrections in the next published List. H. Albright. Sevenoaks. Ashton-on- Mersey. Jesus College. 21.. Shrewsbury. Yale. St.A.. B. M. Miss M... Ager. Alliott. 126 . Rev. C. C.. N.A. 51... D. Middlesex. The University Hostel. A. Co.. M.. Allwood. 84. M. Clifford.D. F... Bishopshall West.A. 318. Abbott. K.. T. Miss. Glebelands Road. T. W. S. Adam. Alington. Tettenhall College. Abernethy. Birmingham.Z. B.S. Abel.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OE MEMBERS February. Co.D..A.. F..A. E. Andrews. M. C. Queen's College. Douglas House. Surrey.A. Enniskillen.A... 9. Allen.. Miss E.. Birmingham. Cambridge.A. Waltees. 2. Mrs.B. Cambridge. KB. 3. M. Rev. Portsdown Road. St. Barton Road. London.. Allbutt. Dunedin. Edgbaston. Rivershill. G. Lisconnan. Cambridge. L. Antrim. L.. M.A. Maida Hill West.A. Bishop's Road. Adshead. Abrahams. Allen. Francis' Road. Miss M. Cranleigh School. Wakefield. 1. Radegund's.. S.

M. Prof. Anderson.A. C. G. Burnley. Rev. Schenectady. Miss E.Y. 50. Oxford. Wokingham. University House. Ilkley. M. E.. Vice-Principal.. Clifton Hill. London.. Armstead. Bedales School. Grammar School...D. Ashworth. L. Eton College. H.. Cambridge..A. Berks. C. Heycroft.C. Atkinson.A. Miss H.. B. Colet House. W. M. C. T. Yorks.. Claygate. Pupil Teachers' Centre. A. Christ Church.A. Withington Girls' School. A.. W.. W. Archer. Austen-Leigh. Argles. O. Austin.. M. Miss H. M. M. Kingston. Armitage. Hon.. Cambridge. N. W. S. A..P..... Frank. M. North Wales.. Trinity Hall.. Ashwin. Pall Mall.. Sheffield...A.C. M.A. - .A. C. E. Arnold. Antrobus.. B.. M... 20. F.C.. Clare College Lodge. M.. W. Oxford. 9. Cranleigh School.A. E. D. W. Cavendish Square.. Swinford Old Manor. V. Tesdale House... Ashford.A. Aberystwyth.. F.. Bolton..A. M. Angus. *Ashton..L. K. G. Abingdon. Surrey. Hertslets. M. Ashmore. Armitage.. Badley. F.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 127 Anderson. H. Litt. Head Master. Junr. *Atkey. Petersfield. Mrs.. Rev. Kent. H. D. Anderson. Rome. F. Surrey. Lady Margaret Hall.. Birmingham. M. West Didsbury.S. Canada. Manchester.A. M. Auden. F. A. B. Awdry. West Kensington. J.D. M. Hagley Road. Toronto. J... Rt..A. Principal. Arnold. M.. Shrewsbury Road. Prof.M. Anderson. Wellington College. M. LL. H. Prof. C.. Prof.B. Burghfield Common. U. Atkinson. G. Union University.A. Manchester.A. Y. Queen's University. . British School. M.A. 18.. W. Grammar School.A. E. H.. J. Mortimer Berks. Bangor.A. Alfred.. P. Merchant Taylors' School. M.. M. *Anwyl.. Ashforth.. Prof. N. M. Marine Terrace.A. Upper Canada College.W. Archibald..A. Windsor. Hants.A. R. N. 62. Bryn Seiriol. Mrs.A. *Ashby. Ontario. Washington.. N. Miss E. Asquith. H. E. Hermit's Hill.

P.... * Barlow. Edward's College. Barrett.. P.A. Birmingham. Holland Park Avenue. Miss M.C. Claremont.W. M. Bromley. G.. Oxford.D. Miss D. M. St. Liverpool. Miss E.. Barker. St. Eastwood.A. Miss M. Essex.. c/o London and County Bank.A. 17. Ball. Edgbaston. London. Jamaica. Miss H. Battiscombe. Graham.C.P. Leeds.. Bakewell. B.. Albemarle Street..A. Banks. 42.. Balliol College. Tunbridge Wells. Ross. P.APPENDIX 128 Bagge. M. C. M. Sefton Park. E. W. Abingdon. Miss K. M. M. St. Barker. M. J. M. Bui bourne.A. Bailey.. S. *Barran.. Merchant Taylors' School. *Barnes... Baixes. Miss E. Bart. Miss. Balcarres. Berks. Birmingham.A. E. Gerald. Birmingham. Newcastle. 44. Barker. D. M. P. Alexandra Drive.. I. Olton.A.. Barker. Merton Road. Miss E. Harborne. B. Banks.A. M. High School for Girls. Bailey. Board of Education. Rev. Miss L. 74. Bernard's Road. 10. M. 100. Trinity College. Beaumont.A. M.S... Weston-super-Mare. Prof.. Redcliffe Road. Cyril. P. 22.... Barke.O.. Sir J.... A. Bampfylde. M. New Street. Oxford. B. W.. Lanes. Colwich. Baugh.. M.D. M. J. Canon. Staffs.. Dudley Road.. 10. pool. Stoke Lodge. A. Stafford. Mrs.. Nottingham. Hon.A. M. Downham Market.A. Road. Prof. S. Norfolk. Egerton Gardens. E. M. S. MA. Stradsett Hall. City Road. S. Very Rev. S. 16. Barnett. Barrows. Lord. Canon P. St.. Birmingham. Balfour. M. Dublin.W. London. Brook Street. John 'e College. Byculla. F. Rt. Chapel Allerton.A. Brentwood School. M. 20. E.A. Beasley. Rev. Whitehall. Southsea. Stourport. M. 128. M. T. Kent. Stoke-on-Trent.. Ross. E. Tring.. Baker-Penoyre. BxABB.. King Edward VL's High School for Girls. Everton.. John's Vicarage. Leonard. D. A.. N. E. Balfour. Bean. E. B. Bolton. W. Cambridge.. G.... E. W.. T. Birkenhead. J... Baldwin. Thornhurst.A. Wentworth Road.. J.A. .A. Hampton School.. Liver- Ball. ff. The Elms. Lensfield Road. M..A. P.W. Chorley New Barnard. Rev. Batliss. Astley Hall. Malvern P. B. L. Athenaeum Club..

Bennett. Berridge. J.A.A. W.. 17 . The University. A. von B. Rev. Wales. S. W. J.. J. Stevenage. M.... Ride. Rev. Colet Court. 3.. 16. Beck. High School. Cranmer Road. Kew. *Bekecke. Miss F. Salisbury. J. The Army School. Behrens.. Bertram. Canon G. Hayes. Bedford. Oxford. S. Bensly. R. Sishes.A. M. W. Brighton. C. M. E.. LL.W. M. Alexandra Drive.. A.. E.. B. P. M. Adelaide...A. Bell.. Christ Church. C. The Wayside. W. A. Surrey. Benson.D.A. V. Benn. Sefton Park. Leamington. M. San Gervasio.. York House. Magdalene College. Leicestershire.. *Beckwith... *Blagden. *Bensly. Sutton Valence. Oxford.A.. Portugal Street. Basingstoke. A. H.. Cambridge.A.A. Greyfriars. Rev. 23. M. Miss E.. M. Wrexham. The College.A. Little Cloisters. E. H. W. Beckenham. Belcher. 4. G. Bennett.A..W. M. Cowley Street. Godfrey R. A. H. Beggs. Bell. Mycenae Road. M... Grove Park.. E. M. N. Cambridge. Harrogate. Magdalen College.A. Trefnant. Cambridge..A. Bramhall. Swansea. G. Priory Road. Rev.. Eaton Square. A. W. County School for Girls. Bramley Rectory. near Stockport.A. 4. Blackheath. Miss L.A. West Kensington.. S. A.... S. S. M. Florence... Australia. B.. M.. M. Canon H. M. B. Benger. Hayes. Bernard.A.. near Maidenhead.. 108. Paul's Preparatory School. Rev. M. M. Rev. High School.. Liverpool. B. Miss M. Bell. Staverton Road. *Bernays. Bidgood. II Ciliegio.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 129 Beaven. Hammersmith.D.. S. Trevanion Road. Rev.A.. 3. Scroope Terrace. C. Queen Elizabeth School. M.. Bevan. Belcher.A. E. M. 21.A. F.. B. L.A. Caerfedwen..A. Bewsher. 7. M.A. M..A. 19..W. Sherborne. B... Old School House. M. School House.C. The Knoll. The Close. Miss E.. Belcher.. M. C. Westminster. Westminster. A. S. "*Bennett. St.. Canon E. J.A. Miss J. A. Miss C. Oadby. Mrs.E.. M. *Benson. Bethune-Baker. Binney. G. Billson. Prof.. R. Oxford.. C. Ashville College. Canon E. Rev.A. W. Rev. Beeching. M. Woodford Vicarage.. T.

Rev. Eton College. Eton College. Waldeck Boad. M. Bodney Street. B.A. School Field. Leeds. Grammar School..A. Eaton Place. Miss.. Brightman.D. M.A. C.. M... Christchurch. Manchester.. Ely.W.B. Brown. Astell House. Eton College.A. Edwardes Square. L...A. P.A. M. Brown. B. Winchester. Brinton.. C. W.. C. P.. B.... H.A. Eaton Terrace. Maryland Street. Rev. B.A. 1.Chancellor of the University. Eastbourne. Brockman. W. Liverpool. Ireland. Bramley-Moore. The Nunnery. West Downs.A.A. M. Michael's Hamlet. G. L. Miss A. C. L. St. H.. Christ's Hospital. Rev.. Broadbent.. E. W. Queensland.C. Prof. K. Brooks.A. 4. B. A. *Bosanquet. May Bank. Liverpool. Whitworth Park.. M.A.. St.A. M.W.A. C. C. Brett. M.. M. 3. G.APPENDIX 130 Blakeney..A. A.. Windsor. Rev. C.A. Booker. Edmund's School. Bowen. 33. M. Windsor. The University. F... Cheltenham.A. West Horsham. West Kensington.. Nottingham.A. H. Prof. Brooke. II. C. New College. B. W. Liverpool. W. Durham. M. N. University College. A. Middleton Grange. Bridge. Bristol... 2. Botting. M. Educational Institution.A. St.A. Theodore. T. Prof. Broadbent. Aigburth. Sir J. Mrs. Bankine. Branfoot. E. Upper Biccarton. M.. 9. Miss H. K. W t Brighouse. George Street. H. F. B. Windsor. Eton College. M. Andrew's School. H. J. University College.. Windsor.. New Zealand. Acomb Street. Rt. Brisbane. J.. Bousfield. St.. Rev.. Aberystwyth. Blundell. . Litt. Bramwell. Bowlby. Dundalk.. B. Winchester. T... Hanover Square. Bodington. W. Bradley. Bugby.. E. S. Magdalen College. Bradford. Blakiston. Admiral Sir C. Oxford... Bonser.A. S. Kensington.A.. H. T. J. Liverpool. Perham Boad. Canterbury. Hon. Eton College. Rev. F. E. Vice. Brown. M. 22. 4. M. S. Bow. Culver's Close. Brooke. C. New Zealand. H. M.. F.. Apsley Crescent. Bovd. The King's School. W. N.. B. Liverpool. Browne. Bramston. M. Windsor. Tuebrook... H.A. W. Rev. M. Bowen. Wellington. Blunt.. Blore. *Bowen. John's Vicarage. A. T. Victoria University College. 54. University Club for Ladies.. Oxford.

A. MA.. S. Westroad Corner. Oscar..P. Very Rev.D. Prof. Bury. Upper Norwood. Canterbury.. Trinity Lodge.D. J. Bryans. E. H. Mrs. D. D... Butler. Rev. L. M. Southacre. M. M. Bryant. Manchester High School for Girls.A... Edmund's College. Ronald M. Butcher. 1. de. Trumpington.. Hayling Island.. Dudley. C. V. University College. Arundel House. Chesterton Road.A. E. S..A. Richmond. Hants. Burnside.W. Vicarage. M.A. . A.. Oxford. Burton. 14.A.W. 0. The University.. M. Burrows. Eton Road. C. Burkitt. 14. G. N.. Henleaze. Miss A. 32. Burge. Cambridge. Butcher. St. Cambridge. R. 131 Rev.D. Tunbridge Wells.. Elvaston Place. Ven.. Tavistock Square.C. Bruce.. Hertford College.. Litt.. Teighmore. St.D. Winchester. H.Jones. Hampstead. M. Palace Square.. Southborough.A..L. Burroughs. M. Byrne. 3Iiss M.. M. Manchester. D. F. L.. Bruce-Forrest. J. D.. Birmingham. Manchester.D. M.. Andrew's. Browne. Rev. Burrows. H. 4.. Prof.A. Selwyn Gardens. Rev. Rev.. S.. S.. H. Bury.A.. A. LL. B. M. E.. Rev. F. Miss S. Bull. K. E. W. Edmund's School. C.E. Rev. Devon. Ware.. ArcMeacon W. S. Browning.Litt. Charterhouse.. M.. N. Bussell. H. Liverpool... Cade. New College.A. Litt.W. Cambridge. Cambridge. Burne. Manor Road. Hon. Montagu. Cambridge. M. Burstall. Prof.A. S. Brasenose College. Cambridge.A.. Burke. Cranley Gardens. B.. Francis Xavier's. Bunsen. W. Edgbaston. D. Rev. Dudley Municipal High School. B. E.A. Rev. Prof. Dublin. Vei'y Rev. R... Butler. J. Lynton House.. F. Bt. King's College. Butler.. Cambridge. G. Cambridge. 11.. Bubb. Paignton.. 33. M. Miss A. S.D.D. Joseph. Worcestershire. C.A. 6. M.W.C.. Edwin. Cheltenham. D. E.B. M. W. Sir P.. The College. King's Road. S. Burton. Oxford. M. Mrs.A. Oxford.. St.. J. M.....A. Trinity College.. Godalming.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS Browne. A. Brownjohn.. W. F. Montagu..A. St. Salisbury Street. A. The Lodge.

Windmill Hill. Miss J. M. M.A. Board of Education. Caspari. S. Belvedere School. Charles. J..... C. H. Chamberlain.B.A. Case. H.. Chase.C. Ely. N. Andrea. M. O. Board of Education. Carmarthen. H. A.W..C. M.A. 9.. M. Albans Villas. Miss E..A. Manchester. Campbell. Richard. W. University College. N. M.. Rev. Rev.. A. M. E. T. Canterbury. Elmthorpe. E. 1. T. Carlisle... H. Miss Esther.A. c/o A. John. A. East Parade. Lord Bishop of Ely. M. W. Worcester.. Erdington Abbey. Rue des Joyeuses Entrees. Windsor.A.. N. N.. M. M. T.. M. E. Queen's University. School House. C... Edmund's School. Cattley. J. Chambers. M. B... Birmingham. L. The University. 12. Campion. Manchester. Cartwright. Birmingham. Chantry Mount School. Rev.A... Alassio. S.A. Prof. D.P. Cambridge. F. S. Chapman. Rev. E.. Bede's College. M. Carter. Leadenhall Street. Upper Drive.A.D. Christ's College. Hampstead. Wolverhampton. M. Box 374. Bishop's Stortford. John Street. M. Mrs. Kingston. Miss 0.. M. Whitehall. Case. Italy..C. . Casartelli. T. A. B. 101. Caton.. Hove.W. O. King's School. 1.A.A. The Lodge. Chappel. M.. M. Louvain.A. Emmanuel College.. St. Chapman. Belgium. S. Canada.. N. I. A. Huntingdon. Rev. Eton College. London. C. Cambridge. Chawner. B. E.APPENDIX 132 Caldecott. M. Livingstone Drive South. Whitehall. Campbell.. H. The Grammar School..A.. Cappon.L..... Repton. Aberford Vicarage.. G. Leeds.A. Wyton Manor. Chavasse. K. J... St.A. Campagnac..W.. Burton-on-Trent.S. Albion Road. Dom.... C. Rev. Fitzjohn's Avenue. Highgate Road. M.A.. Miss M.W..D. South Hampstead. M. Campbell.. Temple Cowley.. P. Esq. Rev. 50. The Palace.. M. Hereford.. M. Chambers.W. St. St. Beck. Campbell. D. Cattley. Prof. Hampstead. The Rt. Carson.A.. Liverpool.A. B. Chapman. Manchester. Holly Lee. Carnoy.D. The Rt.R. F.. Miss D. Oxford. D. Royal Exchange. W. F. Calthkop. M. 5.. L. Sussex. Bishop of Salford.W. S. 84.

Rev.C.A.. F. M.. L.. Newbury. 3.. Collins.. Compston. Linnet Lane. E.G. B. Miss A. M. B. A. N. Ightham. H. Claxton. (Fling's College. Larnaca. The High House. Cholmeley. Oxford. E. J. Chitty.. 1. Liverpool. A. E. G. Rev. The College. B. F. Clay. Magnus. The College. B. 60. Rev. A.. Connal. M. Upper Brooms... S. B.C. C. Norfolk. E.M. F. P. R. Rt. Hawthorne Place.. A.C.A... M..A. E. D. British Museum. M. H. D. Cohen. Miss E. Clarke..A.A.. F. Stationers' School. H. Gravesend. Haileybury College. B. Devon. H. Temple.. Bramham Gardens. S. M. Coles. F. Essex. Windsor.A.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 133 Chettle. London.W.. Scroope House. A. B.. M.A. M.... Hyde Park Gardens. P. M. Denstone College.. c/o L. 30. Dover. Clark. Lady Margaret Hall. Clark. Clark. Church.. J.. B. Felsted School. M. J.A.A.. London). Meanwoodside. Clark. E. A.W.C.A. Cohen.. Embankment. M.. M..... Elm Court.. M. M. Leeds. Streatham Hill.. Manchester. Cobbe. City of London School. B. S. Compton. M. Cyprus..A. Commissioner.. Miss H.A. Conder. Broughton and Crumpsall High School. Bugby.. M.D.. Plymouth..A.. Doncaster. J. Holt.. 9.A.. M.. F. L. Clark. Horton Crescent. Tierney Boad. Colson. W.. W. E.D.. Higher Broughton.M.A. Herts.. Collins.. 3. Lord. LL.i H. Leeds. Rev. Hornsey. Rev. Ellerslie Preparatory School. Miss E. Gresham's School. Eton College.. The University. J. 0. Oxford. M.A.. Colvin. H. Fremington. Hon.S. N.A. Rev. D... A. M.A.. Lanes. B.A. C. Milton Mount College. . W..A. Clitheroe. Staffs..A..A. Clarke. Donnington Square. W. M. Churchill. Cambridge. Cole. *Cobhaji. C. W. Rev. Rev. B. Sevenoaks. H. Brook Green.A. Rev. Queen's College. Coleman.. M. Eton College.A. B. Victoria Chilton. 2. W. Grammar School. Church. K. It. Gray's Inn Square. 22. Connell. S.. M.A. Miss A. Coleridge.. Prof.. B. Windsor. 9. W. C.

Oxford. Cookson. Rev.. tlie Earl of P. Manchester. Cambridge. Cruise. E..A. *Cornford. 58. Abbeydale.D. H..S.Watson. Kent. Wimpole Street. Lord. Conway. Trinity College.. Magdalen College. Draethen. Conway.. M.. CLE. 22. University College.C. Ancoats Hall. Beauchief.A. Sir H. Right Hon. D.B. Rev.A.. P. 1.A. Oxford. G. M. Holwood Road. Prof.. M. H. The Cloisters. 5a. R.. 3. M. R... Church Road. Cran. Broomhill.APPENDIX 134 *Oonwat.I. Fairfield.. T.. Newnham College. B. R. Courtauld.C. Crosby.S. Crozier.. Bristol.. Junr.D. Hon. Prof..S.). G.G.A. Sheffield.. Merchant Taylors' School.... M. Corley. Campden Hill. Merchant Taylors' School. F. K. Parker's Road.M..A. MA.. J..M.. M..C. Couzens. N. Miss A. The Waver Farm. K. Cruickshank.. Miss A. D. The University. Oxford. Cotton. M. M. G.W. Cronin. Magdalen College. Oxford. Crofts. W. Eton College. S.A.A.. Cowell. M. O. A.. J..D. Milesdown. Eton College. P. A. Miss F. Cooper. 1.. Clough Hall. Cradock... Crompton.W. M. Liverpool. . Manchester. A.. W. St. Oxford.. Edward's College. S.. Curzon of Kedleston..A. Willowbrook.P. Prof. G..B. K. Cromer.I. Winchester. Manchester. Merrion Square..C.A. S. Crace.A. M. St... Cook. W. Cranmer Road.L. Kingsgate Street. G. Miss A... Cambridge. L. Winchester.. Didsbury. Liverpool. 19. Cambridge. Miss S. Wethersfield. M. M. Essex. J.. F.. R. M. Cowl. D.. St. Windsor.. Dublin.E.D.A. C..C. Sheffield. E. H. Margaret M.. 20.A. Cornish. Bromley.D. H. M. MA.. St. N. E.C. J. B. Cowley. Braintree.. Cambridge (and Hornton House. W. The Square...R. Conway. LL. *Crosby. Rev.G. Carlton House Terrace. Miss A. B. Sir F. Highgate. F.C. Chaucer Road.S. Coombe. F. 93. TheRt. Manchester. A. Edward's School. G. MA.. W... 36.... Crawford. Newton. M. Everton. Litt.A.C.I. Westminster. Manchester.. Rev. University Settlement. John's College. John Street. Craik. Dean's Yard.. F.. MA. Guardum Office. R. Windsor.C. F. Mrs. M.

Lansdowne Boad. .. Kosewarne. B. Prof. Cheshire. *D Arlington. Denman. Co. Bev. *Davidson. M. Danson. Man- chester. H. Oxton.. F. Day..A. J. Farley. J.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS Dakers. Fallowfield House.A. West Didsbury. Miss E.W. Davies..A.D. Manchester. Miss K... Clifton College. Head Master. Boyd.. Glendower Place. M. G. The University. G. D... Cheshire. Bidston Boad.. B. Bristol.. Llewellyn. Miss C.. W.A. Chapelville. Surbiton. Rev.D. Leicestershire. The University. Dawes. A. Wolverhampton. Surrey. Southfields Boad. Dublin.S. M.. Dawkins. Miss M. Rev..A. Grammar School.. Dakyns.B. Bucks..A. Rev... Miss E. Dakiel. C. H. M. Blackburn.. Lutterworth.. S. Higher Coombe.. D. S. Davis. Glendower Mansions.W.A. M.. 71. Daly. I. David. A.. Vice-Chancellor of the University. M. 135 M... Wandsworth.A.W. Oxton. C. Davies. T. M. S. Manchester. M.... Sussex. Bedford. Chapelville.. Davies. J. H. Brighton.Litt. B. E.. Glasgow.A. Kildax-e..A. Dawson. James A. F.. S. D alton. LL. Davies.D.. 117. J. Surrey. A. Brighton and Hove High School.. (President). D. 3fiss E. D.A. M. Bucks. Davis. G.A. Staffs. 86. Chester.A. Derriman.A. A. K. Rev. F. Fallowfield. *Dawes. Davies. 20.A. A... Rev. Wycombe Abbey School. A.A. Prof. B. M. Heathlands. near Cheadle. Grove Boad. Llewellyn. Miss M. W.. Staffs.. M. 53. Grove Boad. University College. Dale. Stony hurst College. Rev. H.A. Bosemount. Elstow School. Dawkins. Waterloo Boad. University College. Delany. Weybridge. Boyd.A. The Hill. Bowton. W. S.. 1.Sc. The College. A.. N. Clyde Boad. T. Daniel. Davies. Miss M. W. Bobert. Wycombe Abbey School. Dawes.. Harrison College. M. B. Surbiton. A.W. W.. A. Clongowes Wood College. Haslemere. Barbadoes. D. Montpelier Boad. S. Dale. Croydon.A. M. S. Brighton. C. W. B. H. Davis. B. Miss C.. Uttoxeter. Cardiff. Liverpool.. M. Sallins. D.. Rev.

... 46. The Rt. Didsbury. Bolton. S. G. Wakefield. Sedbergh.D. Donaldson.A.D. Edinburgh. M. G. M. Battersea Rise.. L. M. Queen's College. High School for Girls. J. W. Dyer. Wycombe Abbey School. Eckhard.. Fallowfield.A. J. Dill. D. D. Englefield Green. S.A. W..A.. Edmonds. Murrayfield Avenue.. Colquhoun. New Square... Westminster Abbey. King's College. Yorks. 42. Sir E. A. Boutflower Road. Clayesmore School. Bedfordshire. Miss 0. Sandy.. Dingwall.A... J.. *Dymond.A. Ealand. *Donner. M. Trinity College. F.. Dunlop. 15. J. B. Donkin..A. Bromham Road. Edmonds. Miss. M. M. A. Litt.. M.. Prof. Bongeo. The Lodge. Dudley. Bucks. Miss M. R. Oak Mount. M. B.. Manchester.. Harrow. Pelham House. Canon R.. M. Miss U.. 6. Durnford. Duckworth.APPENDIX 136 Devine. P. Lincoln's Inn. Edghill. G.. Berks. H. Eton College... *Drtsdale. Sheffield..A. F. C. Pendarren.. Bath. Cambridge.. H. J.. Surrey.. R. Tewkesbury. Bedford. Broome House.W.. Miss M. Dill. M.. Oxford. M.A. Wigan. F.A.. M. James's Park. Cambridge.. M.. Miss J.. W.A. W. B.A.. Duckworth. Rev.. 1.. J. B. 45. Oxford.. Dunn.. Wadham College. G. Great Gransden. MA. M. West Horsham. Didsbury.. *Drewitt.C. C.V.D. Droop. Englefield. L. Christ's Hospital. Rev. Pelham Road. C. N.D. Manchester. Ashfield. 57. Windsor.A. Eckersley.A. D. Alex. The Hostel.. S. Burton-on-Trent. J. Carter Knowle Road.A. B. West Folkestone. Dunstall. Doyle.. M. J.A.. Miss M.D. Mrs. M. C. Sunbury Lodge. M. Rev. Hyde Park. Southsea. Cambridge.O. Dickin. Prof.W. R. B.. E.. Dove. LL. B. St. Broome House. A. Pangbourne.. 11. Hillmarton. Manchester. . A.' *Eden. Bishops Garth. Belfast.. Eastwood.. Dowson. Edginton. Repton. Hertford. C. Lord Bishop of Wakefield. B. Kemerton. LL. Eckhard. Duff. Magdalene College. D. C. Mrs. S. H. F. King's Lea. Danes Hill.. Little Cloisters. T. Crickhowel. A Du Pontet.A. J..A.A.. Cleveland Gardens..

S. Exon. Cheltenham.A. Banister Court. J. M. Girls' Grammar School.A. Ladies' College. Butland Park..A. Yorks. Elliston. Ermen.. W. Evans. B.A. S. G..A... Miss L. Bristol.. Bradford. Halifax. G..A. Heath Grammar School. D. Bish worth.D. M. B. W. 16. Heathside.A.. Queen's College. Evans. England. Cheltenham.A. E. Prof... Mansfield College. Pitsmore.. British Museum. S. 22. M. Oxford. Miss A.. Eliot.. 37. Withington Girls' School. Bobinson.A.. Frenchay. Bish worth Grammar School. Sheffield.D. Cliff Court. A. M. B. Berks. Cambridge. M.C. Elliott. Fallowfield.A.D.A. The Bidge. Weetwood.. Ellis.A. Cowbridge School.. D. Sale. H. F.. H. M. Gal way. C.. Sale High School. Devon. A.W. K. E.. Oxford. Southampton. Elliott. H.Litt. L. Miss G. J.. Ellis. C. Manchester. Eppstein. 33.A.. Herts.G. C.. Farnell. The College. B. Eve. Sheffield.C. Ernst-Browning.. Rev. R. Yarnton. C. B. S. Endcliffe Crescent. Britwell.. M. Trinity College.A. M. Litt. G. J.. Lady.A. Cheltenham. Man- chester.B. M. Escott. Fanner.. Exeter College... St. Tadworth.A. W..A.. Ewart.A. M. Surrey. 14. 18 . Evans.A.C..A. James's Square. Fairbairn.M. Ellam. M.. E. Falding..D. B. Edwards. M.. 12. W. Grammar School.. Sir C.. A. Peterhouse. W. Dean Close School. Judge W. Park Boad. Pendleton. W. B. Cambridge. M. Glamorgan. Prof. N.. Esdaile. M.. Elliott. M.. W. H..A. High Wray. Ellaby.. T. W. LL. K. H. Cheshire. Doncaster. Oxford.. F.. Surrey). E. Evans. Silverton. M. Exton.. Gordon Square.. Sheffield. M. D..... M. LL. Faithfull. Berkley Street. H. Litt.. Endcliffe Holt. M. Beading School. Bichmond.. Mrs. Miss.A. Miss 0. Ev^ans. M. Miss E.. Fairbairns. M. Mersland Boad. E. Ship Street. B. M.. Rev. Rev. Ambleside.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 137 Edwards. Oxford. Berkhamsted. M. Glebe Cottage. Westerfield Boad. Edwards.A. LL. W. W. Halifax.. Sidney Sussex College.. near Oxford. Ipswich.D. Elliman.. Liverpool (and West Heath School..

. 90..A. J. M. Cambridge. H. H.D. Miss S. M. Oxford. Flood. 31. Harry.. 135. Eastgate. Dr. B. F. William Brown Street. The Steps. Moorland Road. K.. T. B. B. The Museums. P.. 7. Miss J. Herts. Rockville.A. E..A. Edgbaston. University College. B.A. N. 4. Miss E. Frognal. H. M. School House. Charlottesville. R... Oxford.. Wales... (Christ's Hospital. Chatham Street.D. The Right Hon. Fowler. Egypt. Khodivieh School. M.. S. W. Dublin. Farwell. J. M. The Lodge. 19.. *Fitzhugh.. Quentin Road.A. Phillimore Gardens.A.. E. T. L. 0.. C. Trinity College... Forster.A. M.. W. Ferguson. Oxford. M. M.. Repton.. C. U. R.D. Rossall. Footner.A. Bank House. The School. Hertford).... Cambridge.A.. Ballunie. Felkin. Fenning. Cairo. Magdalen College. Miss M. Fox. Bromsgrove. Lord Justice. S..A. Burton on-Trent.C. University College School. Robin Hood's Bay. D.A. K. M..A. Thorpe Hall.. Prof. Lionel G.A. Forbes.O. Ferard. J.. Dundrum. Magdalen College. Blackheath.. Ferrall. Abingdon. Herts. Highfield. Miss B.A. MA.. Fry. Marlborough College.. The University. W.. Dublin. Flather. M. Newtown. Farside.. Coupar Angus. Sir R. M. Kenneth. Fuller. M. Rev.. Liverpool. Miss A. D. Berkhamsted.A. .- APPENDIX 138 Farquharson. B. M. A. M. Furness. N.W. L.A. M.... Forfarshire. LL. Yorks. S.A. Darley Dale. D.A. Hertford. 15. L. The Training College. Hills Road. Felix School. University of Virginia. Rev.. M. R. D. N... J. Rev. T. S. T.L. M. near Matlock. Furness. Wilts. Fleetwood.. Forbes. St. A. Warde.. Co. Lincoln College. H. Liverpool. Elphin's School. Rev. Fletcher.. Va. Epsom. Radley College. Forrester.A. Sheffield.. Field... B. L. Darlington. C. W. J. M. F. M.E. Rev.. Finlay.A...A.C. M.. G. Birmingham. Haileybury College. Fletcher. R.A. Furneaux. Finlay.. Lincoln. S.. M. Frazer. S.S. Ford. Fry. Southwold. F. W. University College. Berkhamsted. Fotheringham... St. W. Oxford.. South well Gardens. B. Furness. Fleming.W.

Osborne. Sir Archibald.... N.. London. 1. Alwyne Mansions. E. Castlebrae.. Rev. M. Godley. Cambridge. Gaselee. Giles. Linden Gardens.A. near Liverpool. Colet Court.. Canterbury Eoad. Surrey. Gilson.A.. Newnham College. M. N.. Geikie. K. The University. The College. Miss F. P. Gardner.. M. Miss E. Birmingham. Giles. W. R. Galpin.. Prof. R. The College. M. Gibson-Smith. Garnsey..A.. Cambridge. Emmanuel W. B.. Palace Hotel.W. J. D. Giles..C. C. M. D... M. Oxford. Blackheath High School. Miss.. Litt. M.A. M. Canfield Gardens. A. Goffe. . Selwyn Gardens. Giveen. M. H. M.. Acton Hill.S.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 139 Gadesden. M. 57. College.A. Mrs. H. Miss E. 's School. Cambridge. 2...W. D.. A. Gardner.R. F.A.. Kensington Gardens Square. Cambridge.. R. LL. LL. Gibson.A. The University. M. G.D. Woolton Vale. 23. P. 39. W. Gardner.. Tattenhall. S. Rev. E. S. M. 2.A. Gibson. Shepherd's Down. Old Broad Street. L. Hampstead. near Chester.. J. Oxford.A. O.. M. B. A.A. G. Miss A. M. Miss F. C. Fairview. Gardner.. Gibbons.. Wimbledon. Royal Naval College. King's College.S. Epsom. *Genner. Bayswater. Prof. W. W.A.A. Museum.. Canon. R. Cambridge.D. Bac. University College. Girls' Grammar School.D. A. M. L. Willcott Road. *Gaye. Gillespie. 4.A.. T.. Windsor.. M.. c/o Bank of N. E.. M.E.A.G. M. Jesus College.. Allerton. Stephen. E..A.. Cambridge. Crick Road. Glisson Road. H..D. C. E. Liverpool.A. E. M. Merton College.... Rev. Oxford. *Godfrey. Gavin. British Gladstone. A. John Street. The Vicarage.A.. B. Maidstone Road. Star Hill. Broken Hill.L.. *Gerrans. Glazebrook. West Kensington. Prof.. Canterbury.W. M. Robert. S. W.. Eton College. Stirling Mansions.C.. Gardiner. 12. Rochester. *Genner..A. Miss G. Glover. Cambridge.. Mus. A. St. Goodhart. Garrod. Leeds. N.S. L. Oxford.. Gilling. W..D.. King Edward VI. Ely. Miss E. P. D. H.. Rochester.A.. Gilson. Sheffield.A. Miss E. Canon M. Ghey. 20. M. T.A. King's School. M.. R. M.W. Oxford... M. D. 4. Trinity College. Haslemere. Gaselee. 75.

G. L. M. M. Victoria Street. University College.. 39.A. The School House. Tonbridge. John's. Nottingham.W.D. Edinburgh.. St. M. W.. Goss. Oxford. *Greene.. Highfields. J. Gould. Holywell...A. 11. The University.A.. Goodyear. Notts. Canterbury College. 5.A. St... 19. N. H. I. Miss N. J. Gough. Gray. St. B. Hymer's College. Hesketh Avenue. Green. Greechy. Gough. (Headmaster). Birmingham. Charles. H. Oxford. C. F. Grigg. Rev. J. Rt. Grenfell. Edgbaston. Buckland. Diss. Greene.. Greenwood. Birkenhead. Miss Teresa. M. *Graham. India... Gore... E. M. Lord Bishop of Birmingham. Glossop Boad. Paul's Girls' School. Hammersmith. T. Mrs. Grant. Miss A.A. St. Goodwin. W. J. Wem. M. Herts.. Green. C. Oxford. Gray.. B.C. de. N.. Gray. 389. Bernard's Crescent. A. Grenfell.. Bishop's Croft. Rev.. Grange Boad. W. Cheshire. B. M. Rev. Magdalen College. N. Granger. F. B. T. E.A. Sheffield.. Liverpool. Queen's College. Litt.. Queens' College. Oxford.A. Christ Church.. Graves.A. J.A.. D. C. 35. M. B... Miss M. Cambridge. Alice. 17. Christchurch. M. S.. Miss J. Litt. S. Leeds. Gosse. Wilfred A.. St. H. MA. Rev. L.... Warden of Bradfield CoUege. A. Rev.A. Gordon. Martin's. Rev. A. M. Mrs. School House. Kensington Crescent.Sc. Westminster.. 5. H. H. G. New Zealand. Prof. Hull. Gorse.W. Manchester. Lincroft Street. Prof.. M. Berks. C. S. D. Oldham. W.D. B.APPENDIX 140 Goodrich.S.C. M. M. W. London. Gregory.. Grant. Berkhamsted.A. W.W. Litt. W.B.. H. M. Didsbury. Miss F. Rev... Hulme Grammar School. Brook Green.D. L. .. Sind. W. Albert Square. Leonard's School.D. Hyderabad. 62. M. Gray. E. Cambridge. Green. M. Bernard P..... Prof. Griffin. 99. Dean's Yard..A. Greene. D. Hepworth Bectory...A. Paper Buildings. 39. Gow. Litt. St. Liverpool College.. Betford. D. Man- chester. Hanover Terrace. Moss Side. Salop. Iffley Boad..A. M. M. Oxford. Rev.. Andrews. Bowdon. W. W. Grammar School.. Temple.

B. Gerda Road. M. Alassio.C. Guthkelch. T.A. R.. Oxford. Chalmers Crescent. R. W. 4. Forest School. J. Pembroke *Hadow.W. G. Mount House. S. Walthamstow. Edinburgh. Harris.. Sedbergh... Gurney.. Hon. Worcester *Haigh..W. Surrey.. Oxted. Chetwynd House.. H... King's College... G.. 69.A. W. Hammans.. India. B. Selly Oak.. B. Deansgate. Kent. F. Miss M. Prince Alfred Road. W. Gwilliam. 69.C. St. Rev. Hales.G. F. The Warden. Gwatkin. Messrs...A. Andover. Manchester. The Hulme Grammar School. M.. Hardeman. Liverpool. S.S. John Rylands Library. B. The Moor House. The Weirs Cottage. Ennismore Gardens.Litt. M. R..W.. H. Mrs. The Rectory. Litt. T. M.O..A.. B. c/o College. G.. P. Hardie. Miss Sybella. St. M. 3. Millway Road. *Gwatkin. 15. F.. C. Bombay. Cambridge.A...A. King's College.. Wavertree.D. Rev. Prof. Haigh. John's College. Strand. W.D.. H. Sefton Park.A. P. J. Hales. P. Guy.D. W. the Earl of. Mecklenburg Street. Hall. Ennismore Gardens. J.A.. Henley-on-Thames. Gurney. Italy. M. New Eltham.S.. Cambridge.. G.A. LL. H. Chicago. Co.. 4. M. 19. W.A.. Miss E.... Oxford.L. Rt.. Hants. Brockenhurst. Hadley. Yorks. *Halsbury. A. Groom & Taylors' School. Harris..A. Birmingham. Harrison. 0. Hallam. M.. T. M. H. B.A. Rev. M. Leicester. Rendel.A.. B..NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 141 Guppy.A. S. Greenbank School. Miss A. Liverpool. Remenham. Miss E. R. Joseph. G. Prof. W. Hall.. 35.. Harrow. Charterhouse Square. Hall. .A... The University. Cambridge. Grove House. W. Ennismore Gardens. J. Gurney... Ortygia. Harper. M. Hale. E. M. H. Andrea. M. Christ's College.. C.A. U. Harley Street.. M. Hardcastle. Harper. Miss B. London. College. S.A. Paul's Road.C. Queen's College. S. Manchester. D. Reading. W. Harper. M. Leighton Park School.A. Merchant Grindlay. D. H.

Winchester.. West Hampstead. Hartley. B. B.. Hawkins. Harvey. Burton. Rossett Road. New Walk Terrace. London.A. John's Wood Park.. Bromley. LL. W. Haverfield. S.. Newnham College.. B. Exeter College. Henn.W. F.C. A.. 38.A.. M. Miss Mary L. D. Oxford. Cambridge. 80. Headlam..A. Hiss J. M. P.. M. Hayes. Cheshire. Giles's. 61. Cambridge. W. Liverpool.. Heath.Litt.. Queen Anne Terrace. St.. M. M. Edinburgh.. The Vicarage. Heathcote. (Trinity College. R. J. 3. J. Oxford. Haslam. D.. Trinity College.. Sefton Park. Acton. H. Henderson.A. B. W. E. Birch Grove. C. Miss E. Wellington Road.. W. E. Whitehall. Bolton. H. Heath. Xaverian College. York. Liverpool. Great Missenden S. Haverfordwest. Canon H. Oxford. Grammar School.A. Rev. H. Fettes College. The Croft. 20. D. M. LL. 41.. 5. V. Henry. M.W. W. Prof.A. St. Belfast.. 8.. Hendy.. A. 20.A. *Harrison. Henn.A.38. E. R.. W. Kent. R. W. M. Chingford Lodge.. Brasenose College. M.. The Greek Manse. D.. Bucks. Heppel. B.. P. C. Cambridge). School House.. M. Miss E. M. .A.. M.. A.. M. Bromsgrove. Oxton.A. J. Heslop. M.. Mrs. Priory Road. Rev.. Birmingham. Colville Square. Rev. Kenmure School. Rev. Heard. lion. Prof. Henson. J. A.. M. University Road.A..A.W. The Vicarage. W. J. London. Manchester.. S. Whitehall. Westmorland. Blundellsands...D.. A. Aberdeen. Portland Road. N. Herford. C.. Haynes. Harold Road. M.D. Miss Caroline.A. E. Victoria Park. A. M.A. H.A. Board of Education. J. Wright.. Board of Education. Kensington Park High School for Girls. Linnet Lane.A.A. Palace Grove. Henry. Margate.A.D. Brother Edmund.. 8. Warden of Wadham College. Principal of King's College. M. Henderson. Harrover.. West Downs. Bolton..O.A.. J.. Helbert..A. S. W. Henry. Rev.. N.. Almswood. Rev. Headlam. Cambridge. M. Rev. Oxford. 47.APPENDIX ]42 Harrison.. E.D. Heppel.. Lionel. M. *Haerison. London.. Haydon. E.A. Hebblethwaite.. Edgbaston.

M. Prof.. M. Fossedene. R. 45.. W. A. D. W.C. ... Harcourt Buildings. Adelaide.. M. Bede's College.. Paul's School. 93. Miss M. B.. S.A. Leeds.. A.. E.A. Birmingham. Hicks. Oman Mansions.A. N. Holder. Hett. Lanes.. U. Brighton College. Tib Lane.. M. M. 7. E.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS Hetherington... Holding... Beal.. M. The Red House.. Rev.A.A. Forest Row. E... M. Edmund's Road.A.. Clopton. Hodgkin. Rev... B. M. St. F. D. Manchester. Hodgson. Rev.. Hodgson..A. Rochester. High Street. Higgs. Mount Pleasant. Bank of England Chambers. Heward. 2. A. B. Temple.A. Edgbaston. York...Litt. Sax- mundham. M.. D. Rev.. St. Northumberland. G. Westleton.S. Parmiter's School. Hewetson. Miss G. G..E. Carpenter Road. R. D.. Southsea. British Museum. North London Collegiate School. J.. Barmoor Castle. M. Brook Road. Hewart. V. F. 6. 14. London.. Rev.A. S. Birmingham.. Stratford-on-Avon. Lansdowne Road.A. E.A.. Green Lane. Canon E. Miss G. 101. R.A. Manchester. J. P. J. Kensington W. St. H. Hicks. Higgins. Encombe Place. 143 Lansdowne Crescent.A. T. Prescote. Approach Road. M. Conduit Street. Notting Hill. W. G. The University. L. The King's School. High School for Girls. P. Miss M. H. Regent Street. Miss A.. Salford. Hodd.A. Saffron Walden. Hogarth..A. Hogarth. B. Hodge... New Hirst. Miss M. Miss D. A. Australia. West Kensington..A. Holy Family Church. *Hirst.. Hildesheimer. M. M.A. Rev.. S. T.. S. Holliday.A.D. Hickey. Park. Canon W. Southsea.A.C. Hobson. 16. B. 20. N. LL. M.. M. J. King's Service House. M. Chapel Meadow. Elm Grove. L. Miss M. Barnard College. W.. H. J. M. Sussex. Chelsea Embankment.C. Hollidge. Harborne Road. G. Victoria Park. Oxford. Rev. Fallowfield Manchester. Cambridge. W.. Hampstead. Hill.W. N. Columbia University.A. Hillard.L. 30. Hobhouse. M. N... A..W. Sussex. Hicks.. M. 5. I.W. Hogg. F..

Deansgate. Cheshire. Miss E. Miss L. M. Calday Grange School... Hose. R. Hulbert... C. Innes. Hall. M. Chislehurst Road.A. Education Office. K.R... Hubback. D. M.. J. . J....A. West Kirby. W. Sir A. Heatherley. Hoyle. Litt. F. M. Vicarage Gate. G. Edmund's School. B. Belfield Road. F. T. Switzerland. The School. W... M.D. Hort. County Houghton. Hopkins.. *Hotson. E.. Grove House. Clapham. Kensington.E. Sherborne. Vice.. Harrow. Manchester. M. Rev. S. H.A.A. P. Kensington. Hughes. Wingfield House. 62.B. Miss C. Hatfield Hall. 144. Miss S.A. Hopkinson. V. J. Rev. F. India.. M. M. W. Miss E...A. Durham. B. *Horsfall.. The College. King Street. Rev. Herts....A. M. Dulwich College. B.A. Dorset. von.D. The School.A. H. H. L.. (Lond. Miss M. Hopkinson... W.. Moston. S. M. High School for Girls. Eton College. Alfred. F. Bombay. J. B. H. East Hayes. 11.. City and County School. Miss J. Manchester. Wheelwright Grammar School. Cheltenham.. Hughes.L. M. J.A.. Dewsbury. M. G. 10. Hughes. Richmond Crescent. Great Malvern. Belgrave Villas. B.A.Chancellor of the Victoria University of Manchester. Horsfall. Canter- bury. W.A.. Manchester.A. Hopkins.. Orley Farm School. House.. H. Rice. How. A.A. Baron F. D. F. M..D.. V.D. Ashley Lane.. C.. M. The Grammar School... M.A. M. E.A. T. B.D. Berkhamsted. Harrow. Torquay. Jesus College.M. S. W. M.. Nottingham. M. W.. A. J. Huggard. M. Hugel.. Howard. P.. H.P. Hubback..APPENDIX 144 Hollowell. Oxford. R. Manchester. Rev. Miss K.A. M. Mount Vernon Road. Hurstleigh.C. Hooper. 35. Hulme Hall.D. The Houghton. Consul.. Holmes. I.G.. The Lodge. Holme. H. Rev.. Didsbury. Houston.. LL. 2. Sidcup. J. Wakefield.A. A. Manchester. W. Oxford.A. Hornby. Davos Platz. Cardiff. Howell. Huddersfield. Hughes. Secretariat. M.W. Chester. Cardiff.. Horsley. Honnywill.. 12.. Douro Place. University College.C. St. Bt. How.. Elms Road. 13. H. Rev. A.A.A. F...). C. W.. Tunbridge Wells.S.. Windsor. B. W.C. H. W.

A. Aldenham Boad.. Miss G. Malvern. M.A.. Girton College. J... Jenkins. *Hutton.A. Hunt. Iremonger. T. 97... * Jackson. *Jex-Blake. C. Bury. Image. Hussey.... S. *Jevons. A. D. B.. Bushey. Queenwood. G. South Kensington. B. Johns. Holland Boad. F. MA. Clovelly Mansions. B. Joachim. Drayton Gardens. 20.A. Miss Lucie. Fairlight. Cambridge. Rev. Croydon. Ballard's Shaw. Weymouth. Jackson. Sussex.. S. Folkestone. S. E. Miss W. The Deanery.A. B.A. James. M... Prof.Litt.D. Somerset. B. Miss D. M. Streatham. Chaucer Boad. Rev. C.A. Cyprus. Litt. Gray's Inn Eoad.W.W. M. Keble Boad. Johnson. N.. *Johnson.. Hampstead.B... Fern Bank.D. H. Jackson. Cambridge. Tower House.A. Norwich. Badley College. Queen's College.. Miss C.A.A. Eastbourne. W.. Principal F. M.A. W.Litt. Lanes.A. Jerram. A..A..A. 62. Guildford Grammar School. 2. H. Litt. Perth... S. M. 0.A.A. Jewson.. Rev. Oxford. D. S. Walton Street. D. 134. Tenison Avenue.A. B. Jex-Blake. Impey. L.. Buxted. O... L. Llangwyryfn.A. Miss S. M. 9. Jelf. 49. L. M. C. Glenalmond. West Australia. M....NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 145 S. Bishop Hatfield's Hall. Moor Hurst.. C. J.. Berks. Mount Ephraim Boad. Limpsfield.. Hutchison. Cambridge..A.. Miss E. Bradfield College. L. T. M. Oxford. Abingdon. Limassol. Feltham. Durham. H.. M.. Heywood Street. B.A. N. M. Dean of Wells. The Vicarage. Park Lane.. M. The Very Rev. D. B. 19 . Htslop. Miss K.D. E.. H. *Jenkinson. Cambridge. Wells. F. Perth.. E.. *James. Eton College. 11. Windsor.W. G. S. A.A. Rev. A. M. Hutton.. J. Oxford... Trinity College.. M. Cambridge. Hutchinson. P. Aberystwyth.. H.. Warden of Trinity College. *Jasonidy. Trinity College. James. L.M.. W. C.C.. Willoughby Boad. M. Johnson.. Bracondale. Miss E.. M.. The College. The Grange.. M. Irvine.

A.APPENDIX 146 Johnson. Kempthorne. W.. M. Sherborne.A. W.. Kinderslev. Keane. King Edward's School. God. King. Lord Justice.A.. Hyde Park. J.ilming. 64.. Gloucester Terrace. W. J. Eton College. Rev.. Keeling. Keen. C. Shenstone. Kennedy.... Tullamore.. Rev.. M. B. 145. J.. Brighton. Bombay.S. B... W. Norham Road. Cambridge. Rev. 23. Rev.. New College. Sheffield.A. Kenyon. Stockport. W. M. Cambridge. M. A.. Ireland. Kelsey. M. Jones.S. Shenstone. 826. The Secretariat. W.. Ker. Willaston School. C.. S. Jones. H. Lloyd.A.. Miss E. H. J. Canon J.. Michigan. 16. Canon. Prof. E. Miss F.A.A. LL.. Bolton.A. F.. Oxford. M. C. St. Kensington. W.. A.. Keeling. F. Oxford. W. Oxford (St. Frank. Paul's School.. Abbeylands. . Kennedy.A.C.A. Miss J. H. Haileybury College. (University of Michigan). G. King. C. Wilkinson Street.. Claremont Lane.. M. M. Keatinge. Rev. A. Crawford Avenue. Godstone.. M. H. G. Grantham. 2.D. C. St. Kendall. R. J... B. Elizabeth College. Cathedral Library. F. Grammar School. Jones. 40. Girton College.A.. Dublin. M. Kelaart. The College. *Jukes.. Manchester.A. M. Stanislaus College.. Manchester. Surrey.A. W.. \V.. W.. Kidd. The Warders... Grammar School. H. Cambridge. M. M.. Charterhouse. B. Robert.). Tappan Street. Kidd. Kent. D. Nantwich.. Kennedy. Joseph.A. E. B. Catharine's College.. T. Kelly.Litt. E. L.A. Jones. M. Aston... M. M.... E.A. B.A.A.. Miss E. A. 5. Grammar School. L. R. Cheshire. Windsor.. H. King. Kay. Jones. Bradford.. U. Kensington. W. Miss M. Alexandra College.A. Bedford.. S. T. Liverpool. St.. King Edward's School. Johnson.. llaulgh. Hulme Grammar School. Yorks. Birmingham. Tonbridge. C. G. MA. 9. Vicarage Gardens. D. Esher. Kirkstead. E. Hardman Street.A. E. Guernsey. Phillimore Gardens. W. *Kelsey. Kensington. King's Co. Moorfield. Altrinckam. Woodleigh. I.. Jones. King. Cambridge. S. Herts. Ann Arbor. Kennedy. Hitchin. Margaret's Road.P. Melville. Miss L.

M. M. Lattimer. M. Rev. J. M. Wycombe Abbey School. Leach. Lee. N.. Edgbaston. B. Litt.R.. Southcote.. Bedford Avenue. Rev. The Deanery. H.A.A. Rev.. B. Y.A. Abby.A. K. Miss E. Cambridge. F. E. *Leaf. M.A.. Miss A. Aigburth.. Kirkby Lonsdale. R. Grammar School. M. E. Clement's Inn.Sc. M. 19..A.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 147 King. Knott. North Devon Lodge. E.C. N..... Leader. Burton-in-Lonsdale.A. Ely. M. Kirby.S. Rev. Wrexham. Lee. A. Exeter. Taunggyi. Manchester... Liverpool.A. J..D. New Hampshire. M.A. M.W.A. Burma. Surrey. B. Lord Bishop of Manchester. Mrs. Lawson. Abingdon.D.. L.S.. M. J.. Rt. Shan Chief's School. O. Victoria Street.D. Prof. S.A. Kyrke-Penson. D. U.. The University. Prof. 50a. 7. Grove Park. C. Elm Grove Road. Pembroke College. Miss A. F. M. Durham. Walter. Rev. West Downs. 54. B.A.. S.. Lang.. L. 5th Avenue and 54th Street New York City. A.W. Lancelot.. T. Rev. Leathes. F.A. Miss E.. Steyning School. Ealing Common. Wilson.. N. U. D. Liverpool College. Sefton Park. A. Manchester. University Club.. Leach. Liverpool... J.. Herts.. Annandale Avenue..D. M. Lawson. Miss H. M.. Victoria University. W... Kirkpatrick. M. Albemarle Street.D.. St. Elmshurst.. Layman. Lee. R. W. London. Rev.D. U.A. Sussex Place. Rev. E.. The Phillips Exeter Academy. Sidney. Woking. Latter. Winchester. Richard. D.S. T. Hook Heaths. Liverpool. ton. Litt. Poughkeepsie. M.. Kirtland.. D. Editor of School. Southern Shan States. Barnet. Chapel Walks. Prof.A. 4. Lamb. W. Birmingham. Ingleneuk. Burgh Heath.A. A. Kitchener. Lee. N... M. Prof. Croydon. Berks. High School for Girls. Bucks... Sussex. Cheltenham. R. Copthill. Lexham Gardens. Katharine's. H. Langdon-Davies.W. W. Highfield Road. Lea. Layng. Ledgarp. Manchester. Bognor. B.. Greenbank School. Rosedale Road. Vassar College. Lawrence. M. Leckenby. C.L. Kensing . East Finchley. H. 108.. Knox. E. Langridge. Kynaston. 8. Bishop's Court. Horace..A. 6.S.

. Ambleside. Lewis.. Le Page. M.C. N. Loane.. Birmingham. . 21. G.. D. Cape Town. Miss E.A. Linzell. D. Hillside.A. Castlebrae. Miss D. Fulneck School. 28. J.. Charterhouse. Norman... G. 23.M.C. Llewellyn. J.. C. Lindsell. Miss A. Longworth. M. M. R. Birchfield Road. Lewis. A.. London.D. Lewis. The School. LL. 84. Rev. Stone. Pudsey. Rev. S. N. S.W. B. Batheaston. 235. Longton Road.. Lewis. Chesterton Road. G. Lipscomb. Kent. Lloyd. R. Perry Barr. Bank of England. 39. M.A. and Alexandra Hall. Lock. S. Bradford. M. W.A. Miss B. Fitzjohn's Avenue.. Cambridge. 188.W. M.. E.. Craigellachie.. W.. W.APPENDIX 148 Lee-Strathy. H. 13..A. Miss E. Stanley House. Rev. High School... Miss M.. M. Finchley Road. High School.A. A.. Mrs. Oxford.. E. St.. Miss E.. Liscard. Birmingham.. Miss E. Hampstead. Queenmore School. Lewis. E. Leslie. Bedford. The Grammar School.D. 3. Rawlinson Road. Linnell.A.. Lindsay.. 19.D. B.. Oxford. MA. Herbert Road. B. Brow Hill. G. Richard. Legard.. Leeds. Miss G..D. Livingstone. M. Corpus Christi College.A. A. Nottingham.. W. 7l. Leighton.. Longman. Bromley. Blundellsands.A.. Liddell. Warwick. S.. W. B. Miss M.. Elstow School. Libbey.. West Brompton. E.W. F. Legg. M. Liverpool. Felixstowe. 64.. Widnes. Linton-Smith.. 324. West Kensington. Lewis. G.. M. M. Jackson. Levy. Cheshire. London Grove. Colet House. Africa.A. Miss. M.. Sherwood Rise. The Vicarage. F. Rev. M. Bearton. D. King's College.. Finborough Road. Mowbray.A. M. L.. P.. LL. London.A... Aberystwyth. Paternoster Row... Farm. Staffs. Manchester. L. Miss M. Lilley. Lidderdale. Bolton.A. C. Balliol College. Miss J. Rev. B. Dover Street. D. G. The Gale. E.. John's Wood. Princes Park. MA.A. R. Limebeer. 0.. Liverpool. Wimbledon. Leeds. Liberty. Godalming. M.A. W. Legge. J. M. Warden of Keble College.. Lewis. Cambridge. Sparkbrook. W. Loly. The School. Bath. Harborne.. St.A. Hitchin.. Lewis. Manor Road. G. Grove Park. M. W. L. Stanley C.. Oxford. M. Oxford.W.. Secondary School. Mary's Road. Liverpool. Leman.. B.

W. Boundhay. Withington. Windsor.. Windsor. Rt. D. Loring. Worcester College.. M. A. Lorimer. Leeds. Lyttelton. F. *Macan. Eaton S.. M. Lovegrove..D. pelier Boad. Lowe. S.. Master of University College... 8..S.D.C. 8. H. Yorks.D.. Liverpool. Eton College. Miss H.A. M.I. Brighton and Hove High School. Ph.S. S.D. Miss A. MacYay. Allerton House. *Mackenzie. J. London. Rev.C. Macmillan. G. MacGregor. Lord High Chancellor.C. Mont- Loreburn. Rev. Magdalen College.W. Springwood.B. The University. S. M.A.E.A.B. C. S.. Rev. P. M. Colfe Grammar School. . Hon.. *Mackail. Brighton. Macalpine. 8. Mackesy. J. Square. Girls' High School. London. A. Banbury. J. Oxford. Lys. Pembroke Gardens. Lunn.. J. W.. Macnaghten. Provost of Queen's College. Lines. Laurie.. Lucas. B. W. Hon. N. G. J. Blackheath.. 96..W.. Love.W.. 18. A.... D.L. Swindon... Kensington.. Miss L. Miss E.A.. Burlington Boad. G.A. M.. M. C. Rev. Lyall. Stamford. Oxford. Lowry. Queen's Gate. Manchester. M.E. Miss G. Impington Park... F. Vassar College. Queen's Gate. Sir A. W. M. Princes' Avenue. W.. 44.M.. Eton College. M.A. D. Lewisham. J. W. A. LL.A.A. Oxford.P. Prof. and Hon... E. T. B.. M. Liverpool.. MacNaghten.. Eton College. Cheetham. Queen's Gate Gardens. L. 25. Halliwell Street. 6. H. Lupton... B.A. Stafford Street. Magnus. L.A. LL. A. The School. P. E.. D.. Man- chester... Craven Hill Gardens. Leeds.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 149 Rt.. Mackworth. Lord. M... K. M..E.A.. W. Macfarlane-Grieve. Luxmoore. Magrath. Poughkeepsie. H. MacInnes.. Lancaster Gate. School House.. Macurdy. U. M. Miss A..A. 27. Lord. Oxford. Wadleigh High School.Y. J.. London.A. School House. W.. Miss A. E. 198. Williamscote.. H. Sedbergh. Windsor. Miss Jessie. Rev. MacNaughton. Oxford. Loveday. Somerville College. Cambridge. C. Manchester. U.A. High Street.A. A.Litt. A New York City. P. Hon. Durham. Rt. 6.

E. Luckley. Lanes Independent College.A.. W.C. Chatterville. Pembroke College.D. M. The Hall. H. V. Cuthbert's Grammar School. Aberystwyth. P... Chatterville. Martino.D.A. Liverpool. Hampstead.C. Martin. Stapleton Hall Road. Brixton... F... Bath. Cambridge. B.. Mann. Crouch Hill. Marsh. A. B. F. J. Sedbergh School. Salop (Cheltenham Ladies' College). Lincoln College. B. T. 20. N. H. Hanley Road. H. Darlington. Birmingham. 45. Merchant Taylors' School. M. Mansfield. Whalley Range. The Crescent. Miss L.APPENDIX 150 Mahafft. Rev..A... Miss A. Fallowfield.. D.A. J. Staffs. A. M. Leeds. Newcastleon-Tyne. E. Crossfield Boad.A. G.. University College of Wales. Wilbraham Road. L... F. . M. M. M.C. Shifnal. E. Marshall..A. Martino. Manchester. H. H.. Miss D. Mason. Manchester.. West Terrace.. Massey. Mrs. Woodbourne Road.D. The Hall. New Street. D.. Rev. A. Rev. E. D. *Malim. Woore. D.. Fairfield. Currie.A. H.. Withington Girls' School. Fallowfield.. Hampstead. M. M. Mason...A. W. West Bromwich.A. Manley. Miss E. Prof.C. Marchant. 11. Durand Gardens. Mrs. Miss A.A. Marshall. Manchester. Bedford.. University Hall. Marsh. Crossfield Road. Bath College.. Yorks. M.L.. K. St. Edgbaston. Highfield. Trinity College. 104. Martin.A. Massinoham.. Rev.A. 2. Dublin. Martin. N..W.. M. Wokingham. M. J. M. M. T. Pearce. J.. Marshall. Crosby. (Headmaster).A. Canon A. Mason. Stockwell Secondary School.. Far Cross. M. Mrs. Marett. Woodbourne Road.A. Chapel Allerton. Liverpool. British Museum. D. Stroud Green. Malaher.. Marshall... C. The Lodge. W. Rev. W.. Miss Prof. The Vicarage. Mason. Prof.... Marshall. Demesne Road.A. S. Marshall. M. A. Birmingham. B. Newcastle. 3. C. M. Oxford. Edgbaston. Miss J.

M. J.. Mayor. Devon Place. St.. M. Rugby. West Kensington.. J. Herts. B. Merry. New Street. B. Miss K. Mathews.. Melhuish.. McElderry.A. Matthews. Rev. Galway.W. Andrews.. Miss A. 110. May.A. Lanes. Bromsgrove. Miss. The Boltons.. J. Lonmay House.S.A. LL. 14. McL. Leonard's School. King Edward VI. G.D. M. R. Whitehall... Savile Road. B. Hampstead. Gordon House. (Scot.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 351 Matheson. Oxford. W..). Compton Road. *Matthaei. K. P. E. 14. N.. 1. Miss L. LL. B.B.A. Michell.D.. Clifton Hill. Miss G. M...W. Prof. South Hampstead. Prof.W.. Girls' High School. Kensington. Miles. and 105.A. 113.. W. Rector of Lincoln College. W. G.. 14. H.. St. N. B..E. John's College. G. King Edward VI.. Paul's School. St.W. Bede's School. S.. Michael.. Bromsgrove School. R. H. McMurtrie.W. Milborne Grove.A. 3. Warrington.. St. D. John's Wood. B. Holland Road. Clifton College. Helens. Merton College. D.. B. S. York. S. . E. Belgrave Road..A. McDougall. Rev. S. T. Canonbury. Norton Way N.L\. Birmingham. East Sheen.. Lower Walton. C.B. J. N.A.. M. Belsize Park Gardens. Ampleforth. J. School. J. Cowley Girls' School.A. Matthew. H. Rev.. Berk- hamsted..W. G.. Mrs.. E.W.Sc. Surrey. G. M. K.. N.A. Mill Hill School. Miss E. F.. Menzies.S.. Kingston Hill. McNeil.. E. Prof.. W.. L.I. Cambridge.. M. N. J. M. S. Miss E. Rev. 70. M. Board of Education. Milborne Grove. Miss. Meiklejohn... Mayor. McCrea.R. York. Westfield College. B. Rev.A.A. Wakefield. 52.A. A. D.A. S. St. Pall Mall. Bristol. St. Queen's Gate Gardens.. M. M. Miss M. Surrey. S. Miles. P.. S. Letchworth.W.. Oxford. A. A. 33. E. Oswaldkirk. C. Miall. N.Mus. R. *Mayor.W... Reform Club. McKay... Measures. Prof. W. E. A. Birmingham. B.W. The Boltons. Mayor. Kitsbury Road. J. Merrick. M. High School for Girls. McClure. Miss Eastbourne. St. 31. J. L.A. H. McCutcheon. B. Askham Rickard Vicarage. Oxford.. M. Mavrogordato.. N. S.A. W.A.A. N...A. Matthews.... Menzies. M. Queensgate House. M. Mayall. P. B. P. Leinster Avenue. M.

S. Rev. N. M.Litt. The School. John. H. S. Chelsea Embankment. Moule. Morton. L. W.W. Worcester...C. B. . Viscount. Oxford. Moore.D. *Millington.. Somerset. Haileybury College. Corpus Christi College. MA. M. Moore.A. M. F. Manchester. Greville Boad.. Murray. 14. 47. Canada. Beech Hill Boad.. T.A. Prof. A. c/o Messrs Grindlay.. MA. Rev. Rev. W..B. 15. Albemarle Street.E..C. Muiriiead. Leatherhead. Miss B. Shrewsbury. Miss M.. Mrs. Miss E. A. Queen Anne's Gate. E. S. W. Birmingham. Britannia Square. Musson.. H. Groom & Co.. Morshead. Sheffield. *Moxon. Appleton Rectory. Rev. M. S. Milman.. Rt. Warwick Square. Oak Drive. Hon. Southwark.W. H. G. Sion College. New Zealand. Brooks's Club. M. Milne. Manchester.. W.. *Monteath. St.. Cambridge. London.. Moss. J.. M.. Minturn.. Murray. Didsbury College. Eallowfield. Dalhousie University. W.. M. Prof.W.. Miss Maude V.A.. Warden of Winchester College. Victoria Embank ment. Bristol. LL.. Milverton. Montague.C. M. Soho Square. Albany Terrace. Morris.. H. Howard.A. John's Eoad. Morison.A.. G. J. Murray.A. W. S. LL...E. Shrewsbury House. Rev. Moor. K.A.G.. Hyde Park Street. Montague. Y. G. J. Rev.A. *Millard. D.C..A. T.A. S. M. 29. Oxford. H.. J. Abingdon. Duncroft. B.. Morrell.. 1.. L. S.... 4.A.. Surbiton.W. Kendal.S. M. E. S. H. Kilburn Priory.. M.. Sydenham. M.. Muir-Mackenzie. Hertford. E.M. A. 50.APPENDIX 152 Milford. M... L.A. Christ's Hospital. Miss M. J. 29. West Horsham..C. Miss C. A. C.. Manchester. Canterbury.. 0. J. G. M. A. Mills. Bombay. 57.... G. C.A.A. G. Fallowfield.A. Moulton. M.. Milner.. Mumm. H. G.A...D. Sir K.G. King's School. James's Street.. Rev..B. (Headmaster). Peak Hill. I. W.. 7.A. Prof..D. Musciiamp. Trinity Square..A.. Moxon.. Grammar School. 2. Oak Drive. M.C. Otago High School.. Halifax.. M. W. Moor. K.W. S.. New College. W. LL. The University.L.. 20. M. Westbury Road.A. M. 80. S. St.A.. Dunedin. D. E. T. D.

S. Kildare. A. Nicklin. C. *Newton.A. F. Norris. Northants. near Stockport. Mrs. Prof H. Henley-in-Arden. Edmund's House. V. J. Lanes. Rochester.. Talgarth Road. Cheltenham. London).. T. H. Northbourne. Newcomb. King's School. The University. Brackenside. Sidney House. Long Acre. Birmingham.. King Edward's School for Girls. Nutt. C. Grammar School. Oakeley." E. Darjeeling... Arden House. Miss J. 20 . Nowers.. M.. Rutland Park.. Nelson. Miss H. Rev. Rev. Baldock Road.A. S... St. M. King's College. Rt. Norton. M.. Oundle.. Paul's School..A. M.. Bruton. D. A. Fleetwood. Newton.. Ernest. B. King's College. P. G. Holmleigh. MA. D. Miss E.. L. T. Monsigno. 1. Rev. Hon. Australia.A. Litt. M.. M. L.A. Miss H. L. 12.. E. S. Glossop. Nicol.. Sallini. Sheffield. W. Earl's Terrace. G... 0. Miss M. J. Kent.A. Newbolt..A. Miss. J.. Miss Adelaide. Fulwood.A. Nolan. E.A. M. Oldham. Chislehurst. Birmingham. Neild. The Oratory.. J. Kensington W.. Rev. Nicholson. M. Eastry. Nicholson... Aston. Nolan. Nimmo.. Baldock Road. Rev.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 153 Myers. Co. Nairne. M. West Kensington.. T.C. A. Merchant Taylors' School.M. J. P.D.. Kent..A. Lord. Nixon..A. Portsmouth. M. John. 23. Nairn. P. Tewin. T. E. Sheffield Road.J. Prof. W. Nowers. Cambridge. Peel Moat Road.. C. Preston. India. Nightingale. Letchworth.. Naylor... MA.A.A.. Newton. W.. M. Rev. Norwood. Norwood. Adelaide. Highfield... Square. Frederick Road. M. Pittville Lawn. Letchworth. Park Field..A.. 57. G. Rossall. Bristol.D. York.. Clongowes Wood College.. M. Newman. The Mount School.C. The High School. The University. Haslemere. Litt..A. Darnley.. Heaton Chapel. Prof. Haslemere. Newman. Miss M. (King's College. The Grammar School. Herts. B. Betteshanger. W. A. W.. D. Liverpool.A. Phulcherra. Welwyn. 26. Cambridge. *Myres.

Oldershaw.. Denmark Villas. W. Manchester. A. Miss I. G.D. ton.. 13. M. A. Maidenhead. K.. West Bromwich. Montague Lawn. Parkinson. A... Lime Tree House. N.. Parker. Miss C. Dewhurst Road. Pearse. F. . O'M alley.. St. Peile. M. Paton. D. Cambridge.A. Brighton. Oscott College. Owen. B.. Rev.. and 32. B. West Kirby. Merton Court Preparatory School. Prof. Paul. 50. Pearson.. St. Colwyn Bay. Palmer. Old Bailey. Stoke Poges. Warlingham. Cambridge. E. G.S. Manchester. Rev.. Christ's College. Highfield Lane. E. S. S. *Pearson. Osborn.. M. U. M. L... B. M.. C. Ormerod.. Oakhurst. Mai ton. Minnesota. Berks. Litt. W. Cheltenham. Stoke House. Footscray.. M.. W... Hove. Page. Southampton. Paul. M.. Bir- mingham... Liverpool.. Christ Church. H. Rev. Parry. P.A. Comou R.. J..A. S. B. Rydal Mount School. Tatoi. Aigburth Drive. R. A. Andrews. M. Pembridge Square. St. H. 12. B. Thomas' College.A. 43. A. Abbey Park South.A. Sefton Park.. Crouch End. P.. E.M. Trinity College. Balliol College. E.A. West Garth. 7.A. Yorks. Bucks. West Kensing- Papillon.. M. Nateby. M. Canon T. Chelmsford. Oxford. L. L. E. Lang Lane. Pearce. J. Charterhouse. Writtle Vicarage. Monsignor.. Peacock. Wellington Road.. M.. T.. J.A. Rev. P. Oxford. Rt. Paton. J. E. J..A.. M. St. W. Owen. J. M. *Pearson. M. Rev. J. near Manchester.D. Wakefield. N. Surrey... Cheshire. 16. Godalming. Pallis. Fernley. Godalming.. Castleton. Clifton Road.A. Orange.A.W.. Liverpool.. F. Pantin.A. Ogilvy.A. O.A. B. Liverpool College. R. E. T.. Miss B. Parry. Kent. Westfield College. Grammar School. 3.A. Whalley Range.. Paget. The Lodge.C. M. M..APPENDIX 154 O'Brien. Miss E. Barrow Street. Miss A..D. Prince Edward Mansions. F..A. Alexander.A. 17.A.. S. Peake..A. *Oke. W.. London.. LL. School House. Mies A.

Litt. Addison Road. F.L. Poynter..A. Paul's School). Rev. Paul's School. J.. Canada.. P. The Grammar School. Cambridge. A.. Prof. Streatham Hill. Bradford. Plunkett. J.A.L... Leeds. S. J.. 21. Miss M. M. 56a.... B. C. W.A. *Powell. 155 Glazebury Road.C.. N.A. M. Miss E... Oxford. Peskett. Bradford Commercial Institute.. W. John's College. Miss Ida A. Pickard. P... Banbury Road. Powell.A.Litt.C. Bart.M. Petersox.A. M. Pope. West Kensington. G. Oxford. Principal W.. Dublin. Pollock.D. C. A. M.. J. Settle.. M.. S.L.A.J. Cambridge.A.W. A. *Phelps. M. T. Harley Street. Downpatrick. Miss M.D.A. Phillips. G.A. A. Lowestoft. Postgate. Miss E. Rev.... Sir F.. Well Walk. Oxford.A. 16. Hyde Park Place. Queens' College. 54.. M. Rev. E. West Kensington. Bateman Street.. Pooley.. The Hon. Shrewsbury. Pickard-Cambridge.. D... Holmewood Gardens. L. B. M.. H. (St. H. H. M. B. M. E. S.. Penrose. The School. Kensington. Oriel College.. Jfiss S. G. Price.. Plaistowe. McGill University.D..R... Litt. M.. Pickering. M. B. Rev. Cambridge.A. St.S.A. Telegraph Chambers. Hampstead. Rev. Pall Mall.. L. Orme Girls' School. W. Oxford..A. 70. 80. Count. 60.W... Campden Hill. Peskett... Miss H. Highgate. 24. T. M. 14.. South Lodge. Oxford. Pooler. Mary's Hall. Sibson Rectory. *Pickard.. B. Lanes.A. 20. B. 40. C. Ladies' Training College.. Richmond. N. Cambridge. M. Poynter. Market Street. Overdale School.. County School. C. W. Phillips.. Staffs.A.C. Bt. F. Hillside Gardens. Oxford.A. Banbury Road. A.. M. Powell. Stonyhurst.. LL.. Sir W. Bt. L. Pope. Atherstone.A.A.L. Miss K.A.. J. D. Phillips. Cam House. Scotter.. Perman. Cambridge.D.. Preedy. W. Phillimore. Powell. Mrs. C. Balliol College. F. W.. U. Huntingdon Road.. English Street.C. D. St... Upper Fitzwilliam Street. K. L. D. M.G. Sir E.A. Pembroke Dock. K.W. G. M. D.NAMES Ax\D ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS Pendlebury. 60. Newcastle. M. St.. A. Yorks. Pollard.. . Montreal. Somerville College. Magdalene College. Plater. M..

.. Cambridge. Surrey. Mrs. Uxbridge. G. J.. G. M. Godalming. J. D. St. M. MA. Rawnsley. Sussex. Ramsay.A. Quirk. Canterbury.B. 43. H.. Raleigh. Oakhurst. H. Trinity College. 82. 35.A. Dublin.. Sir T. Rawlins. A. Devon. Litt. Quelch.A.. M. Windsor.. M. Fonthill.. Cambridge. Buckland Monachorum. Haslemere..C. W. J.P. Miss K. Stamford.D.A. C. Prof J. Birmingham. Miss E. Mortimer Road. M. Miss F. Prof. Wellesley Mansions. M. Charterhouse. Oxford. Drumore.L. G. Hereford.. Prideaux. Sefton Park. A. Rhodes. V..A. The College.A. W. Purser.A. The College. M. Brentwood. R.. Rev.A. M. Quennell. Oxford. 318. 8. Shamley Green.A. W. Priestley. R. M.A..A. W. Pruen. H. Sheffield.D. Cambridge. Christ's College.. Grange Terrace.. . Reform Club. Eton College.. Rev. Cambridge. S. Litt. Rev.S. Secondary School.. J. West Road. J. M. M. M.. Rev. Ragg. Surrey. M. *Ramsay. Rapson. Purdie. M... Canon W.A. Miss Evelyn. W..D.. N.C. Ladies' College... G...S.A. Reid. Uppaston.. East Grinstead. A. Arundel Avenue... Blairgowrie.. Sanderstead. Trinity College.D. Rennie.O.. Broad Street. 8. Rhoades.. *Radford. B. Windsor. Mark's Vicarage. The Cathedral School. *Rackham. West Kensington.A. 15. Eton College. Shenfield Rectory.D.. A.W. *Radcliffe.A. The Rt. Winchester. W.A.. Rendall.. 0. *Raleigh. C. Women's Settlement. Purdie. Prickard. New College.. M. Purley Oaks Road. L. Rackham. Litt. Girls' High School.. Miss K. Litt. F. 4. M. Prof E.. S. King's School.APPENDIX 156 Prichard. W. B. Park Road. Summer Lane. Miss E. Eton College. Cheltenham. Purton. Rev.D... L. Lord Bishop of Sheffield. Cambridge. S. Ph. D. H.. F. M.C. Rendall.A. M.. Monkswood. Prof. S. M.. Cheltenham. Windsor. The Grange. Miss C. G. M. H. Sydenham Hill Road. Radcliffe.. N. G. Murray..A.I.. Guildford. Yelverton R.. Liverpool... C. Rendall....E..

M.. Karlsstrasse. Bedford. Roberts.A. 9.W. L. Principal T. M. Dr.. Finstock. M. S. Richmond. S. C.W. Robertson. Gonville and Caius College.. C. Richmond. Robertson. Miss M. Oriel Place..) Richards. Richardson.A. Andrew's Crescent.A. S. Hammersmith.. 64. Headingley. L. N... The Lodgings. (H. Miss Hilda. Lichfield Road. Roberts. F. Felbrigge. 191. Cheltenham.C. F... Sir W.A. Litt. Miss A. Roberts. Ritchie. Beech view. B. Rolton. Thornsbeach Road. 9. Oxford... M. E. Charlbury. F.A.. W. Rothsay Place. Michael's Crescent..B. F.A. Cambridge. St. R. Fen Ditton. F. Prof. Stamford. E. Risley. Riley. Oriel College.. Girls' Grammar School. Miss C. Aberystwyth. M. B. 41. Prof.. Leeds).A... W. Yorks. 13. M. Cambridge. P. J. Rev. Oxon. Miss M.S. F. Jesus Richard. L. St. S. M. Roberts. Canada. B. Jesmond. B. M.A. Richmond. St. Oxford. Victoria Square. Kingswood School. Miss M.. Liverpool. 9. Leeds. The Lodge. J. Rev. S. M. Stoke-on-Trent.. *Ridding. Rev.A. Westfield College. Robinson. Richards. Toronto.A.D. W. Richards..A. Catford. Falkner Square. Chorley 157 College. Cornwall Gardens.. Harrington Gardens.B. Seven oaks. Gordon. H. Beavor Lodge..A. 1.. Burton Terrace. for Girls. 57.. Miss F. G. Robert.A.. Sutton Coldfield. Robertson. Victoria College. Sheppard Street. Ridgeway. J.A.A.W. Germany..... B. Richards. 11.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS Rhys.. Prof. LL.. Rhys.. O.. . M. South Luffenham. University College. Holland Park..A.. B.E... Robertson. Richards. A. Richards. M. G.. E. G... New Road.W.. M. M.A. Hampstead. Newcastle-on-Tyne. M. Robertson. E. M. (and University. B. 31. Ashfield.A. S. Richardson. W.D.... Wadham College. Miss K.. K. James's House. Bradford.A. S.. Bath. W. The Rectory. W.A. M. C. Prof. Oxford. Rev. Bolton. Miss S. Halle-an-der-Saale. C. 5. Cardiff.A.. A.

Manchester. S. B. Leicester. E. Blackpool. The Close.A. Eastbourne. Very Rev.. Miss E. College House. Miss M.. J.. W. M. Mansfield Road. Rev.W. Ilsley Cottage. Queen Anne's Gardens. E. Rooke. E. J. H. M. 328.. *Sadler.E. Blackheath Hill.. D. The School. Rushbrooke. Notts. D. W.. Robinson. M... 199.E. Arnold. G. H. W. Oxford. Saunders.. Robinson. Miss G. Bailey. Banbury. Fern Lodge. C. Perse School. Cambridge.A..A. Ryle.. Charterhouse.A. Beverley. J. Milnthorpe Road.. Kent. B.. West View. N.. Westminster School.A. E. Rogers. M. M. Souldern Rectory. Liverpool. H. Manchester. E.A. W. Prof.. J. South wold. 80. S. A. 15. M.. F. *Salmon.. A.. Olave's Grammar School..A. S. M. M. Sandys. German Place. M.D.A.A. K. G. Rogers.. A. G.. Oxford. Sargeaunt.A. 77.. Sandford. Malvern.. Litt. Oundle. Sant. V. Coldhurst Terrace. The High School. Aigburth. S. Bridge. Miss M. M. D. Miss A. Tunbridge Wells. J. London. Cheltenham... Russell. Cambridge. W. W. T. Miss. Roby. Sanders. E. Rubie. Carrington. M.A. Miss M. Bocardo Press.. Museum Road. Leicester. N. Rev. B. M.. Hull. Sarson. Reading.. Miss E.D. Bedford Park. G. Saunders.. M.. Tower Romanis. Rudd. Esmond Road. Newly n. Reigate. Saunders... M. M. S. Mrs.A.. M. Eltham College. Stoneygate. B.. W..W. High Bank.W. Sale. c/o Aid en & Co.A. J.. West Hampstead. Deanery. Westminster. Rossiter.. G.. E. Prof. Victoria University. W. Russell. Miss M. 7. Miss A.. Ladies' College.A.. G. Litt.. Didsbury. G. G. Merton House. F. *Rouse.APPENDIX 158 Robinson. Rudd.A. Ax-mitage... Godalming. G. J. Roby. Holmfield.. Rev.D. MA. Bedford Park. A... M. Brighton.. High Bank. The High School... Hymer's College. Ltd. Didsbury.. W. .A. M.A. St. Streatley. Stoneygate School. Exeter. Manchester. Sanderson. The College. F.. B. Somerville House. Roscoe. H. High School for Girls. 39. Sarson. Rundall. B. Miss C. South Shore.

A.A. 2. Sharpley. I. S. W. M. near Hitchin..D. Scott. Russell Road. W. M. R. Prof. C.. M. Girls' Grammar Street. C.. M. Manchester.A. Blackburn.. Addison Road.D. Seymour..L. Downshire Hill. Bingley. D... Cambridge. Miss G. Cheltenham... Semple. B. M. 11. Sharwood-Smith.W.. Olave's Grammar School.. *Silcox. T. Dublin. Liverpool. J.D. E. J.. Manchester. Mrs. Anderson.. Kendal. R.. Prof. Corpus Christi College.. Rev. Miss L. John's College.. Seaton. Elgin Avenue.C.A. *Sharpley. Edward's School. 7. Selwyn. 64.S.A. M..A. S. Salisbury Hampstead.. Miss A. Clarendon Villas.. West Dulwich. M.. B. Sidney Sussex College.A. M. for Girls. Parktown. Rev... Drive. The College. 114.. Stonyhurst.. Seebohm.. S. D.A. Hereford. 19. Oxford. Yorks. John.. 159 Woodstock Road. Newsham High School Simmons. Rev. W. C. M. Scott. Miss N. Sheppard. W. M.E.. West Didsbury. Shadwell. H. Skirving. A. The Old Hall. Llanishen. Rev. King's College.. D.. Cambridge. E.. Cardiff.A. Oxford.A. 83. Miss A. Manchester. Prof. Tower Bridge. I. Kettlewell by Skipton. *Shields. Woodstock Road. G. M. 3. .A. 5. M. Upper Brook Scott. B. Newnham College. Hindhead. Yorks.A. M.Litt. Oxford. Beech Hill Terrace. H. U.. Kensington. Sikes. E. E.. Slater. Scot.. Oriel College. Poynders End.E. S. Simon. Sharp.. Litt.. H. M. T. Sidgwick. Harley Court. Sidebotham. 45. 15. S.A. Rev. Conn. M... Scott. P. Silcox. Cambridge. J. LL. D..A. C. P. Maresfield Gardens.. A.. M. Skeel. M. Lawnhurst. A.. Shawyer. D.A. The Beeches. Oxford.. 24. J.. J. A. Gimrdicm Office...A. University College. Cambridge. C. St. Shaw. School House. Sleeman. St. M. D.A. Simpson.. Miss Scoles. Cambridge. Manchester.W.. E. Newbury. Didsbury. M..A. Cross Street. 2. Villas. E. St. L. Oxford. B. Oxford.D. Miss J.. M. C. The Close. *Skeat.L.. H.A.. Miss W. H.A. N. M. Newhaven. Hampstead. M.. D. T.. School. Yale College.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS Schomberg. J. 16...C..A. W.A. N. Slater... Miss E. Mary's Hall. J. Sing.

Stoke-onTrent. 9. Canada. Ingham.A.A. Stanton. A.A. E. M... 41.. Oxford. New College. Smith. Avonmore.. M..A. University College School. J. M. W.. S. Gloucestershire. Victoria Embankment. C.C.A. Smith. E. Miss J. 23. Stroud. Moss Side.APPENDIX 160 Sloane. W. Steen. M. F. M. Miss G..A.A. Stawell. S. 14. Miss S..A. M. Smith. H. Warden of St.D... Barford. C. Douglas. M....A. R. Sowels. Linnet Lane.. 50. V.. M. LL. St. W. The High School...D. G.. 17. M.W.A. Moseley. The Avenue. Fidd Place..D. Dr.A. Portsmouth. W. M... Spencer. Mus. Sir C.A. The Grammar School. Bradford. Stenhouse. Leicester. Cambridge. 9. F.A. Oxford. Christopher's. W. F. H. The Vicarage.. M.. Miss E.. M. T. N. Miss A.. Squire.. D. J. Stanton. King's College School. Bath College. Winchester. H. Cambridge. Grammar School.. Cheltenham.. Miss F. B. Smith. Wingrove. Rev. Marina. B. B.. York. Swansea.A. H. Via Pico della Mirandola. Queen Anne Terrace. Godmanchester.. W. Stanford. Sowels.C.. Linnet Lane. Kensington. M. 2. Leeds. Windsor Street... E. C. J. F. Westbourne Park Villas. A. H. D. Sonnenschein...A. John's College. F. City of London School... G. St.A. M. E. Girls' High School. The University. L. Rev. J. Steele...D. Toronto. Prof. Wimbledon. Birmingham..A.. M. Darlington.A. Peter's School. Liverpool.. Miss W. Christopher's. Stewart. Bedford Park. Sloman. P. St. B. Leonards-on-Sea. Felsted. Carlton Street. Miss E.. M. O. Trinity College. Drake Street. Spilsbury.. M. Miss R.D... Smith. Liverpool. Spooner. Rev. M. T.A. Rochdale. Frognal. The College. Southlands College.Litt. 13. The Malting House. E. Italy. A. Florence. V.. Rev.. J. Moorend Park Road.. The School House.L.. Smyth.A. P. Sydney Street. Hunter. Smith. Holland Street..A.. Hunts. C. S. .W. Steele. Stephenson. Spenser. Battersea. Rev. 47...D. Cambridge. M. Smith. University College.. Bath.. Stevenson. Birmingham. Rev. A. N. M. G. Welford Road. J. M.. M.. 166. Snow. Essex. M. A. Smedley. Manchester. Smiley. Prof. St. D.A. D. C. M. Smith.A. Smith. Prof. Miss Soulby.. J.

Kent. Stock. W.A.. A. Tonbridge. D. Rev. Stone. Strangeways.. Streane. R. J. M. Stanhope Gardens.A. Chatsworth. Tib Lane.A. W. R... Board of Education. J. S. Dean's Yard.. Edith Road. Abingdon. Dunmarhlyn.A. O. Sutton.. B. M. W. M. Helensbourne. 21 . *Strachan-Davidson. 40. Tayler.A. Stokoe. A. The University. Norland Square. Abingdon. M. W. S... M. Trinity College. Gayles. Oxford. Richmond. West Kensington. J.A. W. Road.A. M. Tatham. 16. *Tanner. Strong. Prof. L... S. W. Swallow. Queen's Gate. H... Passmore Edwards Settlement.. H. Liverpool. E.D.. Strudwick. Rev. A. Chigwell School. Shore Mills. S. M.A..A. M. M. 133. F. Tanner.. Balliol College. G. M. *Stuart. B. Strong.. J.A.. G.. Trinity College. Eton College. Tonbridge. Rev. N. E..A. R.A. A.. South Kensington. 2. R.W. Miss E. Windsor. Rev.. W.... Cheam School. Westminster School.. Clapham Common. Tonbridge School. 9...C.A. Syson.W. Surrey. Tatton. 15. Manchester. LL. M.W.. C. Stuttaford.D. Mecklenburg Square. B. Tatham. Miss H. Cambridge. J.. Tancock. Littleborough..A. M.. J. M. LL. D. Sykes. Stuart. M. Cambridge.D. S. B. Sutcliffe. Brackley Road. M. W. Chesterfield. D.... Miss A. 4. The University. Rev. 17.. C. Cambridge.D. Miss Summers.A. T. Christ Church. C. M.A.. F. B.. L. St. H.. 12. K. A. W. T... C.. G. LL. Bank of England Chambers. Yorks. Essex. Lessar Avenue. Birmingham. M. S.A.. Miss L. Talbot. Arthur. M.A.A.. M..D. Rev. *Sykes. M. Storr. Queen's Avenue. Corpus Christi College..W. Strong. H. Eton College. Park House. J. Mrs. Prof... Prof. Weston-super-Mare...A. E. Bedford College. Hampstead. The Very Rev. F. Beckenham. Stoneman. Tait. Stoker. Windsor. Endcliffe Rise N.. Oxford. D. Notting Hill High School. M. W.A.. A...D. Sheffield.C. George. Miss M. Kent. *Stone. Northcourt. Sevenoaks. Canon R. C. Redington Road. M..A. Muswell Hill. C.A... Tabor.A. Oxford. E. M.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 161 Stewart. Bishop's Court. A.. O. Stobart..W. Dean of Christ Church. E. D. W.

. H. Thompson. H.. F. Titheringxon. Taylor. Eryl. M. Surrey.. Brighton Road. Miss C.. WinchasU'r. W. Lanes.. Taylor. Thompson.. Albert Court... 21. M.. 14.A..C. Little Trinity.. F. John.A. Thompson. Towers. Toronto. M. Cambridge.A. The Wick. S. Thring... Thompson.. M. East Albert Road.A. Hove.APPENDIX 162 Rev. Prestbury. Eaton Rise. D. H. Rossall School.A.. Taylor. Thomas. S. East Grinstead.A. F. B. Thornton. Dublin.W. J. F. J. Miss A. Cambridge. Bishop Street.. Victoria Park. W. Godalming. LL. Thomas.B.. Liphook Hants... Bramshott Rectory. W. Cambridge. Tildesley..A. *Tennant.A. M. 2.L. Thomson... B. M. Cheltenham. Thompson. Miss L. A. B. Rev. Sir E.. Royal Holloway College. West Downs.. Shoreham.. M. E. Thompson. Aberystwyth. R.. The College. M. MA. M. Riversdale. M.B. N. W. Miss E. Thicknesse. Lissen Grove. Lancing College. The Manse.A. S.A.P. Liverpool. Maunde. St.. Manchester. Carleton. J. Ealing. M. Crescent House School. Taylor. India Oflice. E.. A .M. Tottenham. Selwyn Gardens. MA. Fleetwood.. 19. M... East Liverpool High School... College House. 53. Thomson... E. Prior's Field. J. Alderman J..A... Charters Towers.. Cheshire. G. A. Brook Green.. Joseph. F.A.. Noverton Farm.W. A. L.A. Miss M. L. R.W. Thomas. A.C. Durham. Thompson. 33. T. Brighton. Sefton Park. B. E. Seymer. M.A. Terry. N. St. Miss M. L. H. Buarth Road. Wilmslow... Whitehall. Tilley. E.W.A. Margaret's College. 51. MA. 0. Miss E. C... L. Glos. Mutley. MA. Ballater. Philip. Englefield J. Edward's College..C. Bradford. Cheltenham. British Museum... S. M.. M. London. Canada. Plymouth. 10. 2.. W. Everton. The Boltons. Taylor. 11. St. Luxemburg Gardens. F. A. N.D. 30. Head Master. Trayes. K. Taylor. Old Elvet. Trench. B. Rev. 11. MA. Liverpool.. The College. Timmons. 16. Grange Road. Green. Tombs. *Tower. Hulme Hall. Kensington. Primrose Hill Road. Michael's Place. Liverpool. M. Taylor. Miss M.

A. Cambridge. Vernon Jones. Valentine. Harpenden.. W... W.. Haileybury College. 39. H. Cambridge. W. East Teignmouth. Leeds. de G. .. B. E. Albans. Upcott. Cambridge. A. Cambridge. S. Vincent. Rossall.. B. Stone Buildings.A.... Walker. Bognor. Litt. Voules. Sherbourne Lodge. Verrall. King's College. S. Oxford.C. Vincent. B.... 11. M. Lanes. Miss A.. Hertford. Waldstein. M. Turner. J. A. L. Kensington Park. Herts. 5. Birmingham.A. Vaughan. St... Wainwright. Wimbledon. William. de G. Oxford. Verrall. Selwyn Gardens. Pembroke College... Prof. Rev. B. Wace..A... D.. C.A. D. Fleetwood.W.. M. Vaisey. Tyttenhanger Lodge. B. V. George's School. A. Durham. W. *Veysey. Walker. C. Ure.A. W. Litt. Rev. P.D. M. A. B. M. 43. Upcott. H. M. A. M.. B. Selwyn Gardens.D.A. M. M. Miss E. W. J. Lincoln's Inn. H. Miss E. B.A. North Eoad.... E. S. Turner. C.. Eton College. A. Vaughan. Birmingham. Leamington.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 163 Trenerry. B. Hertford. West Horsham. D.A. Miss H...A. R. Sandbrook. M. St.. Giggleswick School. Verrall.. M. Selwyn Gardens.A. Turner. *Trollope. 20-21. *Vaughan. Wellington College. Bradfield College.A. M.. Edmund Street. Edgbaston. M. H. C. 5. Cowley Girls' School. Palliser Road. Vince. Rev. B.. W.. Miss E.D. Cambridge.. Helens.. West Kensington. H. 11. Vaughan. Laurence Pountney Lane. Middleton School. Magdalene College. D. Kingston Road. Windsor.. F. Devon. N. The Vicarage. L. Walker.A. M. Clapham Park.. W. J. North Bailey.. M. E. St. H. Christ's Hospital. M... S. Dewsbury..A.. M. Street. M.. Islington Row..A..A. E.A. Tunnicliffe. L. M. M. Mrs. B. near Settle..A.A. Cannon *Vince.W. Tyler.. Prof.Sc.C.A... 3. Cambridge. A.A.. J.A.A.A. Berks. Lanes.. Stanley Gardens. M. The University.A.A. W. 5. *Varley. M. Queen's College. Earlsheaton.A. Haileybury College... Miss.. University Observatory. Berks. H. M. A.. 3.. M. Alexander.

A. Walters.A.APPENDIX 164 Walker.. Derbyshire. British Museum. T. Warman.A.. K. Rev. H. Waters. Hillside.C. Webb.A. B. Oxford. D. J.A... W. M..A. Grammar School.. Oxford. Wells. G.A. Wells.A. Wedd. Conway. Manchester. King's College. Southern House.C. India. A.. Rev. Wells. Cheltenham. Rangoon. W. Tirhoot. Liverpool.A...A. C. Wadham College.. Langton Rectory. Wallasey High School. Horncastle. N. Wadham College. P. Watson. F. Warren. Haileybury College.A. W. Walters.. Clare College. M. Warner..A. A. W. B.. Weech. Newnham College. F. R.. Fairlie.. . D. Watts. Rev. Cambridge..Litt. W. Abercromby Square.. Cardiff. W. C. E. C. MA. Master of Peterhouse. Pittville.. M. 7. India...D.. N. Warner.. Cheltenham. M. J. H. J. Ward.C. Crich Common. Wardale.. Welldon.. Huddersfield. Watson. Waugh. Waterfield. Cheshire. N. M. Canon. 7a. W.. Walters..A. Mozufferpore.. W. G. Rt. Watson.. Eton College. S. M. British Museum.A... M.. E. W. T. E.. Hertford. Sussex. J. O... Walter. Prof. W. Oxford.. M. Cheetham Hill Manchester. St. Surrey. Merchant Taylors' School. A. near Falmouth. Pv. Education Office. G. Edmund's College.. Flamstead. M. B. R. F. Oxford. Technical College. Ward.. Miss T. M. London. Miss E.. M..W. W.. W. Cheltenham College (Head Master). G. Halliwell Lane. Watkins.A. J.D. M. H.. M. Falcon Villas. Ward. 66. Cambridge. Sydney. The Dene. Matlock Bath. Maidstone. Caterham-on-the-hill.. M. Warburton. B.A. Queen Anne Terrace. Wedd. Kensington. H.A.. Hever Lodge. Old Hall..... Waters. Watkins. Lancaster.A. A... G.. School House. Rye. H. J. Rev.. Christ Church.A. W.. Windsor. M. Cambridge. M. Miss L.A. M. B. Upper Cheyne Row. Ward.. Waterlow. B. A. Abingdon Road. B. Watson. W. The College. C. Rev.A.. The Grammar School. President of Magdalen College. Oxford. Walters. 10. M... Miss J.C. Magdalen College... E. Manchester.. Bosloe. M. C. S. Watson. Mrs. Cambridge.A. The Deanery. Litt. Rev. Rev. Ipswich. Cambridge. MA. B. Intermediate School.A.A. Mrs.A. M. A.A. Webster. Ware.... Wedderspoon. M. King's College.

Victoria. White. S. J. Edgbaston. 17. M. Alderley Edge. Birmingham. Wickham. C. Beds. Prof. Rev... Williams. W. L. Cambridge. Wicksey.. M. J. Oxford. Spenser.W.E.. F. M.. address. Merton Hall.. Eastbourne. Williams. W. Eastbourne... Chelsea.B. Williams. Lanes.A..A. M.. S. Went. B. Savile Club. Andrew's Road. G. A. J... Manor Road.. Michigan (summer by Greenock. Slough.A.A. Rev. 12.A.A. W..A.. Miss E. L. R. Cheshire.A.A. H. R. N. Bedford. R. Winchester. Whibley.. Whitwell. Williams. E. Petersfield. The College. W. Bedales School. Very Rev.. Deanery. The Wyggeston School. Stoneycroft.A. L..A. Castletown Grammar School. Hans Place. Derwent Square. M. Pembroke College. G. J. Stanley. Williams. White-Thomson.. Williams.. Orchard Road.A. H. Williams. Wilkinson.. E. Westaway... Williams. M.. B. Miss E. C. Ann Arbor.Liverpool. T. 73. C.W. . Lymington Mansions. Miss J.C.O.A. M. Miss S.. 509. Tighnabruaich. Whittle.A.. 7. 1....P. 11.. F. Wavendon Manor. Oakley Street. Rev. Carlisle. Williams. *Whitehead.. 39. Langroyd Road. H. M. 3. L. Blackheath. Lines. Herbert. Rev. Temple.. B. R. Basil. White.G. B. St.). Wenley.S... Mus. The Grammar School. Woburn Sands R. Lincoln... Corran. Solihull Grammar School. Moray. c/o Miss Herschel.A. Leicester. Australia. M.. M.. L. 99.S.. Whishaw. Piccadilly. Ealing.A. N. 107.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS Welsh. Whitestone. Hertford College. H.B. Colne.A. A.A...A. S.A. Whibley. Watford.Litt. Hants. Quentin Road. H. Christchurch Road. near Bath. B.. W. S. B. B. E. M. Southsea. The Ryleys.A.D. M. M. West End Lane.. Observatory House. of Williams... Monkton Combe School. 4. Pemberley Crescent. University of Michigan. M. R. East Madison Street. 21.W.. D.. Whyte. U.A. Miss T. Miss M. Grammar School. Disraeli Road. Boston. South Yarra. 32. Warwickshire. J. 20. Miss E... White. King's Bench Walk. M. Williams.. W. B. W. Isle Man. Miss 165 Elizabeth. Wigglesworth. H. A. A.

. Miss E. The School. M.. Wales. M. College. Wordsworth. H. 12... Oxford. W. Regent's Park. Wood. Engracia. Prof. Mrs.. High School for Girls. Rev. Worters. A. D. Leeds. Worcester. H.. Yorks.D. Oxford. Cook. M. Oxford. H. G.A. Witton... Felsted.A. Prof. Williams. W. Essex. Oldham Road. Wilson.. Glossop. Lady Margaret Hall. 7. W.. Olave's School.A. Manchester. M. 17. St. Richmond. M. A... H. Prof.. D. J. Redcliffe Gardens.D. B.. London. Worrall. F. West Horsham. Ph. Miss M. The University.. J. Wood..A. Grammar School. M. Toxteth Park. J. M. Tasmania. PlasTirion. B. The Rev. H. M.A... LL. The School House.A. Miss E. Trinity 119.. Liverpool.. Winton. Winbolt. R. W. Ballsbrook Avenue. B. Cambridge. Woodward. Crimsworth. Rev. . Gifford. N.. de. Thackley. R.. M. Wood.. Worcester. King's College School.A.L. Wright. A.. J. Bangor.A. Wilson..A. M. M.. Gore Court. Miss M. Wilson. Grammar School. M. Dingle Bank. J. S. Wood. Manchester. Wood. Lincolnshire. E. Wordsworth.. 146. Belfast.B. Aldis. M. Williams. M. C. Christ's Hospital. Sittingbourne. Cambridge... M. C. Rev. E..A. George.. M... LL. M. H.. Knightwick Rectory. Oval Road. D. Pendleton. Windsor.C.. Canon J. M. Wood. Prof. Selwyn College. Principal. Banbury Road. M. Worley. F. W. Williamson. Wilson.D. W. Worrall. M. Thoresby.A.. Repton. Friars' School. Oxford. Fyfield Road. T..E. Liverpool. Clapham Road.A.A. The College.A. N.L. Willis. Brighton Terrace. W. Janet.A. Mrs. B. The Lodge. Manchester. Surbiton. Manchester. Louth. Bowstead. Kensington. Wotherspoon. Wimbledon.. Bangor.A. Marloes Road. A. S.. Malone Park. Wilson..A. Miss E..A. S. Hobart. Litt.A. L. Haileybury College.. Failsworth. Brighton). Prof...W.. Bedford. Whalley Range. Kirkby-Ravensworth. Hudson..W. H.A. 46. Rev. Willink. Miss M.A. Carl..D.. Hertford. Woolrvch. K. W. N.A. Wilson. H. R.. Didsbury. Park Road. I. 31.A. Williams.APPENDIX 166 Williams. 20. A.C. M. T. Wright. Oxford. The University. LL. Surrey. Willis. H. (Roedean School.. *Wright. 6. Moorside.. Magdalen College.

M... J. Zimmern.A. F. M.E.. Young.A. Tarradale. Surbiton. The University. State Normal School. Zimmern.. Oxford. Yule. . New College.. Halford. W. Miss. W.. M.... S.. Young. Second District. Lieut-Col. Yeater. M.A. Shipston-on-Stour. F.. A. Oakhill Drive... R. M. Young... Hatcham. Bishop's Stortford. Leeds. B. The College.A.S. U. Grammar Wyse. R.. R. Miss L. British Museum.A. Aske's School for Girls. Rev. The College. Young.S. Beckbury Hall. Leeds. T.A. J. Yate. C.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS Wroth. W. S. A. Fitzgibbon. Warrensburg. Ross-shire. Miss D.C. F. Shifnal. Miss M. S.A. Brighton.A.S. Herts. E. Miss A.. M. Wynne-Edwards. 167 School..

L. Davies. J. Mansfield. M. R. L. E. Miss C. Rev. P. Cattlev. Harris. A. Rev. Aw dry. Miss II. Prof. F. R. . H. F. J. Wells. Names marked * denote the Local Correspondent for place or district. . Miss M. E. King. S. * Ramsay. Miss U. . Cornish. H. J. Wokingham . W. W. Cambridgeshire— Roscoe. W. Layng. . P. Kindersley. J. Eton College L. Stake Poges Wycombe Abbey Daniel. H. Bowlby. W. E. F. Hon. F. D. R. Beading Eppstein. Impey. Robinson. F. Rev. . 11. Hornby. Macnaghten. E. Moore. A. J. Hales. S. F. C. T. F. Whibley. Rev. E. L. E. Maidenhead S. . Rev. E. M. Sandy Woburn Sands Good hart. F. Cambridge : Caius College Allbutt. Luxmoore. Cobbe. H. . E. Sir T. Rev. Rev. Rev. Devine. Churchill. Slough Parry. Edmonds. E. Duckworth. H. Anderson. M. Campbell. . . Llewel- . Pangbourne . Lang.) Buckinghamshire: continued Booker. . . Oldershaw. Stone. C. Rev. G. J. E. H. G. Leslie. Tatham. Miss E.TOPOGRAPHICAL LIST OP MEMBERS (This is an index intended for reference only. Belcher. 168 1'rof. D. G. I. Ashwin. E. James. For full titles the alphabetical should be consulted. A. Welsh. Brinton. S. Irvine. Alex. F. H. L. (continued) Broadbent. Barker. Sharwood-Smith. Miss C. T. Peile. W. E. Blakiston. Roberts. F. C.C. Vince. C. Stone. G. P. O Herford. E. Beckwith. M. A. Rev. H. K. Chittv. Ridgewav. Rawlins. Dove. Harris. W. J. B. II. C. A. H. W. . T. J. Miss J. G lyn. R. 11. W. Norman. J. Ross. Reid. Marsh. M. L. . Miss A. E. Wesraway. C. Wellington Coll. W. E. Rev. E. Miss. Buckinghamshire— Eton College a ML Radeliffe. Gray. W. H. Rev. M. F. Vaughan. Bad-ley College Field. W. foil. Berkshire— Bradfield T. thi — ENGLAND Bedford lis\ Christ's College Austen-Leigh. Upcott. E. S. F. B. Great Missenden. T. . T. Tatham. Bedfordshire. M. Mortimer Newbwy . Grace. G. Edghill. J. A bingdon Lyttelton. R. Rev. H. . Prof. R. Miss E.

L. P. . Aldis. C. Gwatkin. Rev. Lewis. Montagu. G. C. R. Prof. S. Jenkinson. E. Sharpley. Vernon Jones. •Harrison. L. J. A. D. E. S Barnes. W. Cam bridge . Jones. Mayor. G. J. 169 *Edwards. Cornford. C. Stobart. T. Mrs. H. Conway. Very Rev. M. Graves. Durnford. Mason. Glover. E. E. E. Coll M. Wace. "Wardale. F. M. 22 . Browning. V. Prof. Peskett. S. Gaye. C. G. W. Nixon. Miss H. Rev. W. Butler. Miss E. A. Plaistowe. B. Byrne. Rev. Frazer. Kennedy. E. H. J. *Peskett. Waldstein. E. Cook. Whibley. Monsignor E. M. Rennie. "Jex-Blake. Prof. H. H. Wright. J. Mrs. A. Rouse. W. W. W. St. Powell. Sikes. A. de. J. E. W. Jackson. Miss K. J. Miss A. J. Gardner. Miss E. - Grieve. Steen. R. Verrall. N. A. Canon A. B. Rev. R. W. . M. W. Miss W. H. J. Sleeman. P. J. G. J. Bury. *Wedd. . Bethune-Baker. Burkitt. Taylor. Miss S. Neionham J. D. Angus. Rev. Beck. F. E. R. Flather. Pembroke Coll. . G. Rev. W. Rev. W. F. H. Mrs. . Prof. Rev. Prof. N. E. John's Coll. T. J. Thompson. J. Mrs. Selwyn College Sidney College . Rev. E. A. Williams. 0. Atkinson. E. E. R. Queens' College St. W. W. Streane. L. Rev. P. M. E.W. Sheppard. T T? Hadley. R. J. A. Giles. Verrall. Macfarlane W. Emmanuel Coll. Trinity College. M. . Mrs. Prof W. Rev. C. A. H. Parry. Prof. Trinity Hall Giles. Canon R. Stewart. Prof. S. C Bury. Mrs. Girton College . Gibson. J. G. E. E. Moule. H. J. M. Prof. A. H. Rev. Rev.TOPOGRAPHICAL LIST OF MEMBERS Cambbidgeshike — continued Cambridgeshibe — continued Cam bridge — continued Cambridge — continued Christ's College (continued) Clare College *Rackharn. Gray. C. J. Mrs. A. Miss J. E. Dr. Rackham. Magdalene Coll. S. Chawner. A. J. Butler. Miss M. J. Ward. Jesus College King's College . H. J. Image. Nolan. Rev. Abbott. Mrs. Donaldson. H. . W. H. B. H. Hutchinson. Sandys. C. Stuart. Corpus Christi College . C. J. . Cronin. de G. Headlam. Miss A. F. Peterhouse Prof. M. . B. Miss A. Hicks. K. Tilley. Lawson. Rapson. J. Sussex . Wedd. A. . Bunsen. Jones. Benson. Edwards. J. H. F. A. Rev. W. D. Skeat.J. Stanton. VV. S. G. C. H. Adam. N. V. Duff. Clark. J. T. Miss J. Hayes. S. F. H. B. *Postgate. Leighton. Kennedy. Harrison. Rev. L. E. D. Gaselee.

. M. Teignmouth Torquay . F. Cade. W. F. . G. F. My Glazebrook. . Durham Hubback. Kynaston. R. G. W. C. Sherborne A. Rev. J. Stockport Tattenhall Wallasey West Kirby Hollowell. Wilson. Church. Junr. Sale. M. Hebblethwaite. A. Miss. Rev. Windsor. Cornwall— Ward. F. S. Dorset— Alderley Edge Altrincham Birkenhead . .O. 0. David. J. Rev. . D. F. T. . Miss E. Bristol Cowl. F. H. . — Fremington Paignton Plymouth Brooks. C. Rev. Papillon. F. Silverton Tavistock Evans. Rev. Miss D. Matlock Bath Repton . Devonshire Glo ucestershire— — Cliatsmorth Olossop Williams. Rev. Miss H. L. Baines. G. Colson. E. A. Chase. .. H. Miss L. . . Miss M.. Mis? F. . Miss. J. .. S. Kay. Iremonger. B. H. Rev. Day. Moor. Gardner. Rev. Ellam. Rev. L. . T. Rev. L. . T. How. Newton. W. I. B. Flood. R. Saffron Walden Hirst.. Miss T. . E. A. R. Yelverton. F. Rev. S. Walker. N. W. G. Bramwell. Miss M. Bees . F. K. Prof. . . Hoyle". Rev.W. Cheltenham Watkins. Rev. J. Prof. . Canon M. Owen. Derbyshire . Alderman Wilmslow Joseph. W. E. Tombs. Gray. G. Howard. D. Kirkpatriek. Rev. Johnson. Radford. Darley Dale . Bean. Durham — Fuller. . Elliot. . H. F. . Rev. G. I. A. Essex— Braintree Courtauld. J. Thompson. . L. CJbelmsford Chigwell School Swallow. H. R. O. Norwood. Rt.. Jevons. W.Miss Liscard . SL Horsfall. F. E. Miss K. W. C. L. H. Rev. B. H. H. A. Blakenev. Miss E. C. Miss K. B. L. King. Ford. W. Mrs. Strong. . A. . H. J. S. H. C. M. B. Edmonds. Prof. H. . Exton. Clark. W. Rev. Walker. Williams. Miss G. Walters. Miss L. D. W. Baton. Principal F. . Moschamp. MacKenzie. Mrs. Benslv. Davies. R. Pooler. Griffin. W. Canon W. H. J. Newman. Limebeer. Lewis. . Rev. A. Darlington Massingham. C. Bishop of Ely. . . S. Thompson. Cumberland— Carlisle St. Latter. . Rev. Jones. Guy. G. APPENDIX 170 Devonshire—continued C ambri DGESH IKE continued Cambridge co nti n lied — Verrall. Rev. Faitbfull. . Bubb. J. S. Miss L. Cattley. Boyd. Pruen. M. S.D. G. B. Miss S.— . R. Bowdon Chester Smith. W. Miss A. Miss B. J. Malaher. Fanner. . H. Rev. Veysey. Danson. B. C. Walthamstow Brentwood . A. D. H. Quennell. F. Rev. W. D.S. H. G. P. Felsted Stephenson. A. . Fahnouth J. Miss deG. Rev. . Stanley. Nantwich Oxton . Weymouth Cheshire— W. B.

TOPOGRAPHICAL LIST OF MEMBERS Gloucestershire — continued. 171 .

. A. B. Smith. 0. Prof. Prideaux. . E. Rev. Bosanquet. R. O. Rev. Miss G. E. R. Dr. Hooper. Ernest. H. . R. Cotton. Theodore. Miss. Coleman. Pearce. Hon. Rev. . Dale. . Rev. Mersey Blackburn J. E. P. Miss 0. Robertson. . Burstall. Rev. L. Miss A. R. A. W. Miss E. Lawrence. C. R. Brown. Rev. Miss F. Honnywill. E. Lancaster Littleborough IAverpool . Agar. Myers. Rev. Canon. J. C. Ashton. Miss B. F. Genner. A. W. D. Kidd. Watson. . A. Northbourne. Castleton Clitheroe Colne . . Banks. Timmons. Ritchie. Archer. J. M. Henn. P. J. L. Lancashire— Ashton-on. W. Philip. Dymond. Miss M. W. Kempthorne. Miss E. A. R. . H. Tonbridge W. Rev. Ghey. Barlow. Fletcher. Bramley-Moore. C. Miss A. Browne. Hall. L. . L. . Sevenoaks Sidcup . A. W. Gordon. Robert. C. MacNaughton. II (University). Frank. Pallis. Hobson. Brockman. Rev. A. M. M. . Rurrows. A. Joseph. Miss. Tancock. Gladstone. Rev. APPENDIX 172 Lancashire — continued Kent— continued . Lipscomb. Prof. Richard. Lancelot. . Hooper. M. Mason. A. Rev. Newcomb. J. Robinson. Watts. Jackson. E. A. Willink. J. E. . Myres. C. M. J. . Miss H. Edginton. T. . Ashworth. . Lord. A. Conder. W. Very Rev. Rev. T. G. Heslop. O'Malley. Harrison. D. Compton. T. Brett W. E. A. Kenneth. Linton-Smith. E. E. Strong. . Sarson. Hartley. Miss. Connell. C. Caton. M. . . Mason. H. Chislehurst Dover Eastry . Prof. Sanders. Kidd. Williams. K. Cradock-Watson. de. Blackpool Bolton . Rev. Hardeman. J. Gwatkin. Miss E. Tottenham. B. Rev. Rev. Prof. Le Page. Waters. F. A. . . Dr. H. . . J. Mrs. Richard. Beaumont. Bury . E. . H. S. Bevan. G. . MacGregor. Miss E. Canon. Church. See Stonyhurst. A. Rubie. Folkestone . . J. Sittingbournc Sutton. Prof. W. . 13. Miss E. . Winton. R. Wiggle worth. Silcox. B. E. Alexander. A. L. Gilson-Smith. Miss D. . Jelf. Tunbridge Wells Barnard. Miss S. Miss G. Forbes. . Rochester . T. Very Rev. Thicknesse. S. Footsoray Gravesend Lee Maidstone Margate . A.Valence Bull. S. Fit ham Liverpool (continued) . Ormerod. H. Arnold. Miss E. Manchester Canon. . . Miss F. Smith. E. W. R. Miss E. . Tait. J. Dr.H. Gorse. J. . J. G. W. Woodward. Henn. T. E. A. . Canon. H. Mrs. Kitchener. Brooke. Miss M. Miss W.. Bennett. Ewart. Miss K. . . J. F. M. Alliott. F. . M. F. A. G. W. W. . Rev. iStokoe. Sutclifie. M. Mrs. Legge. . Forbes. A. F. Miss E. Rev. Miss S. Miss E. .

TOPOGRAPHICAL LIST OF MEMBERS Lancashire— continued US .

*Walters. S. Asquith.S. B. D. School Spilsbury. Sch. . Giveen. Miss H.Rt. N. Duhoich H. M.. Lewis. C. W. Prof. Hose. and (The Hall). Rev. Trenerry. Parker. M. Baker-Penoyre. Miss H. Miss M. G. *Pantin. ff. Gould. Rogers. Lamb. Rev. King's College . A. City of London Chilton. Paul's Girls' Hon. Bewsher. Sch. Miss A. Miss H.H. BlachheathH. Wittvon. F. Olave's School . Felkin. H. J. Smiley. Holmes. . S. School . Hawkins. Gr. W. Sion College Milman. . Carpenter. E. Silcox. . W. J. F. Simpson. A. S. Gardner. Miss C. Stobart. Miss H. Nairn. D. E. *Conway. F. High Hill School . A. A. F. Miss E. H. C. Hampstead Linnell. Miss A. Miss Mathews. G. Coll. Anderson. McClure. Remington Park High School Heppel. Bennett. F.APPENDIX 174 London — London — continued Ashe's Schoolfor Girls Young. E. S. Sargeaunt. Caspari. R. Miss (Private Bulivich Coll. . Gerald. . J. A. Lord. W. E. J. Marshall. Smith. St. Fotheringham. Miss M. Strudwick. Wilson. T. Barker. Coulter. C. London 1 . L. A. . Dr. . Clapham H. . Highgate Gr. < '. W. . H. Miss F. J. J. Colfe Gr. Stoneman. Atkev. London Col. Alford. Mrs. Univ. P. I Bailey. J. Gray. E. J. 8chool . G. Rev. Rice. J. Armitage. Miss L. . J. . . Balcarxes. Miss C. G. J.Hon. . F. . Morton. S. James Alley ne's School . Miss E. H. Westminster School . Prof. E. M. Sch. I. Barnett. . J. Rushbrooke. P. Emanuel School Macassey. Botting. G. Rev. G. Mary's . Southlands Coll. Paul's Sch. A. Headlam. Miss M. . Dr. Coles. Pendlebury. Smedlej'. University Coll. . Prof. Westfield Coll. R. Guthkelch. . W. P. S. L. . Armstead. School . Bedford Coll. A. L. . Kuiifs Coll. AY ells. G. B. . . M. Spenser. . . A. A. Miss E. . E. Miss Y. S.. W. Phillips. Armstead."B. Rev. P. Gadesden. L. Streatham H. E. Miss. L. Miss E. Ross. legiate Sch. Rev. Miss W. H. Wood. Kenmure Sch. R. . Miss F. W. D. . Miss M. Nairne. Miss M. Compston. . T. V. Rapson. Skeel. McDougal. H. Holding.H. A. T. H. Gow. H. Colet Court . A. F. . Mill Hill Sch. Bamfylde. Queen Elizabeth St. K. . . Miss G. Stationers' Sch Chettle. St. Slater. F. Miss A. Wvm bledon High Merchant Notting S. *Morley. Oakeley. Hillard. Loane. Douglas. F. S. . Cholmelev. Kev. 0. A. Taylors" Sch. C. Wotherspoon. W. R. Dr. J. Rev. Coll. Abrahams. F. J. Prof. J. Powell. . Rev. . C. Richardson. G. St. . Hales. H. A. J. H. C. Rev. Gavin. F. Jones. Lucas. Rt. M. Y. School). Tanner. Legg. E. . . P. Miss M. Rev. F. C. W. Melville. D. J. Wimbledon. Miss E. Miss R. Balfour.

D. R. H. Miss S. P. E. Magnus. B. K. J. Gurney. Miss T. Collins. S. Miss A. P. Miss B. Garnsey. Harper. 1'. Gaselee. . L. H. Mrs. G. Curzon. Rt. A. S. Hon. G. M. Cromer. A. Bruce. G. Miss F. M. Miss M. Cohen. Higgs. Miss M. J. R. Charles. Miss L. F. M. Benson. Ernst-Browning. Miss C. Rt. Colquhoun. Leathes. Right Hon. Earl of Crofts. Campagnac. Miss M. E. Miss D. Longman. N. Meiklejohn. Mrs. H. Lord Justice. Miss E. Rt. Canon G.. Sir A. D. Hon. J. Kensington. Lord. Marshall. P. A. H. R. J. Hetherington. J. Cohen. Mavrogordato. Leader. C. W. A. Miss E. McMichael. Derriman. Heath. R. R. Bel). Chapman. Calthrop. C. A. Hon. S. Chambers. G. Johnson. Finlay. N. J. M. Hon. Davidson. Dunstall. Hodgson. Heward. W. Judge W. Blundell. Hon. Miss M. MissB. Miss A. Butcher. London Beeching. T. Miss C. J. Canon H. F. Gilson. Miss L. W. B. W. Hildesheimer. W. Miss E. Levy. Dingwall. Greechy. Mason. (continued) . . Miss M. A. J. W.TOPOGRAPHICAL LIST OF MEMBERS London — continued London — continued London . Matthaei. Godfrey R. A. Esdaile. Mackail. J. Hon. G. Craik. Haioh. Hughes. W. Hon. E. Kennedy. G. P. MacNaghten. Bennett. N. B. Miss E. Miss M. Lee. Butcher. Lord. C. Miss H. Lattimer. . Prof. Langridge. S. Miss E. Sidney. A. H. Bonser. P. W. W. J. R. C. . A. Furness. Canon R. J. Miss M. Loring. Baron F. F. W. F. Goffe. M. Campbell. H. Bridge. H. Miss E Leaf. Hicks. de Grigg. Collins. Sir H. Sir R. L. von. C. Prof. L. G. H. Miss A. M. Burton. Linnell. S. A. Matthews. K. Lord. M. Hodd. Miss E. Miss M. N. Macmillan. Hugel. S. Eve. Martin. Haydon. Hon. Colvin. L. J. H. Marsh. Rt. Earl of. llalsbury. Miss A. H. Droop. S. Rev. Farwell. Liberty. E. H. P. V. (continued) Bell. Sir R. Sir J. Ker. Gibson. J. R. M. F. lleadlam. E. R. M. Benson. Loreburn. "W. T. Rt. Admiral Sir C. J. Mayor. A. Sir P. Burne-Jones. Bradley. . Hutton. 175 Gurney. C. Gosse. \V. E. Lee. Sir R. S. Bruce-Forrest. E. T. Dill. J. R. flaynes. Miss A. E. Giles. G. F. Duckworth. Hutton. Rt. L. John. Walter. Johnson. Lyall. F. E. Hill. W.

M. R. Thompson. Miss J. H. D. M. K.SirK. J. Miss L. Miss J. Terry. Talbot. Miss A. D. Raleigh. Stuttaford. S.APPENDIX 176 London — continued London — continued London . Rendall. John. Merrick. Rt. . B. Scott. A. Sir C. Stawell. Miss M. Miss M. A. Newbolt. 6. Stoker. E. Poynter. Menzies. Willis. A. P. Purdie. A. . Tatton. L. L. Whittle. L. V. Poynter. Miss J. A. Thomas. Miss M. Miss H. W. Thomson. Mr. Paul. J. Basil. Sir T. R. J. Richmond. J. White-Thomson. Rogers. Eev. Minturn. Simmons. J. B. J. Sir W. F. W. Morshead. C. Strangeways. J. E. Tollock. Nicholson. L. F. Muir-Mackenzie. R. Miss N. S. Sir W. . Woolrych. Hon. G. G. Trayes. (continued) E. R. A. C. Ridding. Richmond. Miss E. Paget. R. Stuart. Pooley. L. Wilkinson. H. V. Sir Thompson. H. B. Sykes. J. H. K. A. Preedy. Sir E. Taylor. Whitwell. Spenser. F. Ogilvy. Sarson. Maunde. R. H. F. A. Whitestone. Watson. C. Vincent. A. Miss C. L. Viscount. J. Miss F. M. Miss M. Walters. Watson. Wainwright. Wroth. Miss A. J. F. Williams. R. Vaisey. and Mrs. Miss F. E. Middlesex— . Morison. R. \Y. T. Dean. W. William. E. D. G. Stanford. H. Millington. Miss H. L. A. M. Warner. L. F. Y. D. Mumm. Phillimore. Rooke. R. F. B. E. E. T. Whyte. Richards. Milner. Miss F. G. Nutt. (continued) . Richmond. J. Sir F. Tennant. Murray. Oakeley. Pollard. 0. Storr. Rev. Miss M. Miss M. Miss C. Miss Hilda Robinson. G. Robertson. London . B. Yarley.

Prof. A. . Fletcher. C. T. Strachan - Davidson. Richards. B. W. W. Cowell. Shadwell. C. C. R. 177 Worcester Coll. C. Lindsay. E. W. Clay. Rev. W. Warde. Matheson. F. . E. E. H. Prichard. *Cookson. Allen. H. S. — . R. Prof. John's Coll. J. Corpus Christl College. A. M. Godley. Cyril. F. M. Wilson. M. J. P. C. H. Spooner. J. M. Rev. A. L. Merrv. Rev. A. W. A. A. V. E. H. Chavasse. Argles. Rev. Wright. Miss A. The Very Rev. J. W. Grenfell. S. Rev. Shields. Magdalen Coll. J. W. Gardner. Rev. Magrath. C. T. 0. *Hall. Exeter College . F. Jerram. S. Trinity College Ellis. G. H. Miss E. Snow. Thames Oxford Gwilliam. Miss A. Cook. W. H. . Rev. W. Greene. Rev. Macan. L. B. J. T. Oxford . Goodwin. . Brown. Dyer. J. A. Prof. R. Prof. C. J. Farquharson. Wadham Coll. A. E. P. R. H. Butler. Binney. Walker. A. Webster. H. D. G. A. S. W. A.— TOPOGRAPHICAL LIST OF MEMBERS OXFORDSHIREBanbury . Rev. Ball. . Oriel College . Bussell. Marchant. How. W. A. W. Blagden. E. Anderson. R. E. A. H. Prickard. Christ Church . A. Murray. Ma infield Coll. H. A. A. H. W. H. L. Sidgwick. H.*Genner. Bailey. A. P. . Brasenose Rev. Turner. W. Mack worth. Robertson. Hughes. P. A. W. W. Rev. Owen. Clark. Prof. Evans. Strong. W. Stewart. W. J. J. Palmer. Warner. F. J. L. Williams. . B. Greene. Zimmern. Harvey. Lady Margaret Hall . Grenfell. Haverfield. B. *Burroughs. A. C. M. Richards. P. Rev. Coll. Somerville Coll. E. Miss H. A. Queen's College . A. Drewitt. W. Lock. J. H. . Miss A. C. L. Penrose. L. C. G. E. St. Rev. P. A. Livingston. D. P. Corley. E.*Blunt. Wordsworth. M. A. Jesus College . Gerrans. New College. H. Rev. Mrs. R. Hertford Coll. Henderson. Charlhury Henley-on- . E. . C. Rev. Rev. Powell. *Lorimer. F. Miss D. Fotheringham. . : Balliol College . Rev. B. Miss E. W. C. Rev. Webb. Wells. 11. L. A. A. Brightman. Hunt. U. C. Phelps. S. Warren. Fowler. L. A. S. W. Fairbairn. Rev. Benecke. H. Hadow. W. M. H. Pickard-Cambridge. J. University Coll. C. . J. Hodge. W. A. Farnell. J. C. Wilson. M. R. Henderson. H. Rev. Rev. Miss E. R. M. Rev. 23 V. K. E. Cooper. J. T. G. Prof. H. G. G. Joseph. Rudd. Keble College . . contin ued Oxford continued Merton College Garrod. W. T. H. S. Lincoln College. Ox FORDSHIKE Lovedav. F. E. Cowley. . T. H. Miss N. Miles. E. Elliott. Joachim. A. Lys.

E. M. Miss T. T. A. S. Miss E.super . . S. A. H. Croydon . G. C. . . . R. . Schomberg. . Taylor. Dr. Miss E. M. Dawes. Robinson. Miss A. Worters. . . F. C. A. E. Sing. Q. Watson.F. . Jex-Blake. Rev. J. Esher . East Sheen Englejield' Green Donkin. L. L. Pickering. A. . Dakyns. J. Den man. Miss E. P. Miss M. Millard. Delist ane Coll. Norton. G. N. M. F. . A. Pearson. . Miss M. G. W. M. Romanis. Bakewell. A. C. J. M. Antrobus. R. . . Godalrning Godstone Guildford Kew . Kenyon. F. . The Verv Rev. . E. Reigate . Miss M. Sowels. . Shifnal Wem . - Ealand. E. Tabor. Keatinge. B. G. M. Miss B. Wolverhampton . Rendall. C. D. . Miss D. C. Clark. H. Vaughan. Miss B. Graham. . Miss E . . M. Sandford. Llewellyn. M. Phillips. Shrewsbury . A. Williams. Claggate Cranleigh Sch. *Rogers. Tildesley. E. N. . South wold . Lea. Martin. G. Miss D. Mare . Kendall. G. . M. B. P. Longworth. Prof.Rev. W. C. Epsom Ilasleniere Weston . Sir A. Milne. W. Miss M. G. . Miss G. T. Oxted . Miss C. Syson. Lowestoft mond. G. Miss M. Miss E. Miss M. Davies. . C. M. . Page. . M. Dawes. Melbuish. J. Rev. Kingston Hill Leatherhead Mayor. R. Miss Ingham. G. Rev. . J. H. Rhodes. Mrs. Dawes. Prof. G. E. J. Powell. — Surrey Burgh Heath Langdon-Davies. . Pearse. L. Rawnsley. . N.B. D. . Rev. . . S. N. G. Kelaart. Pope. Miss A. Gardiner. Rev. H. A. G. P. II. Rev.APPENDIX 178 Oxfordshire — continued Suffolk Jones. Tadnorth Warlingham Wcybridiu' \\i in bled on Woking . Melville. Miss E. F. E. Uttoxeter Wett Bromunch Manley. T. Miss E. J. Miss M. Rev.H. Moor. Lt. Rev. . Fry. W. . Battiscombe. B. Davis. . Caldecott. . Rev. E. L. . Alington. R. Yate. J. Richards. Richmond Sanderstead Streatham Surbiton . E. H. Ager. RUTLANDSHIREUppingham Selwyn. A. A. Scott. Miss E. A. . . P. G. Hardcastle. R. Rl oades. C. . Orange. Kyrke-Penson. James. E. T. Legard. D. Marshall. M. Rev. . Far leg. Cheam School Armitage. F. Fleming. A. Geikie. Lewis. G. Catkerhamouthill Charterhouse School Watkins. Allen. Rev. . Wright. . Miss M. C. A.-Col. E. Miss E. . H. Mrs. Miss M. C. S. Somersetshire Bath . H. E. W. Barke. . Elliman. Miss E. . W. Miss A. T. J. Compston. . Bruton Exeter Milrerton Wells . Miss A. R. H.M. . Smith. J. Shropshire— — Felixstowe Ipswich . . . Idmpsjield Jackson. J. Newcastle Stoke-on-Trent . Stone Sutton Coldfield Richardson. T. F. W. T. W. E. . . . Elliston. R. Bernays. . . . Riley. Brownjohn. Gough. J. Daniel. Bryant. Rev. Riuidall. Worley. W. Zimmern. H. B. . . Rev. Layman. Linzell. V. C.Rich- . . . Oxford {continued') Rhys. . . M. Mills. E. Pope. Miss E. M. Balfour. . StaffordshireColwich . D.

TOPOGRAPHICAL LIST OF MEMBERS Sussex— 179 .

180 .

Howell. A. Jasonidy. T. Dr. Rev. Green. Robertson. . W. V. K. Osborn. F. . {continued) Jenkins. Henson. P. Benn. E.. . Count. . R. Miss E. R. Coupar Angus Edinburgh . . GlamorganshireCardiff Burrell. Daly. W. Miss A. R. T. 1. Newman. Plunkett. Arnold. Prof. Switzerland— Davos Platz . Miss K. Montgomeryshire— Newtown . Pembrokeshire— Haverfordwest . T. E. Huggard. F. Delany. P. . Miss C. Carnoy. Miss E. J. Glasgow Glenalmond Davies. G. Hardie.). N. Taylor. H. Grant. G. R. Enniskillen Galioay Carnarvon— Bangor . F.*Beare. . Marshall. . (Trinity Coll. EUROPE S. Rev. Perman. . (University). Miss E. Prof. . Benger. M. Miss A. Williams. Sowels. L. * rel and — continued Dublin . McElderry. . Prof. . Davies. Ferguson. Miss L. H. Miss L.. T. W. . Miss J. . A. Rev. . K. . Thomas. C. Belgium — Louvain . G. T. . Allen.. Cobham. Mahaffy. A. W. W. Italy— Henry. Prof. Evans. J. A. Robert. R. Rev. Ashby. . . J. E. A. L. Cambridge Swansea . Harper. . J. Miss J. Yule. . R. . Dundalk Carmarthen- 181 Allen. Prof. W. R.. . Rev. D. . Prof. C. T. E. A. Bidgood. TOPOGRAPHICAL LIST OF MEMBERS Cardigan— I Aberystwyth Anwv]. Heard. J. . Salle . . McCutcheon. . Prof. Rev. Roberts. Ferrall. Prof. Campbell. Prof. Andrew's. B. . . A. Prof. L. Semple. . Forrester. D. Purser. Miss G. Rev. A. Rev. . W. Hubbock. Prof. G. M. G. Pearson. . 0. Harrover. L. Bnckland. Florence . Sir F. R.der - IRELAND Belfast *Dill. Nolan. P. Rev. Pro! A. H. Prof. Tarradale . Dunn. . . Willis. Ramsay. Wrexham . . Hudson. C. Miss M. Germany— Halle . M. Prof. John. Miss M. S. Bo wen. G. F. T. Rev. G. . T. Miss M. Pooler. . . Mrs. Leckenby. W. S. . Prof. F. G. J. J. Thompson. * Browne. Cruise. Prof. Dundrvm Cartwright. Pembroke . A. *Exon. Brighouse. Carmarthcii Keen. Principal. Dr. Steele. 8. Wood Clongowes Dervock Downpatrick Dublin . . Miss I. J. Prof. Prof. E. Hyslop. A. 8. * Williams. Rev. A. G. Finlay. Rev. Tullamare Keene. D.an . Alassio . W. Ballater Blairgowrie . Rev. Abernethy. C. J. Waugh. . S. J. C. . St. G. J. R. * Slater. R. SCOTLAND Aberdeen Denbigh— Colwyn Bay Denbigh W. A. Mediterranean — Borne Cyprus . .. N.

C. Miss G. H. B. Cappon. U. C. Miss L. . .APPENDIX 182 AMERICA Asia Canada— Halifax Kingston . Haigh. Queensland — Minnesota— . St. P. P. .A. L. . G. W. Wenley. Sale. . F. Prof. F. E. W. . Prof. New South Wales— W. Miss A. Principal . . Murray. . Prof.S.A. F. J.A. . W. L. . Rev. Brisbane O'Brien.A. Brown. Monteath. Miss G. T. Lawson. 0. Broken Hill Sydney . Wedderspoon. L. G. . . Ashmore. *Auden. . . Prof. Watson. Macurdy. *Leach. Prof. D. J. H. Darjceling Durbhungah Hyderabad Rangoon Wellington W. ASIA India— Bombay . . Hotson. Prof. J. J. Newton. . . R. C. Michigan— Kelsey. Connecticut— Newhaven . . Kirtland.S. F. New York— New York Poughheepsie Schenectady *Hirst. ILLINOISChicago Hale. Abby. Burma . . . Prof. Graham. . Haigb.S. Jukes. . Adams. . . M. R Gilling. G. B. MacVay. Bowen.S. Greenwood. AUSTRALASIA New Zealand — Christchurch Dunedin . R. . G. New Hampshire— Exeter U. Prof. Prof. Montreal Toronto U. . P. Ann Arbor . Smith. Howard Anderson. C. T. .A. W. U. J. Yeater. J. J. W. W. .A. U. G. P. M. Robertson. Prof. Prof. Taylor. D. Charlottesville .S. . R. G.A. Prof. . . Prof. W. Miss A. Morrell. E. . Peterson. Missouri— Warrensburg U. H.S. Prof. C. M. Garnsey.A. — continued — continued India *Lee. Paul U. . . . . U. T. C. . S.S. C. Prof. Miss M. S. G. . Mrs. . Virginia— Fitzhugh. Mrs. Seymour. Prof. E. M.S. .

CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION MANCHESTER AND DISTRICT BRANCH President : Rev.. Secretaries : Lilley. Esq. Chairman of Committee Professor R.A. S. Miss M. B.R.A.. Secretary of the Excavation Committee : H. M. A.Litt. The first meeting for 1908 was held at the University of Manchester on January 24th. The University.. J." " Some Questions On February 28th. S. Treasurer : Dakers.. Hon. Canon Hicks.D. Esq. D." On January 31st the annual Social and Business Meeting took place in the Manchester Grammar It opened with School. an excursion was made to the Ribchester. Esq.Sc. fresh period of activity began in 183 November..S. lectured on "The Influence of the ^gean People in Greece and Italy.A.. Manchester Grammar School. when Professor Boyd Dawkins. Hopkinson.. Litt. lectured on " Some Suggested Cases of Oriental Influence in Greece and Rome." On Saturday. where excavations have been proceeding of the Branch (see below). village of under the auspices A May 9th. Hon. Manchester High School for Girls. Conway. MacInnes.. The University. J. Professor Hope Hogg. MA. F. Murray on about Ancient Greek Acting. Hon. : H.. B. G. a lecture by Professor G. On November .A. M. J. M.

Toot Hill.. and Mr. the granary. (3) Review for September 1908. the associate Members Bruton.d. F. Hopkinson lectured on Greek Vases. those for excavating Mancunium iu 1907 ." In addition. Coins M. See Professor Conway's article in the Classical nature. The ordinary Members number 93 . and (2) . (2) the enquiry into a supposed . uncovered in contain also articles on will all the Duke Place in 1907. Mr. The volume is edited by Mr. Manchester. Mr. issued .. Thomas May. (Scot. F. and two gate building of a later a similar — what is most important an inscription containing parts of the names of the Emperor Severus and his two sons. J. J. conducted the excavations on behalf of the Branch. H.. the funds raised for and spent on the excavation in 1908 were £75 amounted lis. G. and Mancunium") It will contain the account of (1) the discovery altar at Melandra since the 1906 Report was Roman site at Toot Hill.A. 102 . and succeeded in discovering The (1) towers the north wall. Professor R. Cheesman. which was found to contain no Roman remains whatever dating probably (3) the extensive remains of a Roman camp. H. Qd. The Report is for 1907 (" nearly ready. and one by Canon E. M. Burrows lectured on " Recent Excavations at Mycalessus. and from which the name of Geta was erased after his murder in 212.APPENDIX 184 6th a Social Meeting was held in the Whitworth Institute. to £450. Roman of a Melandra. L. the first Secretary of the Excavation Committee of the Branch.A. which must have been set up some time between 198 and 211 a. edited by Mr. A.).. The Branch again met in the University on November 27th. It Roman Inscriptions and known to have been found in Manchester at any period. Hicks on the monuments of Mithrasworship in the District.S. The Branch will shortly publish a full Report of these excavations and their results.A.d. from the first century a. : position of its gate. of the Manchester Grammar School. Hopkinson. B. the Branch excavation work on the has site of the continued Roman to support the fort at Ribchester.

A. . D.A. J. D. Bishop Ilsley F. T. Grenfell (" Recent Finds of Papyri Egypt "). and Miss Spinney. G. Archdeacon Burrows. R. the Lord Bishop of Birmingham. Vince. Hon. . M. Waterfield.. Grundy (" The Battlefields Dr. R. M. W. R. B. The Rev. M. C. . . Reynolds. M. . . H. J. Canon Hobhouse (" The Worship of the Roman Emperors ").P. T. M.A. The most notable event of our year has been the visit of the Central Association to Birmingham in October. R. Miss Janet Case ("The Religious Idea in Aeschylus"). Ford. of the of the organisation of The lecturers has included Dr. .A.A. BIRMINGHAM AND MIDLANDS BRANCH President The Right Rev.A. J. A committee was appointed by the Branch to make the local arrangements. A." Roman City of Caerwent ") (" of the Excavation Martin The and Mr. 185 24 .A. M. of Euripides' " Trojan Women. Hunter The Professor Sonnenschein. and has read selections from the Epistulai Morales of Seneca . The Rev. M. Chambers. Smith. Barrett. S. Middlemore. of the Persian : Wars "). it is now engaged on the Octavius of Minucius Felix. M. Secretary : R. The chief work list of Branch during the year has consisted a series of lectures upon classical subjects. Hendy. .A. G. The Rev. Lowes Dickinson have been arranged for February in and March of the coming year. Hon.A. Gilson. Balfour. Treasurer C. . Hon. M.A. The Right Rev. . Vice-Presidents : G. Rev. who gave a recitation of Professor Gilbert Murray's translation Further lectures by Mr. Mr. W.: : . Arthur Sidgwick (" Homer ").A. M. Moss. M. A. M. L.Litt. The Rev. M. Secretary of the Reading Circle Miss H. The Reading Circle instituted last year has been holding meetings every fortnight. C. J. M. The Ven.A. J. James.A.

M. 1 907. and Mason. MacGregor were appointed Secretaries. (Head Master Merchant Taylors' School. the Rev. M. for was sent out inviting membership the promotion of Classical neighbourhood. dated from the University and bearing the signatures of Vice-Chancellor Dale. was much appreciated. Mr. Professors Bosanquet. Cradock-Watson. . V. O. and Messrs. Messrs. The Branch now numbers nearly a hundred members. the Hippolytus. Forbes and J. and Misses Beaumont. and ship of the Branch. 1907. Bosanquet and Myres. the Rev. Myres and of Liverpool. not only among of Studies a Classical Association in Liverpool and teachers but among all its those interested in such studies. Caspari. P. FORMATION OF A BRANCH FOR LIVERPOOL AND DISTRICT On December 4th. A representative Committee of Liverpool College). to become the Mr.APPENDIX 186 and a account of the full several meetings will be the Proceedings of the Association. Crosby). organising Committee was appointed. A meeting was held at the University on December 13tb. Reynolds has been appointed Hon. Silcox. Kenneth Forbes and J. members of the The found in privilege accorded to Branch. Mackay. Esq. and the Lord Mayor's performance of the reception. the head masters and head mistresses of the chief local schools. MacCunn. A. having left Birmingham for London to take up the duties of his appointment as Reader in Ancient History in London University. of was formed. Lancelot (Principal H. J. M. Secretary- and Mr. including the Bishop of Liverpool. a letter. Secretary in his stead. the duties of Treasurer. and Strong. B. is increasing. This Committee subsequently secured the consent of Dr. Richard Caton. Lenton Smith. MacGregor. K. at which the Classical Association of Liverpool An was founded. and other ladies and gentlemen interested in the subject. W. of attending the Presidential Address. M. consisting of Professors Strong. has resigned his Hon. then Lord Mayor of Liverpool. B. Paton undertook first President of the Association.

A. 1908. Meeting Annual of the Classical Association of The first when a discussion was held on " The Place of Classical Studies in a Modern City. was held on February 25th. 1908. His place was subsequently taken by Mr." On May 22nd a lecture was delivered by Professor H. lost the services of Mr. London and Aylesbury . Watson <Sc Viney. Y." On March 12th. Professor Myres exhibited and explained the collection which has been formed at the Institute of Archaeology with the object of assisting and illustrating Classical Studies. On March 23rd Professor Strong delivered a lecture on The Poetry of Catullus. Campbell. on his appointment to a post at Bedford College. Lecturer in Classics at Liverpool University. June 13th. C." On Saturday. At the end of the summer term the Branch. Robert Newstead. Wyld on " Phonetics. Stress and " Pitch. Ld.LIVERPOOL AND DISTRICT As it 187 a result of subsequent discussion and correspondence. with special reference to Tone. London. to constitute the Liverpool Association a Branch was resolved England and Wales. MacGregor as Secretary. to its great regret.. the Society visited Chester to examine the Roman Antiquities under the direction of Dr. Printed by Hazrtl.

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