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JANUARY 1st .52 196 212 214 215 217 217 . Officers and Council Rules .. .. 147 149 1. 1910 Tuesday^ Janlary IIth^ lUlO 1 37 INDEX TO THE PROCEEDINGS 105 REPORT OF THE CURRICULA COMMITTEE .CON T E N T S PROCEEDINGS OF THE SEVENTH GENERAL MEETING MoNnAY. 1900 APPENDIX :— ... ..... . January ... Namks and Addrkssks of Members Topographical List of Members Manchester and District Branch Birmingham and Miolands Branch Liverpool and District Branch Nottingham and District Branch Formation of a Branch in Bombay .107 INTERIM REPORT OF THE JOINT COMMFPrEE ON GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY MEMORANDUM ON AFFEDERATED 120 ASSOCIATIONS STATEMENT OF ACCOUNTS.. 10th. 141 TO DECEMBER 142 20th.


Report. We for further an Interim in the air more so next what is meant do not mean that the Report merely of a tentative character.SEVENTH GENERAL MEETING. will observe that it is called Terminological Exactitude and will. 1909 Monday. I suppose. Butcher. perhaps I had better begin by defining gestions The Report it.' " I hope I may be allowed. to thank the other Associations re- presented on the Joint Committee for their co-operation in this important piece of work..m. be by an Interim Report.P.30 p. was held in the Theatre of H. and honour of the move to —" I feel this Resolution it — ' a very great privilege That the Interim Report Terminology Committee be provisionally approved. Well. and to move a Resolution.. this building. at 2. LONDON. S. or that mature opinions is ' still week. January 10th The first session of the Association King's College. as we regard represents the work and November 6th. as one of the representatives of the Classical Association. " Our first on mittee business the Interim Report of the Joint is Grammatical Terminology. of the is contains mere sug- 1 . in the chair. Butcher." Professor Sonnenschein. and — " By the courtesy of the Principal of King's we are permitted to meet here have very pleasant recollections of the former occasion when we were allowed to hold our General Meeting in College of his colleagues We to-day. Mr. as You ' at the present time. M. of nine meetings held between October 27th it Rather it represents the Committee on the points which it has consideration. Mr. I ask will Com- Professor Sonnenschein to introduce this subject.

THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION ^ had time to consider. adopted. can agree. the Moods. partly because the Report is of a limited scope. are meeting during the present month. indeed. I modern and ought to be one towards which educational a concentration of effort and a result reform seems to be tending than this coming year. but which does not touch on a number of points. and classification. and the Verb-nouns and Verb-adjectives. I personally believe some such scheme as this. and partly also because it has to be presented siderations tions here to the seven other Associations represented some whom of whom we on the Committee. But so far as we we have attempted to lay before you nothing but what go. in touch with that is if sound grammatical doctrine. not merely at selecting terms on which people are either right or wrong . an important measure of reform and that it do something to bring together will friendly co-operation the teachers of The guages. which will have to be considered hereafter. may possibly react upon some of the recommendamade. that is. mean in of ancient lan- — saving of time and energy. possibly amended in detail. but at selecting terms which shall be. " Our hope is that this Report. therebe desirable that any of the Associations represented should commit itself finally to approval of our Recommendations at the present stage. and subsequent con' . that terminology is if I may based on a certain set of grammatical conceptions and classifications. and the Report which will follow as the result of further sittings during the will constitute teaching. which deals with certain important and. for instance. It would not. methods of in the —important But as this is I hope that something more —may come of this movement. which and that a reform in terminology ought to aim. and from are hoping to receive suggestions on various difficult points of terminology fore. as far as possible. The Interim Report a Report with a is limited scope. has been very carefully considered. also important. it will effect a real improvement in grammatical . that a well-considered scheme of terminology really involves questions of use the expression : more than mere terminology. fundamental questions of grammatical terminology. will explain the terms of my What Resolution have just said I ' : that the Interim Report be provisionally approved only provisionally.

I do not think that when we started on our work we had any particular at the end and then they begin to see what Oh that they say.' Grammar was simpler in the old days. or a Predicative Adjective. and that to deal with them all at one blow is the only way to The grammarian is. to an intensification of the evil. thus saved a muddle. their individuality of view. a plethora of terms more or less covering the same ground. if he considers the phenomena of one language apart from those of the others which are akin to it. students of language have had the experience in reading some new-fangled rule. taking place in regard to the terminology of Latin has been taking place in regard to the terminology of all the other lan- know where he all the countries in which they have been taught. " As matters stand. at the present day the lecturer does not And the same sort of thing that has been is. in fact. signifying really little more than sound and expect that I all fury. we have failed in that.GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY teaching throughout the country in If all the languages concerned. in fact. say thirty or forty years ago. and the passionate fervour of their guages. we have failed in part " One curious feature of the case has forced attention it : might seem at first 3 of our aim. what the writer means by an Attribute (for instance). grammatical terminology has got into deal adequately with any one of them. that They turn to the example it conveys no meaning to the mind. or of a matter of fact I am informed that. or. into such a state of inexactitude and vagueness that it is nothing. has led. itself upon our sight as though to deal with the grammars of five different languages at the same time was an almost impossibly difficult problem. ' idea that we were meeting a need ! any University. . whereas in the old days the terminology of the Public School Primer was generally accepted. and the University lecturer knew where he was. and to a large extent inconsistent with one another and the very excellence of some of the newer grammarians. at any rate. our experience has been that the consideration of these different languages side by side is really a means of simplifying the problem. On the contrary. something that I have been accustomed to call a Complement. Then it is all about. from a certain narrowness of view into which he almost inevitably falls. and in The result is : convictions. But is as of the old Universities.

and that in Greek it may be preceded by the Article. uninflected is German). Paul St. method involves the employment of French and German gramfor the teachers of this school consider it an matical terms This guages. as I venture to that the traditional French and German terms only possible ones. Well. felt reported on some abstruse point of understand that when and when we is I recognise certain important section of teachers of the difficulty modern lan- who follow what is called the direct method. question whether it is . infer exactly the opposite from what is intended. he would. this is term which precisely the and German and the classical is But unfortunately. . his if the French Master has produced any effect upon mind. essential element in grasping the spirit of a foreign language that the grammatical features of in the all grammatical instruction should be given mother tongue. supposing a boy use of the Adjective. or necessarily the best. and to be told that the Attribute in German is inflected. All to get rid of the superstition. to go straight from the French class-room to the German. and in Greek would not take [e. who to have said at the end of a lecture theology. and thence to the Greek class-room. are the We have had a Hitherto French teachers have pinned their faith with a fervour of religious . grammatically very important. used in the teaching of English languages to denote the other Now. call the Adjective in this use an Attribute. PauV am aware " I that will I by a I say St. a distinction which the Adjective in This if is its (i) is the terms used to denote : a good man.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCL\TION 4 To take a very simple illustration two uses.g. I think something might be said in favour of that point of view that that call we is it. He to the height of idealism which can hardly be expected to rise was expected by a well-known Oxford lecturer. say Aristotle I generally mean are asking teachers to pass a self-denying ordinance for the sake of their pupils. the (ii) only because in the second usage the Adjective some languages in man is good. I do not feel competent to decide the of that language. are face to face necessary should be described in terms Well. in the French class-room a boy learns to the Article. beautiful object-lesson on this point lately. I ' Of course you mean Aristotle. but in any case with any insuperable cannot admit I difficulty.

the future these terms will be things of the girls of when many think that a good I the terms were teachers will be in- Thank God. Brunot that the recent French Passe Defini learn through ' ' Commission on Grammar has rejected these terms as too obscure for use (see Interim Report. : Present will find it easy the chief difference which Past. I believe. which has been adopted since.' neither teachers nor pupils had clined to say with me.' ' may ' : Future Perfect. " While I am speaking about the Tenses. is that.133. See ' leave out the very often taken as the foreign language at the present day.' ' ' shortly. past in a sense which was never intended invented and . upon ' Passe Defini ' ' ' ' ' .' Past Perfect' moment). there are two tenses in French. the French language by means one of these tenses call ' Passe and the other Parfait ? I do not believe that any Direct Methodist would claim that any real advantage would be gained by adhering to the traditional terms. boys and 16 In '). Brunot's words are exceedingly interesting So years. . corresponding to the English ' p.' Future in the past Present. long as je chantai and fai chante were called respectively passe defini and passe indefini. to the French fact.' meaning. ' ' ' for these terms are so any great chance of understanding obscure that the grammarians of the 18th and even of the 17th century often made an absolutely contrary use of them to that . understand that perfectly well.' I have been waging war and Passe Indefini for about twenty M.GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY conviction to the terras but now we ' 5 and Passe Indefini.' ' for the 14 ' ^ comes from the scheme you will see the terms Future. suggested for English Perfect. to which we have given a great deal of attention. be regarded in France as old-fashioned merely. he 1 Past.' M. I a moment On page which we have proposed.' In other words the Passe Defini and Passe Indefini changed names in the course of the period ' ' ' indicated. what conceivable injury can who has to imbibe the of spirit of grammatical terminology. " Well now. which will very Historique.' think a child could I to adjust himself to our French scheme is ' (I \v\l\ Then supposing that the pupil proceeds to study French. 135 of tliis volume. p. which first perhaps be allowed for to illustrate the simplicity that Now ^ is of vague the relation of p. to it do to the pupil.

except that Perfect. to terms like ' ' ' however. Committee to propound a scheme of terminology for the use We did not start with that inof all the nations of Europe.' tense gets a slightly different ' simply.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 6 those two to one another seems fairly well described by adding to ' Past case. It seemed to us that no more terms are necessary till the pupil and I believe that these terms will do comes to learn Greek of them.' It would. in th€ ' one therefore call the one tense the 'Past Continuous' and the other the 'Past The other tenses in French are wo have called fai Historic' just the English. and we have carefully limited ourselves to our proper But at the same time the Committee has received most gratifying indications of a hope that the present movement may possibly lead to something like an entente grammaticale between the nations chiefly concerned. same as not name because it has a rather wider use than the English I have written. the result may be that the ground will be completely cut from tention. but I should like just to mention that we are not at the end of the possibilities of the It was no part of the business of the Terminology sitiiation. thereby recognising the frequent use of that tense as the equivalent of a ' . function. advantage of indicating in a straightforward and simple manner and the differences between the tenses of both and the differences are as important as concerned the languages the similarities — the " similarities. which has a double use. and that they have the is required all the work that . " Now suppose the pupil goes on to study Latin .' but ' Perfect ' (' Parfait ') ecrit toric than whereas in English / have written strictly as a ' in Present is ' Past His- never used otherwise The corresponding French Present Perfect. but a single form (scripsi). Should this come about. I think I have almost said enough . be premature to assume that the movement towards . ' the term and the term ' ' Continuous Historic ' or ' Imperfect in the other ' we . underneath the feet of any teachers in this country who cling Passe Defini and Passe Indefini. and for which we adopt the the same name as we employ Perfect traditional name of ' ' ' ' ' ' — in French for the tense which has the same double function. all that he has to learn is that Latin has not two separate forms for the Past Historic and the Perfect of French.

you must either say that both Objects. the Direct and the Indirect. He concluded a brief speech by pointing out that the commendation to employ the names classical Nominative. it all. Seaton. the Report says. R. of course. this term be but. you look at the a broad way. not by the Classical representatives. to the W. Genitive. difficulties are could be achieved. from me in to agreement with me to say that there a certain in- is a real incon' Here we have two Objects referred to. But it seems to me. it I am what appears I notice Far be consistency. I sent a letter to my friend.' Then in section vii. Dative. ' ' ' ' ' . and to the still greater ad- not follow at — in its original vantage of their pupils. ' Qualification discarded. this Report but . but by those who modern languages." Mr.' I see what matter in often I is called the Indirect Object. do not agree with that entirely meant. or you must say that they are both Objects. referred many protracted sessions that had been devoted by the Committee up very to the discussion of matters that took space in the Report. the Committee will be content if it succeeds and proper purpose that of providing a common grammatical system for use in this country. whereby the teachers of ancient and of modern languages shall be brought into touch. as no special name is needed in analysis to describe the particular kind of Adverbial sistency. He compromise where opinion had been from his own experience the illustrated by the varying use of the terms Compound Complex sentences. etc. G. and then in section vi.GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY a common European 7 terminology will be crowned with success But even if some limited agreement would be a result worth taking some trouble And even if this larger international effect should sure to arise. and to the great efforts that had been to arrive at a workable sharply divided. speak of section 1 ' v. for you . represented the Mr. RusHBROOKE. This term is applied to what we generally call an Indirect Object for instance.' and congratulated the Committee upon difficulty created and little made ' ' abolishing one of them. to secure. to their great mutual advantage. That. — in re- the cases of English parsing was proposed. — " On the whole. the term Adverbial Qualification is used. are Adverbial. in seconding the Resolution. but of a difl'erent kind. if . C.

THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 8 When you use you must have two objects in order to complete the sentence.' ' question in a is the completion of the Predicate." " Possessive. two Objects are ad- (Direct Object). the example given is. I send a letter. . That the terms " Objective. then. 131. ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' xvii. it is Yet tion. To whom do I send it ? and the answer to that cannot have two Objects of the same kind. then.' but ad meum section vii. If you say. is It broad sense. xvii.' Now. that the Dative Case (Indirect Object) ent from what it is Qualification. there but when we come to section . where you have in English I sent a letter to my friend.' which is the same as I sent my friend a letter. and at the bottom ' some examples are given brought him a present. although I do not say that there is necessarily any inconsistency." Rev. But the school-boy would not be right if he were to act upon that supposition. of the nature of an Adverb. the Dative (Indirect Object). same point." and " Nominative of Address " as names of Cases in English be discarded. of Accusative ' ' Objective ' the two terms should be used.' In I ' ' : I brought him here.' two Cases are used.' Therefore. nothing inconsistent in that is not. not suggested that ' ' in section vi. except However. ' . him is an Adverbial Qualificawe have the example I sent a letter to my friend. a school-boy.' I daresay this the Report.' or I teach him grammar from I teach grammar to him. a verb like ' send or ' ' give. but I think it is be drawn. at any rate. would understand that one was intended to be a translation of the other. because the ordinary Latin for I sent a letter to my friend is not meo amico. In Amico meo epistulam misi and you are referred to Section vi. and the Accusative In this sentence.' I cannot imagine that those who drew up this Preliminary Report would suggest that I give him a book is different from I give a book to him. only where in section vi.' ' Dative ' and of the page ' I ^ ' Instead.' brought him a present. it is really suggested in section mitted . Sloman. and that so far as possible the Latin names of we find it suggested the Cases be used.' the question arises. ' ' ' ' 1 See ' p. Canon A. —" from a is it is something called ' differ- Adverbial only a question of language in is a point to which attention should I was intending to speak on the slightly different point of view.

R. for ' used here what we have all learnt as the Indirect Object.—" It seems to me also. such as to London. but I would to see like that particular point reconsidered.GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY 9 amicum. run a great risk of creating confusion in his mind would it so that school- . I therefore quite agree ' with the gentleman who spoke just now. says ' : 2 . ibat Londinio." Mr. I is ' ' same term things that are and essentially different. that ' even here Virgil personifies Orcus. we know. of course. plexity there were no points open to criticism. . to put before him under the QuaUfication. be referred back to the Committee ' for consideration. Dr. and I hope that nothing I have said will for one moment lead them to suppose that I for one. that a Dative of Advantage is the same thing as an Adverbial going to London. that the term include it Adverbial would be difficult to teachers and takes too much in for an adverbial qualification to Qualification' pupils. where he is queru' ' lously complaining that his friends have not sent a letter for him. iuvenum primes tot is much more probable.' is. and that the true meaning There can be little doubt that sent as victims for Orcus. I think. am not most grateful to them for the care and scholarship displayed . at any rate. As far as I know this is the only context in which we find There in classical prose. Seaton seconded the Amendment.' the construction of the Dative after mitto being extremely rare. are and we owe the greatest possible debt of gratitude to the Committee for the time and the care that the Members have taken in drawing up this Report and it would be assuming them to be infallible if in a task of so great comextremely difficult .' I would " Section v.' further All these things. to tell the school-boy call the Dative of Advantage. C. miserit Oreo well But ' ? is it a case often quoted in Virgil is known to you.' and masters might find their pupils writing defending it by the example here given. ' you do have a Dative shows that such dative if after ' mitto ' it is because the context what we have been accustomed to Now.' is. it which. and would like to move That Paragraph vii. That the term " Object " be used to denote the Noun or Noun-equivalent governed by a verb. Dawes.' or sending a letter venture to think. Where it does occur it simply comes in such passages as one or two of the letters of Cicero.

xvii. There are terms of 1 By synthesis to the rules of valent.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 10 we should retain the term Direct Object but not wanted.—" but perhaps I .' as the away with the Indirect Object. nor a Predicative Noun. is might then be altered in this way ' : That the term Adverbial Qualification be used to denote the adverbial part of the Predicate. he . French would say. recommend what we have done of the of a according to the Latin names of the Cases are to be retained. according to the view of the Com- suggest that here Direct Object is . so far from clearing first. which is neither the Direct or Indirect Object. The last speaker had admitted that there were points in analytical terminology on which even this and his extraordinarily able Committee had been puzzled five years' experience in questioning schools. thought. in French and German. I Indirect the ' — think. and bring that qualify the Verb under the term ' all ' Comple- expressions Adverbial Qualification. or we speak Indirect Object. I think it would be better to retain the second. because afterwards Dative case — and " Section vi. vii. Adjective or Pronoun and then we should have to reject No.' including what we have hitherto called the Indirect Object." Mr. is that the united intellect Committee proved unable to form a definition of a Direct or Indirect Object. Composition. which perplexed boys. It is not for me to refer to this matter might explain that the reason which led us Conway. often obscured it. is here Grammar meant the building-up : of sentences according in short.. especially No. from the cross-divisions and cross-references from one to the other. to use its Latin equi'<»- . own belief was that analytical grammar." Professor to as. To discard Object (or Dative case). mittee. " Also. because they do ment Indirect. This arose. Willis (retired Inspector of Schools) said that after thirty- on Grammar in elementary had conceived the hope that this Committee would take the bull by the horns and by a somewhat radical step do away with Analytical Grammar. from the application two systems of terminology to the same subject-matter and secondly. the Dative case of retaining the the Indirect Object. reverting to the synthetical ^ methods of old days. qualifying the verb. and render the analysis sentence more obscure for learners. would cause a difficulty.

' be taken also defining the to Adverbial Qualification. in teaching that it is (I thing Adverbial.' Miss F. this is is if it the Dative the Accusative of . .GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY that are useless Subject. mean elements — the Subject. and then convenient in dealing with Accidence to say this Case. I ments of grammar. this is the Dative of Advantage. M. The Chairman. the Verb. Personally I must confess that I have serious if of Nominative. and so there is no reason whatever against classifying everything which is is adverbial as Adverbial Qualification .' ' a false meaning. Accusative. Object. and there is accidence. as a defining or limiting case is illustrative the adverbial category. On reading this part of the Report I aback.— " and therefore I believe I will am reason was a desire for simplification. and every- seems to me that Mr.' an Adverbial Accusative. qualifying as the of The wide use Verb. PuRDiE. the Direct Object or Objects). It speaking of verbial uses. distinctive to describe the Indirect Object ' which has been ' here discarded in favour of this vague and comprehensive term. and what ' was somewhat taken should like to hear from the Committee was that induced them to get rid entirely of the " it felt I Indirect Object. There is analysis. . all I My chief have always found a good plan to reduce the sentence to what I regard as the four bare Object or Objects responsible for the take up the defence. If in the sentence my friend I sent ' are an ' ' a letter to my friend the words ' me many might or of the Object in such questions. the of Accusative in Homer of this and other cases may similarly be brought under But we seem to need something more fact. and at any rate would not be misleading. Butcher is right in oblique cases as being able to be used as Ad- I should so regard them in certain think we must bear in mind that there are two depart- Qualifications.' ' 11 and Predicate ' ' they are understood at all the ancient names and Verb could be equally well taught.' might you not equally well extend this terra to cover the uses of The Accusative ' action ' He taught all examples as me the German the cases ' ? He asked language. — doubts as to the use of the term Adverbial Qualification to denote that part of the Predicate which is here under discussion. suggestion. The very words convey to the uninitiated others that arc ambiguous.

' which you we say fact that ' to my friend. line the Adverbial for Quali- and exactly the point at which you draw it seems to me largely a question of practical convenience." The Amendment was then put to the meeting and carried. E. we can still do so.^ the term Apposition is used and I at least should find it very — ' ' ' . The term " Apposition " is here discarded as unnecessary. only with perhaps a call It slightly different tinge. to . " I wish to propose that the note at the top It is there of page 6 1 be considered somewhat in the same way. to the carrying of me —" I Amendment. and Adverbial Qualification. in the last line but one. which was discussed at considerable length in the Committee. and that a case has been made out clearly for consideration." ' See p. . for carrying this consider I Amendment. —" I do not intend to discuss this question. Thompson. between practical and the Object fication say.' But I observe that on page 21. this Amendment. of the I for the express purjiose of receiving do not think Committee I shall create great difference of opinion. thing in analysis down is to really for the sake of getting every- Subject. Verb. that I advocate the abolition of 'Indirect Object' as unnecessary. 139. back to the Committee. Object or Direct Objects. But we have come here suggestions. and I cannot conceive our highly respected and courteous Chairman that It is to say that it should be referred seems to offering me that it any objection to the carrying of this Professor Sonnenschein.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 12 Measurement or whatever my sent a letter to may it friend. F. ' I The a letter to London. would be discourteous not to do so." have not the slightest objection Personally it seems to that this difficulty can only be settled to a certain extent arbitrarily . to express the thing that difficult is there expressed without using it.' I sent ' and to London seems to me to London as an Adverbial Qualificatiou of to prove that place stands on the same footing as to my friend. Miss Alford.' ' ' ' ' ' may Adverbial Qualification of place. the wisdom of what made out that a case has been and not down here set is be betraying any confidence say that this was one point which did I if all were convinced of in the Report. stated. that is you have to draw the purposes somewhere. 125 2 See p.' be." Mr.

" The Amendment was then put to the Meeting and carried. Logically the Committee is right that the term Subject is correctly used for covering both and two terms for the sure that Mr. W. Member a 13 Committee of the and was only on that distinct understanding that we put our names to the Report. My special desire to retain the term is that it is most useful in explaining several well-known constructions in Greek syntax.' ' Professor Sonnenschein." Professor ' Complete or ' Bare ' Ridgeway. To focus a discussion I would move as an Amendment That the word " Subject" without epithet quite satisfied with the ' ' .' antithesis would then be the Subject and the Complete Subject. two kinds which are distinct ? I am not naked Subject." Mr. But I do not think it is a small matter to call by the same name (of Subject) both the Noun alone. Apposition of course comes under the head of Attribution. even where it has a limitation (as in Some men say this). F. Conway. WiNBOLT. we shall listen to him carefully. E.GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY Thompson. and the total phrase (Noun and Adjective combined. not. " I have been trying to think out an alternative word for the Bare Subject. Winbolt would like — ' categories. RusHBROOKE seconded the Amendment.' But possibly the best working arrangement would be to call the one the Subject without any epithet at all. it ' ' — ' ' ' word Bare it does not seem to me a good grammatical term. Some men). or if you wish it the Mere Subject or even Simple Subject. ' ' — " There unless another " or ' Bald. word is no force is used such as — " Another in using the ' word Incomplete. Mr.' If he has any such suggestion to make. But I am not second that ? All these proposed rules are provisional . The only real antithesis to complete seems incomplete.—" May Mr. and the other the Complete Subject. You might just as appropriately call it a Bald Subject.' proposal considered by . Professor — hours of work without giving the point quite so tion as deserves it Have we ? three separate things ." as opposed to Complete The Subject. much and do we not considera- really need a term which covers both kinds of Subject. — ' at all should be used for " Bare Subject. but it is distinct from it. " May we not be sacrificing a good many G.

" Mr. to use this had any occasion name really only asking for information. Mood Winbolt. German term I think the Subjektswort. I have not hitherto in teaching of this Tense.—" . 133. know nothing I am of Professor Brunot and the French Commission mentioned on page I6.—" Mr." . for a Tense. had had a chance." — The Chairman. Dr." The Meeting agreeing Winbolt. might be taken it into consideration again.' very often called it is but personally . We have not yet discussed its nomenclature when it forms the principal clause of a conditional sentence." Dawes. He would question is : ' or He would have written. — " That to use the expression much not be means that sujet nu. I must confess. but I am 1 I would be inclined to call it the Subjunctive not quite sure. the Future have con- in the Past." See p. that you cannot have the word Subject If Mr. . I modern English Grammars. Professor Conway's answer seems decisive. the matter was referred back Committee.' ' French we in And have shall German in it would better. * gee p. Winbolt would alter his in two different senses here. like to know whether if he is an it is Sonnenschein. this Tense.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 14 us was the use of the term that Bare Subject ' ' is ' better I believe in Subject-word. if he had a chance What would be the apodosis tense in this. ' Amendment and refer it back to the Committee.— " We think we have made a improvement by recognising as a Tense what I suppose Professor great Mr. Winbolt has been in the habit of caUing a Mood. such as clauses of indirect statement And my second ? grammatical description of the write. ' ' . " I am inclined to think that the form of the Amendment would not do as it stands.2 But I would ask Is there any real need for this as an Indicative Mood Tense ? I ask Is it meant that this Future in the Past : : is possible only in a subordinate clause. I grammar However.' ' I should have no objection to the other one. ^ the of the fourth Tense. name to this. on page 14. to the In regard to Section xxv.' To me and I would rather innovation necessary to have another Tense. and sulted eight I find no recognition Further. 135.

Mood ditional meaning is in Now clear. with et iBwaro. in fact. is it is not to prevent our recognising the similarity in form between French and Greek in the construction of these conditional sentences languages an Indicative and the principal clause in both cases €ypa(f>€v ditional Mood is — but of course compare sHl pouvait. capable of being used in the principal clause of a Conditional sentence. Then again. Future ecrira (the future of the present). settle in English where the corresponding word wurde obviously a Subjunctive. exactly as the Greek Past Imperfect Indicative accompanied by any particle is.GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY Professor Sonnenschein. the Je savais e. No one thinks of calling eyfjatfiev dv a ConMood we are content to recognise in this combination dv.g. is an Indicative. Sub- historically a is ' some evidence in old English for But the question is not so easy to it. point — " As We answer. which of scribere ecrirait is and habet. The question of the mood is a matter of no great practical importance in English. and the French historical grammarian you without hesitation that ecrirait is simply scribere It is. ' Future in the Conditional. German as in write I believe there is junctive. a form compounded of a past tense of the Indicative and an Infinitive. It is when you come to French that the convenience and the some such term are very necessity of Past ' our substitute for the old is regarded as a Mood. difficult to 15 a matter of history it is a have consulted some of the best authorities in the country as to whether the verb would in the sentence ' He would so regarding is he could if for instance. : In both ? used in both the subordinate il with a special meaning ecrirait. conditional ' at all. and precisely parallel to the will tell hahebat. qu'il ecrirait. of all.' which ' was there are great objections to a Con- modern languages sometimes not ' First only. .' then I reply trium- phantly that that separate French form nothing but an Indicative . "As to the limitation of use of the term ' Future in the Past. ' ' .' we have not been perfectly explicit here. except that What like av. Why do you speak of a Conditional Mood in French when you have no Conditional Mood in Latin or in Greek ? If the answer is ' ' ' Because there is a separate form in French. the pupil necessarily asks. So that from the is compounded historical point of view simply a tense of the Indicative.

This question has come up now three times. the line i.' I the whole for such a Future it : I cannot see any nection with the phrase On ' ' : seems to I me would aboUsh ' Future would abolish this that the country momentous change this Tense. sense (= he was in the habit of writing ') simply he was sure would ' when ' is it frequentative he came to London. and before the Modern Languages Association at Cambridge. to write ' ' I ' happen woidd naturally pass into an expression We have a similar use in present time." Mr." " Is not he would write in that Professor Sonnenschein.' not yet prepared of policy as that involved in the in the Past.' ? ' — ' ' ' ' — an expression of determined futurity in the past ? have explained what I mean by determined futurity in my pamphlet on the Unity of the Latin Subjunctive. . PooLEY (late Member I in con- of the Board of Education). regard a Conditional ' ' — came before the Association of Assistant Mistresses on Saturday. e. R. that instances referring to Conditional Sentences all have been absolutely excluded from that part of the Report. and It now again before the Classical Association. It does not seem to be realised that the Committee have confined themselves to the Indicative . triangle." Mr." Mr. C.g.' write ' ' ' The idea which of futurity is conveyed Greek by the av compound ecrirait in expressed in French by the last part of the he had to ' which write. " How would you deal with the word — — He would write whenever That is not exactly Future in the Past. WiNBOLT. in the is Past Tense if ' if I could. PuRDiE. Seaton." Miss F.' this expression amounts to an expression of present habit. " As far as English is concerned I find it Future in the Past difficult to see the significance of the term like ' — ' as applied to this sentence had my way. is — do not I Mood as anything more than a 'pis aller. M. which will An expression of what was bound to shortly be published.e. an angle of an equilateral bisect the opposite side ' . which assumes a special meaning (' lie would in combination with the particle av. When you ' if bisect produced will In a sentence it. " May I for the sake of fairness offer a word of explanation. is sure to bisect of past habit.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 16 an Indicative. He will sit by the fire musing for hours. which probably ') means literally in that case or under certain circumstances.' is a sort of future of necessity.

3 . But the debate has shown us that the Committee. that grammatically say I do not know it is equivalent to a Subjunctive. like a fool rushing in. nor did how I see. limited to the Tenses of the Indicative. I feel. I can only except thus much. to be true that we can trace this Conditional use back to a development of the Past. may I 17 —" I think the last suggestion is me that we come a wise one. too. to reconsider their treatment of the Tenses. in actual usage. ' its origin. until Conditional sentences are dealt with." until this point to The Chairman. one or two points which struck We in which this For instance. . in such a sentence as the materials. the retention certainly be improved. at first. it is ' Future in the not.' That is to say.' ridiculous. ' Future in the Past Historically it may He ' ' whatever be if he had my mind. On in Indirect Speech. will be bound. in Greek. well. even without any resolution from us. me And many were told that there are Report of ' things were compromises. or at any rate a layman propounding oShand what experts have taken hours in considering. say that the same difficulty occurred to myself. here we are dealing with the Indicative only and in respect of that mood the term Future in the Past is jection appeared to be ' : ' ' an admirable one to denote would ' the other hand. up to this point Future in the ' If past." Mr. — ' is dealing only with the Indicative. It seems to had better be regarded as provisional consider the other Moods. Definite ' or ' Past Indefinite indefensible in French ' Aorist ' in Greek. the ob- — That the met by noting the words following scheme of names of Tenses of the Indicative be adopted. and I cannot help thinking that this was one of them.' However. —" I rise reluctantly because the Chairman told us that the Report was only tentative.' but. Store. when coming to the question of Moods. as the Report. to get over On it. though in origin it may be a Future in the Past.GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY " Perhaps we had better wait until we get the Report of the for the Report here is Mood and other Moods Subjunctive . consideration. and that we must not throw too much back into the melting-pot. and Then I ' are may Aorist ' Past condemned as absolutely do not see how you can defend as to the nomenclature of the Tenses.' . would write becomes. a you ask what it is. my I am prepared to reserve judgment.

" Mr. Imperfect. will and invent particular names have the difficulty. ' Future turn out to be a useful invention. He wrote is Past in English and scripsit in Latin is Past Historic ecrivit is ' for other Tenses. . He knows the of their use in grammar. to be only on underit will accept so and means. the part of know what will want to He authority. "is so essentially a matter of the future used as the sign of the future whenever a future action to be spoken of. have to rack your brains to find an instance where Present and it seems to me I am old-fashioned is the dominant note. and a compound form consistent simple form for some of : that to say. and a little more connames of the little more give and take in the Tenses in order to bring still further the five different languages which are treated into agreement. but terms like independently meaning ' stand on quite another footing. Past. Pluperfect or Future Perfect. must be more or less conventional labels. ' Would ' is the past tense of ' will. Present.' but you tense. of may in the and at the easy explanation.' it is he said. on accepted term. And I feel that Indefinite.' immediate appeal to ' ' I think that this new expression. G." Garnsey. a very great deal to be said for the simple old-fashioned division of Mason's Grammar— three into three. words The standing. Future there is . ' ' ' ' a pupil's intelligence.— " Mr.' and . words. and Perfect. RusHBROOKE regarded the Past ' ' Will.' " that is name 'Future as paradoxical enough to stimulate thought. in French il ' ' ' . of course. " My main point is. is For instance.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 18 me does not seem to it you have a the Tenses. Past in the Future make an Future and Past. as the matter will probably be reconsidered in any event. is will I vote against the Amendment. same time as simple enough to admit " in the Past.' The is not more paradoxical than the term inquiry on the stimulate likely to more are however. him a technical is to Perfect' 'Future student. W. It unnecessary. ' Names Perfect. It seems to me that the term Future in the Past Future Perfect. to give forms peculiar to English them for is You undesirable. that there should be a sistency. over again when you come to the Conditional. Present.' of tenses ' ' . and can rarely express the full and exact force of the Thus I write in English is labelled Present.

in these conditional sentences culty is one of the curious points of diffi- that forms which properly denote futurity from a past point of view eypa<^£v av or scriheret) {e.' that Past tense is No.GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY 19 therefore denotes futurity expressed at a past time.' and what the distinction between what we call and the names here offered are names of we call syntax the result of a development." . or a Future And in the Past. " It should be borne in mind that you cannot expect the names of forms in any language to do more work than they are qualified to do. and it seems to difficulty as to I could. ' do not think I I would abolish no connotation of idea of future time . was surprised when it was suggested just now that a clause to their So I like ' if he could contain a ' ' (ei iSvvaro. " The question of conditional sentences has not yet been dealt with. That is One must always bear in mind accidence. ' examples mentioned by Mr. a very it is do not see any past notion about I me in the sentence. We can only name which forms according most prominent function in the light of historic grammar.' there is much close future at all events.' — . Dingwall. it should be said to contains a Past tense. and not very if it at all. but here used with reference to present time. all. I do not regard the more than a name of a form. as anything various functions. [in the future]. ' ' forms ' — matters term ' Dative may have ' .g. —" I do not myself think that this such a is The The term simple term as the two last speakers would have us think. of accidence." Professor Sonnenschein. sHl pouvait) Present tense. specimens they gave were certainly carefully chosen. does apply fairly well to the sentence taken in connection with He * thought But it in the ' [in that he would write ' For instance. term now in the present past time." Mr. so whether came there whenever he would sit would sit emphasis this is ') frequency (as ' or determination (as ' it is there though I tried to prevent him He He on which the ') is laid. In all languages and forms come to express very various shades of meaning ' Future in the Past. Similarly. have come to be used to express futurity from the present point of view. Winbolt applies at this the past] rather cowardly to suggest that the Mood can be got over simply by calling the it and omitting to mention any Mood at all.

We agree that in some Indicative. for its being — " Here again it me seems to that this is a solid piece of work that the Committee has achieved.' that a Con- not Conditional. for it was introduced by the French reformers and it may be regarded as an orthodox term in the French Grammar. ' I thought he would write. and I say that with the more candour because it was an entirely new term to me. in It discussing one mainly of English and French Grammar.' is suggested. if Dawes has spoken Dr.' we have a Future from the Past point of view. even supposing we may wholly disagree as to whether we have or have not If I would write if I could. It was something which we learnt from that member of our Committee.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 20 Miss Alford. why not have that name among the tenses of the Indicathere one use. and she says portance. at is events. you can say in Latin not merely scriherem but scriplurus eram. ' would write that is fitly described as the Future from the Past point of view in the Indicative. such as. and there the Latin has exactly the same use as English. Dawes. The term Future in the Past is not new. To ' In English would do call it. sentences. to the Conditional sentences—/ ivould write if I could I had had the chance. like the old Conditional. —" I just wish to say that should not be satisfied with this ' I do not why we see Future in the Past ' in the knowing as we do that the whole subject will have to be considered again when the Subjunctive and Conditional sentences come before the Committee. by those who retained. " I think that Professor Sonnenschein has almost solved the difficulty.' the same thing when we say. experience in French teaching.' and you have the same thing ditional use in that is mirable term. the reporter writes in French. for instance. ad- Future in the Past. The English. Miss Hastings has had long and this problem is . a speaker says ' will do it. of all ' ' " and treat the other uses when we come to them ? Dr. as I think. — made out." Professor Conway. and that a good case has been tive. "As French one reason why ' is of great im- it is of the Conditional. Miss Edith seems to me we must all feel a certain difficulty English Grammar in the Classical Association distinguished and leading Hastings. not true it is . and this perfectly true and. to express I would have written if .

Proper Noun and a and a Pronoun. itself of You 21 of Henry Bradley's presence could say. — " A question which was raised in to the ordinary divisions of the parts of speech." The Amendment or Motion. write. and I hope the Association it Subjunctive?' will an is not do anything to rob the children of that advantage. has availed properly expresses past intention. We have not yet heard the end of this word would. Bradley said he could not say of ivould in is English in what circumstances circumstances Indicative.' " ' A Member echoed — " We are not yet out of the A Member. to the Meeting and rejected by — The Chairman. and it would be desirable have a common name The Rev.' and would originally only meant wanted to. Winbolt. Bradley says that he does not know.GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY this subtle shade of meaning. He the last speaker in regard agreed that one term was enough. seconded Mr. Pronouns may be of half a dozen and there classes. and there if anything in the history of the English language which Dr. well. ' Mood.' " With regard to the bugbear of Dr. of ' would " ' ! Committee as seems to me. as wide a difference between a In teaching boys with distinctions to is Common Noun C. " Of course this matter will again come before the Committee in dealing with Moods. for the whole class. from asking 'Is it it was Subjunctive and in what To have a term which saves people Indicative ? or 'Is ' advantage. by . it is probably not known to us. the Noun and it I find in explaining grammar to small boys it is difficult to distinguish between the two. that the section relating to Tenses be referred back was then put to the Committee. The functions the Pronoun in a sentence are the same. The proposal " that Section xiii. Dr. by Storr. a large majority. but ' the phrase which I wanted to So and So stops me. to the point he as between a Common Noun we do not want to be bothered between these things. we had the advantage at the Committee. moved by Mr. One wants a common word. might be here raised again. W. should be reconsidered the Committee " was put to the Meeting and lost. and therefore proposed that the point should be referred back to the Committee." Compton supported had raised.

After an adjournment for tea the Association 4.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 22 Monday Afternoon. times and drew up a complete scheme for the management of the Journals. Rouse. to secure from the beginning the We were. of the dis- tinguished Editors of the two journals. But I think that the chief point is statement that the Association has acquired a in the simple property which studies is of vital importance to the well-being of classical and which will now be of forwarding those studies.m. when the Report presented. logical Society directed with the single purpose Other bodies. of the Association of Statement on behalf of the now constituted Classical Journals Board announcing the fact that the Classical Quarterly and the Classical Review Association. If have become the property of the Classical I might tell you an amusing time permitted story of our experience in carrying through the bargain (which was made last July) soon enough to enable the Board to enter upon its duties this year. The matter arose out of an application to the Council of the Classical Association from the Editor to help with a subsidy towards the guarantee asked by the publisher for part of the expense of the Classical Quarterly. The Finance Committee of the Council replied that they did not see their way to subscribing which were privately owned but if they had partial or complete control the matter would receive their consideration. which to Journals met five or six future happy . Professor Postgate and Dr. sympathy of course.30 p. " The commercial result we have attained is briefly this . Professor Official met again at the Journals Committee was — " I think I may assume that the Members have received along with their notices an Conway. The result was a conference between representatives of the Council and of the Philological Societies of Oxford and Cambridge. ments can be effected because those in charge are no longer working for any private profit. such as the Patho- and the Chemical Society. and have found great reason for They have found that economies and improvesatisfaction. but for the interest of the subject.. have acquired the Journals of their subjects.

our present President Lord Cromer Vice-Presidents. Professor Postgate and Dr. that all sum which he But still I have paid the himself in the may roughly say the Association has been called upon to do has been to The it to another." The first act of the Board was to ask the two existing Editors. Sir Edward Donner. John Murray. Lord Loreburn. Steele of Florence and Dr. John Murray is not in a very natural . But it was soon found that several of the largest and most important advertisers had been in the habit of receiving large and varying discounts. Sir Robert Finlay. . Dr. was therefore instructed to make that charge. former Proprietor of the Journals a first instance gladly accepted. We understood that our newthe charge for advertisements was so much per page publisher. Huggard Davos Platz. hope things will continue and that the Classical Journals Board will be able to realise a substantial profit year by year. Amongst others I might mention our Past President the Prime Minister. and who still has a warm affection for Classics. to continue to edit the Journals in their present form for the time being. and not only has take £150 from one pocket and transfer Treasurer handed over this not suffered in the process. Then we liave been able it came about to double the charge made for advertisements of " . and unintentional way.CLASSICAL JOURNALS 23 that tlie Association through the help of some of its friends our Chairman led the way with the generous donation of £20 acquired a property which for nothing. Sir Walter Phillimore. Lord Curzon. Lord Halsour bury. lUit Mr. I have mentioned our Chairman. " I ought not to pass from that side of the matter without mentioning the names of some of the more distinguished friends who have helped us by subscriptions. that the first Perhaps you will me forgive subscription paid into the for saying Fund came from a Manchester banker who in his day was a Classical student. and of Classical studies . Lord Collins. Rouse. Contributions have also come from two distinguished members of the Medical Profession. indeed for is less done without a good deal of worth from £150 to £200 a year. It has not been than nothing ! We hard labour. Mr. money to our Board. but it £20 and the whole is that this state of at this it moment has added to other itself We earning interest.

made —to and summaries of periodicals the price of the Classical Quarterly to from 12s. Members have not done sideration of the whole financial position of the Association without careful con- this . Some of some use in attaining of us felt certainly that attain the object of promoting the study of if Roman Antiquity and giving proper outlet in the press to research work in the subject in alliance with the Association and in some degree . its own friendly help the objects that we could we might not perhaps be all desire. such work as that of the Classical Journals Board would be and would wonder whether keenly interested in this suggestion Journal of . would start new journals. and I think we may do it without serious increase to do that of cost. able to obtain the Journals for the price of £300 was because. G. " Another matter which came before us almost at once was the somewhat unequal distribution of Journals in this country between Latin and Greek Antiquities. And I believe that in the Journal of Pathology the reduction in the was considerable cost of corrections as soon as it became the property of the Society and they offered remuneration for the articles. That is specialist journals in the why we were in that way and we had no wish to are now enforcing the proper am glad to say that we typical of the great advantage of having The reason hands of specialist bodies. Macmillan's and Professor Gardner's signatures in the Times suggesting that this defect might be remedied by the foundation of a new society with a It is obvious that a body starting upon its own. " We have allotted to the Editors an allowance has not been indexing. but we think that the step is justified.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 24 accustomed to do business begin it. since if you pay contributors it is reasonable to ask tion " We : them to keep their corrections within a certain limit. The attention of the Council of the Classical Association had been drawn to the notice which appeared over Mr. and I scale of charges. to 95. We — which before provide for such necessary matters as and we have reduced . if the Publisher had declined altogether to deal with he might have been faced with the position that our Associa- us. have not at present arranged for any payment to conBut we hope that after the first year we may be able tributors.

who have launched this proposal and called attention to the gap in regard to this department of Classical study. command through of the ears of the Classical people of the which no other body can quite claim. its 1. with the now the means at its disposal for wide and keen public interest which that subject always evokes in this island. Therefore.500 country in a way We are in friendly colloquy with those interested in the project and we hope the colloquy think I ought to add this — that though the body has not done very much for Roman antiquity. and that. in the services 4 . I may say that in some sense it arises out of the Minutes. yet some of the Branches of the Classical Association have really done a good deal. there would be a certain if a new and entirely separate Journal would need a new governing body and new because it To work together would mean because the Classical Association has members 25 also a saving of expense. Classical Association as a has undertaken a very important task in exploring the antiquities Roman on the borders of Wales. when linked to the history of the particular district in which the appeal is made. it Roman has archaeology. " May I say a few words on the subject that Professor Conway has brought forward ? in fact. and the Manchester Branch has already published two volumes of some size in describing the excavations made in that district. will not think that we are actuated by anything but the friendliest sure that Professor Gardner feelings in by a little suggesting that the matter will be better furthered more colloquy before an started. Some Professor — time ago a matter was brought before the Council of the Hellenic Society which was this : it was a complaint on the part of certain members who were eminent in Latin and Roman studies that they had not the same advantages with regard to these studies which the members of the Hellenic Society possessed in of our regard to Greek studies.CLASSICAL JOURNALS in uniformity with saving of effort : were established officers. The Liverpool Branch will bear I fruit. one may it is anxious to promote And therefore I think claim that the Classical Association has shown that Journals in its enlisting the hands. not merely in the publication of a Journal. I feel and other friends of Classical studies." entirely new Society is — Percy Gardner. its Journals scheme. but in the possession of a great library in London.

tion would have been extremely in fact. had anticipated. That was merely a preliminary inquiry to see whether there existed a clientele. that is to say. We had before us a large number of suggestions and schemes. but we could not find a way out of the suggestion of the formation of a difficulty. at whether there was in the and the great country sufficient enthusiasm for sary force and enthusiasm. it . bound The and publication replies to say. and in the second place various other suggestions were made . One by one various suga gestions dropped through. and I was on that Committee. names of persons who . Mr. Various members of the Council of that Society con- began. it by some extension of would be necessary to form new Society or Association. Mr. to a certain number of individuals. sufficient to start a movement in favour circular letter to a certain of the better pursuit country. I am Some weeks ago the Secretary. to certain members of Societies.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 26 of an energetic secretary. asking them whether they were prepared to start such a Society. might be prepared to extend these advantages from Greek That was the way in which the matter studies to Roman. other than by once raised with regard to that was Studies to form such a Society and to carry and it new Society To it Roman on with the neces- ascertain opinion on this point point only. Macmillan and myself addressed a number of newspapers. Penoyre. and so slides in the use of a large collection of lantern They thought that the Hellenic Society forth. that it In the place first it became clear would be impossible for the Hellenic Society to include Roman Archaeology without from departing its foundation principles. or objection. had received 350 of what I may fairly call adhesions. so to speak. or whether the object could be attained in some other way. A Committee was appointed by the Hellenic Society to go into the matter carefully. far Roman of which have come more favourable than I in studies in this have been. and we certainly did not spare time or trouble in going into those schemes. number certain of people to consult officially that the great majority of the notable in the country but . Roman and I a believe Latin scholars were asked for their opinion upon the subject this result could be best obtained whether consixlta- difficult to select the Hellenic Society whether . There was no formal or definite sulted their friends. this .

" The Hellenic Society has gone no further at present. Society can do tlie things which are necessary. to act jjerhaps as act as Members of the Council. to the formation of a new of : But by degrees we were driven from every other But if now any way can be found in which the formation of a new Society can be avoided and some existing Society. which are desired. but in the capacity of it Professor should be remembered temporary President of both the signatories.CLASSICAL JOURNALS quite approved the idea of a willing to support Roman Society. that so to speak. think it that imposed upon us the duty of proceeding further in the matter. I replies. were aware that we had no special claim to speak on behalf of Roman I studies at all. 27 and who would be it. Macmillan and myself. to carry it further. willing to take Secretary. me absolutely necessary that in the third place it we should seems to see that there exist persons in the country. to Now things being in this condition. who are up the burden of this Society. standpoint. I do not suppose a I should be in order Committee . and I should say in London. Conway has spoken of that circular that I merely sent it the Society . most of us I may say. and think not go further until it will it sees its way more I clearly. and in order that the matter should be thrashed out. which we have only undertaken under very considerable pressure. no one would be better pleased than we should to hand over to such a Society the further development of the whole business. and it imposed upon us the duty of seeing that any arrangements made And are likely to be successful. Having received favourable think imposed on us one or two obligations . . it seems to me is in a hung-up position extremely desirable that there should be a sub-committee of the Council of this Society to confer with a Sub-Committee which might probably be appointed by the Council of the Hellenic Society to see what part the Association might be willing to take in regard to the better representation Roman studies I do not say necessarily in regard to forming a new Roman Society. Mr. Many of us were exceedingly opposed from the first. At present then it is only committed to one or two things it is committed by receiving favourable replies to the number of 350 : from those to whom the circular was addressed. but I will if I proposed the formation of such leave that matter in the hands of the .

seems to be one for joint deliberation between ourselves and the must desire together. but have not yet been completed in that . Hitherto. By consulting together and shall probably be able to produce a satisfactory we financially sound scheme. for time was pressing. All friends of Classical studies by which our ends can be attained. and we had management to act on our own responsibility. be a solution which the majority of us would be willing to accept. As to the acquisition of the Journals. Oxford has not had her due and we regard it as essential that we should obtain the full co-operation and confidence of Oxford men by removing all appearance of inequality. Classical If Association. unsparing trouble and the time devoted by Professor . There is a paragraph Report mentioning the negotiations that have been in progress between the Hellenic Council and the Classical Associaand we may supplement tion. the Report by moving to appoint a Committee.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 28 Council. — " The Association. Yet I thought agreeable to the Society it if I might be suitable and gave a brief it might be statement of what had any means can be found by which not merely this but certain other Societies which deal with Roman Antiquities. I desire to add that share of control but for the . nor is there the slightest ground for machinery of the question same objects at heart and it is merely a Hellenic Council. the Council asks your approval of what has been already carried out. for at that time the The case now Classical Journals Board was not in existence. It was impossible to consult you beforehand. by accident rather than by design." The Chairman. harmoniously work that the existing Societies should have the We antagonism. when you have received the Report of the Council. welcomes the but suggestion which Professor Percy Gardner has just made consideration I think the most appropriate time for taking into . the situation has been somewhat altered. that I think would happened. I observe. of these Journals in the future In the editorial we shall see that the two older Universities shall be equally represented. can together formulate some scheme which can be laid before those anxious to have a better representation of Roman studies in the country. the appointment of a Committee will be to-morrow. original letter regarding Roman studies appeared Since the in the Times.

that we tender special thanks Granger. through. What I really wanted to say was that I am one of those who have had special opportunity for judging and realising the immense amouiit of work and the persistence and tact that the more active members of that Committee have had to exert. and doing has made . to be I venture to say that no one judging can realise the amount surmounted in such a position for judging as the idle A mittee. moving that I was on the Committee. explanation. and there Members is no one of the Com- troublesome negotiation was and we found that Professor Conway was carrying it it at a gi'eat distance. faintest difficulty is merely waiting bank in Oxford till the next Meeting of the That is only in the nature of a passing Philological Society. which. and I am happy to say that there getting in So we had to send out an appeal to Members was not the the necessary sum. Professor — and secondly. consult it were. somewhere and in the especially Professor Conway. difficult. — the trouble they have taken. which just covers expenses with a subscription of 2^. in commending this Professor Gilbert Murray. was a difficulty which applied to the Oxford Philological Society. consisted in getting the Oxford The reason subscription. said : to him. say that we congratulate the Committee on their work and that we tender them our most sincere thanks for of the Journals. as but those many There were a great — three new. a year.CLASSICAL JOURNALS Conway to the difficult negotiations 29 accompanying the transfer we should never have been able to carry out the scheme which we now report to you. but did not apply to the Cambridge. has not yet arrived. — that There one objection to is The work my had to do chiefly. in seconding the Motion. that we strongly approve of the steps taken. Cambridge has a fairly large subscription. in a special position for of difficulties that had publishers at least. I There is not quite what it seems in the first instance. So I want to propose two things first." "To my ." " May I. and There were elaborate questions of con- tract within contract. coming from Manchester for the purpose. and are glad to receive that most business-like Report which Professor Conway on foot . . although not entirely. Report just moved. 6d. a guinea whereas the Oxford Society has only for that . interests different to several other people. however. no reserve fund. delicate. and that it .

Strong's charming book on classical organ. should take in common bond and interpreter and I would suggest that the Classical Association hand not only Roman studies and Roman ex- cavation as a branch of its work. and I am afraid not adequately represented in England. but in other fields. much to be done in regard to so in the way of scholarship of Classical study refunction critical excavations that that Now it seems to me . at Mrs. which pained by the recent not name." Mr. but the of the sciences .—" I have been for the last dozen years or so actually carrying out excavations on Roman sites. literature is not science. why there should be much deliberation before coming to a hostile decision in regard to the proposed Roman I Society. presented by Winckelmann and Goethe in Germany. I am a member of the Classical Association. do not know whether Members are same position as myself to judge quite in the of recent tendencies England but it seems to me have a very great work before them in guiding tendencies already present in the defeat of Gothic and the rise of the classical train that the Classical Association . and of two or three antiquarian societies . to about 1840 dition to prominence in design. indeed. but also consider the question It seems to me that of taking over the Hellenic Society's work. and this not only in architecture. and I realise that the public interested in archaeology is a different AVe know that public from that interested in Classical studies. and I wish to appeal to the gentlemen who represent the Hellenic Society not to inflict upon us another Journal and another Society. has not a suitable That matter needs much consideration. design its her to (1 refer Roman Sculpture) without feeling that influence should be brought to bear on our own immediate surroundings. : It is my misfortune to go from time to time to a very large ancient city.30 THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION mind there is strong reason. look. No one could for instance. Thomas May. of the Liverpool Association. it would be better to have one Society representing all these . and I have been will I ' adornments ' much of the streets of that city^ that the aesthetic and critical side of Classical There is so much to be done studies lacks appropriate organs. Now if you will look round an old country town you will see most charming pieces of classical design down and I hope those threads will be taken up again.

of Philology. which has been running for a considerable number of years. away It was a disappointment. if the ability at present scattered and dissipated Classical Review by calling either of have been conducted." that all if in our hands. but to publish the best thing of my be its ambition. and he is not alone in that opinion. whether or Greek. than Dr. Sloman then moved the following Resolution " That the Council be requested to consider the advisability of amalgamating the Classical Review and the Classical Quarterly to the Meeting into one periodical. I saw the distinguished is Roman now first the Editor of the Classical Review present in the room." " think every one must agree that one really good Classical I publication. . I thought he was reserving himself to speak on this subject at a later part of the afternoon. would be far better than two or three second-rate ones. were focussed and gathered together My own really strong periodical. His dis- siders that it . as strongly in favour of the proposal I into am seconding. If all far quarterly. and best." The Resolution moved by Professor Murray was then put and carried unanimously. to find him hurrying However.CLASSICAL JOURNALS interests . Sandys. such as the Classical Association ought to be. including the study of archaeology. 31 one powerful Society. I seized the opportunity of and he expressed himself opinion on the subject to catch a train. — " When is but also were brought together this material case. I insult either the Classical Quarterly or the would not them second-rate as they But undoubtedly neither the one nor the other occupies the commanding position that one would desire and some of us think that this commanding position would be assured. not only in the I think it could be realised two Journals now in the moribund Journal tion. Rev. and to make That would were put into one publicait would be more conducive to forwarding Classical study. name continue the of in the production of one personal view would be to the Classical Review. asking him his . Canon A. it or quarterly. whether be issued monthly or eight times a year. He con- was a great mistake ever to divide the Review two parts. and which has had an honourable it history. it sort published in the world. then.

and so there is not room in it to contain all the material sent in. I think. —" I appreciate quite is all that that the Motion strong reasons can be urged in favour of amalgamating the two Journals what has been existing arrangements. forces. : The But there it is this is another difficulty — that the two Journals Classical Quarterly is devoted mainly to contributions implying some original research. the Professor of Latin at Cambridge. I speak from experience." The Chairman. . The and with matter feeling among scholars of special interest to schoolmasters. also. in its present form. of the sai e book in the other journal. and this proposes. indeed. serious difficulties First. when the Classical Review came into existence. I remember Professor Bury asking the Editor of the Classical Review when a certain article of his might be expected to appear. certain I have heard The fact amount of having of work. . Professor Conway speak However. in the way of . of the importance of not dividing our this is a matter for the Council of the Classical Association to consider carefully. also And expressed the same view the other day. and that in June a book reviewed in it reply may not appear till November. unduly attenuated is . The answer there was so much he got was that it was impossible to tell material in hand. even greater have different functions. he his whole time to editorial duties. were paid a considerable salary. and gave up unless. is strong that this difference should be kept up and even more clearly marked than it is at present. that it would provide a prompt and ready means of interchange of Bub in its present attenuated form you may have opinion. so they will get the review of a certain book one journal.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 52 tinguished brother. and the Review was so reduced in size. and said certainly points to grave defects in the But there amalgamation. . I was then glad to hear of one strong undivided journal. which is. you may write a reply. sim' expresF'ons of opinion in the room. We were told. and some months later a review in The Classical Beview. persons take in both journals. while the Classical Review is concerned rather with notices and reviews of books. So I am strongly in favour for that happened only recently. are. ir two Jo Some means duplicating a 'nals . it would be impossible to get one editor to cover the field occupied by the two Journals.

whose Editors. I hope we shall not drop the monthly issue of the Classical Review. Sandys. will yet work in concert. may say that for fifteen years I have been carrying on a crusade against the Journal of Philology to try to get something better. there is a clear dividing between the work attempted by the two Journals which are under our own control. the same book should not be reviewed in both publications. The new Journals Board will see that there is a proper division of labour between the two Journals. Meanwhile. be strengthened on the side of research. But that is in the future. those who have suffered from the Journal Only of Philology in the past can truly realise the importance of having two Journals like this. if country can maintain three separate organs of Classical this study and research. months or of six People in these days have not time to so. it is hoped. Then there is the overlapping referred to by Dr. I want to join my tribute to that of others in thanking Professor Conway and others who have enabled us to take this grand step in acquiring the Classical Review and the Classical Quarterly." Ridge way. and I would deprecate the effacing line by merging them in a single publication. and improve the quality of our classical output. months to wait three I must say he is Dr. could have I you will it published would be in four years. though independent of one another. sir. fessor said years I .CLASSICAL JOURNALS Under the new management the 33 Classical Quarterly will. A German Prohe had been looking for a paper of mine for nineteen and at last he found it in the Journal of Philology. Sandys complained of having to get a paper into the Classical Bevirio. Possibly the Journal It is doubtful of Philology may hereafter come into our hands. <'learly. admit that that also the further difficulty that periods I wanted was told that the Last time to get a paper into the Journal of Philology I it is rather slow. time earliest Now. " I think we should hesitate to adopt the principle of having a journal come out quarterly instead of monthly. And . I am one of those who like my classics in small portions and it seems to me it is better that it should come to us in that way than in large. a very ungrateful man. ponderous volumes at intervals of that distinction — Professor . Further concentration would save some waste of energy. read through large volumes. One has only appears at most irregular you never know when to expect it. 5 .

" Rev. many Members if should be considered on that the course proposed woiild We practicable. W. other things that should be considered in regard to the Journal of establishment of a to the Philology and new is no possible At the same time. many its being overlooked." May draw the attention of Motion was expressly Members hands of the Committee the way tie such a as not to drafted in merely suggesting that the subject should be considered by them Rev. it There of those conducting the negotiations. painting. Mr. F. merely ask that the matter If we pass the Resolution its merits.—" I my present to the fact that : . of are . then. A large number of Members and a great number are teachers of the upper or sixth forms and I have always felt that it would be of great advantage to classical teaching in schools if one of the journals now in the hands of the Classical Association was of such a character that it would of the Classical Association are schoolmasters. articles upon the attitude of authors read in school. perhaps this pass any definite resolution. . for on the work of excavation. Sloman. towards religion and change from its present constitution instance.— " As one engaged in school teaching. perhaps I may be allowed to say a few words it way in regard to these two periodicals. etc. indeed. would simply ensure that this subject would come in an official before the Committee. to have articles ! . Chairman. such as Plato and Euripides. two periodicals referred to. I it by Canon Sloman will must have been present in the rest assured that the idea put forward not be lost sight of minds danger. especially as there seems to be a fairly wide-spread opinion among a good be desirable. on sculpture. afford material help in teaching to schoolmasters the school library. I hoped the articles of a When and be read in the Classical Quarterly was published Classical Review more popular would contain bright stimulating I know it would be a character. BuRNSiDE (Canterbury). we may- discussion. It would be helpful.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 34 " After would be better not to think. Canon A.. then. there — possibilities possibilities in Journal to deal with regard Roman be a mistake at the present moment to pass a resolution which would look like tying the hands of the Classical Journals Board in regard to the amalgamation studies. of the It would.

If we are not to curtail the space available for the publication of original articles we must have a separate periodical and Dr. . — ." " Perhaps I should explain that what Professor Conway. The task of reading and of judging the value of articles of original research covers an enormous field of classical knowledge. . ." The Chairman. Of course. which would be practically an instruction to the Board. that would be covering more ground than the Classical Review as at present constituted can hope to do. each Editor would have his own special department. is now no matter as to be sub- original him way no books will be submitted for review to the Editor of the Classical Quarterly. it 35 seems to me. Postgate three days ago I quoted to that there ment is. as to the other point the Board has done his best to deal raised I should explain that Dr. that in the ordinary of us felt that the amalgamation from this resolution. At the same time it would indicate that the opinion of the Meeting was on the whole in favour of this change and I do not think it advisable that not be quite large enough for . and is quite heavy enough for one man indeed. so that there should be added and not diminished force available for each. of course. politics. its . Rouse reviews have found their with it and that a larger number of way into its pages than an amalgamated journal could find room for. Postgate has assured us that it would be now impossible for one man to discharge efficiently the two functions. much And in reply to a question Dr. would be an effective way of extending the influence of the Classical Association. — The by the Conference on the Journals was that one should be mainly devoted to original articles. so May add that and the The Review I of the Quarterly Review would be a distinctly retrograde step ? work it is a question that may But will have to consider. some The arrange- possibility of duplication. . " I admit that the Motion proposed by Canon Sloman does not bind the Board. and to Dr. But. first resolution passed such reviews as contain so stantially original articles. in the opinion of some of us it is too heavy for and the proposal that has commended itself to us is one man that we should have two Editors for each journal. So I think it would be unwise to pass such a Resolution as this. which are quite distinct. Sandys has asked for has been already carried out.CLASSICAL JOURNALS This.

. and Mrs. Esq. Rollin and Feuardent. Dr. J. Headlam. Esq. C. Headlam. D." The Motion was then put to the Meeting and lost. C. Great Russell Street.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 36 pressure even to this extent should be brought to bear on the Board. Sir G. when the guests were received by the Kev. Oman.D. supported by the Rt. Principal of the College. Headlam. Hermann Weber. the Earl of Cromer and the officers of the Association. F.P. A. Hon. Spink & Son.. F.... Piccadilly.R. Seltmann. Messrs. At 9 p. Arthur Evans.C. Professor In the chapel an organ recital was given by Vernham. a conversazione was held in King's College.m. Messrs. F. Esq. Hill. \ . C. In the Hall an interesting series of coins was exhibited by Dr. A.

the one at Nottingham. which stood at about 1. and at about 1.Tuesday. " The Classical Associations of New England and of the Atlantic States have been in communication with the Council with a view Work to obtaining The Year's for their members. now stands at more than 1. Mr. the successful year's work. Members memorandum ^ has been passed to regulate has been drawn up on the of affederated bodies have the privilege of attending General Meetings of the Association on signifying to the Secretaries their intention to do so. The Association met at 10 a. The Minutes of the last General Meeting having been taken as read. 37 the . ^ An contemplated to enable the Association Printed on p. There are now five Local Branches of the Association. J. Mr. other at Bombay.400.350 in October 1908. follows : " The Council has the satisfaction of reporting an active and The membership of the Association. January 11th. 141. Sleeman read the Report of the Council as S. " The Classical Associations of New South Wales and of South Australia have been affederated to the Classical Association. and the former has forwarded a resolution expressing interest in the work of the Association and a desire to promote friendly relations.m. in the Lecture Theatre. Two new Local Branches have been formed. H. Butcher in the chair. and negotiations are proceeding for the affederation of the Classical Association of South Africa.250 in October 1907. alteration of the Rules is to enter into relations with bodies outside the limits of British Empire. H. In order to secure uniformity in the relations between the Classical Association and allied bodies a resolution of Council these relations and a matter.

made at Birmingham meeting in 1908. but not of voting thereat.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 38 " In accordance with a suggestion of Sir Oliver Lodge. has been published by for 1909 ^ will the authority of the Association. the Council invited the Modern Language Association. its is likely to injure the and literary historical the Council submits for discussion a resolution as to the requirements of University Matriculation Examinations in Latin. " The Council also presents a Report of the Curricula Committee upon a Four Years' Latin Course for Secondary Schools in which the leaving age is about sixteen. . 114-15) for approval. A and corresponding Balance Sheet appear in the Proceedings for 1910. on payment of the cost of despatch. 120. the English Association. which was adopted at the General Meeting in October 1908. shall the have the privilege of attending the next General Meeting after payment of such subscription. " The number of copies offered for sale to the public has completely disposed " is of. 1 Printed on p. and five Associations of teachers in preparatory schools to co-operate in a movement secondary and for the simpli- and unification of the terminologies employed in the grammars of the different languages taught in schools. volume of Proceedings (pp. 107. 1908. 142. a new class of Associate Members has been formed. 3 p.^ " Being of opinion that the complete abolition of set books in University Matriculation Examinations teaching of Classics by discouraging sides. A Joint Committee on Grammatical Terminology was thus formed early in 1909 containing representatives of all these Associations. who on payment of a subscription of 5s. The third volume of The Yearns Work appeared at the end of 1908 and was issued free of charge to all members of the Association who applied for it. » p. and shall also receive a copy of the Proceedings of the Meeting which they have attended. and the recommendations of this Committee are embodied in an fication Interim Report ^ which the Council submits herewith. " Acting on a suggestion made at the last General Meeting. The Balance Sheet was printed in the last now submitted been for the year ending December 31. " The Report on the Pronunciation of Greek.

has been issued to friends of classical scholarship to aid the enterThe accounts of the journals will prise by donations or loans. . (2) the raising of £500 to cover the purchaseand preliminary expenses of the journals (3) the Classical Association money (£300) . has communicated to them certain suggestions for the revision of their scheme. consisting of seven members appointed by the Council of the Classical Association. Towards the sum required the Council has voted £150 from the reserve funds of the Assothe Oxford and the Cambridge Philological Societies have each subscribed. David Nutt. but will be audited and confirmed by the Council. the original intention of the Council had been to publish both of these papers in extenso have stood in the way and together. entitled Latin Subjunctive The Unity of the —a Quest. which has for some time given cause sentatives of its Having ascertained that the proprietors. . " Professor Sonnenschein's paper. contained in a letter to the 1 " See Proceedings for 1908. formation of a Classical Journals Board. 53-64. ^ as a reply to a paper of Professor Hale. would be willing to part with the journals. one of these seven members to be appointed on the nomination of the Oxford Philological Society and one on the nomination of the Cambridge Philological Society. the first part of which was read at the General Meeting in 1907. discussion of this important subject. but unforeseen difficulties of the publication of the second part of Professor Hale's paper.2 yf[\[ shortly be published of the interest aroused by the In view by Mr. the Joint Conference recommended (1) their purchase by the for anxiety. and an appeal ciation . " The Council recently invited representatives of the Oxford and the Cambridge and the Philological Societies to confer with repre- own upon the position of the Classical Review Classical Quarterly. John Murray.' which was read in abstract at the ' General Meeting in 1908. Messrs. having learnt that the Civil ServiceCommissioners would welcome representations from the Classical Association as to their scheme of Army Examinations in Latin. or promised to subscribe. £100. Proceedings for 1907. 21-32. pp. be kept separate from those of the Classical Association. pp.REPORT OF COUNCIL 39 " The Council. *' Having learnt of the proposal. Limited.

And I would propose one other delegate. over this do not propose to spend any time would beg from the Chair to move its therefore. Secretary. and myself. our Hon. that a new Society with a journal of its own should be formed to promote the cause of Roman or Latin Studies. and negotiations are still proceeding. The number is. Professor Haverfield. the scheme who should discuss with representatives of the Classical Association. with a view to considering whether the desired end might not be best attained by an extension of the work of the Classical Association and of the Classical Journals Board. Macmillan on behalf of the Council of the Hellenic Society." The Chairman. Professor Ridgeway. Professor Sonnenschein.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 40 Times of October written by Professor P. are It seems to members appointed. . of the me They are Members of our Council who Board should in any case be number. . I. *' The only thing it seems necessary to add arises out of the made yesterday by suggestion approved by the Meeting Roman a Society for Classical Association on the other . George A. we need him on our body. I in- hope excessive for the . Professor Gardner will not think the purpose. a little large . number However. The names are Professor that those new Jovirnals five in — Conway. but there are several interests volved which we cannot afford to neglect. Hogarth. That makes six. and I — that Professor Percy Gardner and further negotiations regarding Studies should be carried on between the on the one hand and the Hellenic Society would invite you now to appoint a Com- mittee to represent the Classical Association in those negotiations. Gardner and Mr. " You observe that most of the subjects of interest have been anticipated in the speeches of yesterday and — debatable matters have been dealt with in the course of all that discussion. 22. because from the first he took a leading part in the discussion when the matter came he had then a scheme of his own and from his position as archaeologist. I adoption. Professor Mackail. The conference took place on December 3. In addition I suggest that we should have the assistance of Mr. before the Hellenic Society perhaps. the Council of the Classical Association invited the Council of the Hellenic Society to nominate representatives. Report and .

South Africa and there have been occasional communications with Canada which have not yet resulted in anything definite. 6 . namely. Canon T. The Chairman. upon their application to the Council shall and by vote " It under Rule that affederation comes in in connection with this its various forms. And now there is the . We started modestly as the Classical Association of England and Wales and we had hardly started before that name became too small. We began by extension within those limits and we now have flourishing branches in Manchester and Birmingham and Liver. . As a result of that we are now in association with bodies having the same end as ourselves in New South Wales. thus bringing other Classical Bodies into some kind Dr. L. of the same. of the Paper sent out. —" It is I own. and if adopted it will mark simply another stage in the development of the influence of the Classical Association.' The Rule would then read—' That the Classical Association have power to enter into relation with other bodies having like objects with its own. long.' is of alliance with our Kenyon. was put to the Meeting and carried. having been seconded by Dr. and to give power to the pool and Nottingham . and at the last Meeting at Birmingham a fresh Rule was made in order to allow for this.ALTERATION OF RULE 41 After some discussion the Kev. Rules is motion requires much the carrying out of a sentence which has * that alteration of the contemplated to enable the Association to enter into relation with bodies outside the limits of the British Empire ' ." do not think this been already read in the Report. South Australia. Council to arrange terms in order to suit different circumstances. Sandys. Papillon pro- posed — " That the seven names read out be appointed as re- presentatives of the Classical Association. It is proposed It is outside the limits of the British Empire. explanation. which notice has been given to omit the words * in is the pro- an amendment to Rule 20." The Motion. and no doubt there will be others before Then there came applications from various parts of the British Empire to be attached in some form or another to the Association. but which I hope some day will do so.—" The next item on the Agenda posed amendment of Rules.

I do not think need say more than that in asking the Association I to accept the proposed alteration of the Rules." Mr. by invitation. have been £3G2 thus the actual amount of receipts £50. about the amount that I promised in my . to leave the various forms open for the Council to alter and adapt to each case because the circumstances of various bodies are different. as we have so much to do this morning. I do not think we need be afraid of this kind of extension. Empire to which our farthest limits of the have as yet extended. Garnsey." The Motion was then put — The Treasurer. if the Association adopts the idea at all. and from the combination in some form of federation with so many English-speaking world which bodies in different parts of all have the same object the in view. and as far as can be and it seems proper that we should to go hand in hand with us meet those advances so far as we can. Therefore. the preservation and advancement of Classical studies. I After the explanation that has been given by the mover I do not proa speech. . Nothing but good can result from the extension of the influence of the Classical Association. One can see that such amendments might be unduly strained to cover extensions beyond anything that I mediate contemplation. make pose to who also Vice-Chancellor of is since I come from the rules for affederation Sydney University. but there fear of that being done. —" should like to second this motion. sary. over expenditure is to the Meeting and receipts for this year carried. it seems appropriate that I should support a Resolution which will have the effect of extending the influence of this Association beyond those limits. no harm is little understand is in im- come from striking these words out power to the Council to negotiate with kindred Societies beyond the limits of the British Empire. on the Council. may think and will so giving fit. and to enter into such relations with them as in their wisdom they and I think that of our Rules. same of the kind in the United States have expressed interest in our proceedings. I think it will be neces.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 43 More than one body question of this further step. " The and the expenditure £306 . as the substitute of I hold a seat the President of the affederated Association of New South Wales. namely. anxiety to know what we are doing.

I would add then to the Motion that a vote of thanks be accorded ture . . We all know that the work of but I think it has one advantage. that there is I am sure in moving the you are glad to hear a satisfactory though small balance over expendi- and in connection therewith I understand that Mr. will see the Balance Sheet later on. our membership continues to increase and it row stands at more than 1." Mr. Forbes seconded the motion and associated with it a vote of thanks to the Auditor. —" I have much pleasure approval of the Balance Sheet. and you have heard. I wish to urge upon all members of the Association this fact As you have been told by the Report of the Council. as Professor Conway told you also may the bank balance . I am bound to point out that the rate of increase not because there are fewer new members. at the same It is a sign of health gratulate ourselves. — " As with a very small balance. number of before Committees constantly partly because of the . B. that originally are for inevitable and is. is I am is diminish- glad to say. : time ing. India Stock yesterday evening. Pantin. H. to Mr. sitting the free distribution of The Year's WorTc. Walters. of £250. but you understand. Professor Mackail.APPROVAL OF BALANCE SHEET The expenses last statement. now beginning to who joined because a number of members one reason or another dropping off. and we have we were made. that this is when due to the fact that £150 of our balance proper has passed into the hands of the Treasurer of the Journals Fund.400. but because the natural wastage take effect . a transference from £150 have been very much of this year we have ever had greater than 43 barely £40 this year further Consequently say." Mr. That is and therefore I would make a to be expected . we you and partly because of The balance in hand a further investment in 3| per cent. and progress upon which we have to conAt the same time. investments to the amount. we are left now That is due to the success of the to the consequent extension of its operations. Pantin has done good work as Auditor. at the end of 1908 make able to of £100 was £230 so that early in the year . is my pocket into his of So really we have made for the Journals. joining us. Association. . auditor is somewhat dull that it enables a classical man to keep up his mathematics.

name You of proposing the new President will understand. and counts. with a view to the financial stability of the Journals Board. and will carry with us as long as we live. and which he has carried on with so much zeal. preciation of the mously. members — I also speak as a Member of the Journals I would be very convenient indeed. resources of risk of the but rather that the net increase falling off. were impressed with. Chairman. ac- all that the Association. President of the Sir Archibald I known to every one here. as I The name Royal Society. which has been very heavy in the last year. on the occasion of the Darwinian Centenary Celebrations. " Before sitting down I would like to add one word more. otherwise we shall not know where we are as regards the financial conduct of the journals. and to every one through- out the English-speaking world. and so to ensure that as the process strong appeal to invite wastage continues. But besides being an astonishing power of literary style. if I may. of science he has Those of us who had the pleasure of listening to his Rede Lecture. the task have not to show reasons why he is is of mention the not an onerous one. the felicity of expression and the fine literary feeling shown in . all fruit. have the honourable task our Association. and care.— " Mr. is that of Sir Archibald Geikie. and indeed it its take the opportunity it almost indispensable. which has been working quietly and effectively for years. there may be no it total membership may be continually expanding. Ladies and Gentlemen. as a man of science. as soon as to be laid before you. that their subscriptions should be paid in before the end of this mouth . Professor I Ridgeway. should be chosen. and accuracy." The Resolution was put to the Meeting and carried unani- which is to express. beginning obviously to bear to May its activity. This particularly necessary necessary on is now in and upon of reminding Board is — that and is extending its is now influence with consequently greater claims upon directions. as must do. who long before he became President of the Royal Society was made head of the Geological a man Survey of Great Britain.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCL\TION 44 members to do everything in their power new membership. on behalf of the Meeting our apwork of the Treasurer.

and the late President of the Royal Society.ELECTION OF FRESIDENT At the present moment. between Classics and Science in this country. For the reasons then That pleasure in proposing ' I have given I have the greatest Sir Archibald Geikie. Now at that time we had the greatest assistance from enlightened people.' The Rev. President of the Royal Society. Sir William Huggins tion than Society. . glad to say that the changes brought about in classical and in no small degree due to have this Association. for in science in moment are as are in the absolute necessity for a classical education. almost I might say a divorce. " I am glad that this proposal has been — . I do not think we could have a more felicitous choice of President for the coming genial year. he is distinguished Sir by a Archibald is a leading brilliant literary style. of science. I think in the election of Sir Archibald Geikie as President of the Association impress upon the public beyond all antagonism between the highest science and the highest I do look forward to his occupation of the chair show our opponents that the leading men it will England. as likewise in France. 45 do not think that we I could have a happier choice as President of the Classical Associa- him who is the official representative of the Royal Too long there was an unpleasant feeling. Canon A. already ameliorated to a great extent the antagonism of the ordinary science men against classics. and to a less degree against Latin. Sloman seconded the motion. are to have higher education carried out properly in this country or in any other country. man has a humour and is the very best of company. and you all know that in the various struggles that have taken place in my own University at Cambridge the so-called science men have lifted up their horn against the divine study I must of Greek especially. the men who were leading scientists like Lord Kelvin. but with the classical men. this year. The cause of that revolt on the part of the great bulk of science students arose from the inherent antagonism against the bad methods of teaching classics. The method of teaching the classics had been distinctly bad. at the present strong as if we we we measure that there shall is no classics. Bay in all justice that the fault lay not with the science men. The Chairman. be elected President of the Classical Associa" tion for the year 1910. and I am teaching. that discourse.

" The Resolution was put to the Meeting and carried unani- mously. about to give us a further evidence of his interest. the motion. Canon Swallow then proposed the re-election of the Honorary Secretaries and Treasurer. B. for a man engaged in speak Imperial work. P. . In electing him as President we have now the opportunity of drawing closer the alliance. greatest interest in In reply to the Council's request asking him to allow himself to be nominated at the General Meeting I received from him a charming letter which was marked by that felicity of style and delightful humour to which Professor Ridgeway has referred. W. A. " The Council's nominations for the five vacancies on the Council are these the Rev. Walters of the British : . David of Rugby Professor F. Paul's School. E. E. .THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 46 received with sucli enthusiasm. Taylor of the Royal Holloway College and Mr. Mr. I may remind Members that on our Council. G. between Literature and Science. then came before the meeting. D. and has the Classical Association from its Sir Archibald Geikie has already served shown the inception. " I propose the re-election of the VicePresidents with the addition of those two names names which — — Lord Cromer. A. Museimi." Lady Evans seconded mously. which has sometimes been interrupted. And name is a household word in at least three Professor Murray's Continents. H. has shown unusual interest in the classics. The re-election of Vice-Presidents. — The Chairman. The Motion was seconded by Professor Percy Gardner and carried unanimously. Miss M. which was carried unani- . and for is themselves. Hogarth. Granger of Nottingham Mr." No other nominations having been received. with the addition of the names of Lord Cromer and of Professor Gilbert Murray. Pantin of St. The Rev. the above were unanimously elected. J.

they are not present. for the remarks that have been no need to pass made will serve the purpose.PLACE OF NEXT GENERAL MEETLNG The Chairman. promise the Meeting that we will carefully bear cally certain in . Seaton. if they be so dissatisfied that some of them will took the liberty of writing a protest about have joined. at any rate. next." The Chairman. that It January seems to me is there the only time that is a Resolution. or. It seems to me It meeting in Liverpool. they will probably leave. Headlam and the authorities of King's College who have put these rooms at our disposal. moment but fix it definitely. for it will be fixed so as to enable schoolmasters to be present. and that I is an inadequate that the only possible time for school- masters would be January. however. " It is four years since schoolmasters have been able to attend our General Meeting. R. C. — " We look upon the January date as practiwould ask the Meeting not to bind us to it absolutely. from invitation the ask you to permit the Council to arrangements for the date. It has been delightful of . we cannot at this 47 Liverpool make the final It will probably be in January. I the date meeting the of having been in October. how important Mackail has already said But people as possible to join. It is not a question of being inconvenient to schoolmasters word — October. sidered when it is Professor to get as many schoolmasters are not cona date for the General Meeting is fixed. it is not if be expected that they to will join. all. I will — " It proposed to hold the next General is by Liverpool. — that impossible for schoolmasters to attend a meeting in it is would stated that there will be a is probably be in January an opinion as to whether it could it seems to me that the time should like to elicit not be decided definitely. I can. I It it is impossible for people to protest seems to me that is really if no answer at wish to propose that the meeting be held in January for certain. but I mind the point suits schoolmasters. I have had a request to this effect from Liverpool. Meeting in Branch. and the answer of the Secretary was that there had been no protest made But at the time. " It only remains for me to ask you to accord a hearty Vote Thanks to Dr. which until this year has been held in October since 1906. raised." — Mr.

I am a scholar. Dr. Moreover. I to speak to to say anything new already been trod by but I may perhaps in travelling along many eminent a road which has politicians and scholars . Headlam At Hi of sure you more personal way showing last night in The Vote in a in passing out of the am I for the trouble he took Thanks was carried by acclamation.m. as an additional plea in justification of the choice of my subject. from speaking to scholars thought that you would perhaps allow me you as a politician and an administrator. and who has been actively engaged ministrative work.'"' I fear I am not sufficiently unknown in this country to permit of my making any such statement. the Right in " About the time when you did me his Strand at a wish to thank his beautiful collection of coins.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 48 haven of retreat to find this time of such excitement. in a new form. I think I may say that long acquaint- . in : which I lit ' : ' to-day is that may I personally testify to the fact that one who can make no pretension to scholarship. can all his life in political and ad- immense benefits appreciate the which are to be derived from even a very imperfect ac- quaintance with classical literature. succeed in presenting some facts and arguments. therefore. Hon the Earl a. which are already well known. as a scholar. indeed. that the main reason why I am here a Hebrew scholar. therefore. to say something on the analogies and contrasts presented by a comparison between ancient and I cannot. I conceive. hope modern systems of Imperialism. one is permitted to say. " Being debarred. indeed." Address livered will also Presidential the of Cromer de- Hall of King's College the honour of inviting be President of the Classical Association for the me current year. I happened to be reading a work written by to upon the following There is a saying of an old Hebrew sage " In passage a place where one is unknown. I propose.

" Apart. such as the Persian invasion. as it may be we understand. though with many notable differences. Holm. British Imperialists solation from may derive some con- the reflection that the experience of Athens cannot be used as an argument to prove that democratic institutions must necessarily be incompatible with the exe- cution of a sane Imperial policy. it may be said that Imperialism is as old One of the most as the world.THE PRESIDENTS ADDRESS 49 ance with the government and administration of a country which was at different times under the sway of the Macedonian and the Roman. however. at all events in respect to certain incidents. does not admit the plea that the of Athens can be used as a charge against fall democratic institutions in general. does. to some extent. however. Although under the pressure of some supreme necessity. was in Athens.' and the true fore- runner of Alexander and Napoleon. as the Romans. but rather as one to show the fatal effects produced by democracy run mad. notably subversive of all good government. We know little of the effect which this Imperialism produced on the short democratic essay in institutions of the metropolis. from these considerations. If this view be correct. Dr. and The Federal conception was equally strange. understood the term.. was wholly foreign to the Greek mind. and led to the adoption of a defective foreign policy which brought about the ruin of the State. and tends to bring forcibly to the mind that. the world has not so very much changed in two thousand years. " In a sense. " Athens. said that the conception of Imperialism. recent writers on Egyptian history (Professor Breasted) has termed first Thothmes III. ' the great empire-builder of the world. bridge over the centuries. before it was discovered that the true vocation of the Greek was the intellectual rather than the material conquest of the world. amongst the a certain independent amount of unity Greek States of action was temporarily 7 . but he points out that the kind of democracy which existed after the death of Pericles. also founded a short-lived Empire.

or are to be governed such an issue as Empire at its this. and was often taken with a reluctance which was by no means feigned modern expansive Powers and Russia —was . by The Rome us. it may be up said that. each step in advance was in ancient. to the time of the Macedonian conquest. and customs. the true conception of federa- For the best part of a Greece. tion never took root in century prior to that date. to obvious. are to govern themselves. in proceeding from conquest to conquest. the history of Greece consists of a series of internecine struggles and of transitory and half-hearted alliances intended bind together by ropes to of diplomatic sand the ephemeral interests of the various The Greek petty communities. we turn to if it be true that history . in dealing propose. still Rome and " Perforce.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 50 secured. for reasons which are I Imperial problem great here surely. " Let me preface my remarks by saying with British Imperialism alone. manners. born. The unit was nation had not yet been the city. language. that the public opinion of the world scoffed two thousand years . as who endeavours to institute a comparison between Roman and modern. never had to face total population of the greatest extent was less Roman than one hundred two and a half million square miles compared to the three hundred and fifty millions occupying eleven and a half million square miles over which the British flag flies. Imperial policy is that. notably British.. who are that. accompanied by misgivings. spread over of country. as it has been in modern. sufficiently The leave self-governing colonies the of the future what an extent some three hundred and British subjects. equally with the especially Great Britain impelled onwards by the imperious and irresistible necessity of accjniring a defensible frontier . therefore. some useful lessons are to be learnt. times. religion. "The first points of analogy which must strike any one millions. that — more Rome. at all events. philosophy teaching by example. is aliens to us fifty in is to millions of race.

of direction Ambitious proconsuls and commanders.THE PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS ago. who were animated sometimes by personal motives. — but one at and administrators advocated a forward policy on the ground that it would be least of their greatest statesmen impolitic to allow the of contamination by subjects close of Rome contact with to run the risk a free people. not only were occupy a country in order to prevent others from occupying it.' . " Many potent and often uncontrollable forces were. at all events. Moreover. as it does now. did not terminate.' a principle the execution of which manifestly tended to an extension of territory until the sea-coast or some other natural boundary was reached the Romans at times compelled to . but It paused. " The Roman may policy of world-conquest have been inaugurated by the Punic war. some of the wisest amongst or. either by corporate bodies or individuals. to stem the ever-advancing tide of conquest. though it During the capture of Egypt. were constantly forcing the hands of the Central Govern- ment. 51 and that each insatiable lust for an extended dominion. ' them with Roman banish liberty from their sight. constant were made. as has repeatedly occurred in the history of British Imperialism. at the alleged necessity onward move was attributed to an . first be said to It received a great stimulus from the campaigns of Lucullus. and at others by a strong conviction of the necessity of action Roman in interests. But all efforts to check the rising tide of Imperialism were in vain. not only was Roman Government it a ' supreme principle of the to acknowledge no frontier Power with equal rights. in persistently fact. struggled as honestly and manfully to check the appetite for self-aggrandisement as ever Mr. acting in the expansion. Agricola urged the necessity of occupying Ireland in order to overawe the Britons by surrounding arms. Gladstone and Lord Granville strove to shake off the Egyptian burthen in 1882. and thus. and ineffectual efforts this long period. The Romans. them. with the battle of Actium. as it Mere.

however. the Russians were driven across the steppes of Central Asia. when these had been reached. extent fullest Machiavelli. and Numidia. and the East. in the case of Rome. be established A between the motive power which impelled both ancient and . therefore. Spain. to ask themselves wistfully whether even that frontier wa. " All these were.s ciently secure. as it did in the case of the British in India.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 52 " Again. or the British Government. such a frontier was provided by either the ocean cannot be doubted that or the desert. and of the Russians in Central Asia and the Caucasus. each other inducement for him to return to method of treating the German most Italy. Imperialists were not slow to take advantage of the opportunities thus afforded to them. No to maxim scruples of conscience its of endeavoured to divide and govern. " somewhat close analogy may. and the French in Algeria from the sea-coast to the confines of the Great Sahara. The most the They illustrious of their historians did not hesitate to record a pious hope that the nations of the world would retain and perpetuate. which eventually ' took over their governing powers. It was the desire to obtain natural and defensible frontiers in all directions which gave the main stimulus to Roman expansion. but contributory causes. In Gaul. and. to move onwards Avar with the heathen nations until they. that the tribes politic was to leave them to cut each others' throats. reached the barrier of the Himalayas.' " The same motive impelled the British trading Company. Mr. suffi- Similarly.' it The North But it was wanting elsewhere. towards the execution of an Imperial The Roman abound. at least an animosity against and Tiberius pointed out to Germanicus. Instances policy. the acute dissensions amongst the neighbouring tribes materially contributed. deterred them from celebrated. if not an affection for Rome. albeit applying cynical. Bryce very truly says. which had been empowered in 1683 to ' make peace and of India. as an . ultimately de' ' stroyed Rome.

Both larity between the Roman and British character. political episode towards the close of the eighteenth century. and equal on an placed ultimately is race the conquered — even possibly on a superior — footing to its conquerors . has the exception of a passing. With all like it. " The employment of auxiliaries on a large scale is a bold and somewhat hazardous experiment. both in India and in Egypt. remember Egypt by our well in I being struck by the slight effect produced war. African during the recent South convinced that we were the early reverses were All down as a principle of policy that Rome should never make peace Even amongst hostile critics. It would appear. when India added its drop to the existing ocean of Parliamentary corruption. nations appear to the best advantage in critical times. The first consequences ensued to Rome. *' In respect to another point. Their methods were also very In both cases. although it has widely influenced British policy. to lead to one of two consequences. it may be said that the Indian connection. inheritors miration nation of proud that motto which laid was excited by the steadfastness shown by the an admiration. the method employed by the British. and not very important. I should add. Both nations have been largely aided by auxiliaries drawn from the countries which they conquered. . or anything at ensued in the case of Great Britain. similarity to that adopted Either of necessity. has not in any degree influenced the composition of the legislative and executive machine through whose agency that policy has been directed. warm adsave as a victor. which trial — under was somewhat qualified by the delirious and undignified rejoicings which took place when the main danger was past. in fact. bears a striking by the Romans. "No such consequence. or and loyally of these two else the subject race acquiesces in its subjection. There is.THE PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS 6S modern Imperialists onwards. a good deal of simitheir proceedings. co-operates with its alien rulers. undaunted audacity characterised similar.

would. without doubt. who. "Will the past be repeated in the future? Will the to the question I steadfast loyalty. appear to yet the answer would be by no means conclusive. excusable. Nor should it ever be forgotten that. with a recklessness which at times may look little heed of that wise old saw.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 54 " Can it be said with truth that the alternative consethat the subject races have acquiesced quence has ensued — in their subjection. even during that time of stress and convulsion. " If we leave aside the episode of the Mutiny. both in India and in England. the answer have propounded cannot be doubtful. resist these disintegrating forces now being stimulated into action. in the face of temptations which would have rendered defection. Throughout the length and breadth of the British Empire. for the conclusion must obviously depend upon the reasons which led up to the supply a negative answer to this question . I believe that Lord Lawrence was right in regarding the whole of this episode mainly as a military mutiny rather than a political movement. to say the least. in spite of the opposite opinion expressed by one of the historians of the Sepoy war. Respice one of the crucial Imperial questions of the not hazard a prophecy about it. On many a well-fought field. but also the loyalty of the auxiliary troops of Great Britain have been conspicuous. to which both the rulers and the ruled with equal pride and satisfaction. Political causes. " I That I will is turn to another point. adhered to the British cause. contributed events of 1857. no body of the auxiliary troops remained loyal. yet. seems to take but finem ? future. at first sight. not only the bravery. to produce the result. and that the auxihary troops recruited from amongst those races have loyally co-operated with The great mutiny which occurred in their alien rulers? India some fifty years ago. there exists no monument of greater political significance than that erected by Lord Northbrook at Lucknow in inconsiderable honour of the heroism of those Sepoys. An Imperial Power naturally .

in 1763. But a subsidiary cause which contributed in no small degree to the final result was that. the principle which they sought. were able to pay an annual tribute of . decided the England for the possession of India in favour of the latter Power. and not tribute from India. to enforce was much the same. as the Imperial asset which counterbalances the burthen of governing the country. For all practical purposes. these hopes were abandoned in 1773. was unquestionably its predominance as a maritime Power. Although the methods adopted by the British in India widely from those of the Romans. From not realised.THE PRESIDENTS ADDRESS expects to derive some benefits for itself from its 55 Imperialism. The system was that time onwards. and has established a moral code on principles almost wholly unknown to the ancient world. it is not easy to avoid doing some injustice to the former. " In judging of the methods employed by ancient and modern Imperialists to effect the objects which they respectively had in view.^£^400. at times The result large loans Company was at first enor- was that the Company. The main reason which.000 to the Treasury. it may be said that for some years India paid a tribute to Great Britain. England has regarded trade with India. altliough to the Stoics may be awarded the merit of having paved . whereas in England the traders were able to pay the Government. contest between France and tunately. in the first instance. Christianity has intervened between the two periods. "" differed The trade of the East India mously making lucrative. in France the Government was called upon to pay large subsidies to the traders. Hopes began to be entertained that some portion of the burthen of ForBritish taxation would be shifted to Indian shoulders. There can be no doubt as to the quarter to which the They exacted heavy Romans looked for their profit. They regarded the pro- vinces solely from the point of view of the revenue which could be obtained from them. besides to the British Government. tributes from their dependencies.

formed the original basis of all subsequent systems. this description. policy are. ' would not acknowledge that the standard applied to private conduct may be inapplicable to public transactions' ^ —a high ideal. But although a few eminent men. Ancient Greek Historians. of these palliating circumstances. he found that the first and most essential step towards the creation of a sound administration was to establish an efficient Depart- ment of Accounts. contact with the cultured mind Imperialism. is Bentham's —current at his time. He discovered a number of sound administrative principles. who were greatly advance of their day.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 56 the way for the humanitarianism of the Christian. that Roman In spite. according to a highly qualified modern authority. to which even the Christian world. indeed. and accordingly he introduced a system. which was subsequently improved by Hadrian and Vespasian. those speeches can be if taken as true indications of contemporary opinion. I may have in lofty ideas of cherished conceive that they did not in any way correctly represent the public opinion of the mass of their Traces of the existence of a humanitarian contemporaries. " On the other hand. to be found in the records of Roman Moreover. it may be said Imperial policy. stands condemned. thought. made by Augustus. of Greece must have exercised. abound false moral arithmetic in statements indicative of the ' —to use a phrase which. even after the reforms intro- duced during the early years of the Empire. some humanising influence on Roman however. The pubhc morality of the Romans was probably superior to The that of the Greeks. in spite of the efforts of statesmen such as Burke and Bright. ' Bury. p. mouths of into the his speeches which Thucydides puts orators. like Sallust. I think. Like all who have had to encounter the practical difficulties of administrative work. Tacitus. . and certainly did exercise. indeed. and which. has not yet attained. 271. Very great improvements were. if judged by such modern standards as we are wont to apply.

were brought to justice. I have a strong fellow feeling for that talised Bithynian praetor whose justice has been immor- by Catullus. and of their angry vituperation rather than poetry. even after a lapse of eighteen centuries. such as Verres of Sicilian and Gallus of Egyptian More than this. in order to prey upon them. The 8 them tax- . — though also. and some. He created a regular Civil Service. at all events during later republican general rule. protected the pro- the praetors. the rulers He of nations have not as yet taken sufficiently to heart. and accordingly he gave all saw that low salaries provincial officials his He and his immediate frequent changes of of harm not to the only successors officials Roman. cases class of times. The elder Cato drove the usurers out of Sardinia. virhis post tribute was fixed at a high figure. stop] to those amount infinite our day to the Ottoman. mmimos was the watchword of every society. and insecurity of tenure connoted corruption and misgovernment. Occasionally. "These were. but high fixed.THE PRESIDENrS ADDRESS 57 which. put a which did an as they have in salaries. stout-hearted official from the rapacity of the numerous fashionable and vincials money-grabbing adventurers who flocked from Rome. but also with a view to crippling the resources of the conquered nation. and by imposing a limit on the ages of officials. instances may be cited of Governors who took a real interest in the well-being of the provincials. the trial of corrupt provincial Governors were instituted. and preventing from renewing the struggle for independence. Roman The As a however. some rare fame. quite exceptional. not merely- in order to obtain money. in prose Governors were found too honest to take advantage of the opportunities them for illicit gain. impressed Courts for young and competent men into his service. for I have had a somewhat wide personal experience of the race of company-mongers to which Catullus belonged. Vespasian returned from afforded to Africa no richer than when he went there. Empire. and abolished the local contributions usually paid to some unusually Occasionally also.

and quarrelled with the somewhat more scrupulous Cicero. in ancient as in modern times. which answered to our Stock Exchange. do almost as much harm as the corrupt practices themselves. because. " That a vast impro\ement took place in the early days of the Empire cannot be doubted. true. as Governor of Cilicia. and when. became a fertile which is tions of corruption are source of wealth to the Treasury..THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 58 and their inevitable companions. on behalf of the bondholders of foreign loans. Cicero himself pleaded eloquently the cause of the Insanum forum. that accusasown broadcast. to demand 48 per cent. the usurers.' " Whatever harvest there corrupt was worst. was left to reap after the and the rapacious publican had done their garnered by connnercial adventurers of the official type of Catullus. This is what frequently happened of recent years in Egypt. as often happens. on a loan made to a Cypriote town. which were usually coupled with accusations of high treason. " It is one of the peculiarities of an administrative system honeycombed with corrupt practices. and still more in Paris. at a time when the legal rate of interest was fixed at 12 per cent. is hard to say which wrought the most mischief to the gatherers ' Empire. they are false. and this is what happened Charges of corruption. Ferrero says that from the days of Augustus a wonderful economic prosperity began for the whole Empire. who were backed with all the weight of Marcus Junius Brutus Rome.' It may perhaps be held by some that the stimulus thus given to material prosperity was dearly bought at the expense of founding a system of ' . the latter placed obstacles in the way of the executhe capitalist interest tion of this leonine in contract. as Mr. Warde Fowler says. did not scruple. and. often in ancient times at Rome. in a speech on the Manilian law bearing a very close resemblance to the arguments brought forward at times in London. Mr. and also probably at times fidse. were let loose on the unit fortunate provincials.

however.THE PRESIDENrS ADDRESS 59 government which arrested the progress of Hellenism. gated in intensity.' more But I correct. though greatly miti- the society in which the evil-doers mix. could be brought to bear on the destinies of mankind. Notably. in of republican the Syrian Governor (Pescennius Emperor and lost his life in the attempt. The Roman conscience. it the most part. was not much troubled by any scruples on the subject of slavery. and who. The harshness times were rivalled. world. be said that the reforms a circumstance which will not surprise those who. of must be admitted that they were. nothing was done to remove that great blot on ancient civilisation which has been justly termed by a recent scholarly writer (Mr. for a purely administrative character. " Great. less sensitive than that of the Greek. which we owe mainly to the Jew and the Teuton. and thus humanity of period when a usher in the Hellene the arrested exert could culture their and legitimate influence. he could not tax the air . which is not condemned by The abuses which Augustus strove manfully to combat. ' take and more philosophic view to surmise that the Pax Romana was a is to necessary phase through which the world had to pass before those moralising influences. only produced a partial it may effect. have had practical experience of the enormous difficulties of eradicating a deepseated evil. crushed out the nascent liberties of nations. Niger) who continued to by that aspired to be exist. and oppression still days of Commodus. to use an expressive numbed the intellect of the venture to think that a more reasonable. in modern times. such as corruption. phrase of Professor Mahaffy's. " Looking. Paterson) the Nemesis of Nations. on being petitioned by the inhabitants of his province to accord some relief of taxation. and. however. as were the reforms accomplished by Augustus and some of his more immediate successors. brutally replied that he regretted that which they breathed. at the matter from a purely administrative point of view.

even after ance for the exaggerations of rhetorical pleaders. or and pungent the if eloquent. when it Act of 1858. at the close of the eighteenth century. and that at a somewhat Sheridan. know that Warren Hastings was a "We great statesman. more was earth Avhich Company was from 1758 India East the capricious than Parliamentary control. somewhat of laboured witticisms making a liberal allow- Nevertheless. now. 'throws grave and unpardonable — many of the local officials dishonour on the English name under no effective legal being Company. matters The merchant rulers of India during greatly improved. During the temporary earlier period it was even worse. from those employed by the corrupt and very materially rapacious officials Roman of the An Republic. absence from India of Clive (1760-1765)— a period which Sir Alfred Lyall says. In full its easy and produced politician as Sir weight of the the debate on the India I do most confidently maintain that said ever existed on the face of this government no civilised more perfidious.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 60 " If we turn to the spirit which. animated the merchant rulers of India and their agents. indeed. and that a just or correct description of the administration over which he presided is not to be gathered from the inflated. and more corrupt. like fashion acquisition . though in a more systematic and business- or . and without . India of the East ' moral control. it cannot be doubted that. he From the day : ' when that control was established. the eager pursuit of had blunted their general insubordination. doubt their subsequent period of dominion may. in the first instance. the administration of India was bad. interval of seventeen hundred years had not altered human nature. justice. diatribes of Burke.' George Cornewall wealth and consciences So moderate a Lewis carried the accusation to a later date. ' lost all sense of honour. we cannot find much to gratify our national did not differ The methods which they adopted pride."' under placed was to 1784. and they plundered as Moghuls or Marathas had integrity done before them. at all events.

necessity at times neglect the welfare of the subject race in the real or of their employers. and which in quite recent times has been flagrantly violated in Turkey. in the direction of a somewhat reckless adaptation of Western ideas to Eastern requirements. did. was forced upon the rulers of India by the convulsion of 1857. whose mental equipoise has been upset by the tentions institutions and training which they owe to their alien benefactors. may at times be challenged by the esurient youth of the day. and inscribed under the statue of Lord William Bentinck at Calcutta. however. prowess the truths. of judgment more may especially presumed pecuniary interests fifty years. That principle is that administration and commercial exploitation should not be entrusted to the same hands. if we ask ourselves whether the Romans. true that in the East they did so at the cost of losing . government good of those but State officials may must almost of err. not a word of reproach can be breathed against the spirit However much those inwhich has animated their rule. with their imperfect means of locomotion and communication. " If we turn to the comparative results obtained by ancient and modern Imperialists. make some spirit " It was not. and their ignorance of low standard of many economic and public political which have now become axiomatic. until seventy-four years later that the adoption of the principle which lies at the root of all sound administration.THE PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS 61 mistakes. It is They succeeded far better. the benevolence. and the sincerity of the rulers of India have been fully recognised by the wisest and most statesmanlike of the indigenous races. but they have no interests to serve whereas commercial agents . succeeded as well modern people in assimilating the nations which any as of their arms had brought under their sway. Egypt. the uprightness. but the humane and statesmanhke which animated their counsels is fitly represented by the noble lines written by Macaulay. their relatively morality. and the Congo. although errors For the last possibly be imputed to the rulers of India. the answer cannot be doubtful.

. who.'' own abiding mark on A they con- But the in the destinies of Romanised the races who were at and eventually their masters. said. great deal has been said and written on the subject of the inability of modern European Powers to assimilate subject races. but pure and blameless is their justice. Black is their faith. however. quered the world only to give West they They mankind. dwell on this branch of the subject at any length."* presented a phase of thought very common amongst Asiatics. were able to identify themselves with the interests of the wild tribes in the Soudan. possess in a very high degree the power of acquiring the sympathy and confidence of any primitive races with which they are brought in contact. the only European people which have shown any powers of assimi- be regarded as a detail. and our social customs render us somewhat unduly exclusive. Moreover. though they succeed less well when once the full tide of education has set in. my own experience certainly leads me to the conclusion that the British generally. is It very generally held that this inability is marked some truth especially there is the case of the in in this statement I British. Our habits are insular. for. thus govern and without them by sheer weight of use of force. in a broad general view Imperialism. although the idiosyncracies and special aptitudes of the different something. Nothing struck me more than the manner in which young men. tlie " I need not. The Moslem. speaking about the English to Professor Vambery. will That not deny. but they scarcely the opinions of the mass of the population. or left those either their subjects races to be the willing agents of their *' ' own Romanisation.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 62 national their In that quarter individuality. this aspect of the question may So far as I know. These are characteristics which tend to create a barrier between the British and the more educated portion of the subject races. first left their it to Hellas. and character. fresh from affect ' some British military college or university. the real truth of modern is European nations count for that.




with the indigenous races of Asia and


Mr. Hogarth says, truly enough,
work entitled The Nearer East, the Greek excels

Africa are the Greeks.
in his


all (others),


being a Nearer Eastern

No modern


powers of assimilation at

by the Romans.







comparable to those displayed

According to Dr. Livingstone, the only
hundred years' intercourse

art the natives learnt after five

with the Portuguese was that of distilling spirits from a



not aware that the Dutch have shown

any particular genius
deed, the relations


the direction of assimilation


between the



and the


would seem to point to a directly
The recent Belgian failure due more

natives of South Africa

opposite conclusion.
to their


than to the Belgian nation



and American essays in Imperialism are of too
recent a date to enable any conclusion to be drawn as to
their results. The same may be said of German Imperialism.
" There remain Russia, France, and England.





very general idea prevails that the Russians possess

powers of







and most competent witness on this subject is Professor Vambery.
He has visited Central Asia that den
He fully
of Asiatic barbarism and ferocity,' as he calls it.
recognises the improvements made by the Russians, but
he scouts the idea that they possess any special aptitude
for assimilation, and, although I am aware that he is


regarded by the Russians themselves as a prejudiced witness,


no reason to doubt the general accuracy of





his con-

bar the way to inter-

marriage, and without intermarriage there can be no social
equality or real fusion, any more than without a knowledge

of the vernacular language there can be any intimate social



turn to the case of the French.

Has the genius of

the most quick-witted and cosmopolitan nation in Europe

been able to solve the problem


Apparently not.




may, as in the case of Egypt, have been
gained, but there has been no real assimilation, no effective
A high
fusion, of the ruling and of the subject races.


authority (M. Boissier) speaks very decisively on this subject.

After paying a well-deserved tribute to the material

progress effected under French auspices in Algeria, he goes

on to say that in one respect the policy of his countrymen
a complete failure. They have not gained the
sympathies of the natives. There has been nothing ap-

has been

proaching to a fusion.

and even

hostile camps.

The two races
The Romans, he




thinks, succeeded


" Lastly,

We have


does the matter stand as regards ourselves

endeavoured to be as

elastic as the




dogmas of Western civilisation admit. Save in dealing
with some exceptionally barbarous practice, such as Sati,
we have followed the example of Rome in respecting local
Indeed, it may be doubted whether we have not

gone too far in this direction, for we have often stereotyped
bad custom, and allowed it to assume the force of law.


have not interfered seriously with the practice of infant
Save in respect to slavery, we have left intact

and Mohammedans,
albeit that in both cases the codes were drawn up centuries
ago to suit the conditions of primitive societies. But in
spite of these, and other illustrations of a like nature which

the personal

law of both


might be cited, do not let us for one moment imagine that
we have not been innovators and, in the eyes of the
ordinary conservative Eastern, rash innovators.

of contract, the principle of caveat emptor, rigid fixity of
fiscal demands, the expropriation of land for non-payment

of rent, even the commonplace

Western idea that a man

must be proved to lie guilty of an offence before he can be
punished, are almost as great innovations as the principle
of representation accompanied by all the electoral paraThese divergent habits of thought
phernalia of Europe.
on economic,


and administrative questions have



served to enhance the strength of the very formidable




such as differences of religion and colour,

which are ever tending to sunder the governing race from
There has been no thorough
that which is governed.
fusion, no real assimilation between the British and their
alien subjects, and, so far as
will in this respect

we can now

predict, the future


be but a repetition of the past.

which the barrier wall of
separation is built may be, and, without doubt, to a certain
extent, are the result of prejudice rather than of reason



foundations on


but, however little

of so



we may

like to recognise the fact,

they appeal so strongly to

a character,

instincts and sentiments which

men and women,





deep down in the hearts
to come they

for generations

probably defy whatever puny, albeit well-intentioned,
efforts may be made to undermine them.
" From this point of view, therefore, British Imperialism

and Africa
But we need not lay our

has, in so far as the indigenous races of Asia


concerned, been a failure.

want of


we have


have succeeded.


too deeply to heart.

of very uncalled-for

need not, in a

national depreciation,



where others might and probably would
The very contrary is the case. We have

not because we are Englishmen, Scotchmen, or Irishmen, but because we are Westerns. We have failed because
the conditions of the problem are such as to render any







modern European

nation has, in any substantial degree, been more successful
than ourselves, and, moreover, no other European nation

has ever had to deal with the problem of assimilation under
difficulties at all comparable to those Avhich the Britisli

have had to encounter

in India.


Asiatic and African

and Russia are Moslems.
of the population of India are Hindoos, and the remaining

subjects of France

sixth are

Mohammedans who have adopted



of the Hindoo caste system which elevates association in
the act of eating and drinking to the dignity of a religious




Thus a very formidable



India which


barrier to unrestrained


in countries

whose people hold to a less socially exclusive creed.
" The comparative success of the Romans is very easily
Their task was


more easy than that of any


modern Imperial nation.
" In one of those bold and

profound generalisations on

Eastern politics in which he excels, Sir Alfred Lyall has


very truly pointed out that the

most part, to deal with









the religious element into politics.

of assimilation, the

only had, for the

was Christianity and



the process

Romans easily surmounted any diffiThe easy-going polytheism and

based on religion.


pantheism of the ancient world readily adapted itself to
The Phoenician Goddess Tanit
changed circumstances.

became a Dea CaeUstis in the person of Juno, Venus, or
Minerva. Alexander Severus wished to erect a temple to
Christ on the Capitol of Rome, and Hadrian scattered

of worship to

wide dominions.



unknown gods

Thus, religion,


broadcast through

from hindering,


aided the work of assimilation.
different has been the situation in more modern
Alone amongst Imperialist nations, the Spaniards
endeavoured to force their faith on their reluctant subjects,



with results that contributed to

or, at all events,

indeed, been




own undoing.


other cases there has been toleration, but no proselytism



times pushed

the tacit acquiescence


so far

one time


accorded to the

savage rites of Juggernauth

— as


Toleration, however,

earnest Christians.


as in the case

to strain the consciences of

from a

pohtical point of view, but a poor substitute for identification.


does not tend to

break down one of the most

formidable obstacles which stand in the way of fusion.
" It is especially worthy of note that, in the only case

which the Romans were brought in contact with an

on the ancient epitaphs found in Numidia to show that intermarriage was not uncommon. " I There were practically only Greek and the ancient world turn to another point. not because the amount was excessive. into the upper . it was the language of philosophy. It is natural that they should be so. their failure 67 The was complete. M. to a certain extent. as an instrument of general use. who women in is will generally resent union with the polygamous. ' ' in deference to when on soldiers. apart from other reasons. Boissier gives some difficulty examples based also to bars the encounter. Romans had They succeeded no better than modern to deal with a this case the — Conciliation and cruelty inscribed." or because. was not to be conciliated because. and brutal intolerance — proved God toler- of the In equally in vain. ance. Antipathy based on colour intermarriage. Greek held its own in the East.THE PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS un-assimilative religion. penetrated. lay aside their Emperors were Roman Jewish iconoclastic sentiments. but because the act of payment was godless. who demurred to paying tribute to Caesar. service on which standards. for. the Jews. " Religion is not the sole obstacle which now prevents the operation of that most potent of assimilating influences. the European woman Eastern man. Jews were vanquished and dispersed. The Romans had no such way. but they M'ere The never assimilated. Such currence in countries religion are brought cases are now of extremely rare oc- where races of different colour and in contact with each other. whilst the seclusion of the East offers an almost insuperable obstacle to the counter-case of the European man being attracted by the Eastern woman. even extending to a recognition of the to the of effigies modern problem. stubborn Jew. by the command of the Emperor Augustus. the smoke of the sacrifice of a bullock and two lambs rose daily in their national sanctuary to the " Supreme God. the were ordered at Jerusalem. and. Imperialists. — two languages in use in In the West Latin.

and perhaps I less designedly — regards the as do not think that either nation is likely to attain great measure of success in this direction. any will cer- Neither in — Russian possessions there the least probability that the foreign will eventually supplant the vernacular language. whether in ancient or modern times. In India. It cannot be and to cast aside their barbaric names. tainly be much is — I think They than the Romans. " Modern Imperialist nations have sought to the use spread of their language in order to draw political sympathy to themselves. nor I may add — though English in India. has considered. There does not appear the French supplanting Arabic to the case of the races who men thousand of each sex read and in Algeria. only ninety and ten women in every ten write English. object .THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 68 Suetonius gives a letter from Augustus ranks of society. " The importance of this question is not. alto- gether to be measured by the number of individuals who further question has to be learn the foreign tongue. modern Imperialist nations have to deal with national sentiments which often cluster round the idea that the extrusion of the vernacular language should be stoutly resisted. less successful French. the Imperial language materially doubted that the use of aided the work of Imperial assimilation. is there was no need for whom language on those Rome to impose her she had conquered. This has been notably the case as i-egards the French in the basin of the Mediterranean. least prospect of In direct opposition Romans. who had to deal with conquered eagerly adopted the language of their conquerors. A With what do the educated classes amongst the subject races acquire the linguistic knowledge ? To Avhat uses do they turn it when it is acquired ? " The stimulus. British. for Latin was not merely used by scholars and by men of high education. It soon became the language of the people. Thev were eager to learn Latin. however. and Spain spontaneously adopted tants of Gaul The inhabi- this special form of Romanisation. to Livia which In the West a curious jumble of Greek and Latin.

which The bond of a I have are constantly acting in the direction of disunion.' The Here. literature. when knowledge. analogy a remarkable Rather may it For the knowledge of Latin did not serve as a solvent. language. to the the acquired. have learnt the language of their rulers ? I fear not. if on one side acquired. they were Tlie native of India able to do so. of a truth. by the Russians of displacement the at relief feeling of the cruel and corrupt government of former times speedily gave way to ' a general feeling of discontent. is. the result was due to a variety of gauses. already alluded to the sentiments entertained by the natives In Central Asia the first of Algeria towards the French.THE PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS The Gaul and manifestly been self-interest. rule. contrast. common. and. conquerors. in the medium so far as it of English is historical. in shrill tones. even now complaining not without a certain him from the turn we for rising modern and the ancient the impelled which motives original reason. the linguistic applied when is it But. may and easily be . being the subjects of modern European Powers. and not to any wish to subvert that Empire in which the Romanised Provincial took no less pride than Can the same be said of any of the Asiatic the true Roman. and. we a metaphor which Byron borrowed from a sedulously nursing the pinion which —been impelling the steel into our own breasts. and. before they had been Romanised for long. or African races who. in fact. are respectively use to acquire to which ceases. be said that there On the contrary. been teaching English through that literature. if it it is knit the subject race to its eventually helped to invert the parts which had heretofore been played. 69 the Spaniard wished to rise to high positions in the service of Rome. For more than half a century we have. perhaps unavoidably. that the opportunities accorded to amount of insufficient." ' The natives began to show a preference case have of India — to use Greek source is is for Mohammedan especially strong. in some is cases. much too brittle to resist such powerful dissolvent forces as differences of religion and colour.

defence put forward at the trial a very writers in The of the wretched youth who. and never can be.' as it has been termed by Professor Huxley. was composed in English. have already mentioned that a few faint traces of the modern spirit of humanitarianism are to be found in Roman But in spite of these occasional. in Language is not. and.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION TO perverted from a disquisition on the advantages of steady progress achieved by a law-abiding nation into one which eulogises disrespect for authority. matter confirms the con- this in be derived from conclusion we reap the harvest if ? evidence is that of the more general a great proficiency which individuals amongst the subject races of the modern Imperial Powers often acquire in some European language no way tends to inspire political sympathy with the people to whom that language is their mother tongue. they certainly did not possess . in some ways. was ever applied by the Romans to the treatment of political and social (jueslions. an important factor in the execution of a policy of fusion where divergence of religion and colour bars the way. not very convincing humanitarian symptoms. nothing approaching to the modern ethical process. but recently. surprised which we have ourselves sown " My own experience to clusion That nature. it rather tends to disruption. as in the case of Ancient Rome. The political expression in assassination a style of somewhat turgid and bombastic. but ' Even if they had the will. on the (juestion of fusion. pagan days. in historical records. and was not wanting in eloquence. Indeed. and urges on the governed the sacred duty of throwing off the yoke of unpalatable Can we be governors. " I turn to another point which does not bear directly is highly worthy of note in any consideration of the difficulties which lie in the path I of the modern as compared to the ancient Imperialist. inasmuch as it furnishes the subject powerful arm against their alien who advocate the Indian Sociologist considerable possess English which is of facility with races rulers. murdered Sir Curzon Wyllie.

under the in- and barbarities of Dervish rule. is life the only policy execution inevitably In India it has in some provinces produced a highly congested population. No . of the decrees and at enormous cost. that whatever impoverishment has taken place is mvich more due to good than to bad government. struggles manfully. attributed by hostile critics to many causes. if Man can arrange for its timely distribution. "The policy of preserving — even useless human worthy of a civilised nation. from over eight and a half to less than two millions. perialism until of of modern The of Nature. and. In the case of disease he brings science to his aid. Im- beneficent was brought to bear on the times human life. and it has thus necessarily intensified the struggle for life of the survivors. subject of preserving effected. to resist them. as they ai^e foreign to the subject I have in hand.THE PRESIDENTS ADDRESS the knowledge which would have enabled them scientific to arrest or mitigate the cruel operations times. in the case of famine. It is largely attributable to a beneficent intention to deliver the people of India from war. was any great improvement mortality during the great famine in Bengal from 1769 to 1771 has been variously estimated at from three to ten millions. We have at times heard a good deal It has been of what is called the impoverishment of India. generally produce a sufficiency of food. In and preventable disease must have prematurely persons into when the of recent years. with some of which I will not now attempt to deal. Nowhere does the policy of modern differ more widely from that of ancient efficiency Imperialism than in dealing with matters The modern He Imperialist will not accept of this sort. But of this I am well convinced. for he has discovered that Nature will Nature. famine ancient swept millions Neither. his resistance is by no means ineffectual. life is and prolonging human noble. pestilence. But It its increases the difficulty of government. We know that in quite recent times the population of the Soudan was reduced. 71 the grave. and famine.

the old civilisation presented problems for solution of a relatively simple character. there has to face are infinitely varied and can be no difficulty in understanding some why which has been denied to their Imperialist " I use the word apparent with was the success real ? The answer depend on the main object which perialist policy either in successors. to clash inconveniently with the necessities of his Imperial policy . partial com- munity of Further. in been found. only one amongst several competing is Imperialist Powers. as Guizot has or other causes. pointed out. to maintain his hold over the provinces. He difficulty would have said that he wished. intention. the indigenous rulers of Asiatic States. If these considerations are borne in mind. world. at any period. cases. in fact. that he did not particularly wish to with local institutions more than was necessary that. were profitable. or because he feared the consequences which might result io the Empire from their abandonment interfere . for. during the Republic or the Empire. more modern times. do not conceive that he would have found much giving an answer. above all either because they things. the whole may be added the fact The opes strepitusque known Great Britain. " I have thus dwelt on some of the more salient features which differentiate the task of the modern from that of To the ancient Imperialist. whilst those which European civilisation complex. as some their continued existence had he had been obliged. these rival. and that the liberality of his intentions was strongly exeniplilied by his treatment . at all events. in an apparent success directions. to that question it is should seek to attain. race. in or.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 72 such intention ever animated the Imperialists of Ancient Rome. that Rome was without a Romae overshadowed on the other hand. the question of Quo vadis had been propounded to a I the Romans. to whom it is conceivable that British dependencies might be drawn by self-interest. rather against his will. must held that an ImIf. in practice. to extinguish them. gained Roman Imperialist.

he is aware that Empire must rest on one of two bases —an extensive military occupation. it he nevertheless recognised that the primacy which they enjoyed rendered it both necessary and justiliable to accord to them some But he would have added that the last special treatment. and to govern themselves in fact. he does not see much prospect of being able 10 . slipshod. they would acquire a right to sever their connection with the Empire. the German. the Russian. of the Englishman P his alien subjects. or the principle of nationality make up his —he cannot in mind which of the two theless. if the question were put to any of them. sort of intellectual thing in the world he intended was to put into the heads the of provincials Rome and Roman by copying that. for he is. truth. customs. his central political conception to Romanise. and the connotes the position. at all events in hesitation that he my would be very glad to shake off the Imperial burden. this mercurial nation. " What answer would the modern Imperialist give to question the of Qiio vadis do not think that the I ? Frenchman. but in them. which — connotes the continuance of his own ideal of partial self-government.THE PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS whom he had not endeavoured to Romanise. abdication of which supreme his supremacy. partly because do 73 so. although after rather a dim. in always striving to attain two ideals. puzzled to give any definite answer. he will — reply without all cases quite Never- bases he prefers. although he did not much like of the Greeks. or the Italian. that was not to autonomise. which are apt to be mutually destructive the ideal of good government. at present. but characteristically Anglo-Saxon. but . would be much more seriously embarrassed than Each would answer. he should Egypt. the world. whole or Moreover. would have been extremely difficult to and partly because. fashion. as regards opinion. — or. the ancient Roman to find an reply that his intention was to civihse no way to relax his hold over But what would be the reply of the leading ImHe would be perialist of the world. or at least Hellenise. but that.

but with the fixed determination to maintain the supreme control in cannot be doubted that the tlie hands of Great Britain. heavily charged with the thought. the and moderates only difference is I those can judge from between that. those who profess the Hindoo religion. " Consider what has happened in India. The other gradually is to extend local self- government. not of the Eastern As Sir Henry Maine very truly remarks. whether of the ancient or of the modern world. whereas the the ex- former wish . new foundations must be of the Western. is much more complex. two methods of applying this principle. whether in India or in other Eastern countries. their opinions may section differ as to the time which should elapse before aspirations can be satisfied. and unknown to the Imperialists. rests are in process The ? founda- idea that haunts the minds of a very few Westerns.' The ' and generally accepted of those principles is self-government. aspirations of a It considerable amongst the educated classes of India now point Speaking only of in the former of these two directions. and that result that the very foundations on which tions that edifice to be rebuilt is the edifice of society On what of being undermined. That must manifestly constitute the corner-stone of the new edifice. and has. has once passed. The most presents difficulties and energetic of Western has been brought into practical with the most contemplative of Eastern nations. during mark. can be reconstituted on an improved native model. There are. a pure delusion. is The country over which breath of the West. can never be the same as it scientific left an en- The was before. One is most salient unquestionably to aim at eventually creating a wholly independent nation in India.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 74 to do His Indian problem so. however. that native society. nation in India cannot evade the duty of rebuilding upon its own principles that which it unwittingly destroys. and of a larger number of Orientals. but. the British type. contact with the old ideals have been shattered. in passing. so far as recent tremists discussions.

but rather whether she has a right leave it. Parsees and Christians. of is and Mohamthat of ceremonials. is not w^hether England has a ' ' right to to keep India.THE PRESIDENTS ADDRESS to precipitate. The idea is not only absurd. account be taken only of the languages spoken by com- munities of more than a million people. in truth. Two hundred and seven millions are classed as Hindoos." " As a result of the discussions which have recently taken the most frightful anarchy. that. the hour of separation. To abandon India would.' he says. lead to native Power Hindoos and Moslems. find that besides a sprinkling of Parsees. it would be a crime against and especially interests are whose India civilisation. It is as if we were to assume that was a complete identity of sentiment and interest between the Norwegian and the Greek. it is not only imI would go further. and say that to entertain practicable . under one sceptre ? England has accomplished this miracle. as vernacular if . which would unite Where is the . Christians. the latter 75 would prefer to delay. The case is well put by a very intelligent Frenchman who visited India a few years ago. the execution of a policy of this sort might perhaps be conceivable. on examining the detail. there are sixty-two and a half million whom some. " If India were a single homogeneous nation. between the dwellers for a united there on the banks of the Don and those on the banks of the Tagus. In the last Census no nothing of the kind. Buddhists. Sikhs and Bengalis. two hundred and seventy-six millions speak twenty-three different tongues. The question. "To speak of self-government for India under such conditions is as if we were to advocate self-government Europe. Rajputs and Marathas. who are split up into an infinite number of sects. have adopted Hindoo forms and medans. though their creed Mohammed. it is less But than one hundred and forty-seven distinct languages were recorded and I find. " If we now we turn to the question of diversity of religions. against the voiceless millions in committed to our charge.

whatever they do not say that any Englishman would regard this final but possibly some would be conclusion with pleasure inclined to accord complacent acquiescence to what they I . within any period of which we need at present take account acquiesce in the inevitability. of progressive civilisation in general. I conceive. I in think on the whole wisely. if it be clearly under- stood from the outset that. and to which it will patience But there we may. some doubts entertain It lias also the executive been decided to go at one bound to greater lengths than appear to me to be wise in the direction of effecting legislation through the machinery of representative bodies largely composed It is now useless to hazard any conof elected members. Within reasonable limits. —unless we ourselves weakly Let us approach this subject It will be well with the aiiiimis manendi strong within us. to the extent of paving the way for our own withdrawal from the country. one note which was slightly struck in the course of the discussions.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 76 place in connection with Indian affairs. — may be even. But I altogether reject the extreme consequence of possible withdrawal. better for India. though respect to certain details to a greater — I it has been decided to associate natives of India extent than heretofore with government of the country. would consider the I inevitable. from myself that the consequences may be serious in so they may increase the difficulty of governing the far that country. however liberal may be the concessions which have now been made. all for the cause of and best for England. is Some Englishmen perhaps not be superfluous to allude. I do not conceal accept the interpretation of our duty. and which at any future time may be made. appear to think that our duty in lies developing self-governing principles all the direction that we must accept the consequences of their of and development along the line. we have not the smallest in- . jectures as to what consequences will be produced by these We must await the result with what bold experiments. I deny that such an ultimate result will ever be inevitable— at all events.

must reform be the stone of Indian maintenance steadfast of British supremacy. Headlam. in If a man from the modern education is . how far I will disastrous. but . entirely disappear from passions and the until face of the earth.THE PRESIDENTS ADDRESS tention of abandoning our Indian is 77 and that possessions. It may be that at some future and far distant time we shall be justified. it I I am I only am sure that j^'^tting this . in the training particularly of our future teachers. I will only say two things in that connection which will perhaps be of some consolation to you : I have been able here to study largely the result of a non-classical education and . All that can be said at present vision is that until racial and human religious nature changes. C. I ability. and believes profoundly. am more profoundly How I convinced than ever of the merits of a classical education. to the best of Personally. in classical education at a place where classical our modern studies have rather a struggle against subjects. Nations wax and wane. be imparted to our own Imperialist policy. welcome you here very much as one who believes. the modern system be possible to have seen how very many system of modern education. be possible to extend. A. not without advantage. even when an able manner. Dr. in handing over the torch of progress and civilisation in India to those whom we have ourselves civilised. I We Classical are very glad. Association to King's College. to use a metaphor of perhaps the greatest of the Latin poets. you clever feel In certain directions. " In this respect something of the clearness of political and bluntness of expression which characterised the Imperialists of Ancient Rome might. the relinquishment of that torch would almost certainly lead to its extinction. may of the cases. it is expounded the little and what if he an enormous amount he has missed." Rev. to place our rooms at your disposal. it highly improbable that any such intention will be enter- The foundation tained by our posterity. far it may preserve it. —" welcome the First. is is in rather not clever he seems to learn is entirely wrong. I not discuss now might almost say.

and that is to express on behalf of all of us our thanks to Lord Cromer for his profoundly interesting address. that the pupils that they prefer to teach are those who have had a good old-fashioned English education and that however much time they may desire should be given to scientific. has reminded us of that which sometimes. it is one which has im- upon me by the circumstances itself in which I find myself. engineering. it seems to Do we remember our great statesmen of the past learnt their political wisdom and their statesmanship from the classics ? At the present time archaeological interests abound to an extent that . much directions. Egypt I for six . in the opinion of every thoughtful person throughout the world. as Lord Cromer has mentioned. his inspiration from the study of human in the ancient world as well as in the we ought think because me. forgotten at the present day. when that was so new a thing that the people could remember what had been before and could know what they were then enjoying and I was enabled then to judge from the mouths of the village people what they thought the occupation had accomplished. . a tific growing expression of opinion amongst our scien- teachers. We welcome Lord Cromer as a great exponent of Modern Imperialism. come there with a good and historic training. I think.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 78 forward as pressed my personal opinion but . The difficulties of Imperialism grow. with extraordinary remember myself travelling from village to village in months one winter shortly after the British occupation. and technical studies after students come . a teacher who has drawn success. and this also will give you consolation. modern world. yet they should to the linguistic . And he be created. I find. has governed there. with its success but nothing can obliterate the impression made upon my mind of what I heard there and of what I saw. that is it too all all life in many And I to be particularly thankful for his address. " And secondly. We welcome him as one who has himself played a very important and very difficult part in Modern Imperialism for he has had to govern on behalf of this country in probably the most difficult situation that could universities. We welcome him also as a wise teacher of Political Statesmanship. " But I have another and still more pleasant duty.

. on the educa. it is should be technical to a large extent. many who do not take any particular interest in the Classics. from the politics. and we hope all . and much importance to attach too What we want to remember is that in the ancient world you have in a small compass. one who is There 79 is no fonder of classical archaaology than myself. to . or gets more interest in his leisure moments from it but I deprecate and I feel very strongly that there is a tendency. and in a finished condition. that the issues were comparatively simple. that I think we are all believers in It is for that reason the supreme value of the life on all sides for educative purposes. Our modern life is too complex for us to be able to learn from it. tional side.VOTE OF THANKS TO THE PRESIDENT to the minds of some people may seem excessive. we welcome your address to-day and we believe that it will be read far and wide by of the ancient world . In the ancient world the issues were often crudely simple you can see the effects working rapidly and clearly to their conclusions. " Now at the present moment there is a tendency to No doubt training for politics technical. and from the finished exposition of a period of civilisation. study throughout life of the issues of political action as they are represented in the ancient world. is things working out to their absolute conclusion . I believe it the technical study of economics in is wisdom that makes the statesman that there is and I believe you can correct that by the thought- in the highest a great defect ful . In whatever direction I look at modern politics. for political present time is is The actual machinery very complex. The first is that the ancient world complete and finished — you can see and the second reason is. For that reason. particularly. that there you get the greatest and best place for the training of the modern statesman. but I am the life it at the of politics quite certain. to overdo it. at any rate when we are young. Lord Cromer. but who take great interest in Imperialism . You get it for two reasons. from looking at the study of and training in administration as an institution very near to make necessary that it is represented in this place at the present time. political oratory. hard to learn . a great picture of political life and I believe from the the smaller issues of life. from the political philosophy. that all its forms may lead to good administration. but it will not lead to good statesmanship.

that while I listened to Lord Cromer was somewhat struck by to speak here as ' He his audacity.' and yet I thought that about twenty-four hours ago there was a special Order issued by His And yet here Majesty for. " The word Imperial. Page. with a finish which is characit is those who bear his name. on a subject of such political importance and so undemocratic as Imperialism. I should perhaps venture to congratulate the Classical Association on having found so excellent a successor to Mr. E. and the adjective ' it to mention in a non-political imperial ' is has never been really popular except when a word. T. has addressed to received with such enthusiastic applause. ad- some of whom have votes. therefore. gather.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 80 those people who by noisy are disturbing our academic calm demands for our support. will read and ponder upon what he has written. to whichever side they belong. to move a vote of thanks to Lord Cromer for the profoundly interesting address that he has given us. feel and I that think doubly so to-day after listening to the admirable remarks which the Principal of this College. because he is the very type and pattern of those great Englishmen who in these later days have given to the word Imperialism He is one of those pro -consuls a new and a nobler meaning. — " Ladies and Gentlemen. who leave a province not despoiled but richer and happier than . " I beg. which perhaps one ought not assembly ." Mr. which you have us. has during its long history of two thousand years been chiefly associated with tyranny. I is worse a Pro-Consul. " I confess. shall I say ? the muzzling of Peers ! he is. and what dressing a large assembly of people. desire votes. a Peer as you know. if I did not somewhat fear the unhappy tendency of classical students to put an unnatural meaning even on simple words. we welcome Lord Cromer here to-day. ' to think imperially ' is a phrase— well. which it indicates a universal and democratic preference for an imperial to a reputed pint " Ladies and Gentlemen. we all know. for myself. to second a vote of thanks is I always rather an idle task . and in thanking Lord Cromer for that Presidential Address which we teristic. however. I think. said he I was going a Politician. some of whom. and with military aggression. with In modern times comes from a source the lust of power. of have heard with so all much And pleasure. Asquith. I think.

not to the unhappy they found peer. I accident of birth. The Romans never fretted their highest House of Parliament with any silly discussions about Budgets. I venture to think that there will be no speech delivered which will contain matter of more real political worth. it is assuredly on the spirit and countrymen interpret the word Empire.VOTE OF THANKS TO THE PRESIDENT 81 it. ' ' clearness of political vision. that the welfare. the credit. either here or in the councils of the nation. or on which every elector of this country would more wisely ponder. It is an Empire without parallel in history. but to lifelong service to a people which. while Lord Cromer has pointed Roman governors of this country desired to remove from our forefathers the very sight out to you that one of the wisest ' 11 . or the sword. Lord Cromer has pointed out to you that its population and extent exceed by fourfold that of the Roman Empire and he has pointed out to you that the problems with which we have to deal are infinitely more complex. week. ' method.' bluntness of expression.' in which they face its duties and its responsibilities. which even the tender spirit of Virgil bade his countrymen always remember. than the address to which we have listened this morning. The Roman imperialist had. and I might almost say the existence of our race in the future must depend. to one who owes his title. There went out a decree from Csesar Augustus that all the world should be taxed. and even the beauty of his verse cannot disguise the harshness of the thought.' which ' made his and path a very easy Obedience. while I venture to think that they collected their taxes with a determination which even our next-door neighbours cannot exceed. to use Lord Cromer's phrase.' That was their simple itself. and that in dealing with them we have to be guided by motives more humane and the temper in which our ' . with the dumb and uncomplaining patience of the East.' was the imperial maxim. " For. has borne for sixty centuries the yoke of an almost intolerable oppression. And even if he has the disadvantage of being a do not think his distinguished predecessor would grudge the power of speaking at any time. Ladies and Gentlemen. exactly that that one. less simple than those which guided Their method was simplicity the imperialists of old. Such men speak with a voice which is never out of season and among all that flood of oratory which will assail us during the coming .

and sur- am by many gentlemen who possess so many letters names that they almost rival Lord Cromer himself. therefore. rounded as after their final word of a more In this distinguished company. is the one thing which makes look forward with confidence to the future and to the solution of the hardest of all problems. But at least we can lay to heart the wise and weighty words in which he has put before us the difficulties and dangers which. do venture to think that that problem I ultimately be solved so long as men will possess in our public servants possessed of the courage. the conduct. just every English heart a deep desire is I think. " Well. and the capacity which are equal to me we his That own. the union. — how we how are cannot go back . I perhaps the task I have undertaken ought to have been committed the simple schoolmaster. in the treatment of races alien to us in blood their modes and colour. the wisest of us. and to other hands than those of yet I do think that there being so placed. that every foot of British soil should also be the seat of British freedom. surmount and . Cromer has addressed himself to it to-day yet he. bearing with such fortitude as they special here. does not venture to solve it. in dealing with India. who is There are in the quiet of something peculiarly many like may the general contempt and also that ignominy with which a commercial world regards those which has who fitting in its men and women the classroom live laborious lives. talk about dead languages teaching their pupils how and a forgotten past instead of good dinner in a Paris to order a .' because there the harder and higher task. Ladies and Gentlemen. in all ages attached to their calling. myself. in dealing with subject alien races. But in dealing that imperial dream a living reality : relation to paradox — with Egypt. in is.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 82 Ours. alien in of thought and all in their religious belief to apply those principles of liberty we are to go forward ? their habits of We ? The problem is in all life. of liberty. we must . In dealing with our self-governing colonies we have made we have in our them accomplished that which to the ancient was a the union of Empire with freedom. leaving these high topics which and are beyond me. of Empire with Liberty. I should like to say one personal character. Lord of the hardest. and the most experienced man in England on that subject. if we are to succeed.

who can and do to coming pedants. do been the privilege of my life high ideals of duty. Page that I am trespassing on political subjects. which we should meet that responsibility. " It will be a great pleasure to mc made on Imperialism shows some which the possession of this Empire if the short address people involves." the I have responsibility and the manner in . classical education national studies. perhaps. Page says I have been muzzled. is a Lord Cromer. hear you. To to the President for the encouragement feel which they receive from him. and partly because Mr. is kept a part of our a most desirable thing that people like is to be scholars. like every other learning. been warned by Mr. and I say humble workers in the field they in their 83 it has retain love literature without be- name. form a class is meant for everyand it equips a man for any kind of work. and it may be because. to recall your constant love of the Classics. name in the of these of learning. without infringing. we look a we hold up our heads more boldly iu the face. I should like also to say that I do think that . . for know hundreds of them. and we thank you." new hopes they give us scornful world . and even to think of you. — — Lord Cromer.VOTE OF THANKS TO THE PRESIDENT restaurant And ! yet they are men and women who. day use . to read your racy renderings from the Greek Anthology. " May I say that I was rather apprehensive about addressing an audience of such learning as this I see before me but your kindly reception has entirely removed any anxiety upon that score. and particuI have larly for the work of the politician and administrator. partly because this is a non-political meeting. leaflet sent I may I pass on a classical suggestion to the think it would not be a bad thing to have out containing a very remarkable ode of Pindar's which he advises everybody to forge their speech on the anvil of truth. Classical learning. should show the whole world that the idea which is sometimes prevalent that scholars by themselves is the greatest nonsense in the world. as sometimes studying the conjugation —these intervals of governing a province of tuVtoj in the are things which put us in better heart . it who do not pretend myself. that the gratitude which and example deep and lasting one. men a in of both parties. if. But I think.

passages likely to be set. mastering its difficulties from beginning for that will lead up to the student getting a literary to end the ancient studies. Ridgeway. as large a choice of books as possible being left to the Candidates. . What is the real virtue of a classical educa- not to get an understanding of some of the great masterpieces of antiquity ? I think myself. Our predictions have been unfortunately realised and this Resolution is a protest against that form of test which was brought in with the very best intention by many of our brethren and leading teachers in the Universities. : given in the examination paper. and so in translating it gains credit for ability in the eyes of the examiner which he may not altogether deserve.30 p. — " have the utmost pleasure in I That a University Matriculation Examination in Latin should comprise as obligatory parts.' " We know that certain Examinations have no Set Book. (a) Set Books. a shrewd master comes to know in it the course of years what sort of passages are likely to be set passage the before seen have may is possible then that the student training in logic . you are simply not affording them any mental You are encouraging them in a certain training whatsoever. You do not want a student to for feeling the world having in his mind a mere collection of into out go you want him to go out with rags and tags and nothing else his mind filled with the glorious images and wisdom derived . As regards the importance of a Set Book. in both of which Professor moving ' : Candidates are required to satisfy the Examiners. . \vith questions arising out of them. and to provide instead unseen passages for translation. then. it is vital that a student should be compelled to go through the whole of a tion if it is book of some author. and there has been a strong feeling in the past in certain directions that the only way in which to examine students for Matriculation was to abolish the Set Book in order to prevent cramming. many of us who felt that this There were would lead to a system of reading up snippets. shrewdness in making out passages and giving them some slight If moreover. . I would like to say a few words. (6) Unprepared Translation.m.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 84 12. you give pupils merely snippets out of various books.

in order to breathe into them the breath of life classical education. is lost by having a system of examination have these excerpts as test passages." " My Lord. especially at Cambridge. Well.' I liked that immensely Grammar.MATRICULATION EXAMINATIONS 85 But that advantage in which you simply want to emphasise this. accidence. then an efficient test provided in regard to the student's knowledge of grammar. perhaps I I asked my science friends as to may say that what they considered was the cause of the dislike of Classics. of the proposal. got a whole collection of answers like that from my science But you are going to aggravate those old objections friends. Eventually that ridiculous Examination was abolished on account of a petition got up by Professor Bateson and myself. Ladies and Gentlemen. are well chosen in regard to the Set Book. ' . As one who has taken a considerable part in the hard battle to preserve classical studies in the is Universities. I however. by the system which Motion to bring to an end. serious is forced upon teachers up and down the country by the cumstances under which ciation. face to face with the Humanities. — may perhaps be pardoned for trying to explain briefly the cir- this Resolution comes before the Assoyou may see at once the urgency and the gravity It It is not advanced afwpos of nothing. It is for that reason that I have the utmost pleasure in moving this Resolution. syntax. from the masterpieces of classical literature. that what we propose does not exclude the other for these as well as the system of having unseen passages Set Book complement each other. a Greek book or they would add. I Professor Cokway. The next complaint was that they were kept grammar paper too long at at the previous They were delighted when they got to As to Thucydides or Livy to a Greek play. If the grammatical questions ' ' . so that position in regard to classical study — the great discouragement of the higher branches of classical study in schools caused by . that was good stuff. I to classics in the minds of ordinary men. in order to give who it is are not going to be the intention of this In order to keep these them a real insight into a men attached knowledge of the classics. to you. you must bring them which comes from a and that can only come by making them stick closely to certain books. classical scholars. and so on. and then the grumbling against Greek died away almost entirely at Cambridge.

for the London Matriculation. For twenty years I have had to prepare a form of boys. which of will as equivalent to the not accept the Northern Matricidation London Matriculation included in the work that we were brought is done face to face with the facts." Mr. work by a great author would ruin ill sight-translation contact with some their teaching in schools. During these years I have seen three types of examination. To train boys and girls on mere snippets is an absolutely fatal method of teaching and in every case where schools have had a choice between a Set Book and unprepared authors. . with a sound translation in the . University to reconsider this point. as part of the Matriculation requirements. N. E. the Set " Now we Book. they have chosen. although the unprepared alternative demands less labour. Considered as a test of knowledge of a language. I think. but they have been confronted with the resistance of the University London. and beg the influence as the University of couraging the reasonable. in the vital question of the proper in the Classics feel they method must protest : of school instruction the University of simultaneously has struck out Latin from its list of London fixed subjects and has altogether abolished the Set Book The coincidence of those two events is. and schoolmistresses of that part of the selected passages for the enlightcniiig real any Set Book is That is how The schoolmasters country protest with one voice that to substitute mere practice of if for the purpose. It has happened that the Northern Universities in the Matriculation Examination have fought very hard for the retention of the Set Book side by for Matriculation. say that it is not a right thing that a body of such London should issue a fiat dishumane study of classical literature and we think that in all the schools which it can influence the time has come when the Classical Association shoidd speak in the name of teachers of Classics in the country.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 86 Those who are interested the regulations of certain Universities. When I . side with an independent test in unprepared translation. the unprepared But you do not rear things is satisfactory enough.^" on this I should like to say a few words question from a schoolmaster's point of view. significant. instinct. Gardiner. same way as you test them. averaging twenty in number.

This Motion asks the Classical Associa- tion to intervene in a conflict between two are occasions in which. though they may not be able to do it in a very scholarly fashion. J. from time to time. the Set Book was abolished. appears on the surface. and has to be proextra tuition. Caesar and other authors. than they can possibly get from reading detached passages from Ovid. a change for the worse. and to prepare boys for the present examination it is necessary to read a number of authors with Conway a variety of style and vocabulary. It is little more than a grammatical training. attainments are not very high. and a Set important. whose history nor literature. it There might be desirable . the worst of the three. has said. and Book was it by became it This seemed to heart. which could not possibly be crammed. For modern-side boys. and they had a chance of learning something of Roman literature and history. Under the present system they learn a little grammar. Hence the Set Book may be in practice commonly vided by a considerable inconvenience both to master and pupil. classical is less is Book higher and they have read more. present system is. and as Professor Most of the boys reduced to reading snippets. therefore. a very long book. Headlam. the requirement of a Set Book appears to me most valuable. Moreover. and teaches neither Boys get more education from reading a book of Livy or a couple of books of Virgil. But with boys on the Their standard Classical side the case is somewhat different. speaking are going to be medical students. and how to translate very simple Latin.— " discussion. I would move that we adjourn the The whole question is far more complicated than W. in my experience. the preparation for is them for matriculation outside the school curriculum. me boy to learn possible for a Lastly. and write very simple Latin sentences. Under the old system boys had at least the advantage of having read one good book. Universities." Mr. To should suggest as an alternative to the Set meet such Book a more advanced paper cases I in unprepared translation and composition.MATRICULATION EXAMINATIONS 87 began there was a long Latin book. After a few years the Set shortened. They but after passing are compelled to take Latin as a subject such pupils the For their Matriculation they drop it entirely. one of whom I is am .

Classical As to the objection just raised. knowing the views to Unless. and intimately concerned with the whole of this matter if ." Mr. Dawes seconded be adjourned. There are certainly two parties in the Senate of the University on this matter. " SufBcient notice of this Motion has been given. I think if that a formal Resolution of to be done. and ofier our suggestions." Dr.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 88 make for the Classical Association to this kind but . and I think it would be better the Classical Association would consider this matter without any regard to us. That is what we desire. is longer and more detailed discussion than late it would require possible at this is hour of the morning. In a notable instance. Dr. C. would certainly help if the Classical Association would say exactly what it thinks. the proposal that the discussion should — " There is no reason not continue the discussion after lunch. without Examining Board." The Chairman. Headlam. . Grammar Paper for Little-Go. of the University- condemning their a Member of that Board is would support the proposal that present." Rev. A. a pass therefore. why we should There has been full notice given of the Resolution. Perhaps it would have been better if Professor Conway had not referred to what has happened but in so far as he has done so he has done so . I cannot think the Association is precluded from putting a Resolution any University. Professor Ridge way. and the Uniwhich seeks to amend the existing practice of It is part of our business to guide the Universities versities have been grateful that of the abolition of the for the lead. regulation. and therefore the Association is in a position to vote upon — it to-day. the . Many of us wish to adapt the practice to what is believed by the experts to be the best system. —" It is rather a serious thing for the Classical Association. In several instances our Resolutions have led to the alteration of University regulations. and I doubt whether the practice and it of the University represents the views of the majority accurately. Poole Y. and not only to this afternoon. but to the next Meeting of the Association. I London Resolution this discussion should be adjourned. —" I happen to be a member of the Matriculation Board of London.

Next there is the London University Scheme. as. For instance. W. should always be only fairly easy passages . under which there is an option between the Unseen and the Set Book. Any one who knows about schools. L.m. Then there is the Oxford University system. J. schools know As we all know. carry due weight. 2.30 p. which I suppose no one will approve. no doubt. under which the Unseen is obligatory with either a Set Book or a further Unseen as an alterThis — native. " We have four different suggestions to consider.' amendment was approved by the Mover and Seconder. E." It was then agreed that the discussion should be adjourned to the Afternoon Session." Mr. the Headmasters' of our Resolutions. knows that the system of snippets is very bad but I do not think that the question really is ripe . the experiment of substituting for Set Books Unseen passages has not worked perfectly well. Any argu- ments brought forward to-day will. take gestions which has been made this point : one of the sug- for dealing with this matter is that an examination of this kind should be based on passages selected from a larger portion of books of certain authors. for solution. Mr.MATRICULATION EXAMINATIONS reform followed on our proposal. And lastly there is the Cambridge University system. Headlam. there was an absolute consensus of opinion against the principle of Set Books. by which the Unseen is obligatory and there is no Set Book. many Conference has adopted 89 Similarly. — " I should like to make one or two made this morn- short observations in addition to those which I ing and which were intended to show that A quite ripe for solution. — "' I venture to suggest that a few words should be added to this Resolution. and those who have to do with quite well. three or four years ago. with questions historical ' grammatical arising out of them. Vaughan. Set — would then read (a) and literary as well as It Books. so that the boys or 12 . The Chairman. for instance. from the first six books of the Acneid but that the passagv^s set . In the scheme laid before us both the Set Book and the Unseen are obligatory. this question is not few years ago.

to read selected portions from several books of the Gallic War .g. just as boys may be induced to read selected portions. set or prepared. might at the harm by imposing on moment do schools a burden which a all schoolmasters three or four years ago agreed was almost an intolerable burden. of Napier's Peninsular War. I think that a slight alteration in the phraseology might cover . possible that with the development of education in the future changes will be brought about in regard to these examinations by which this distinction will be recognised. is this — that the something prescribed..THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 90 should read as large a number as they could of the most girls and instructive passages from that large portion. Take the case also of Caesar when that : the present English system of a Set Book requires pupils are entered for examination they shall have Book of the Gallic War." — " What I want to put before the Association passages set for translation might be selected from comparatively extensive portions of certain authors. as in Germany. the whole of the First they should know this thoroughly . Under the present system. great deal of Well. I hold no brief should like to represent to the Associaif passed." — The Chairman. There is the alternative system by which you read. I should like also to refer to the distinction between the Matriculation Examination and the School Leaving Examination system. encourage boys. the Set Book is always one or two books therefore it means that the schools interesting : are obliged in studying Virgil to confine their attention to one or two books when you might like to make your pupils acquainted with portions from several books of the Aeneid. that and those and completely who are acquainted with the conditions of school life know that the corollary is too often drawn that they shall know that and nothing else. if you have a Set Book. Mr. Therefore I should venture to suggest to the Association that the question is perhaps not fully ripe for discussion. but for either system. e. A Matriculation Examination seems to be in tion its nature a different thing from a School Leaving Examina- it is . I tion that the Resolution. Headlam. where they could not be expected to read the whole. " Do you not think that the words Set Book might include portions of Set Books ? The words Set Book do not necessarily mean one Book they mean something ' ' ' ' .

It was only the other day that at the Headmasters' Conference allusion was made to Set Books in such examinations as an extremely objectionable system.MATRICULATION EXAMINATIONS that meaning. C. of that sort . a little facility in the alphabet acquiring and by translation able to piece the right translation on is in the Greek alphabet— The objection to the Set Book him. I do not therefore but in any such examination as wish to distinguish the two of a boy or girl at school and the final standard the represents less objectionable. Everybody knows the effect of having a prepared book which a He learns by heart the English boy gets up in six weeks. that it leads to the six weeks' cram. Headlam I should minds of some of us. Headlam has just raised is one which has been really before the Curricula and a sub-committee. know that the Headmasters' Conference feels strongly that existing Entrance Examinations for Universities are all more or and that Leaving Examinations or something would be better as a substitute. As people understand words the present phraseo- logy would not ordinarily refer to what there I am 91 in the hands I have proposed." — Rev. it the time by the Committee that there were other felt at so . is a strong one. " The question which Mr. was told of? to suggest a limited range of authors which might be recommended as affording suitable passages for extracts in Examinations for entrance to the Uniof which versities. Questions might be set upon a choice of books within a certain and unprerange for subject-matter as well as translation . W. before to the passage put . therefore. was I We did not arrive at a definite conclusion because matters more urgent day. but of the Association. Committee during the past year or so . it was left to stand over for some other Whilst not altogether agreeing with Mr. pared passages might also be selected from that range. Of course. was a Member. The Entrance Examinations for the Universities I do not wish to because I distinguish from the School Leaving Examinations like to suggest what has been in the . the range would include a great deal more than the candidates would have prepared. in which no . — standard to which. they would be expected to attain before entering the University in such examinations I would — suggest that there shoidd be a limited range of authors or of parts of authors beyond which the examination should not go. CoMPTON.

' ' . Ure. One reason why tions on accidence and grammar and so on. so I know the nature of the danger But you can counteract that evil by setting quesreferred to. " Would it meet the objection raised if the Set Books or prescribed portions of authors ? words are added But the particular question we are discussing is whether there should be Set Books or unprepared passages or both kinds of It is a further matter what the nature of the test in the Set tests. the old system was a failure was that the examination was so Professor . —" I feel as strongly as any one that you must not go back to the old Set Book alone some other test in addition to that must be found. — " Why not add in the second part of the Resolution that the use of a dictionary be allowed for the yomiger " boys ? Cries of " No. at any rate much more in the by the use of the continuous Set Books than by taking mere snippets. In the old days I used to teach in a University College and I had a good deal of experience with the students who came up. am readily . No." easier portions. If you choose only one book you will have the old danger return of mere cramming." Mr." Miss Falding. P. I am in favour advantage must depend a great deal on its the range of authors or the choice of books. gain facility in I in large Girls' Schools strongly in favour of Set with a certain amount of knowledge Unseen Translation. I find I have taught Latin years that of Latin. Books should be. Motion of the what I is am . reading of and . girls. for a —" good many Books.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 92 literary or any advantage otlier is gained. But if a limited range of authors can be agreed upon. has led me to that conclusion. N. it but was open to now opposing not At the serious objection. That is what has been discussed just now. and we might be only going back in passing this Kesolution to what has been done away with because same time." — — The Chairman. But the main point is whether you need both tests personally My own experience in the Scotch Universities I think you do. badly carried out." Ridgeway. the Motion. we might have a system which would be useful. But that will be a matter of detail in regard to the carrying out of the Kesolution.

" The Resolution "might perhaps be made less rigid by some such phrase as normally comprise. as. Bramley. —" I feel it is doubtful this Resolution as it stands the 93 whether we should pass without taking into consideration Cambridge Previous Examination. or not he has learnt it by heart examiner to find out. on the strength of his general I do not think we arc cutting out the advanced boy. a paper of fairly difficult ordinary Greek and Latin Unseen Translation for the benefit of the more advanced classical boys and girls. own — " The advanced boy University. I do not think we should pass a Resolution showing that we have entirely ignored the existence of Professor Ridgeway's Mrs. W. University. as an alternative to Set Books and in addition to the Latin Unseen paper. and of teaching — The Chairman." Mr. But it would perhaps be inadvisable to pass a sweeping Resolution without adding a footnote to Division {a) of the Resolution. C." reading.— " I would support the use of the Set Book. Professor Ridgeway. Verrall. stating that we except the case of harder Unseen Translation intended to meet the case of advanced classical pupils. Rackham. for instance.' which would suggest a modification " of what is ordinarily understood by ' Set Books. — CoMPTON." might take a Set Book paper at sight. there was allowed.MATRICULATION EXAMINATIONS Mr. Set Books ' you might say ' Set Books or pre- scribed portions of authors. in deference to the wishes of the Headmasters.' Rev. Some years ago. Whether is for the . pupils to read in this chance haphazard It encouraging is way without the slightest concentration of attention upon one author or one book thus it means shutting your eyes the Humanities. In the present discussion we have not in consideration the more advanced classical students. —" I have my eyes fixed upon my own think that the arrangement added some years I ago to the Cambridge Rules exceedingly deadly and quite is detrimental to the best interest of classics. " Is it not a fact that none of the up for the Previous Examination that it is cleverer boys go 'i — .' so leaving room to deal with exceptional cases. those of ' the better men who Also. instead of ' wish to offer subjects on a higher standard. but it should be one that the The book need not be a long one boy knows thoroughly. as an Unseen." to the best method .

Report stands on a different footing from the Report of the Terminology Committee presented yesterday. in both of which candidates are required to satisfy the Examiners. Trayes seconded the amendment. (a) Set Books. the first of which I beg to move. especially in grammar ." This was carried. Professor ' ' ! .' " I think that this word will stultify Professor Ridgeway. {h) Unpre- pared Translation." This Resolution was seconded and adopted without comment. or prescribed portions of authors.' then the Universities we are anxious to appeal to will say." The Amendment " should put to the Meeting and normally was then comprise " lost. But we have drawn — up certain resolutions arising out of the Report. Gardiner. N. " I would point out that this Professor Sonnenschein. REPORT OF CURRICULA COMMITTEE Professor Sonnenschein. last of a series of four.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 94 only an examination taken by boys " University on any higher standard ? Mr. —" A great who cannot get to the my clever boys many do take the Previous Examination. We do not ask you to give it even a provisional approval. — the whole Resolution." Mr. " If we put in the word normal. as well as grammatical arising out of them. as large a choice of left to books as possible being the candidates ." — of " should normally Conway. years' labour on the part —" I move that this Report— the and representing the conclusion of the Curricula of five Committee— be received and entered on the Minutes. That in the opinion of the Classical ' Association it is desirable that a definite understanding should be reached as to the range of knowledge. The Resolution as follows was then put to the meeting " That a University Matriculation Examination in Latin : should comprise as obligatory parts. E. with questions historical and literary. comprise. viz. Oh but " we are abnormal our conditions are quite different.

in attending lumbermen's conventions. But I do do not know anything about your anything about what you call I colleges. but which In this Report we have years at school. or a good citizen. " What kind of education ought a to ask him this question boy to have to-day in the United States to become an efficient business man. who has spent his life in lumber-camps and sawmills among rough men. one who began with nothing and who He has made his is to-day a millionaire. not by refined methods. : : : .' " In previous Reports. I improved the opportunity. money. Having in mind my talk this morning. gave me this answer " Remorseless drill in the Latin language and in the algebraic mathematics. to be expected in the earlier stages of the study up to and including the stage to which Matriculation Examinations should correspond and that the attention of Examining Bodies be invited to the desirability of making of Latin. Professor of Sociology in the Columbia University. I I do not know academic training. I think In saying this I it is am specially germane to not academic. but by ex- ploiting the natural resources of the country as a lumberman and sawmill owner. without regard to whether he is a good man or a decent man." he said disguise ? " camps and sawmills. and had piled up his money. . this Resolution : Last evening I had the pleasure of spending several hours with a very practical man. in political lobbies." " What do you mean ? Are you a college professor in I said " I have spent my time in lumber" No. " In connexion with the question of the value of Latin in such schools. I never spent a day in school after was sixteen years old. but simply to make him an efficient money-maker ? " And this practical man. we have em- phasised the importance of even a short course of Latin as an element in the education of boys and girls who are not able to many spend a great specially in to exist. mind a type may which no name appears be described as a school with a leaving of school for age of about sixteen.CURRICULA COMMIITEE 95 and vocabulary. and in all sorts of practical undertakings. especially the last one. their examinations accord with some such scheme as is indicated in the present Report. permit me to read a passage from a speech made by Dr. Giddings. as I always do on such occasions. New York " ' . .

the business I man have written or dictated an average and there are business men who do more have discovered that the essential thing for America to-day is to have a mind trained in come to the point and to get there quick. ' The impression has gone abroad that the Classical Association has set its face against grammar." " In our present Report we are discussing the methods of bringing a limited amount of Latin. and pupils.' to the fact that some four years ago. as distinguished and in algebraic from English branches. the schools in question have time home for. aggeration of made our position perfectly clear that we have no intention of minimising the importance of a limited amount of grammar. One principle which we have borne in mind is that of the old Roman schoolmaster Quintilian Begin aright. This impression is due at any rate against Greek grammar.' Get on to the right lines when you start. we passed a Resolution that in forms of boys' public schools Greek should be taught only with a view to the intelligent reading of Greek authors. ' There a great deal of subsequent labour will be saved. Our intention was mainly to protest against the ex- grammar teaching by the learning of all sorts of useless grammar and the failure to limit the attention of pupils In the present Report we have to what was really important. than that and . grammar and vocabulary. discipline to in the Latin language.' . But in thus we did not intend to deny that we did not mean to a means towards that end defining the end of Greek study grammar is . is one feature in our Report to which I desire to call special attention especially in it is referred to in my Resolution in the words . The Committee is opposed to any ' grammar. And of all the ways ever discovered or invented by man to train the human mind to come to the point and to get there quick. suggest that any language can be learnt without studying its grammar. mathematics. which is all the pupils in metic. minds to the of the Our suggestions have not been arrived at without much thought and inquiry. when we met in this very the lower and middle building. as distinguished from mere arith- is the best. Thus we say on page 110. and holds that disparagement of the importance of all that is attempted in this direction should be done thoroughly.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 96 know ttis for fifty years I : of fifty letters a day.

has also published a selected Latina. of the Columbia University.000 contained if any such word occurs or that in a stanit be accompanied by a footnote giving the translation. although therein. Professor Lodge. are of a moderate character.000 words. vocabulary in his Basis much importance Well. Professor Arnold. in which he has recorded the exact of High number of occurrences of words in a limited range of authors (see p.CURRICULA COMMITTEE " The firat part of that in the matter of my Resolution expresses grammar and vocabulary 97 desirability tlie a definite under- standing should be reached as to the range of the knowledge to be required. without attaching too in much to this subject. This is a matter 13 . should I feel an exaggeration of a principle which is in itself sound. but which. or the light thrown upon them by the context. as being as good as another. It is and to a mistake to treat one word exercise no kind of selection as to what words shall be brought under the notice of pupils. owing to their similarity to EngHsh. who has had a large hand Report. it beyond the 2. I feel that there is the possibility of exaggera- ting the idea of a standard vocabulary It has even been suggested that if it is applied too rigidly. ^109). New York. I do feel myself that the concentration of study that we need for the purpose of simplifying teaching and of saving time and energy does require some limitation of the pupil's vocabulary and I think that on the whole our recommendations . There are many words which do not occur in a vocabulary of 2. We have given instances of such words of that sort in a footnote to the Report that this is (p. has produced an elaborate book entitled The Vocabulary School Latin. is it is not explicitly mentioned the organised scheme of reading and the books re- commended for study at particular stages. might suitably be included in a passage set for unseen translation. attention has recently been called to the importance of acquiring a working vocabulary of limited range. " As to vocabulary. of preparing this Bangor. and whose absence to-day we regret. 109). " Another feature of the Report that arises in connexion with this Resolution. no passage should be set for unseen translation at a University Matriculation Examination which has any word in dard vocabulary . On the other hand.

. lutely all that can it is If. we must ' Organise. prove texts is the of . For Latin will prove to be a practically impossible subject if it does not lead to some sort of result which be valuable fer se.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 98 we have given much anxious to which attention. three or four hours a is to abso- be allowed to this subject at the present time. necessarily limits the time that can be devoted to Latin. of the type subjects. should in our opinion be used.' scheme of some such We ' do not claim any special inspiration for our own scheme of but some such scheme of study should be before the mind study . a modern language — — nature study. I think it is very possible that some other alternatives might be suggested or even some substitutes for But what we have proposed. then. All that has changed and we must organise our teaching in accordance with the changed conditions in school life. and con- struction that one can arrive at something like a graduated You of authors. " The last feature — important is felt week make the most in this Resolution is of this limited perhaps the most That the attention of Examining Bodies be invited of making their examinations accord with desirability to the study as is indicated in the present Report. imperatively necessary to amount of time. simplification — the artificial list we ap- simplification — of observe that in the earliest stage will and that at the intermediate stage abridged texts. provided it is written in — good classical Latin. As Matthew Arnold said. It is only by means of selection and careful consideration of subject-matter. What is it desirable For for a boy or girl at a particular stage of learning to read ? we are convinced that the ordinary attitude of indifference towards this question is wrong that it is a mistake to think that one book is as good as another.' On our doing so depends the question whether Latin shall maintain a foothold in these schools at all. at any rate we have tried to face the question. Under the old-fashioned system of education the amount of time at the disposal of the teacher of Latin was practically unlimited. vocabulary. I feel quite clear myself that in schools which we are considering the steady pressure of other whose importance Members of the Classical Association are quite as ready to recognise as other people English literature. that texts from which certain passages have been removed. Organise. Organise.

make doubt. lines. by having the juniors and seniors lumped together and taught in the same class. no the organisation of the teaching easier in those is an inadequate staff. In thus there is the second place. will my own not which sit I down without expressing one little heresy of heard put forward. no doubt in order to plunge into the lumber trade has pointed out quite two It falls into tion. that you teach your pupils quite carefully and well and intelligently. Juniors and seniors ought not to be taught together at any rate that schools where there . as you think. and need of some definite organisation such as this Report of the Curricula Committee has tried to express. It alteration it is a most disheartening experience that is of course abso- examining bodies should fall in many with teachers have had. at the present fairly moment and parts. —" I need not detain the Meeting long in seconding this Resolution. that Classical instruction has to compete with other studies . They seem to proceed too much on the old principle that it does not much matter what book you But you get a good staff of examiners. by . is the opinion of your Committee.CURRICULA COMMITTEE of Examining Bodies. along certain lines. ! Professor Sonnenschein clearly the scope of this ResoluFirst. I am 99 afraid that the Local Examinations conducted by the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge do not always set a good example in this matter. But the result of such an arrangement cannot be good. if we make any lutely necessary that the it." Professor Gilbert Murray. conwork and neither too severe nor too lenient. for I have seen one sound Latin scholar after another stealing from the room. and the examiner comes and examines along totally different. Yet the 6th Aeneid is the subject set this year for the Oxford Local Examination. You could hardly have anything more unsuitable : Virgil thus becomes practically the first classical author that these pupils read and they are not fit to begin it. We also do not approve of the practice of setting the same book for the The object Juniors and the Seniors. to of this arrangement is. set provided scientious in their to set a book form of a school 6th Aeneid for pupils in the middle like the of this type is practically to erect a serious barrier against the intelligent study of Latin in these schools. amid some opposition. That "I is a thing that should be avoided as far as possible.

for many years we have been working out problems very similar to those that this Association has just been engaged It has been no small satisfaction to us— I am speaking with. C. standard. The same be allowed to use dictionaries. may for the present stand for the — whole Dominion it has been no small satisfaction to us to find from your Reports that in point after point you have followed exactly the lines we have been driven by experience to work out for ourselves. so far as educational questions are con- cerned. test I seems to me the natural one for low standard examinations. which. to a particular set of words . tell you the contents with occasional use of a dictionary. but can he. You cannot limit them and there is a certain awkwardness often in giving the meaning of a word at the foot of the page. I . in introducing the Resolu- moments ago. but it has been a life and death problem with us. seemed to be anxious of those who are opposed to a great tion a few attitude grammar and vocabulary. It may be that our example will afford similar satisfaction to this Committee. in case of unseen translation the candidates ought to If you ask a grown man if he knows Russian. Professor Sonnenschein. beg to second — " It may not be without interest to the Association to have a few words from a come some hundreds I of miles to attend. Robertson. Ure entirely alone in his suggestion that the use of a dictionary might be allowed. Member who has In Canada there are certain conditions existing at present which are very similar to those which this Committee is attempting to meet. what you mean is not can he do Russian Unseens and Proses. have for some years been organising a class of pupils who have recently arisen among you. I am therefore inclined to think that for examinations of a low is great difficulty in choosing Unseens. This is a recent problem with you. now of Ontario. and whicli arises out of tlie proposed limitation of the do not think we are at present in any danger of over-organisation but I confess that I have a certain sinking within me when I contemplate those lists of 2. Ure. to deprecate the simplification of I should say rather that the books .THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 100 Mr. I understand. There vocabulary. the first resolution. for this is practically the only kind of pupil we have and . if he is given a Russian newspaper. did not like to leave Mr.000 words." Professor J. You in England.

and extending to 30. they are apt to be somewhat unrelated to the lessons that have just been learnt. but of recent books specially published with a view to meeting the needs of the very class referred to in this report. but could easily procure at the nearest shop. are right in limiting the amount of grammar to that which will be of real use. So it is with the grammar and vocabulary. There are some things contained in books recently published which such pupils that will be and damaged need them. 50. the chances are only one in and a million that they will ever have occasion to use them want some may perhaps day. Why occasion to use amount of will never have there are other things. In this connection we on the other outfits that I is details still I think that on taught to them cannot be mentioned am reminded of some colonial side of the Atlantic sometimes find have been provided in this country for intending colonists. or lost a long time before they actually should people carry around this extraordinary impedimenta And ? I am not thinking. might well be dropped. at this hour. . no matter how adapted. and with no new appearing early in one book and late in another . Another point I would refer to is in connection with the simplification of passages for beginners. and in making that knowledge an absolutely sure possession of the pupil. With some of the articles provided. 40. there are other articles that they . to the lessons and to the selected vocabulary and exercises that have preceded them. with scarcely any new words beyond those that had just been learnt. or 60 lines. further consideration a good deal that Of course. I repeat. superfluous baggage. It is the custom now sperse short stories of these is in compiling beginners' among the lessons.CURRICULA COMMITTEE 101 that have recently appeared here indicate that your simplifica- You tion has not yet gone far enough. only of the older type of book. each bearing upon the exercises preceding. One books to inter- objection to many that no matter how carefully chosen. In preparing the book now in general use in Canada. You will find a certain anecdote and it often makes little difference whether the story appears on the 50th But such stories should have direct reference or the 150th page. we found it possible to write a number of stories of increasing length. But in the application of this principle to another class of pupils than those of the great public schools. .

I think. while a large proportion of the candidates give evidence of thorough. to translate They number to begin with such iteris ' . moved the second Resolution " That in the of classical study. that and itineris. And if you ask them In this battle Porapcy was beaten they will use but vapulavit. syntax than there used to be among men reading for Honours. for instance. Pantin early stages : should be strictly limited to what is necessary for the study of texts suitable for these stages. apparently it is very common a book as the Ijatin Primer and try to learn been rather amused sometimes by strange pieces of erudition. and of the importance of the constructions that are introduced. my own I have producing you. iter common translation from the Latin because fail in apparently they do not notice the endings of the words. We are discussing to-day the more elementary stage. yet within these limits a high standard of thoroughness and accuracy should be demanded. constructions. is My experience that." " I think it is important that this Association should declare itself in favour of a high standard on the linguistic side and not and in Greek as well as in Latin." The Resolution was then put to the Meeting and carried unanimously. the stage which as is tested an examiner by Matriculation examinations. not victus ' est it jiupils of will tell of by heart. a considerable break down show by in their knowledge of words that they have spent a con- siderable time on Latin. it is number They knowledge of the elements of the language. It would not be difficult to produce evidence that this side of classical work is being neglected.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCLVTION 102 That. translate into Latin easy sentences set to test their familiarity with the constructions. careful work. I was talking an hour ago with an Oxford tutor and he told me that he found less knowledge of only on the literary side . Now this is not really knowledge has two genitives. forms of common But they cannot give They cannot correctly the verbs and nouns. while the amount of grammar Mr. is a good test to apply of the use- fulness of the vocabulary chosen. Latin teaching suffers partly because pupils try to learn such an enormous inflections . They I think an important thing that we should recommend thoroughness over a limited range at the beginning.

and feels at home with the common types of sentence and I think this Association may do something for the study of Latin if it will impress upon those in authority that they ought not to set for pupils at an early stage strange forms which occur seldom. ture at It is important. many people in this room could recall a single passage from a Latin author for each of those words. on account of the Liverpool apprenticeship system. then. furfur. It is my deep satisfaction with the Report as a not necessary to say much. I think. if we It is are to teach the If we are to do this. who I wonder if there are : some very ren. it " In seconding the Resolution I would like to take this oppor- tunity of expressing whole. Resolution. it is his benediction. .CURRICULA COMMITTEE they have not seen 103 They have and that vapulare in this sense is slang. —" We are Classical not all common- schoolmasters and school- Association perhaps useful for a schoolmaster to give and therefore . splen. if ever. One finds sometimes in grammar papers intended for this stage that forms are asked which never occur in Latin literano idea that iteris iteris or vapulare in any context. and to have the whole thing systematised. instance as early as page 30 one finds (mingled with useful information) the following words Now acinaces. Cradock. or Latin. to simplify our problem by twenty-one.Watson. at all." Mr. rnugil. Primer fact that the Latin to be treated with care because is it does not sufficiently distinguish the essential from the unessential. Only a few weeks ago in Liverpool boys classics. we must But we want leading. the ordinary forms of ordinary words. I represent a Lancashire school where a large number leave at the age of sijxteen. get rid of all lumber. in the authors usually read. What I think that we have to urge is a very much more thorough knowledge of the essential things so that a boy who takes up a passage from Caesar or Cicero recognises at once. because I think the Report expresses so thoroughly what so many feel. It may be useful as a reference grammar grammar to learn right through it but as a beginner's most midesirable. H. For is . that a lad may get through his five years' articles necessary. because mistresses in the I would venture to second the expresses so admirably the it sense of the situation. has a poetical feehng about it . and without any effort of thought. to call attention to the all.

Alsop. but teach him to find we look this ' tion ' much from we I find that are apt to look the teacher's point of view.' " The Resolution was put The thanks to the Meeting of the Association are and carried. for his assistance in organising the arrangements for the General Meeting. lot sir. they like guessing. paying quantities. I have talked the matter over with a liberal business men in Liverpool education in the first they approve in theory. due to Mr. and engenders . Then we have to deal with the parent who demands a practical with parents like the one who on entering a boy education ' ' .THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 104 a lecture was delivered to a large number of Liverpool business men by Mr. Walter Smith. Let the pupils exercise this alertness we can at the ' of association. put over the heads is In practice therefore it is difficult for a boy to remain long at school if he is going into business. But at the matter from the pupil's point of view. you want to if train the business man instance you must give him and that the so-called business or commercial training was really technical instruction which should come later after the secondary school training. wbo is an educational authority in Liverpool.' " it seems excellent to but we should not attempt to limit passages for About the 2. if a boy comes in older.' such satisfaction that it His conclusion was that was printed and circulated broad-cast. boys at this matter too if him a to teach about strata. Secretary of King's College. and don't put too many meanings of unusual words bottom of the page. and of others already in the office.' or as Don't ! I think let we must now call it ' alertness of associa- us allow the use of a dictionary more than help. On ' tlie This lecture met with Education of a Business Man.000 word vocabulary start with . at a mining college said of nonsense in ' : I don't want you — tin tin. but in pracoffice. . : translation to those containing the 2. interferes with the routine of the tice it dissatisfaction.000 words. like a guessing competition.

Committee on Grammatical Terminology 1-21 . 37 94 Curricula Committee Curricula Committee (Resolutions carried) .. ........ ........ 41 43 Balance Sheet approved Committee Appointed to Confer with Representatives op 41 THE Hellenic Society Election of Officers and Council Place and Date of Next General Meeting Reports 46 ... 31 . 104 Resolution on University Matriculation Examinations in Latin (carried) Votes of Thanks 94 : To THE President To THE Authorities ov King's College 106 . .INDEX TO THE PROCEEDINGS A..... .... .... 22 84 in Latin The President's Address 48 B... .—ACTA Alteration op Rule .....-COMMUNICATIONS AND DISCUSSIONS PAGE Discussions . 47 : Committee on Classical Journals (approved) Council . 102. ............. : On Grammatical Terminology On Report of Curricula Committee On Report op Journals Committee On University Matriculation Examination 1 94 .. .. ... 14 78-83 48 ...... ......


to secure for pupils training which Latin is much is By the it restricting knowledge will be pos- at the disposal of these of the linguistic specially able to provide. and logical and thus to 1 The schools contemplated in this report are in the main those referred to in the Interim Report of the Curricula Committee which was presented to the General Meeting of the Classical Association on October 10. pp. the proposals will require modification. of the course is to give pupils a thorough knowledge of Latin within a limited range. is about sixteen 1909 INTRODUCTION 1." The present Report is supplementary to the Report presented on October 19. The Committee considers that Latin should be an integral part of the ordinary curriculum in a four years' secondary schools in which the leaving age course here is shorter. 98-109) : 107 . the range (though not the thoroughness) of required in accidence. and a means towards the mastery of English and the acquisition of modern foreign languages. when the following resolution was unanimously " That the Classical Association welcomes adopted by the Association and desires to make loiown the evidence which has been collected by the Curricula Committee as to the value of even a short course of Latin as a trainmg in thought and expression. and some acquaintance with a few of the masterpieces of Latin literature. vocabulary and syntax. sible. course for 16. ^ even in the limited time which schools.REPORT OF THE CURRICULA COMMITTEE Upon Four Years' Latin Course for Secondary Schools in which the leaving a age December 1st. or made The aim (6) is about If {a) the the school has special aims. 1907 {Proceedings jor 1907. 1908.

is available. In actual practice any such scheme requires adaptation to meet constantly varying needs. be of great value. may : composed Latin texts. 3. difficult easier be greatly increased. in the opinion of the Committee. very desirable it is that there should be a daily lesson in Latin. Original it Latin authors being too for difl&cult necessary to lead up to them by Latin so is in kind that the quantity read reading. making a total of not less than 150 lessons in Whenever more time each year. only relieves the study but is in itself a valuable investigations A good working vocabulary not of Latin texts of most and permanent of its drudgery. (ii) simplified texts abridged by the omission of the more or less important parts. that even towards the end of the course it may often be desirable to abridge a text by such omis- and thus increase the continuous interest of the reading. proposed extends over four school years. The Committee attaches much importance to the building sions. It will be understood that it is put forward only as a specimen scheme. thus leaving . The Committee considers. The scheme here 2. show that a vocabulary such as may Eecent easily be acquired within this course will cover at least nine out of every ten words which occur in an ordinary (non-technical) passage of any Latin prose author commonly read in schools. and especially during the first year. much (iii) for instruction in the elements. and so thinks that it will be useful to put forward a scheme which in arrangement and extent indicates what is practicable for these schools. 4. (iv) unabridged texts. history. It is expected that in each school week throughout the year four lessons at least will be given in Latin. and be time for ample oral work based upon the Thus the order of progress will generally be (i) Latin that there specially may beginners. acquisition. however. and it is assumed throughout that the pupils are of not more than average capacity. The Committee believes that many schools will be glad to compare their own schemes of study with one that has been scrutinised by a representative body. up of the pupil's vocabulary.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 108 lay the foundation for a fuller appreciation of literature and Such a course will. although approaching the much impossible to obtain anything it is full benefits of a classical education without a longer period of study.

Cicero. though not identical. Vocabulary of High School Latin (Boston. for they both include as separate words many compounds and derivatives the meaning of which can be easily inferred if the meaning of the words from which they are derived is known. ^ desirable that the pupil should It seems therefore highly become familiar during his school course with the words which are of outstanding importance in In determining which are the commonest and words teachers and examiners will find the the literature. deliberare. most useful Latin But in calling and familiar knowledge of common words the Committee by no means suggests that a pupil's vocabiilaries referred to in the note of great value. E. for instance. ancilla. I. Gonzalez Lodge." December. These two vocabularies. must have been commonly used in everyday talk at . Basis Latina (Dent.g. constantia. diacipulus. are applicable mutatis mutandis to the teaching of Latin 5. there are other words which. but probably each of these vocabularies might thus be regarded as containing from 1. again.450 to 1.g. words like colonia. 1907). V. .500 wholly distinct words. Catilinarian Orations. however. would find and. present no difficulty to the pupil of throwing light upon the vocabulary and have the advantage mother tongue. B. Professor Lodge's list is based upon the books which are universally studied in American high schools in preparation for College Entrance Examinations viz. Exact figures are not available. I. 1908). 1908). From of the also. Aen.-VI. Pro Lege Manilia. Rome ^ (e. contain each about 2. which. but which no place its in a " necessarily contain standard vocabulary " . attention to the importance of a real knowledge should be limited to them.000 words. . Professor Arnold's list includes some words which. E. On the contrary. nevertheowing to their similarity to the English words derived from less. exspectaiio. afflrmare. For practical purposes. Pro Archia Virgil. though dealing directly only with the teaching of modern languages.^ On the general question of the building up of the pupil's vocabulary the Committee appends some extracts from a lecture by Professor Walter Rippmann (published in " Modern Language Teaching. Caesar. every many words which are particular text must required for particular subject-matter.REPORT OF THE CURRICULA COMMITTEE 109 only one word in ten to be looked out in the dictionary or interpreted in the light of the context. though not of the commonest occurrence. the treatment of vocabulary that of accidence will * See. they may be regarded as considerably shorter . them.-V.O. declarare. hortus). though they do not occur in these books. Arnold.

The books set for examinations which are ordinarily taken by pupils in the second or third year of their Latin course should be adapted to their capacities for instance. and holds that all that is attempted in this only up to the first stage or the first direction should be done thoroughly. when the pupil has thoroughly In the practical study mastered the essentials of the language. is . thorough familiarity with all such grammatical forms and types of sentence as occur frequently in the authors read during the course. of constant wlietlier regular or irregular. but thoroughly assimilated by constant practice (in- cluding throughout the course practice in writing Latin). Moreover. 6. but within its limits a high standard of accuracy should be insisted upon in the candidates' answers and no candidate should pass who does not show . occurrence must not only be which are learnt as part of grammar.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 110 Forms. logically follow. It is of importance that examinations connected with the various parts of the scheme should be thoroughly in accord with its Examiners should not spirit. Where translation into English required. may but in the be studied two stages. composition of a Latin sentence . . set questions which in any direction exceed the range of the course. of syntax three stages should be distinguished : (i) the stage at which the pupil can see what a construction means and can (ii) the stage at which translate it from Latin into English he can recall the construction to memory and use it for the . The Committee is opposed to any disparagement of the importance of grammar. The study of rare forms other than those which may occur in the reading belongs to a later stage. A high value should be assigned to the power of read- ing simple Latin at sight. considers that all three stages common and normal should be achieved for the constructions of Latin prose early years of the course particular constructions . quite unsuitable for of a four years' course except the last year. the stage at which he (iii) can locate the construction in an organised scheme of syntax and see its relation to cognate constructions in Latin and in Within the four years' course the Committee other languages. the English should be correct and natural : is and the memorised translation of specially prepared books should be discouraged in every possible way. such a any part book as Aeneid VI.

not only might a much higher standard within that range be attained by the ordinary candidate. THE FIRST YEAR 8.REPORT OF THE CURRICULA COMMITTEE it is 111 undesirable that the same book should be set for exami- A nation of pupils at different stages of their course. presents its Report on the " object. in each but at . which should form the subject-matter of these examinations. but also the objections now felt to making Latin an essential subject at matriculation might to a large extent be removed. which is suitable for pupils in their fourth year adapted to the such as is earlier stages of book necessarily is ill an organised course of study outlined here. examinations which are intended to mark qualification this should correspond generally to a scheme of this kind. the needs of such pupils. it is hoped. more especially It believes definite understanding as to the range in grammar and vocabulary. It therefore suggests that Matriculation and school-leaving 7. 9. year's course will correspond generally to the work of work the whole which the average age at entrance is 12 the year should follow some book specially prepared for of a class in . at any rate so far as candidates desiring to proceed to a degree in Arts are concerned. that of if there were a knowledge." The transition from grammar will. and to apply correctly such terms as " subject. The Committee considers that examinations conducted on these principles and corresponding to the complete four years' course might reasonably be accepted as evidence that a candidate is qualified to enter upon a first course in Latin in a University." " voice. The following points may be named which should be kept (i) The number of in view in a first as amongst those year's course : new words and forms introduced lesson should not be so large as to confuse the pupil." " predicate. Before beginning the study of Latin it is very desirable that the pupil shoidd have learned through the study of his own language to distinguish in practice the different parts of speech." English to Latin simplification The first and uniformity of Grammatical Terminology." " tense. be much faciUtated when the Committee. now sitting." " case.

the knowledge of Latin as a : (2) it is also desirable to means meanings of English derivatives use of distinguishing the {e. and the teacher ought to make them for himself. e. ineligible. It is well that the exercises during this year should be done orally in class before they are reproduced in writing. illegible).g. Such exercises are needed on every section of the The questions text.g.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 112 500 of least tlie commonest words in the language should be thoroughly mastered during the year. apt to find lodgment in the memory. i. as for instance : (b) by oral question and answer in Latin. (d) by the comparison of Latin words with words cognate to them or derived from them in EngUsh and French (without entering upon difficult questions which belong to the science of comparative philology). based on the text ^ by repeating sentences with change of tense or other (c) by the conversion (a) variation of simple English sentences into Latin. therefore be prepared by way of viva voce work in class. imless the teacher has so complete a mastery of the language as to be able to speak on the spur 1 of the moment. Words and forms once introduced should be frequently (ii) repeated mitil the learner (iii) The is thoroughly famiUar with them. In order to strengthen the hold of the correct forms on the memory. should be carefully prepared beforehand. Teachers should not rely entirely on the specimens of oral work given in books. It is of great importance that pupils should be saved so far as possible from for the written mistake^ making mistakes is in writing . . it is also desirable that exerwhich have been corrected should be rewritten by of speech cises the pupils in order that a correct idiomatic version should be fixed in their minds. regina with reine . pater with derivations two points should be borne in paternal. linguistic material of the Latin text of each lesson memory by a variety of should be firmly fixed in the learner's methods. In tracing mind (1) it is desirable to connect the unfamiliar Latin word with some familiar word in English or French. even if it is afterwards corrected by the The groimd for written exercises should teacher.

of which the formal study is reserved for a later period. in proportion as the 15 . and it may be well if time permits to bring in the most usual forms of the irregular verbs possum. in order to bring it into touch with the amount of accidence and syntax learned during the first year. which have not yet been taught by important pupil. and the principal uses of the tenses. it is that the vocabulary should not overwhelm the that the sentences should not be excessively long. 11. PupUs should become familiar with the chief rules of agreement. the chief attention being to constructions common to English and Latin. If (vi) modern themes not be remote from the are admitted at this stage they should and the spirit of the classical authors. best Latin models should be followed in the text. hence it is even approximately necessary to employ simplified texts at this stage. Few rules of syntax need be given. the regular declensions and conjugations and the commonest pronouns must be included. the outstanding uses of the cases with and without prepositions.writing to a considerable extent. such as that of the indirect statement. For simplified texts of this kind (which lines in length) the may be about 800 Committee suggests as alternatives : ^ 1 The simplification in the earlier part of the texts suggested would involve re. THE SECOND YEAR 10. on accoimt of their great frequency in Latin the . later part. systematic treatment of the subjunctive voice (v) paid mood and the passive may be left to the next year. nolo. constructions. in its original form. No classical text. such as the present subjunctive in expressions of command and wish and the infinitive in dependent statements. fewer changes would bo necessary. (ii) (i) way of systematic grammar but .REPORT OF THE CURRICULA COMMITTEE 113 (iv) As to accidence. are being At the same time that these thoroughly assimilated the year's coui'se first may occasionally introduce other simple constructions. (iii) that continuous passages in oratio obliqua should not be introduced. In the second year of the course up the be possible to take Such texts may include it will simplified text of a Latin author. volo. knowledge of the pupil advances during the year. and perhaps even of eo and fero. In the however. fulfils these conditions .

and with of the cases not dealt with during the first year. In addition many less common words will occur in the tests read . the story of Coriolanus. THE THIRD YEAR 14. disproportionate to their interest. The programme and a verse book out least 1. I.200 lines) : of reading might include a prose book of the following list (making together at . based on Caesar B. based on Livy Bk. but on these less stress should be laid.000 of the commonest words. Grammar and composition should follow the reading. e. (iii) will give confidence at if the first prepared in class and nothing more is reading expected by lesson way of is home preparation than reproduction of what has been so prepared. 13. Frequent revision and much not advisable to assign more than a part of any lesson to this work. .g. In the third year the advance can be to abridged texts Virgil. Cicero. that is and Ovid may be presented of sections which are made from simplified to say. parts of Caesar. Britain IV. based on Livy Bk. which should be thoroughly fixed in the memory by constant use. and the teacher should adopt the best of these. In accidence the subjunctive mood and the passive voice must now be thoroughly mastered. to the pupil with the omission less interesting in themselves or less closely connected with the main story. The new types of sentence should be thoroughly assimilated by frequent practice in writing Latin.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 114 (i) an episode of the story of the Gallic War. In syntax the pupil should become acquainted during this year with the simpler uses practice will be required. 12. V. the invasion of and the attack on Cicero's camp. but of the subjunctive prominent uses it is (independent and dependent). (ii) stories It about the kings of Eome.G. II. The vocabulary should within the year be extended to include at least 1. In the preparation in class pupils all should co-operate in making suggestions. or again of those which present difficulties 15. Livy.

in connexion with now become acquainted with commoner kinds of Latin verse . IV.500 words of this class. or some of his easier letters the story of the (iii) some 11. e. and the Helen episode. now be In accidence paid to the "principal parts" more important verbs and of the 1 little in use. short and easy passages from Virgil. from Caesar B. Virgil. such passages being best selected from the texts which are being read. VII. Aen. THE FOURTH YEAR 17. Practice in the translation in class of passages not previously prepared should be continued. thus be reduced to about 590 lines selections (iv) from Ovid's Fasti.REPORT OF THE CURRICULA COMMITTEE 115 dramatic scenes from Livy V. if not earlier. but also for the fact that it introduces him to a wider range of literature than can be touched by his ordinary reading. from of Troy. when It is further recommended that at this stage. III. II. Ovid. linked together to form a connected story. 57-202.C. 566-633 : the book would . the pupil will mechanism of the Further. work less In the fourth year the pupil should study a standard prose and a standard verse work (not (not less than 1. so that the pupil time be familiar with some special attention should of the late now may by the end of this . and other poets should be learned by heart. Here too the principle of abridgment may . Proserpine). In the third year the vocabulary will be 16. or Metamorphoses (v) selections 11. such as the Pro Lege (ii) Manilla. The exercise is valuable. Horace. omitting of the episodes. Parts syntax which have so far been only lightly treated must be thoroughly assimilated.000 lines) than 500 lines). much enlarged by common words the reading. fall .G. such as that of the treachery of Sinon. the practice in scansion should form part of the regular work of the class it is engaged on a verse author. Forms which occur only in read texts should not be included in the list. (i) by annotation one of the easier speeches of Cicero. but special care should be taken that are thoroughly learnt. and VIII. 393-620 (the story of . not only as increasing the pupil's vocabulary. VII or B. Catullus. his verse reading.g.

but also in other years. order to strengthen the reasoning powers by directing attention to an orderly arrangement and efiective classification of the facts and usages of the language. difficulties syntax or style. but also in 19. The course may be varied from year to year in such a way as to prevent the teacher's work from becoming mechanical on the other hand. the tion or from 20. ought. In the fourth year especially. both accidence and syntax. War is For example. will often be desirable it is of great : importance that teachers should direct the attention of their pupils to the subject-matter of the authors studied. It is important that candidates shoiild which they cannot be expected carefully to scrutinise therefore. it should be borne in mind that famiUarity Book XXII. taken (Livy XXI. 18. Examiners to surmount. In examination pupils should show that they can translate readily unseen passages of no special difficulty in a style similar to that of the set books.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 116 be usefully applied. in order to find time for including the account of the battle of Rome the heroic attitude of Cannae and under defeat. XXII) if tlie it story of the Second Punic would be desirable to omit the parts that are less essential to the narrative. special peculiarities excluding any view to with a unseen passages not be presented with of vocabulary. Simplifications of the text on the other hand. Composition should continue to be regularly practised both in the third and the fourth year its aim should still be to secure thorough familiarity with common inflexions and constructions. which come late in The omitted parts may be briefly summarised or read aloud to the class in an English translation. not merely as an aid to the memory. Opportunities should be seized of indicating to pupils the historical and literary significance of the works read —their . It should be borne in mind that an intelligent grasp of the story or " situation " is a great and indeed indispensable aid to translation. Rath the author read is an important element in the teacher's efficiency. candidates should with common words and to infer familiar be to be expected less common words from their derivaof the some of the meaning context. In this year there should be a systematic review of the whole of the grammar included in the course.

. well and thoroughly An full able realises preparatory teacher. Shakespeare's Roman plays. Macmillan. Rice Holmes. CONCLUSION The Committee this scheme. work on the same subject) by T. Again Macaulay's Rome. or have hkely that the natural eagerness of masters and pupils will urge them to attempt the reading of Latin authors in the original form without the training which knows his presented is class by the vocabulary. the Aeneid will help them Book which to follow the story of the they are construing.^ and will get from the study of such a book some idea of the way in which the military operations were by the geography conditioned of the country. and that the results attained would justify the retention of Latin in the curriculum of schools where doubts of led. an historical narrative (being Part I. poetic spirit. if of is opinion that the work suggested in carried out with thoroughness. to its omission. and of the historical value of Caesar's work. and will at the same time serve to indicate the influence which Greek and Roman writers have had upon Lays of Ancient English literature. Rice read with interest light will Conquest of Gaul. Holmes's Dr. Litt. the structure of the sentences and the may by judicious help make who difficulties extensive this a success. But a danger of discouraging the average pupil by setting Caesar's Conquest of Gaul. Several copies of each of the books suitable for the private reading of pupils might well be included in a class-room ^ of the larger — library. there is here recommended. the perusal of a verse translation of Latin text. &s.D. many on the author they are studying. of Caesar's narrative T. sufficient to is occupy the time contemplated. net. which they would scarcely be able to gather from the reading of a limited portion of the In the same way. to see how and to appreciate better its it forms part of a larger whole. and North's translation of some of Plutarch's Lives will stimulate interest in the Latin authors.REPORT OF THE CURRICULA COMMITTEE events in the history of mankind and to great to relation 117 the great products modern of literatures. should Pupils be encouraged to read for themselves English works which throw For example. its relative It is many value might lead.

THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 118 him a task beyond his powers. P. Sanders R. Secretary The following Resolutions will be moved at the General Meeting on behalf of the Curricula Committee : I. E. F. E. Mansfield T. A. D. efEort of memory early stages. Rouse Adele F. of study as That amount of is indicated in the present Report. Pantin. Williamson W. Vbrrall E. yet within these limits a high standard of thoroughness and accuracy should be demanded. with the result that he is continually looking out words in a dictionary without building up a permanent vocabulary. V. " should be the motto of the practical teacher in these lente difficulties. B. C. L. H. . great danger that he may there the further is be led into the use either of illicit aids or of those editions of authors which are constructed upon the principle of supplying him with ready-made solutions of all and thus reducing the study of Latin to a mere " Festina exercised upon inferior materials. E. while the grammar should be strictly limited to what is necessary for the study of texts suitable for these stages. That in the opinion of the Classical Association it is desirable that a definite understanding should be reached as to the range of knowledge. P. W. A. D. E. especially in grammar and vocabulary. and guessing at the general meaning of long sentences which he is And not yet in a position to grasp. HoRT H. Arnold G. E. up to and including the stage to which and that Matriculation Examinations should correspond . Postgate Anwyl. in the early stages of classical study. Swallow Margaret de G. Page F. the attention of Examining Bodies be invited to the desirability of making their examinations accord with some such scheme II. J. to be expected in the earlier stages of the study of Latin. Bell W. PaTON {Chairman) J. SONNENSCHEIN Ramsay W. CoMPTON Ethel Gavin a. Witton E. D. C.

I will call it " alertness of association. and rejoice with me that his writings are used in English schools.APPENDIX TO REPORT OF THE CURRICULA COMMITTEE Extracts from a Lecture bij Prof. In teaching words we must make svure in the first place that they are worth teaching then we must so teach them that they become members of as many groups as possible. with no easier matter. . . .] 119 . 1908). Collections of extracts generally contain a large proportion of difficult words and constructions. W. They do not properly extend the vocabulary. . most texts require For the earlier part of the intermediate stage simplifying. Rippmann in " Modern Language Teaching. Fragments of description and truncated episodes are not calculated to cultivate a love of Hterature but they also fail in their alleged object. [Reprinted by permission. the scholar's aversion to . We when they meet with a new word in their reading to face it in a determined fashion. in estabhshing. There are two ways in which we can strengthen and build up the association and repetition.. I feel that in cutting out an archaic expression or a difficult construction I am not laying hands on what is fundamental. We want them to make a reasonable conjecture as to the meaning of the new " guessing " want our pupils In the early years of the intermediate stage our texts should be carefully chosen. . more sure we may be that the word will be remem- . . But dead. This may be regarded as sacrilege by some who have . . . the habit of gathering the meaning of a word from its context is one that must be sedulously cultivated. any tampering with an author's text. .'" December. so that the meaning of the great majority of new word. The habit of associating kindred words is valuable .. No wonder that the pupils find such reading tiresome and uninteresting. . the bered. because they do not afford sufficient repetition of the new words they contain." because might lead to misapprehension of my meaning. and with the sense of exhilaration afforded by the exertion of our powers in solving a problem. . . . . words can be ascertained. The greater the number of the associations we succeed vocabulary — . and that if I could put the case to the author's shade he would even if the author absolve me is completely.

Spencer. G. of Sydenham Nominated by : the Assistant Masters'" Association : Mr. of Dover Mr. W. Rouse. Clarke. W. of Loudon Prof. of Oxford Miss Edith Hastings. Fiedler. of Westminster Mr. DiNGWAiuL. Rushbrooke. P. Thompson. M. D. F. S. Shaw Jeffrey. of Colchester Mr. W. A. SoNNENSCHEiN. H. of Cheltenham Co-opted : Dr. of Birmingham Mr. Frank Ritchie. Olave's Nominated by the Headmistresses'' Association Miss E. of Clapham The Rev. 137) English Association : Miss J. Henry Bradley. Dr. G. of Clapham Dr. Haig Brown. F. of St. of Oxford Prof. Gow. G. : Conway. of Preparatory Schools Sevenoaks Nominated by the Headmasters' Association Mr. Pantin. of London Nominated by the Modern Language Association Mr. E. of Manchester Dr. C.INTEEIM EEPORT OF THE JOINT COMMITTEE ON GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY MEMBERS OF THE COMMITTEE Nominated by the Classical Association Prof. W. W. of Berkhamsted Mr. of Cambridge Prof. Paul's School Nominated by the Assistant Mistresses' Association Miss A. S. L. of Acton The Rev. of : Oxford of London Nominated by the Nominated by the Association of (see note p. Paul. of Oxford Miss F. Dr. H. Cloudesley Brereton. R. of Loudon 120 : . H. E. Milner Barry. P. Eleanor Puhdie. PuRDiE. M. RiPPMANN. Compton. E. J. E. : of St.

Attention has been called to the umiecessary perplexities and difficulties of individual correspondents which at present confront pupils who have to study several different * See Proceedings of the Classical Association for 1908. The Modern Language Association. The Enghsh Association. CASES FRENCH . . — — — among many needed. GREEK. SENTENCES. The Association of Headmistresses.126 MULTIPLE X-XI. The Incorporated Association of Assistant Masters in Secondary Schools. 127 128 . . . AND ENGLISH 130 CASES IN LATIN.NDER . ADVERBIAL QUALIFICATION . 125 126 Vm. 129 . .REPORT ON GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY 121 CONTENTS OF THE INTERIM REPORT PAGE INTHODUCTION 121 124 I. CLAUSE. and Geheimer Oberregierungsrat Dr. The Committee has received unmistakable evidence that there exists at the present day . Karl Reinhardt of the Berhn Education Office. . FRENCH.132 XXV. . ETC.. XU-Xm. The Association of Preparatory Schools. p. January 8. The Incorporated Association of Assistant Mistresses in PubUc Secondary Schools. SUBJECT AND PREDICATE n-IV. Early in 1909 a Joint Committee was constituted. TREBLE. 1908 ^ and in December of the same year the Council took steps to invite other Associations to join in the movement. FRENCH PERSONAL PRONOUNS 132 XXIV. by Professor Sonnenschein. PHRASE. SIMPLE AND COMPLEX SENIX. . 83 . The movement seems to have been well timed. NAMES OF TEN-SES IN ENGLISH. ETC. The Incorporated Association of Headmasters. January 13.. DOUBLE. 1909. .129 CERTAIN CLASSES OP ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS .131 XXm. LATIN. IN . Henry Bradley and Miss Edith Hastings. AND GERMAN . . Brunot of the Sorbonne. delivered at the annual meeting of the Incorporated Association of Headmasters. OBJECT? VI-VII. F. The teachers a feeling that a reform of the kind principle at stake has been it seeks is approved by a large number and by the leading educational journals. TENCES . . GERilAN. . Two honorary correspondents have also been appointed Prof. . AND GREEK 133 137 SIGNATURES ADDENDUM ON FRENCH PERSONAL PRONOUNS BT A MINORITY OF THE COMMITTEE 137 INTRODUCTION A PEOPOSAL for the simplification and unification of the terminologies and classifications employed in the grammars of different languages was mooted at the Birmingham meeting of the Classical Association on October 10. PARTS OP SPEECH XIV-X\-I. V. To the 21 members of the Committee thus appointed two members were added by co-optation Dr. . GF.. and addresses on TAe Teaching of Languages delivered to the North of England Educational Conference. consisting of representatives elected by eight Associations The Classical Association. 1909. PREDICATIVE AND ATTmBUTIFE 124 PAGE XVU-XIX. . XX-XXII. . 16 . and on Simplification and Uniformity in Grammatical Terminology.

has recently been submitted to the Ministry ^ the terminology of French Grammar only. ^ also in . including I^nglish." It seemed well to ascertain at the outset what points of current terminology were found. May 22. in the This report has been printed in Le Volume of March 13. it deals with Maquet. and in other places. ancient and modern. 1909." Professor John C. 1909 . — . tending in the direction of imiformity for all the languages concerned. and to the fact that the teacher of one language frequently undoes the work accomplished in another class-room. and that in each country the mother-tongue should form the basis of the grammatical scheme to be constructed. in actual schools. when the time is on the subject ripe and the ground has been prepared in the several countries concerned. 1909. In America too a need for the simphfication of grammatical terminology seems to be felt. and to invite the co-operation of the general body of teachers of languages in this country. 2 " Surely nowhere under heaven can there be a land in which there is greater confusion in grammatical terminology or greater failure on the part of boys and girls to master the grammar of any single language. commonly studied in English hope of framing some simplified and consistent scheme of grammatical nomenclature. A circular letter was therefore issued on March 8 to all the members of the eight Associations represented on the Committee. even their own. This circular stated the object of the Committee to be " to consider the terminology used in teaching the languages. It recognises that a scheme which is best for EngUsh-speaking pupils is not necessarily best for a movement .^ The Classical Association of New England has adopted the following resolution and communicated it officially to the Joint Committee " That the Executive Committee be instructed to signify to the Joint Committee on Grammatical Terminology recently formed in England the interest of this Association in their work and to request that the grammars used in America be taken into account. Brunot and M.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 122 languages pari passu. to the end that the results of their dehberations may be available in this country." Communications have also been received from Continental scholars suggesting an international congress and the Committee hopes that. Moreover the Committee has learnt with interest of the existence of A for the reform of grammatical terminology in France. report of the French Commission. . an international congress may be arranged. pupils speaking a different mother-tongue. At a preliminary meeting of the Joint Committee held in London on February 27 it was resolved to make the project known as widely as possible. At the same time the Committee is of opinion that such a conference should be preceded by full discussion in each of the countries separately. signed by Prof. La Revue Universitaire of April 15. Kirtland in The Classical Weekly (New York).

of course. France. by examples and in some cases by brief comments intended to explain . It will. Honorary Secretary. either unanimously or by substantial majorities. But the suggestions are only tentative. At the first meeting of the Committee. The outstanding result of the Committee's deUberations has been to confirm its belief in the possibility and the desirability of the reform contemplated. were received. manifested themselves on particular points of grammatical doctrine. accompanied.REPORT ON GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY 123 practice. During the sittings of the present year the Committee has been unable to cover the whole grovmd of inquiry. and the Committee thinks it probable that in some cases they may be improved by criticism on the part of the Associations represented. With a view to faciUtating the use of the terminology herein proposed. the Committee has thought it well to suggest in the case of each of the Enghsh terms recommended a corresponding German and French term. It was found that. Professor Rippmann was subsequently appointed Honorary Treasurer and Mr. be understood that the Committee does not suggest these terms as being necessarily also the best for use in Germany and there matters . to be causing error. was on the whole a large amount of agreement on fundamental nor did any cleavage arise between teachers of ancient languages on the one hand and teachers of modern languages on the Most of the resolutions of the Committee have been reached other. Milner Barry. confusion. or other difficulty in the minda any age. Professor Sonnenschein was elected Chairman Professor Conway. and the Committee has found them of great service. Teachers were therefore asked to furnish to what terms used in modem text-books they had of English pupils of information as found unserviceable or less serviceable than others used to denote the same thing. although differences of opinion is . In reply to this inquiry over a himdred answers. . especially in determining on which points reform most urgently and most generally desired. RECOMMENDATIONS The following are the recommendations at which the Committee has up to the present arrived. where necessary. Hon. and secondly to matters not dealt with in the present report. The present Interim Report contains the conclusions of the Committee upon certain matters of fundamental importance and it is intended to devote future sittings first to a consideration of any amendments or suggestions which may be received from any of the Associations represented on the Committee. It is hoped that these foreign terms will be found acceptable. some of them very full. for the use of teachers in this country who employ these languages in their grammatical teaching. . Secretary of the Inquiries Sub-Committee.

indicates what the person or thing denoted by the Subject . two first the recommendations. or vixlv]. with II That the part of the Predicate which. other is the usual sentence the Subject and the Predicate are but there are instances in which either the one or the only imphed. needs to be distinguished from the Noun or Noun-equivalent around which the other words are grouped. and the Predicate being all that is said of the person or thing denoted by the Subject. after each of and French terms are given That the I. the former may be described as the Complete Subject and the latter as the Bare Subject. Consent thou not.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 124 The corresponding German the import of the recommendations. taken in connexion the Verb. Tls Note 1.) Cinq 6trangers siir dix savent notre langue. Sat. stratagems. In the following examples the Predicate Subject by the type : The merciful man is merciful The man that hath no music and to his beast.—Where the Subject. Examples : Come [1] [you] here. 6. I. in his soul spoils. What a beautiful night [it is] saw him die ? / [saw him ! Who die]. [I Nugas [agis]. to be called the Subject the group of words or single word which denotes the person or thing of which the Predicate is said.—In fully expressed. Long live the King How sweet the moonlight sleeps upon this bank Hatte ich es doch nicht gesagt Causa fult pater his.—n o p ndi [Je vous demande] Aldus [i(TTW aoL • oaKvei 'liriros. Thajik you. said the fly. Note 2. 71. Sujet Subjekt Prddikat Subject Predicate Predicat is distinguished from the iS fit for treasons. wish you] Good morning. consisting of a group of words. (Horace. Diesen Kuss [gebe ich] der ganzen Welt. stage of analysis of a sentence be a division into and the Predicate. mille pardons. wholly or in part. the Subject being parts. ! I dyopeveiv (iovXerai.

That the term Object be used to denote the valent governed by a verb. Man heisst den Lowen den Konig der Tiere. Are you not he ? Der Himmel wiu-de gran. Attributive Note. — 11 p w r o s ir p o 5 o v s woXiv. <^aiveTaL /caXd.^O ttjc iroTafibs 7rpocr/3dXXet. Hanc insulam Monam vocant. k a\o s. or Pronoun. That the term attributive be used to distinguish Adjectives and Nouns which quahfy a Noun from Adjectives and Nouns which are predicative. Nudus ara. dSeX ov <j) rovs aXrjdivoiis (piXovs.— Caesar Helvetios primos debellavit. mesdemoiselles. or Adjective. Lord Chancellor of England^l Zu Dionys. becomes. schlich Moros r regina pecunia urbs Roma Louis le roi | — (Attributive Nouns) I &vdp€s SiKaffrai ' V. C'est tnoi. Home they brought her warrior dead.— Ap' ovros e'crr' eKctvos. as unnecessary. I will live a bachelor. Vous etes studieuses. dam Tyrannen.REPORT ON GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY is. or is named. or seems. Examples : — made me happy. IToXXcDc 6 Kaipbs yiyverai S 5 a : — — — — —X a \ pel III. Pradikativ Predicative Predkaiive the called 125 Predicatif Examples Be quiet. be Noun. —The term Examples : ' Apposition populus Romanus la Rome moderne 'A 6 ' is Attributif here discarded. IV.8e tovto 5 €> p ov. On I'a Ndfu^' elu roi. Haec insula vocatur Motia. s —^'EXa. Thou art the man. Noun — (t l e IT fi e tA a y a s. He looked healthy. sere nudus. That the same terms be employed to denote the Adjective or any other part of similarly used in relation to the Object or to the sentence. It — Soli hoc contingit sapienti. Object Objekt Obfet Noun or Noun equi- . — the almighty dollar der fliegende Hollander dvSpei Attributiv rj V a 7 ^ V (Attributive Adjectives) 1 L J Francis Bacon.

'EtXeyov He asked me Er lehrte many questions. this term be discarded. Romae habitat. J VI. (or i v ' A. X a tt .) Sentences be divided into two classes. AdverbialQualification Examples Adverbiale Bestimmung Qualification Adverbiale : Merrily. . 6 . Borne. I have finished Sie hat einen andern erwahlt. being neither an Object nor a Predicative Noun.. (a) That all (Compare VI. r d 5 e. Subordinate as opposed to Coordinate Untergeordnet Subordonne Beigeordnet Coordonne .eo epistulam misi. VII. merrily shall I live now Under the blossom that hangs on the bough. needed in analysis to describe the particular kind of Adverbial Qualification often called the Indirect Object. or Pronoun. below). So muss der Freund mir erbleichen. v BacriXei)s d /J. That.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 126 Examples : my course. the second Complex. Example Amico Vin. Sentence Simple Sentence Satz Complex Sentence Zusammengesetzter Satz (b) Einfacher Satz Bhrase Phrase Simple {Proposition Simple is sometimes used) Phrase Complexe That a Simple Sentence be defined as one which contains no Subordinate Clause (see X. as no special 6 -q v name a is i i) oiKei. Adjective. : m.„ I /~. I sent a letter to my friend. the first to be called Simple.^ s to.u- x \ (^^°^^J^^*') Illudterogo. So all day long the noise of battle rolled. I dTrairel. Longum iter confeci. "j mich die deutsche Sprache. that is the part which qualifies the Verb. Je lea connais. That the term Adverbial Qualification be used to denote the adverbial part of the Predicate. — II demeure a 'K d 7} V 7) a V I. I sent a letter to London.

Treble. VIII.REPORT ON GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY Examples : The quality Wer of mercy is not strained. being often used to denote what is called a Complex Sentence above. I I Apres quoi. Jean-! remptoca son kepi par un "(Multiple Predicate) vieux chapeau I j \et a' en alia retrouver le curt. but which is ambiguous. M. Der Kaiser und sein Feldherr entzweiten sieh. Der kennt euch nicht. Die mihi quid Quand it 'Edj' T I (Complex ' feceris.' which is sometimes used to denote a third class of sentence (in addition to the Simple Sentence and the Complex Sentence). H. etc. The buyer and the seller came to an understanding. Sentences) j reviendra. Examples : God made the country and man made the town. La haine est la colere des faibles. T TT p a ^ rj. etc. nor have 1 heard it out. TuUi. reitet so spat durch Nacht und Wind Die. (a). Treble Dreifach Triple Multiple Vielfach Multiple adoption of this recommendation renders unnecessary the Tlie term ' Compound Sentence. ihr himmlischen Machte.) .. je le lui dirai. ^ se debarrassa de son sabre. or Multiple be used in the description of a Sentence or of two or more coordinate Double Double Sentence Double Subject any part which consists of a Sentence parts. i i "j I (Double j Subject) J (Double Predicate) rentra dans la maison. Doppelt Doppelsatz Double Phrase Double Sujet Double Doppeltes Subjekt etc.. That the terms Double. That a Complex Sentence be defined as one which contains one or more Subordinate Clauses. o u 7] Conticuere K a I \ V omues TT 7] if rrj irdXei ftaaiXevaeTOV. intentique ora tenebant. KoXaadr/aeTai. ndfTa (c) 127 "v ? (Simple Sentences) !I J pel. The tale is long. \ j x /t-> o (double bentence) Wellington and Napoleon were great generals. J IX. jests at scars that never felt -n Wer nie sein Brot mit Trdnen ass . Examples He : a wound.

XI. (Adjective Clause) Ehrt den Konig seine Wiirde. Je crois quHl vient. Adjective. die Lilie. quern tibi. Phrase — Ausdruck Locution Note. or Adverb.yr ii-„i„ " ohipot^ J ^ ^"'j (Double Adverbial QuaUfication) X. (Double Attribute) Die Rose. That a part of a sentence equivalent to a Noim. but not having a Subject and a Predicate of its own. (into —The Noun subdivision of i i <x r i v. Hac re homines bestiis praestant quod loqui posaunt. Adjective. That you have wronged me doth appear in The proposal Tell me that he should be appointed where is fancy bred. or Adverb Phrase (or some similar term). the Committee suggests as a substitute in . 6 t fx^yiffToy K a K b V rois ^xoi/o"i»' Note. was dropped Tu ne quaesieris (scire nefas) quern mihi. or Adverb Clause and that that part of a Complex . Lifeless but beautiful he lay. ). this. and having a Subject and a Predicate of its own.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 128 II reprit et (Double Verb) continua sa vie d'autrefois. be called a Noun.. That a part of a Sentence equivalent to a Noun. Adjective Clauses. If the term Phrase is thought objectionable in English owing to the use of the French term Phrase in an entirely different sense ( ^ " Sentence "). die Sonne. J ^ ^""^^^ ''''' ""'"'^^ toHeJ^" . be called a Noun.(Noun Clauses) finem di dederint. (Adverb Clause) Ehret uns der Hande Fleiss. Subordinate Clauses above indicated Clauses. \ Die liebt' ich einst alle in Liebeswonne. Adverb Clauses) has not yet received the full consideration of the Committee. Ti2 (pOovif rovTO ixdvov a'yadbv irpoceaTi. That good and great man "| I (Double Predicative Adjective) J died a beggar. Adjective. die Taube. or Adverb. Golden und rosig wehen Die Wolken driiber her. Sentence which is not subordinate be called the Main Clause. Adjective. Subordinate Clause Clause Main Examples I Nebensatz Hauptsatz Proposition Subordonnee Proposition Principale : wandered lonely as a cloud That floats on high o'er vales and hills.

(Adjective Phrase) (Adverb Phrase) Unglucklicher Weise kann ich nicht da sein. Verb. Ein Jiingling von edlem Gefuhle. (Adjective Phrase) (Noun Phrase) .g. Noun : Noun. . (Adjective Phrase) Oi ffTpaTiCiTai "Apa i-Uixv-qade if L t G) v XII. the Examples Committee . XIII. That the following parts of speech be recognised Pronoun. (Adjective Plu-aso) (Adverb Phrase) Decern milia passuurn profecti sunt. Preposition. Expression for Adverb Phrase. (Adjective Phrase) Un bateau d vapeur. : (Adverb Phrases) I stood on the bridge at midnight. if this is 129 Adjectival not thought will be glad to receive other suggestions.REPORT ON GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY English the term Expression Adverbial Expression. That the term t tt rj tt a \ a Novn \ 6 i e (not i. Conjunction. Adjective. Adverb. Adjective Phrase) satisfactory. Tanta in tanto viro vitia referre pudet. ' Substantive ') be used as the name of a part of speech. The clock on the bridge struck the hour. {e.

Nominative..' ' 'ipse. . Vocative. That the words ' ipse '). I (Genitive) \- A stone's throw. Uke German. Emphatisch or Betonend Emphasising Emphatique XVII. but the differences of meaning are of great importance. that in their attributive use be but in their non. especially in pronouns. Where : thou art .— The term (Dative) ^ I J Case is necessary even for English Grammar by in view of the surviving inflexions.attributive use be ' ' called Demonstrative Pronouns.' Possessive. ' ' Examples / am .' 'myself (in the sense of avrus be called Emphasising Adjectives and etc.. \ (Vocative) j Who I saw him die ? (Accusative) saw Mark Antony offer him a crown. has five Cases. Subjective the term Nominative should be used 'Nominative of Address' the term Vocative should be used Objective the two terms Accusative and Dative should be used Possessive the term Genitive should be used. Accusative..' and Nominative of Address as names of Cases in Enghsh be discarded. and also because it is desirable for the learner to recognise the likeness of Enghsh. viz. ? Sir..' selbat. Caesar's murderers. Demonstrativ Demonstrative XVI.. From this point of view the following statement : may be made in — regard to the Cases in English Enghsh. Caesar's trophies. itself. That the terms Objective. „ . ' ' ' ' Thus :— Instead of . . . (Nominative) etc. ' moi-meme. Note. and Dative. he ia . beatn of light Good-day. . to more highly inflected languages. That English ' this and ' called Demonstrative Adjectives. art thou. as may be seen. D tmonstrati/ or Pronouns. Caesar's images.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 130 XV. so far as it extends. Tempe's classic vale. Genitive. and that so far as possible the Latin names of the Cases be used.. ' ' . ' ' . In modern Enghsh some of the distinctions of form which originally existed have fallen away. .

§§ 1823. Moreover the "I brought between the Accusative and the Dative of Nouns in sentences which have both Cases is marked by the normal order of words (Dative " It saved " I gave my son a present " e.REPORT ON GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY for instance. ." See H. Onions. § 103.g. . " I brought 131 Mm here " Mm a present" (Dative). in the double use of ' him ' : e. . T. distinction : . XXL] in French. XVIII. Sweet. 'New English Grammar. (Accusative). 1990 Part 11. before Accusative) my father much trouble. That the same names of Cases be used also [cf. Advanced English Syntax.

] XXIV. interfectus est. mother feminine. for.' Wen-Fall. to use the term masculine as denoting male. and XXI.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 132 Examples '0 : Oavaros i\€v6fpo'i ttjv original Ablative) Securi percussus Eo anno Note 2. That the order of the Cases (where found) be as follows : Nominative Vocative Accusative Genitive Dative Ablative XXIII. To call ' Enghsh father ' is that masculine. Latin.' In Greek. ' is often said to das gute Tier.' as ' weak to belong to the declension.' neuter and neither male nor ' ' ' ' .' Gr. That in the nomenclature of French Personal Pronouns Heavy and Light are preferable to the terms Disjunctive and Emphatic.' Wes-Fall Wessen-Fall '). ' ' ' ' ' XXII. and German there is only a partial identity between masculine and male. Wem-FalL' in in preference to (or (Genitive for . there is no agreement of the adjective with its noun in gender and further.' feminine and female. —The term Instrumental may be used.' and in in the conjugation of verbs : German the adjective ' gutes in ' belong to the strong declension. number of nouns {e. ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' . a t o i (Ablative for original Instrumental) (Ablative for original Locative) est. tov \pvxht' <r io fj.g. ' ' ' gutes Tier gute Kjiabe in ' '). as there are . 'schrieb. That ' German similarly to describe the ' ' (" the destc' German the traditional names of the Cases be retained the new terms Wer-Fall. and well as a large Eng. objection to distinctions of gender in unnecessary and (2) misleading. and neuter as denoting neither male nor female is to adopt a false definition of the term gender. That Note. French. tXajSov are often called strong tenses. they are —The (1) Grammar no Gender be in English recognised. table neuter leads to nothing in English grammar no inflexions of gender in adjectives in modern Enghsh. 'took. the terms ' ' ' ' ' ' Personal Pronoun ' Pronom personnel Personalpronomen Schwcr Heavy Lourd Leicht Light Leger [The terms strong and weak are undesirable because of their frequent use in totally diflFerent meanings Germ.' Conjunctive and Unemphatic respectively. feminine as denoting female. if it form the to describe the survival of this Case in English in the more the merrier"). be found desirable.

e. part 1. " On his arrival he wrote to me " (2) as a Past Continuous. {is writing. § 74. XVIII. research on this question see gleichenden Orammatik.' which denote a state as distinct from an act." Gekman.." "England loved Queen "Milton wrote Latin verse. and the English Accidence in the Parallel Hall and E." The Future in the past and the Future Perfect in the past are seen in examples like " I thought that he would writ-e. have as a rule no special Continuous Forms. nor is it true that the distinctions of gender in these languages upon are ultimately based modem 133 For the results of Brugmann. an example (3rd person ' wTite ' is taken as singular). Sonnenschein (1889). Conway.' love. " He wrote while I read. marking writing.REPORT ON GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY female ' .). The tense called Past has a double use. Gmndriss der vet' Vol." " The poor soul sat sighing. XXV. S. Sweet's Primer of Historical English Grammar (1902). pp. and distinctions of sex. II. p. Vol. As English. written Past Perfect would have written Future Perfect in the past will have written in the past ' ! with special (Continuous Forms of each was which mark the action as going on. ivill be writing. schreibt Present wird schrciben Future echrieb Past hat gcschriebcn wird geschrieben Perfect Future Perfect habcn hattc gcschriebcn The German Past has the same double use Past Perfect as the English Past . ' ' etc. That the scheme following Grammar § 49.g. (1) as a Past Historic. § J. has been writing.g. Verbs like be. In this scheme account is taken not only of the relations of the tenses in the five languages to one another. 231. A. except that German has no special Continuous Forms and no Future in the past or Future Perfect in the past (of the Indicative Mood)." " I thought that he would have written before this." Victoria. e. 2nd edition. the discussion of the question (in a review of the abridged edition of this book) by R.' know. the action as either going on or habitual in the past. writes will write Present Future wrote Past would write Future has written Present Perfect Future Perfect had. by Tenses of the Indicative be adopted. See also the brief statements relating to English nouns and pronouns in H. 412. (1904). ' . English. of names of Series. would be writing. 82-103. Classical Review. but also of the needs of The verb each language as taught separately.

Present Future ." daran " (Goethe) sass Fischer ein The German tense that corresponds to the Enghsh Present Perfect is used (1) as a Present Perfect. but they belong to the Subjunctive Mood. " Er hat schon an mich geschrieben.' The forms wiirde schreiben. ' Ich habe geliebt und gelebet " (2) colloquially as a Past Historic. ' Enghsh Present Perfect. in the past. e.g. e. . " Goethe schrieb Balladen. marking the action as either going on or habitual " Das Wasser rauscht' (= rauschte). e." . "Nach seiner Ankunft hat er an mich geschrieben.g.g. schrieb er an mich " (2) as (1) as a Past Historic.g.' in order to distinguish it from the tense is called simply ." Hence this Perfect. a Past Continuous. das Wasser schwoll. ' wiirde geschrieben haben have the same functions as the Future in the past and the Future Perfect in the past of English and French. e.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 134 " Als er ankam.

"Scripsi ut rescriberes. car ces mots sont si obscurs que grammairiens du XVIII". the — . et les meme du XVII*^ siecle. as in French.g.REPORT ON GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY The names 135 Passe Defini (for ecrivit) and Pass6 Indefini (for a have been given up by the French Commission referred to above " Tant que je chantai (page 122). Future Perfect Past Perfect scripserat Greek. " Scripsi ut rescribas. p. except that Latin has no separate form with the meaning of the French Past Historic. It seems desirable. partly by tenses of the Subjunctive Present Perfect scripsit scripserit scribet Futiu'e scribebat Past Continuous Imperfect or Mood. therefore.) lypacpe^f) Past Continuous or Imperfect iypa^eiy) Aorist "I l ^ J ' See note on p.g. e. ' ' a Present Perfect. (Pass." and as a Past Historic. indefini. the past prospective meaning being expressed partly by the Future scrihit Infinitive. en faisaient souvent un usage absolument contraire a celui qui a ete adopte depuis " (L'Enseignemeni de la Lanyue Francaise : Paris. Brunot writes as follows ' ' ' ' icrit) : et fai chanie s'appelaient I'un passe defini. As French. ni maitres ni enfants n'avaient grande chance do comprendre. 110). 15). Present Future yiypacpeiy) Present Perfect yeypd^eTai Future Perfect eyeypd(j)(i{v) Past Perfect." Latin has also no Future or Future Perfect in the past of the Indicative Mood. (p. Here the two meanings of the English Past are expressed by Greek Past Historic being called the Aorist a name which is convenient in describing the tense-forms of the other moods and the verb-nouns and verb-adjectives formed from moreover the Greek Aorist often corresponds in the same stem meaning to an English Present Perfect. . The name Futur dans and by Prof. Latin. the Latin Perfect being used both as e. I'autre passi. ' ' distinct forms. Brunot in le passe is adopted by the French Commission U Enseicjnement. is wider in use than the tense called Past Historic in French. And Prof. 134. etc. i. on several grounds to retain the traditional name for this Greek tense. 1909. ypdcpei ypd\p£i.e." " Postero die ad me scripsit.


me. il. CoMPTON 3 Jean Dingwall H. C." * With reserve as to the examples. and not as including any statement of their use or of their history. Recommendations III. ADDENDUM ON THE NOMENCLATURE OF FRENCH PERSONAL PRONOUNS DESIRED BY A MINORITY OF THE COMMITTEE § 1. L. Chairman Henry Bradley ^ E. R. Rushbrooke P. G. Pantin W. Milner Barry E. S. " Indicating general assent without being pledged to support every detail. Cambridge. the undersigned minority offer proposals that appears in of the Committee.. C. Thompson R. Sec.. to describe the pronominal words by their form alone. G. ils. les. unable to attend the only meeting of the Committee which was held subsequent to his appointment (November 6). E. la. se). Conway. Paul Eleanor Purdie ^ Florence M.. of the University of Manchester. — ^ 2 ^ But But dissenting from Reconimendation XXIII. We think it desirable that the terms Heavy and Light proposed by two of our number should be used in the strict and simple sense in which they were intended by them. Mr. Haig Brown Edith Hastings * Agnes S. however. Purdie Walter Rippmann 2 ^ « Frank Ritchie W. Von Glehn was. means having no diphthong and no doubled consonant [je. We desire to offer our best thanks on this question to Professor L. Cloudesley Brereton G. early in November. Light eux. Kastner. soi. ^ In strict scientific phraseology this description would become : written ivith symbols which should properly denote a diphthong or with nuch as should properly denote a double consonant. including the Note and Recommendation IX. especially modern and mediaeval French usage. E. Fiedler James Gow R. Note.REPORT ON GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY 137 SIGNATURES E. le. S. elle. M. leur. VI.A. M. Dr. and XXIV. elles). lui. L. for valuable advice in in the statements relating to : toi. te. desire to which go beyond the limited statement the general Report. P. Thus Heavy means ivritien with a difhthong ^ or a doubled consonant {mot. Von Glehn of the Perse School. namely. — 18 . We. Spencer was succeeded as a representative of the Modern Language Association by Mr. and VIII. A. Shaw Jeffrey F. more than one part of this Addendum.- tu. b. SoNNENSCHBiN. dissenting from Recommendations XXIII. Hon. Clauke W. ^ With reserve as to ^ With resei-ve as to Recommendation XI. H.

e and m^oi. ' Conjunctive Disjunctive form. used always and only with reference to form. and which gives misleading guidance Under the current system as to usage). ' . Accusative being used We subjoin a table which as the name of the Case after Prepositions. me me.. ' form. avec With equal inconsistency elle. in vous le donnez moi in donnez-le-moi is is called a called a ' and the learner naturally connects the form between m.' terms and Un' ' ' ' ' ' emphatic or the merely historical distinction of Tonic and Atonic (which is often incorrectly stated. ' ' ' : SI NOVLAB. but inevitable in any system which attempts to base generic names for these pronouns on their very intricate usage.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 138 We § 2. and teachable are unwilling that this patent distinction should be confused by being regarded as parallel to that between the Emphatic Disjunctive and Conjunctive. ' difference of name with the difference of But and in vous le leur donnez in vous le lui the different names though there is no ' and donnez-le-leur donnez and donnez-le-lui Conjunctive ' and ' Disjunctive ' are applied. shows the use of the terms Light and Heavy § 3. ' . with the Case names recommended by the Committee. Disjunctive form in elle is called a but a Conjunctive form in elle vient. difference of form. Such confusion is not the weakness of any one grammar. We venture to point out that a consistent and simple system can be attained by combining the terms Heavy and Light.

elle moi. conduisez-m'y. are the same in The § 4. 139 vous. § 6. But by subsequent confusion some Light forms came to be used and some Heavy forms in unaccented positions. They are Light forms of the 3rd Person Singular and Plural. (3) All the other forms here called Light were unaccented in the earliest period. § 7. (2) Us. ' il was (beside old Meyer-Liibke. as in eies-vous pret ? Oui. After Prepositions the Heavy form of the Accusative is used invariably. y as a Locative or Dative more detailed description . donnez-le-mol but : .la. — en as into a a Genitive or Ablative.) the Heavy forms of the Nominative and Accusative are used je la connais. But we think it well to point out that they have ample justification from the historical point of view. p. unless it is itself followed by en or y (sauvezmoi. pp. 103-7. 91 . conduisez-y-mol. cache-ioi. chief rules under such a system would be : (1) Immediately before and after Verbs Light forms are used. nous. les are in a Predicative sense. AVhere there are no Light forms. and the still precise history of a matter of dispute : il. § 5. : . je le leur (h) (2) donne). je ne viendrai pas . 1st and 2nd Persons. (3) In emphatic Apposition (and after c'cst. used for ' ' Proven9al they. je le suis. Vol.REPORT ON GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY The Plural Pronouns of the all Cases and uses. where Heavy forms are used (a) When a Pronoun of the 1st or 2nd Person follows an Imperative. see Grammaire Comparee des Langues Romanes. The use of the forms en and y offers no difficulty in the terminology here suggested.g. to enter would serve no of their uses here purpose. As these uses are so speciahsed we have not included them in the Table. used in special circumstances with special meanings.' did not exist in that period (in old they el) ') is . 'he. I. in accented positions.. French it e. as in the Dative Singular and Plural of the 3rd Person (. used as Light forms of the Nominative of the 3rd Person le. the forms here called (1) All Heavy were accented in the earliest stage of the language. We are conscious that our proposals involve a substantial . donnez-m'en).. II. etc. except in the following cases. We advocate the use of the terms Heavy and Light solely on the ground of their simpUcity and clearness in actual teaching. ce sont eux.e le lui donne. Vol.

M. a grievous burden . Eleanor Purdie. Shaw Jeffrey. . w. rushbrooke. Haig Brown. MiLNER Barry. Conway. in whatever form. G. L. and from the very nature only possible remedy Case.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 140 change in the current methods . Florence M. and on nothing lies of the facts in basing the we believe that thp nomenclature on form and else. H. R. g. Fiedler. but we beUeve that all French teachers of experience find the existing practice. Edith Hastings. James Gow. S. R. P. Purdie. E.

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APPENDIX 145 19 .


B.D.. F. D. Lord Justice Kennedy.D.B. LL. F. President of the Royal Society.D. Canon E.M. Lord Bishop of The Right Rev. LL.C.. Mackail.S. D. LL..A.M.. K.OFEICEES OE THE ASSOCIATION EOR 1910 PEESIDENT Sir Archibald Geiicie...S.. F. British W. Regius Professor of Greek in the University of Cambridge.. Litt. Finlay.C. L.M. The Right Hon.D. J.C.O. Academy.. Gardner Hale.. Kenyon. Museum. H. Butcher..C. D. VICE-PRESIDENTS The Right Hon.. M. Lord R. G.I. The Rev..C.I.. The Right Hon. P.D.L.. The Right Hon.C.D..... D..D. H. Charles Gore. LL. the Earl of Cromer. M..D. Litt.S.D. LL.A. H. G. S. The Right Hon. Litt.D. D.. LL. The Right Hon.. G..D. LL. K. M.L.C.C.C..C.A. S.C.D. Conway. LL. O.L.Litt. G. LL.C. M. The Hon. M. Justice Phillimore... Professor of Latin in the University of Chicago. Litt.D. O. K. LL.C. Henry Jackson..D.A.P. Professor of Latin in the University of Manchester. Sir R. M..R. of the British The Right Hon.C. President Collins.L. 147 Bart. Chancellor of the University of Oxford.P. K.L.S.. D. the Earl of Halsbury. Professor of Poetry in the University of Oxford.G.Litt. D..L. LL. W. LL..A. D. Robinson Ellis. Hicks.L. G. Birmingham. . Mr.. Professor of Latin in the University of Oxford. M. Lord Curzon of Kedleston. Gilbert Murray.B.R.D. D.C. D.. Asquith.E... Professor of Greek in the University of Oxford.D.D. Ph.D.I...

Trinity College. M. Bailey.. Vice-Chancellor of the Sir J. Representing the Classical Association of New South Wales E. G. University College.D. Litt.. D. Liverpool. Herbert Warren. V. Professor of Latin in the University of Liverpool. P. M. M. T. LL. SECRETARIES Professor E..... S. The Rev.A. M.. Hogarth.A..Litt. H. Manchester Grammar School.. British Museum. Ashmolean Museum.A.. G. W. Sleeman. M. M. M. The University.. Master of Gonville and Caius College. The University. Walters. Pantin.D. Granger. Barnsley Road. Garnsey. A. Postgate.. Esq. M. M.C. Sir E. Esq. Roberts. Cambridge.C.L. INI.. E. W. Taylor. David. Sonnenschein. Williamson.. D. Litt.A. Ridgeway.A..D. Oxford. Esq. Royal Holloway College...A. Cambridge. D. L. Professor W. Mrs. Rugby. 7. Professor F. Litt. Cambridge. M. R..A. A. P.. H. Ernest Harrison.C. C. Miss M.. Balliol College.A. Verrall. Rushbrooke. The University. M.. St. Birmingham (or.. University of Oxford. M. Professor J. President of the Eoyal Academy.D. Litt. of HON.L. .A.. Edgbaston. PosTGATE. Sheffield.. University London King's College.. St.A. B. Litt. Esq. W. H. Professor F. G. Paul's School. Esq.A. Arnold..D. The Rev.. Birmingham). Gonville and Caius College.. Flamstead Walters. Haverfield....A.. Litt.D.. M. C.CL.A..B. A.. Oxford.A. Olave's Grammar School.A. M.A. Nottingham. Bart. Esq. Cambridge. D. J. M. Esq. HON. P. TREASURER Peofessor W.. COUNCIL Professor E. D. B. E.A. The School.D. LL. Myres. A. E.D. J.. Maunde Thompson. Bepresenting the Classical Association of Sonih Australia Professor J. Oxford. a. M.APPENDIX 148 J. J. Esq. Bangor. Edward Poynter. University College.

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If the President of any body so associated is unable to attend the meetings of Council. nor shall they have any of the rights or privileges of members beyond such as they shall enjoy through the operation of this rule. But the members of the associated body shall not be deemed to be members of the Classical Association. and 16 shall not apply to the Vice-Presidents created under this rule. The provisions of Pules 8. the Council shall have power to invite that body to nominate a representative to serve for a limited period (not exceeding one year) as an additional the number 15 mentioned in Pule member 3.RULES 20. upon their application to the Council and by vote of the same. The Council shall in each case determine the contribution relations with payable by any such body and the privileges to be enjoyed by its members. The 151 have power to enter into Classical Association shall other bodies having like objects with its own. 10. 12. of Council beyond . The President of any body so associated shall during his term of office be a Vice-President of the Classical Association.

B. 21. M. Holly Bank. Oxford. B. Ashton-on- Mersey. Ager. R. London. M.. Xavier's College.. Douglas House. Allbutt... N..B.A. W. Allen.. Wakefield. Manchester. Abernethy. Miss A. Barton Road. Surrey. Agar. Waltebs. 65.A. Allen.. 12. Cliflbrd. it. Miss. Jesus College. G. Carlton Road. *Alder. M. T. Sir T. D. St. S.. *Alford.. Pinner. The Members loilh a view to corrections in the next jniblished List. J. 1.. Gloucester Gardens. C. to whose names an asterisk is prefixed are Life Members.A.A.. F. R. W. Tettenhall College. W. D. M. Rivershill. J. Allen. Otago University.. E.. Francis Road. M. T. Dei-vock. Enniskillen. C.A. M. M. St. K. Birmingham.D. School House. Abkl. Glebelands Road. M. B.A.. E. Fermanagh... Adam. 0. S. Abbott. 153 .A. W. Miss E.. B. Shrewsbury. Portora. Maida Yale. N. Co. Edgbaston. Caiiudhu. Rev.S. Adams. B. Dunedin. Allen.. 84. Cambridge. Maida Hill West. Andrews.. Lisconnan. Cambridge. W. T.C. M. Whalley Range... Middlesex. Radegund's. B.A.. Abrahams. Father.. A.R. G. John's Square. Bombay. L. E. Co. Wolverhampton. St..A.. St. Bishopshall West. M. M.. S. Queen's College. Antrim. C. Kidderminster-. E. 51. Mrs. Cranleigh School. M. Commercial Travellers' School. L. Bishop's Road.A. Alikgton. Rev. Adam. Rev... Pro/.B..A. Rev..Z. Miss.. Adshead. F. and Members are requested to be so kind as to send immediate notice of any Change in their addresses to Prof.. AiLiNGER...A. Allen.D. M..NAMES AND ADDRESSES OE MEMBERS *^* This list is compiled from information furnished by Members of the Association. W. S. 3. Miss M. Portsdown Road. Cambridge.A. A.

H.A. Ontario. Arnold...A. W. Petersfield. 3... 20 . K. Strad... M. D. Cavendish Square. Argles. M. J. Clare College Lodge. M. F.A.. Oranleigh School. M. Swinford Old Manor.C. Shrewsbury Road. Aberystwyth..A. Jnnr.. G. 115. Brackley. C. North Wales. 62. Canada. Alfred.A. E. Litt. Heycroft. M. Eon. AuDEN. B.. II. Edgbaston Park Road... M. A. Marlborough College.A.L. D. 18. W. Queen's University. Mrs. Badley. University House. C. Armitage.. Prof. M.. Union University. M. J.. M. LL. Oxford.A. Berks. M. Archer. M.. Jiev. Christ Church. Trinity Hall. Plead Master...C. Miss E. Miss L. Anderson. Windsor. F.A.. Cambridge. Cambridge.. Wilts. M. Miss E. E. Downham Market. *AsHBY.A. W. Anderson. U. H.. a. W. Atkinson. Albans.P„ 20. Armstead. Anderson. Birmingham. N. I'rof. M. Bolton.. C... G.. N.. Prof.B. Magdalen College School. Sheffield. *Anwvl.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 153 Allwood. West Didsbury. C.A.A. Surrey.D. N.D.. Bangor. liev. British School. J. W. M.. Miss. Bryn Seiriol. Miss H.. Toronto. Principal. M. Ilkley. Manchester.. A. M.. E. M. Archibald. T. N. Oxford. H.. AsHWORTii. 9. llrs. Kt... The High School. Alverthorpe. Atkinson. Arnold. Graham Road. E. W. F.. V.. Kingston. B.... Upper Canada College.A. Rome..Y.A. Wakefield. A. Ashford. Pall Mall. C.W. Y. B.. Yorks.Hett Hall. Burghfield Common. Marine Terrace. M. Eton Collegt>.A. Kent.A. Surrey. Hermit's Hill. Hawthorne Terrace. Frof.A. Austin. Afiss H. Ranmoor. Frank. *Anderson. Austen-Leigh. Antrobus. Hertslets.S. M... AsQUiTH. AsHFORTH. Prof. Pupil Teachers' Centre. M. Hants..A. Vice-Principal. Chfton Hill. AsHWiN... 50.. Claygate. C.A. Schenectady. Mortimer.. Lady Margaret Hall. St.. S. *Atkey.. F. Norfolk. Angus. AsHiioRE. L. Bagge.A. G. Sheffield. Grammar School. 11.M. Bedales School. *Ashton.



Bailey, Cyril, M.A,, Balliol College, Oxford.
Bailey, J. C, M.A., 20, Egerton Gardens, S.W.
Baines, Miss K. M,, M.A., High School for Girls, Birkenhead.
Baker-Penoyre, J. ff., M.A., 22, Albemarle Street, W.
Bakewell, Miss D. L., Thornhurst, Newcastle, Staffs.
Baloarres, Lord, M.P., F.S.A., 74, Brook Street, London, W.
Baldwin, S., M.A., Astley Hall, Stourport.
Balfour, Rt. Hon. Gerald, B.C., Athenajum Club, S.W.

Balfour, Graham, M.A., Colwich, Stafford.
Ball, Miss M. G., Montcalm, St. Bernard's

Road, Olton,

Ball, S., M.A., St, John's College, Oxford.
Bampfylde, F. G., M.A., Merchant Taylors' School, London, E.C.
Banks, Venj Rev. Canon, St. Edward's College, Everton, Liverpool.

Banks, Mrs. Leonard, BA., Byculla, Merton Road, Southsea.
Barke, Aliss E. M., Stoke Lodge, Stoke-on-Trent.
Barker, E. J. P. Ross, B.A., c/o London and County Bank,
Abingdon, Bei'ks.
Barker, E. P., M.A., 10, Redcliffe Road, Nottingham.
Barker, Miss E. Ross, B.A., 40, Norland Square, W.
Barker, Rev. Canon P., M.A., St. John's Vicarage, Bromley,

*Barlow, T. D,, 17, Chorley New Road, Bolton, Lanes.
Barnard, P. M., M.A., B.D., 10, Dudley Road, Tunbridge Wells.
*Barnes, Rev. Prof. W. E., D.D., 42, Lensfield Road, Cambridge.
Barnett, p. a, M.A., Board of Education, Whitehall, S.W.
*Barran, Sir J. N., Bart., B.A., M.P., Sawley Hall, Ripon.
Barrett, Miss H. M., M.A., 100, City Road, Edgbaston,

Barrows, Miss

M. M., Hampton





*Batchelor, The Hon. Mr. Justice, High Court, Bombay.
Bate, R. S., M.A., King's College, London, W.C.
Batt'iscombe, E. M., Eastwood, Weston-super-Mare.
Baugh, Miss Vj. M., King Edward VI.'s High School for Girls,
New Street, Birmingham.
Bayliss, a. E., 44, Wentworth Road, llarborne, Birmingham.
Beaman, Hon. Mr. Justice, High Court, Bombay.
Bean, Rev. E., M.A., Brentwood School, Essex.
*Beare, Prof.

J. I.,


Trinity College, Dublin.



Beaslky, T. E., Bulbourne, Tring.

Beaumont, Miss, 16, Alexandra Drive, Sefton Park, LiverpooL
Beavkn, Rev. A. B., MA., Greyfriai's, Leamington.
Beck, Rev. Canon E, J., M.A., 4, Scroope Terrace, Cambridge.
*Beckwith, E. G. a., M.A., The Army School, near Maidenhead.
Beeching, Rev. Canon H. C, M.A., LL.D., 4, Little Cloisters,
Westminster, S.W.
Beggs, Miss J. W., Woodford Vicarage, Bramhall, near Stockport.

Bell, E.,

G. B., Caerfedwen, Trefnant, N. Wales.

N. E., M.A., 16, Queen's Gate, S.W.
A. Hayes, M.A., The College, Brighton.
Rev. T. Hayes, M.A., Bramley Bectory, Basingstoke.
Miss E. M., B.A., High School, Bedford.
M.A., York House, Portugal Street, W.C.
Bell, Rev. Canon G. C, M.A., 19, Cowley Street, Westminster,
Bell, W. S., 99, Park Road, Newcastle-on-Tyne.
*Benecke, p. V. M., M.A., Magdalen College, Oxford.
Benger, Miss L. M., High School, Swansea.
Bbnn, a. W., B.A., II Ciliegio, San Gervasio, Florence.
*Bennett, Mrs. A. H., S. Rule, Mycenae Road, Blackheath, S.E.
Bennett, G. B., B.A., Steyne School, Worthing.
Bennett, G. L., M.A., School House, Sutton Valence.
*Bensly, Prof. E. von B., M.A., The University, Adelaide,


Bensly, Rev. W. J., M.A., Old School House, Sherborne.
Benson, A. C, M.A., Magdalene College, Cambridge.
*Benson, Godfrey R., 108, Eaton Square, S.W.

Bernard, Rev. Canon E. R., M.A., The Close, Salisbury.
*Bernays, a. E., M.A., .3, Priory Road, Kew, Sui-rey.
Berridge, Miss E, H., 7, The Knoll, Beckenham.

Bethune-Baker, Rev. J.
Bevan, Miss F. E.,



B.D., 23,

Cranmer Road, Cambridge.






Bewsher, J., MA., St. Paul's Preparatory School, Colet Court,
Hammersmith, W.
BiDGOOD, Miss C. A., B.A., County School for Girls, Grove Park,

BiLLsoN, C.



M.A., The Wayside, Oadby, Leicestershire.
Nalder Hill House, Newbury, Berks.

B., B.A.,



BiNNEY, E. H., M.A., 21, Staverton Road, Oxford.
*Blagden, Rev. 0. M., M.A., Christ Church, Oxford.
Blakeney, E. H., M.A., The King's School, Ely.
Blakiston, 0. H., B.A., Eton College, Windsor.
Blundell, Miss A., 42, Powis Square, Bayswater, W.
Blunt, Rev. A. W. F., M.A., 54, Waldeck Road, Nottingham.
BoDiNQTON, 8ir Nathan, M.A,, Litt.D., Vice-Chancellor of the
University, Leeds.

Bolus, E. J., B.A., I.C.S., Byculla Club, Bombay.
BoNSER, Rt. Hon. Sir J. W., M.A., 3, Eaton Place, S.W.
*BosANQUET, Prof. R. C, M.A., The University, Liverpool.
BoTTiNG, 0, G., M.A., 22, Perham Road, West Kensington, W.
Bourne, Miss M, E., B.A., Prating Rectory, Colchester.
BousFiELD, P. S. N., Grammar School, Brisbane, Queensland.






C, Middleton Grange, Upper Riccarton,








*Bowen, H. C, M.A., St. Edmund's School, Oanterbuiy.
BowLBY, Rev. H. T., M.A., Eton College, Windsor.
Boyd, C. C, I.C.S., Ahmednagar, Bombay Py.
Boyd, Miss H., Astell House, Cheltenham.
Bradley, A. C, 9, Edwardes Square, Kensington, W.
Bramley, J., M.A., Springfield, Stonehouse, Gloucester.
Bramley-Moore, Miss, May Bank, Aigburth, Liverpool.
Bramston, Rev. J. T., M.A., Culver's Close, Winchester.
Bramwell, W. H., M.A., Bow, Durham.
Branfoot, Rev. W. II., M.A., Longnor, Leebotwood, Salop.
Brett, W. B., 2, Maryland Street, Rodney Street, Liverpool,
Bridge, Admired Sir C, K.O.B., 1, Eaton Terrace, S.W.
Brighouse, T. K., University College, Aberystwyth.
Bright, G. E., Nepean Sea Road, Bombay.
Brightman, Rev. P. E., M.A., Magdalen College, Oxford.
Brinton, H., M.A., Eton College, Windsor.
Broadbent, C. H., B.A., 4, Apsley Crescent, Bradford.
Broadbent, H., M.A., Eton College, Windsor.
Brockman, Rev. R. T., St. John's Vicarage, Tuebrook, Liverpool.
Brooke, Mrs. 33, Acomb Street, Whitworth Park, Manchester.

Brooke, W. P., M.A., School Field, Rugby.
Brooks, Prof. F., M.A., University College, Bristol.
Brown, A. C. B., B.A., New College, Oxford.

Brown, A. Theodore, The








Prof. J. Kankine, M.A., Victoria University College,




Browne, Rev. E. L., M.A., St. Andrew's School, Eastbourne.
*Browne, Rev. Prof. ]I., M.A., University College, Dublin.
Browne, Very Rev. Joseph, S. J., St, Francis Xavier's, Salisbury


Browning, Judge W. Ernst, Eoyal Societies Club, St. James's
Street, S.W.
Browning, Oscar, M.A., King's College, Cambridge.
Brownjohn, a. D., B.A., Lynton House, King's Boad, Richmond, S.W.
Bruce, Hon. W. N., C.B., 14, Cranley Gardens, S.W.
Bruce-Forrest, E., M.A., 14, Eton Road, S. Hampstead, N.W.
*BRyANS, C, M.A., Arundel House, Hayling Island, Hants.
Bryant, Rev. E. E., M.A., Charterhouse, Godalming.
BuBB, Rev. C. S., 24, Gerston Road, Paignton, Devon.
Bull, Rev. R. A., St. Andi'ew's, Southborough, Tunbridge Wells.
BuLLER, Rev. F. G., Birch Rectory, Rusholme, Manchester.
BuRGE, Rev. H. M., D.D., The College, Winchester.
Burke, Miss M. E., B.A., Dudley Municipal High School,
Dvidlcy, Worcestershire.

BuRKiTT, Prof F. C, M.A., Westroad Corner, Cambridge.

Burne- Jones, Sir P., Bt.
Burnett, Prof. Dr. John, 19, Queen's Terrace, St. Andrews.
BuRNSiDE, Rev. W. F., M.A., St. Edmund's School, Canterbury.
Burrell, a., M.A., The Borough Road Training College,

Burroughs, E. A., M.A., Hertford College, Oxford.
Burrows, Prof. Ronald M., M.A., The University, Manchester.
Burrows, Yen. Archdeacon W. 0., M.A., 4, Manor Road,
Edgbaston, Birmingham.
Burstall, Miss S. A., M.A., Manchester High School for Girls,







Palace Square, Upper Norwood,


Burton, Rev. Edwin, St. Edmund's College, Ware.
Bury, Prof. J. B., LL.D., Litt.D., 1, Selwyn Gardens, Cambridge.
Bury, Rev. R. G., M.A., Vicarage, Trumpington, Cambridge.
BussELL, Rev. F. W., D.D., Brasenose College, Oxford.

Rev. Caldecott. Fitzjohn's Avenue. Cattley. Mount Windmill Hill. Trinity College. Albion Road.A. J. Birmingham. Campagnac.W..D. M.C..D.. Oxford. W. Rev... M. Belvedere School. 18. J. E.A. Carnoy. Leadenhall Street. Carter. N. D. Windsor. K.. M. M. Elvaston Place. Miss A.. M. B. St. Ashfield Road.. Montagu. Belgium. M. L. M. B. Litt. J.A. Holly Lee.A.A. H. Byrne.. Calthrop. 3frs. 84. Board of Education.. Carson. H. M. M. Tavistock J. 9. Square. C. M. Campbell. Miss J.. South Hampstead. T.C. D. 50b. Queen's University.. Montagu. Hove...A. Godalming... School House. I. S.. G. G.A.A. Oakhurst. The Lodge. E. Miss C. Warrington. S. Butler.. Manchester..A. Liverpool..A. Whitehall. Case. Bishop of Salford.W.. 101. School. T... M. Burton-on-Trent. W.. Aberford Vicarage.. Prof. Hampstead.W.. Belmont.. John. L. A. Edmund's School. Cambridge. Butler. Carruthers.. Richard. Manchester.D. Bede's College.Litt. Box 374. Cheltenham. Campion. Manchester. Christ's College.A. Manchester. Bishop's Stortford. Campbell.A. Leeds.. F.W. Kingston. H. Cambridge. Cartwright. Rue des Joyeuses Entrees. W. Caspari. 5. E. D.. O. M. 50.. Masborough. F. Whitehall. London. Livingstone Drive South. Hampstead.. C. A. Royal Exchange. The Park.. N.. T. Letchford. Trinity Lodge. New College.. St. T.. Chambers.A. K.A. N.A. D. Chesterton Road. E.A. Board of Education. Casartelli. Campbell. 6. Eton College. Chamberlain. S. Eev.. M.. Butler... H. S.. Chambers. University College. The University. Chapman.APPENDIX 158 Butcher. Canada. Venj Rev.. M.A. M. Miss E.. Eev. Repton. S. Mrs.. Cambridge. Campbell. LL.D. Cambridge. The Rt. Chantry Case. H. M. Abertillery. Upper Drive. Miss Esther. Sussex. M. J. Canterbury. 59.A.W. M. M. A. G. Louvain..W. M... M.P.. D.C. E. C.. Wolverhampton.A... H. E. Caton. Miss M. The Grammar School. Cade. .. Portsdowu Road.. M. Cappon. Po'of. Butcher. M. N. Cattley. 32. Carlisle.

J. Oxford. F. C.. Rev.. Hawthorne Place.. A. Windsor. West Kensington. Rev. Eton College. M. BA. Clarke.M. K. W. Northampton. B. Church Avenue. Hereford. W.. Clark. B. H. C. Cohen. B. F. H. Hill Court.A. M..D. Chawner... M... Ely. E. Stationers' School. F. B. Cambridge. Commissioner. R. Masetti.A. Doncaster. M. F.. Ohettle. Temple Cowley.D. Chilton. Chappel.A. Cyprus. M. Eton College.S. D.A. Charlesworth... Clark. Dom. A. Haileybury College.. Manchester. M. Lanes. M. Miss A.A. CoBBE. M.A... 7. Donnington Square. M. Windsor. Birmingham. B. M.. H.. Erdington Abbey. Meanwoodside. 1..A. C. N.A. P. S. P... Handsworth. 12. J. Gresham's School.. M. Coles.. Hornsey. L. Clark. Larnaca.. Temple.R. M.. Miss A. Fremington..A...A. Cambridge. Rev. J. King's School. 2.C. Hyde Park Gardens. The Rt.. 30.. S. E.. Surrey. Staffs. W.L. Elmthorpe.... Queen's College. Clark. 1. E. Cholmeley. Ellerslie Preparatory School. Devon. E. Chavasse. M.. N. R..A. M.A. Miss D.. H. W.. City of London School. Cole.. Coleridge. Erpingham Rectory.. The Palace... W. Rev. L.S.D. Clark. M. Scroope House.. Clendon. Staffs. B. 83. E. John Street.M. Norwich. Lord Bishop of Ely. H. D.A. Rev. B. B. H. Rev. Campden L. Grammar School. Oxford. S. Holt. H. Gray's Inn Square.. D.. M. Victoria Embankment. Church. Rev.C. Lady Margaret Hall.A. W. A. O.. Clay.. Claxton.B.The Lodge.. Rev. Charles. Coleman. M. B. *Cobham. Chapman. Chitty.. Worcester.G.. F.. Denbigh Gardens.A. Denstone College.A. M.C. Church.. 0. Miss H. Miss E.C. M.. Churchill. E. a. llorton Crescent. G. J.. M. Rugby.A. Emmanuel College. D.A..A. Canon W. P.. 3.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 159 Chapman. Rev.. A.. Richmond. Higher Broughton... St. . 9.A. W. a.C.. London. The Grammar School. Herts. B.. Newbury. Leeds.A. G. B... M.A.A. B. Norfolk. Elm Court. Oxford. Clarke.P. Chase. CHtheroe. E. Cohen. Paul's School. Broughton and Crumpsall High School.

M. lAeut. 22. B.. Prof R. CoNDER. Prof. H.A... 60. M... Windsor. M. Streatham Hill. Margaret M.. New. Cambridge.. St.. St. CowELL. CoLviLE. Liverpool. 3. Rev. Manchester. Oxford. J. East Dulwich Grove.D.. Rev. The University. M. 5a.. Liverpool. John Street. London). Miss A. M..A. 14. Liverpool. D. Prof R. F. W. B. Merchant Taylors' School. Craik. Miss F. Collins.. CoMPSTON. Windsor. A... Oxford University Press.A. Amen Corner. British Museum. C. J. Conway. St.\ H. M. Tierney Road.A. The Waver Farm. Bramliam Gardens. F. E. E.A.. A.. Cradock-Watson.A. Grace.A.A..APPENDIX 160 Collins. Gravesond. Trinity College. Grange Terrace.D. Eton College.. S. (King's College. Broomhill.. Everton. St. Wethersfield.. Bombay.. G. Sheffield.A. M. Litt. Manchester. CoNNELL..W. E. Newnham College. M. Merchant Tayloi's' School.. . Braintree. *CoRNPORD. Oxford. CoLViN.D. Prof. Cowl. Rev.C..A. W. CooKSON. Miss A. LL. Magdalen College. M. CoLSON.. Collins.C. M.A. M. 3. The University. Es. CouRTAULD.P. 22.. W. The Cloisters. F.. M. Miss E... F. R. Didsbury. Rev. Cambridge. N.-Coloiiel W. F. Coulter. Cornish. The Mint.A..A. 20. Sir H. Magdalen College. John's College. P. Lord. E. K.A.). CoRDUE.. Campden Hill. The University. Cotton. Elphinstone College. Leeds. Mrs. M.C. Clough Hall. F.. Rt.A. M. J. Eton College....B... BA. Conway. A.. M.. R. Conway. The College. Bristol. Liverpool.. Miss. Oxford. H. Dean's Yard. B. *CoNWAY. Rev. CoMPTON. M. Cambridge. V. Draethen. Cambridge (and Hornton House.D.. F. Oxford.. LL. A. H.A.. S. Westminster.A... Miss F. Warkworth M.. C. S. M. 19...E. M. CoNNAL. S. BA. S. CoRLEY. CoLLis. Crosby.. W. B.. A. M.A. Edward's School. Bombay. Oxford. G. Street. Junr.C. Hon. Prof. S. M.. Milton Mount College. Cambridge. Allen's School for Girls.. Cooper. Edward's College.A. Dover.. M. Oranmer Road. J.. Couzens. M.. Cowley. Woolton. A. Cook. Linnet Lane.W.stead.A. K.W. Parker's Road.E. M. W. H.

Winchester. Wycombe Abbey School. Hammersmith Bridge. Church Road. H. M.. Right Hon. Bidston Road. S. K.A. 21 . Westbourne Terrace.. M. Bucks.. Oxford.A.D.C. M. Glendower Mansions.. F. Creswell.I.L. 1. Walton New Road.. Miss The Square. Tufnell Park. M. Willowbrook. Crozier. M.. W. 161 R. Kedleston.I. p.. *Darlington.. Crofts. Rev. D. Miss C. C. H. Haslemere. 36.C.G. Milesdown. Crerar. Dale. p.C. P. Cruise. The Hill. Brighton and Hove High School. Sparkbrook. 89. M.A. M.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS Cran. S. R. G. G. Miss a. A.A. L. Cronin.D. M. University Settlement. Harrison College. Sir F.. G.A. The School.C.. 2.A... 93. Manchester. Montpelier Road. Sun-ey..D. T.. G..W.. India. Miss K. K. Crompton. Sussex.. *Davidson. Barbadoes.. Rev..A. H.. Gwardian Office. M. 1.. Christ Church...W. Man- chester. A. D. M. Higher Coombe.S. S.. B. W. A.W. Merrion Square.. Ancoats Hall. I.. Birmingham.. S. Leicestershire. CuRZON of BA. W.W.E.G.. Dale. Vice-Chancellor of the University.A. W. Carlton House Terrace. G. The Rt. Hon. M... N. G.. T. 3. Dakyns. Manchester. II. S.C.. Dakers. B. Cromer. Miss A. M.I. Highgate. M. B.C......S.S. F. Whitehall. W. Kingsgate Street.. Anson Road.C. H. *Orosby..M. Fairfield. Oxton. Staffs. D. Cheshire. Miss C. Manchester. B.. J. David.S.S. A. Board of Education. T.M.. F... M..A.R.. Cambridge.. N... Wimpole Street.. Daniel.A. Cruickshank. *Daniel. Dalton. W. Rev. 58. W. G. Danson. Davidson.A. Manchester. G.A.A.B. M.. Theresa Road.. Grammar School.A. M.A.. D. 2. J.A. 56 Digby Mansions. M. Dauncey. Winchester... Liverpool... N. Hyde Park. A. Rosewarne. Crawford.A. Chaucer Road. Warrington. I. Rev. Rugby. Dublin. H. Brighton. O. A. R. 71. Clyde Road. Curtis. CLE. H. the Earl of. Kardchi. West Didsbury. Lutterworth. Glendower Place.C. A. D. Uttoxeter. 39. J.. M. Lord. Davies.

Southfields Road. Dublin. B. Surbiton.A.A.A. Blackburn. M. Weybridge.. Manchester.. W. W.. Staffs. Tewkesbury. E. Heathlands. Wadham College. Sir E. Battersea Rise. Magdalene College. E.. Chester. Turkish Consulate. Manchester. LL. M. M. R. Dawes. University College. W. Miss E. Llewellyn. U&v.. Davies. Miss M. Elstow School.. M. Bedford. Wandsworth.W. Dill. L.A.. Ptobert.A. M. near Cheadle.. Chapelville. 53.S. 11... N. M.A. *Drysdale. Sir S.A... Great Smith Street. 9. DE Gruchy. T. C. Miss M. The College. H.. Oak Mount. M. DoBSON. Djelal Bey. Rev. Bucks. Dawkins. F. B. B... DowsoN. Surbiton.APPENDIX 162 Davies.R. Beaumaris. Fallowfield House.. Davies.A. Davis. The Hostel. Rev. M. S. F. Rosemount. . Boyd. LL. T. W. D. Davis. S. Litt. Prof. (President).. D.. Miss M.A. Wolverhampton. A. Belfast. Berks.A. Muswell Hill.. Grammar School.. *Dawes.Sc. Bucks. Leinster Road. Day. Hyde Park. S. W. Boyd. Cleveland Gardens. Alex.. S. J. N.. F.. M. P. Stonyhurst College. *DoNNER. Dawes. 15.. B.A. Rev. Pangbourne..W.v. 27. H.D. E.. J.. 117. N. The Lodge. S. Miss K. DoNKiN. Dove. B.D. F. Davies.. Waterloo Road. Rowton. Dawson. New Square.. S. J. F. B. Derriman.D.. Chapelville.W. Prof. DiCKiN. D. Brighton. A. M.. A. Manchester. Englefield Green.A. B. W. Colquhoun. Miss M. Oxton. A.. Dawkins. Consul-General for the Imperial Ottoman Empire. Cardiff. Wycombe Abbey School. B. The University. Yorks. Fallowfield.. Dill. G. Dingwall. G. Kemerton. S. S. Delany.A. Lincoln's Inn. D. Sedbergh.Litt. 20.. Manchester. Surrey.A. Droop. Llewellyn.. King's Lea. Anglesey. Surrey. Farley. H.. Boutflower Road.A. Devine. Uev. A. 1. Pe.. Oxford.W.A. W. K. Davies. Queen's College. J. University College. J. DoDD. Clayesmore School. Clyde Road. Glasgow. Grove Road. Wycombe Abbey School. R..C.. Prof.D. J. B.. M...A. C. Bombay. Cambridge. E. Fallowfield..A.. Denman... The University. 14...W. Miss J. Cheshire.. Miss E. *Drewitt. M. Grove Road. Prof. Donaldson.

Elliott. Elliman. R.. Edwards. C.. E.D. Edmonds. Mrs. Prof. Endclifie Holt. Rishworth Grammar School.. Mrs. Halifax.. Harrow. Rev. Bedfordshire. Bongeo. Michael's Street.. Bristol.. DuRNFORD. Cambridge.. Ellam. Repton.A. Bromham Road. Westminster Abbey.V. Eliot...A. King's College.D. Rishworth.. Prof.. B.. Litt. J. R. Miss 0. W. G.. Dudley. LL. M. K.C. 26. C. M. M.S.. Armstrong College. Eton College.. N. Sidney Sussex College. Newcastleupon-Tyne. B. C. Carter Knowle Road. Manchester..D. Peterhouse.. A.A. Oxford.Y. Cambridge. Sheffield. EcKHARD. S.A. M. Murrayfield Avenue. Surrey. J. R. F. Duff. Frof.M.. .. Edinburgh. Sir C. M. Elliston.... Yeadon.. Didsbury. A. D.. Cambridge. Great Gransden.A. High School for Girls. C. Southampton.A. M.. Englefield. 6. LL. B.. Robinson. Windsor... Edwards. Cambridge. H.A. W. Bishops Garth. Halifax. Pelham Road.. E.D. James's Park. C. Eastwood. M... M. *DuFF. Dean Close School. Elmer.A. M. DuNLOP.. H. N.. Ellis. Ellaby. High Wray. Hertford. Heathside. Tadworth. LL. M.A. Du PoNTET. M.. Hillmarton. M. Little Cloisters. Pitsmore. Miss. Ithaca. L.G.. Danes Hill. *Dymond..W. Wight. Ellis. R. G. Edmonds. D. C. C. The Rt. Burton-on-Trent. R. G. M. M. Ambleside. S.A.A. Southsea. Bedford. Sandy. Miss U. E. Elliott. U. Duckworth. B. Leeds. Cliff Court. J.... Ealand. Englanp. Weetwood. M. T. Wakefield. LL. M. J. B. Elliott.A. Sheflfield. Bolton. *Eden.O. Canon 163 R. Trinity College. 42. Rev.A. M.A.. M. Frenchay. Edwards.A..A. J. D. W. Carlton Manor... Trinity College. Cornell University.. Ipswich. 45.A. Heath Grammar School. The Ridge. Broome House.. W.... D. Sheffield. Oxford.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS Duckworth.D. EcKERSLEY. G. Lord Bishop of Wakefield. Edghill. H.. 57. G.B. Dunn. Westerfield Road.A. Mrs. Banister Court... H. M... Bath.D. St.A. J. H. Cheltenham. EndclifFe Crescent. St. J.. M. Miss M.. 45.

University of Virginia. S.. Rev... M. 4.W. Liverpool (and West Heath School. University College School..A. Aliss A. Berks.A.. W.S. EscoTT.. Ferrall. Oxford.. Glebe Cottage. Devon.W. Man- chester. Misslu. M. Silverton. Rev.. Girls' Graoimar School. Dundrum. Litt. M. B. Queen's College. The College.A. F. A. Bombay.. Yarnton.. Oxford.C. British Museum..3..A.APPENDIX 164 Eppstein. M. Richmond. G.A. J.. Rev. Fairbairn.. M. Ermen. M. The Anchorage. Ladies' College..A.. Christ's Hospital..A.. U.. Cowbridge School. LL. Rev. Withington Girls' School. S. C.. W. Va. EsDAiLE. D. Frognal. Yorks.. L. Rockville. N". H. Exon. D. University College. W. Hertford.. Afiss C. Wilts. Fallowfield. Cheltenham. Gordon Square. Exeter College. Miss. M. near Oxford. Sheffield... Faithfull. FARWBLTi. W. FiNLAY..D. 15. T.. Lord Justice. EwART. A. W.. Moorland Road.. A.. Farnell. M. Abingdon.. C..A. Flather. Rev. Dublin. C. M. W. Grammar School.. St. Thorpe Hall. Fletcher. 90. Prof... K.D. Oxford. H. W. Magdalen College.. a.A. 17te Right Hon. MA.C. Falding. F. M. Dublin. Hills Road. R. M. Marlborough College.. D.. Ferguson. 31..A. E. B. S. Rutland Park. Fletcher.. Miss A. Felix Scliool.. Felkin.A. Fleming. Cheltenham. M. Rev. Field.. J. J. ExTON..A. Faulkner. The Lodge. Radley College. Farside.. M. Yorks. Doncaster. T. S. Evans.A. H. Surrey).A. Fenning. D.. Evans. Bradford. Evans.A. R.A. K.. Britwell. W. Berkhamsted.. Evans. F.. H. H. Southwold.A. Galway. Berkley Street. Haileybury College. Miss E. M. C.Litt. Eve. M. M.D. . Miss J.A.. Reading School.A. Ferard. A.. P. F. University College..C. Sir R.. W.. E. PhiUimore Gardens. M. 3. Hertford. Prof. Herts.A.. W. Robin Hood's Bay.. N. Cambridge. well Gardens. Farquharson. L.. 37.D..A. FiNLAY.A. Lady. T.A. M. *FiTZHUGH.. Fairbairns. M. Co. R. 22. South S. W.C. Charlottesville. Evans. M. Birming- ham. E. B. Edgbaston.A. B..A. B. L.. Glamorgan. M. M.

C. M. The School. N. Warde. Repton.. E. Miss A.O. Old Broad Street.. E. 2.A. The Training College. Surrey. Handsworth. County School for Girls. *Genner. Cambridge. M. Canterbury Road. Eev. Bir- mingham.. Forbes. London. J... Gaselee. C. Furness. Geden. M. B. W. D.C. J.W. Thurlow Park Road. 23.A. French. W. Newnham College. M. D. Frazer.. Geikie. C. E. H. Lincoln College.A. Forbes. Manchester.. Beverley Road. FoRSTER.. H. S. Oxford. Liverpool. S. Barnes. Bi-omsgrove... M. 20. W.. c/o Bank of N.A. near Chester. Shepherd's Down. L. I. The University. G. P. Herts. Richmond.L.. H.A. Kensington.. Garnsey. Garrod. S.A. Harry. Fairview. Tattenhall. Trinity College.. Oxford. B. M. . Cambridge.S. Liverpool.. T. Merton College. Stephen. D. W..D. M. B. Alwyne Mansions.. E. B. Wimbledon. B.. Fuller. Berkhamsted.E. Miss E. K.. Truro.. London. Bayswater. E. E. S.. William Brown Street. Z>?'. Gardner.L.C. Ford. 3Iiss B. Bombay. Sheffield.A. FooTNER. Cambridge.A. Oxford. a. Gardiner. H.. *Gerrans.. T. Mi^s M. 17.. Gavin.A. Magdalene College... Miss S.. W. Berkhamsted. M. *Gennbr. Gardner. R. Rev. The Steps.. E. H.. LL. Edwardes Square Studios. Gardner... Balholm. Prof. R. Gaselee. Burtonon-Trent.. M.S. Fox.. M..NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 165 Flood.. L. M. Chatham Street.... Rossall. Haslemere.. BA. Ministry of Education. Furness. High School for Girls..A...G. Island Road. Jesus College. Oxford... Fleetwood. W. FoTHERiNGHAM. A. Gardner. M.. St. The College.A. D. 12.. 0. Ford. nev. S. Wesleyan College. John Street. Litt. J. 75. E. Miss E. F. M. S. Linden Gardens. H. FuRNEAUX. G. School House.A. The Grammar School. Secretariat... Darlington. Oxford.A.A. The Museums. Herts. Prof.A.. B. Lionel G. M.A. Epsom.S.D...A. W. M. FuRNESS. Miss G. M.. Fry.D. King's College. Cairo. Sir Archibald. Forbes. M. J... 70. T. 3. Miss. F. 135.. E. Surrey.W.A. Egypt. Kenneth. Fry. S. University College. M.R. A. Fowler. J. Dulwich. M.

Edgehill Road.A. IL. near Liverpool. Rev.. M. M. Gibson. LC. (Headmaster).D. W.A. Bloomfield Road. Edgbaston.. M.. *Gor>FREY.. 57. R. Goss. Prof. Wandsworth. Rev. Miss F. Liverpool. Gibson-Smith. GooDELL. M..A. C. J.. W. M. D. Broken Hill. Osborne. H. British GiLSON.A. G. G. M. Ph. Museum. London. Selwyn Gardens. King Edward VI..D.. Gladstone. Prof. Woolton Vale.D. GouGH.. Grafton. C..APPENDIX 166 Ghey.A.. Manchester. 4. B. M.. T. M. Gow. Liverpool.. E... a.D. W. Retford. King Edward VI. The King's School. Trinity Road..A.. Bac. Godley. Canterbury.. Castlebi-ae.. Lord Bishop of Birmingham. Palace Hotel. W... W. 17. Highfields. Oxford. H. D. The College. Manchester. GiLSON.A. N. Goodrich.A. Innsbruck... P. G. R.. W. Notts. N.. S. Gillespie. Cambx-idge. 39... Cambridge. R. Westminster. Gleave. West Kensington. T. Colet Court. M. Oxford. GosSE.. H.'s School.W. W. R. Wem. M. F. D. School Lodge. Newhaven.. M. A.S. Glisson Pv^ad.A. Eton College. J. M. Glover.J.. Conn. Salop. GouGH. Gordon. Windsor. Sheffield. Birmingham. Canon. M. M.. C. Miss Teresa. Glazebrook. M.. D. M. P.. L.. A. Miss M.. GoRSE. Gordon. Giles. Rev.W. M. The University. D. Bev. Iffley Road. M. S.A. Canon M. Goodwin. C. Allerton. U. T.A. D.Sc.A. Hesketh. 31. T. Rt. Tonbridge.. J. J. The University. The Vicarage..W. Ely. Lincroft Street. B. Mrs. C.G.. 35. Goodyear. 8. Giveen.A. Litt. iMiss M. W..S. Abingdon.D. Royal ISIaval College. Birmingham. R. Gould.. Crick Road.. M. Cambridge. 3frs.A.S. Gibbons. Rev. Robert. M. Rev.C.. J. India. Universitatsstrasse.A. Whalley Range. . M. School House. Mus. GooDHART. Gibson.. W. Burley-in-Wharfedale. LL. Cambridge.D. Austria.. Miss U. Hanover Terrace.. Grammar School. Giles.A.. Withington Road.. GiLLiNG. Tirol. A. Birmingham. GiLSON.. Moss Side. Hillside. Leeds. Gore. GooDE. S. LL. Liverpool College. M. 312. Bishop's Croft.. N. N. Kensington Crescent. Dean's Yard. C.. L. Highgate.A. 19. Charles. Rev. Emmanuel College.D.. Ahmedabad.W.. 99. 5.'s School. Gibson.

S. *Gray. W.. St. Granger. 3. St. All Souls. Prestwich. R. Greenwood. M.. *Hadow. Alice. The Weirs Cottage. St. Albert Square. H. E... C. Buckland. 389. H. W. New Eltham. Cheshire. Lenton Avenue.D. *GwATKiN. G. Oxford. I. M. 69. Gurney. Grant.. Oldham. Gray. Grange Road. The School House..A. Bowdon. E. Berkhamsted. G... Oxford. Remenham. C. Rev.. A. Rev.. Henley-on-Thames..A. Greene.D.. J. Paul's Girls' School. Hulme Grammar School. M. Rev...... Herts. Hadley. Birkenhead.A. Green.. M. Warden of Bradfield College... *Greene. Martin's.. M. Newcastle-on-Tyne.). Green. N. Bernard's Crescent. London. Oak Lodge. Nottingham.A...W. Frof..O. Miss A..C. M. Guy. John Ry lands Library. C. Edinburgh. M. S. M. The University.. Prof. B.A.A. Forest School. Brook Green. University 167 College. Oxford. M. Queen's College. Rev.. L. Grigg. H..A. Nottingham.. M. W. G. Magdalen College. Gerda Road.A. F. Cambridge. Diss. Rev. Holywell. S. W.A. M. J. Greene. Miss A.. 69. Andrews. Walthamstow. Miss J. H. H. Manchester.A.. Cambridge. H.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS *Graham. B. Hants. India. Guilford. King's College.A... L. Miss M. R. Leeds. W. E. Oxford..Litt. Armstrong College. Wilfred A.D.W. Ennismore Gardens. M. GuTHKELCH. Pembroke College. H.A. W. Miss E.. (A. F. Cambridge. Hepworth Rectory. M. Grenfell.. GuRNEY.. St. Griffin.A.. R.A... L.B. M. . W. C. Leonard's School.. Grenfell. H. Miss Sybella. Bernard P. Cambridge.A.. The Rectory. GuRNEY. Rev. Green. Mrs. D. The Park. A.. Brockenhurst. M. Paul's Road. Grant.. John's. Ennismore Gardens. Hammersmith. Prof. Graves. Sheffield. 62. Queens' College.A. Deansgate.A.. Grundy.. W. Litt. Hyderabad. J. R. B... Gregory. Glossop Road. M. A. M.. M.A. Berks..... S.D. Sind. Emmanuel College. 15. Litt. Cambridge. Gray. Kent. W. GwiLLiAM. B. M. Mrs. GUPPY. S.A. M. MA. T. St. D.. Miss F.. St. Rev. M. B. B. 35. A.A. GwATKiN. Gray. St.

Groom & Co.. T. Hardcastle. Miss M. West Hampstead. Bombay. King's College..... The Brewery. 50b.A..C. B. Blundellsands. Prof. W. Reading. a. Strand. London. Chetwynd House. The Hulme Grammar School. Prof. E. *Halsbury.C.A. Joseph. Oxford.L. Rendel. Harris. Manchester.. S. M. M. W.S. W.c/o Messrs. Harrower. LL. Birch Grove. John's Wood Park. 20. Harrison. Winshields. F. Mecklenburg Street. H. 41. Cambridge. G.D... Hardie. W. B.. M. Principal of King's College..A. H.. Cambridge. B.. E.C. Harper. Grindlay.S.. 5. Hartley. 4. J.C.A..A..D. J.. M. Acton. Andover. 19. Hall. Newnham College. F...A. Ennismore Gardens. Westmorland. Kenmure School. W. Haverfield. L. J. 11. Birmingham. c/o Messrs..A. M.. Haigh. the Earl of. Suri-ey. Hales. Christ's College. Miss J. Headlam.S..D. 38. Hales.A. 80. F. W. D. Haynes. G. Harris. p. Liverpool.. St. Grove House. 35. R... Liverpool.. V. Herts... W. Harley Street. Haydon. B. M..A. Headlam.. Board of Education. Chicago. M. The Croft. Oxford. Portsdown Road... C. A. Sedbergh. Hardeman. India. LL. LL. Liverpool.. Bombay..W. The Greek Manse. Whitehall.Litt. S.. Windsor..O. W. King. I. Harper. Harrow. Ortygia.. N. M. M. W. W.. Hawkins.. M. M. D. A. Bombay.. Miss E.A. M. Rev. Eton College. J. Cambridge. Hale. T. W. Rev. Miss E.. Wavertree.W... Baldock. W. J. Prof.A. John's College.APPENDIX 168 *Haigh..D..A.. *Harrison. P.A. Harrison. H. B. Rossett Road. B. Haslam. E. Edinburgh. Miss B. Sefton Park.. J. Priory Road. The University. D. Headlam. Leicester. Harper... Litt. M. W. Burton. Prince Alfred Road. S. . *Hall.. Liverpool. R.W.A. Queen's College.A. Hon. J. Hallam. London.. Yorks. B. The Moor House.A. D. p. Leighton Park School. G. Hayes. J.. G. Prof. Linnet Lane. M...A. King & Co. Haig-Brown.Litt. Greenbank School. Mrs. M..D... Hall. M. *Harrison. C. P. Secretariat. C. F. B. Selly Oak. Chalmers Crescent.A... Cambridge. Oxted. C. U. St.. Rt. Queen Anne Terrace. 8. H. 4. Hall. J. Trinity College.A. Aberdeen. G. Sefton Park. E. Hammans.

Miss Maiy L.. Herford. Green Lane. London. Ph. Rev. Bromsgrove. Manchester. York. Lansdowne Road. Belfast.. M. Winchester. W. F. University College. Temple. Salford..A. M. A. D. Heath. M. Heppel. Henderson.A..W. Miss M. S. Henry. E.W. M. W. Heathcote.. Paul's School. Cambridge. West Downs.. Holy Family Church. a. Reading. C.A.. Edgbaston. 2. W. Lanes. N. Hetherington. Airs. Henry. B.C. J. L. Victoria Park. Mount Pleasant. M.A. M. Hicks. 93.. New Walk Terrace.. M...A. a. Downside Crescent. Notting Hill. Heseltine. 3. Bank of England Chambers. Kensington.. Prof. Jfiss Caroline. R. Rev. HiGGS.. W. M. Wellington Road. Manchester. British Museum. R. Hendy. Portland Road.A.. J. Hett.. M...... A. Heath. Rev. Hebblethwaite. Oxton.A.A. Lansdowne Crescent. Heppel. Chingford Lodge. Harcourt Buildings. R. B. A. Approach Road.. M. Encombe Place.A. Rev.A. Hon. Kensington Park High School Girls. Birmingham.A.A. Brighton College.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 169 Heard.. Grammar School.A. Cheshire. J.. Haverfordwest.C. Hildesheimeb. HiCKEY. Burnley. G. B. Oxford. Canon H... E.A. B. G. Henn. M. Reedley Lodge. N. 6. Kent. Exeter CoUege. Miss A.. Edinburgh. St. Hampstead. 38..A. for W.. J. B. M. Henn. Hewetson. Wellington Park. (Trinity College. N. Kensington Park.. Whitehall. Henry.A. Lanes. Rev. W. Colville Square. Tib Lane. W. Palace Grove.. J. H. M. London. M.. M. F. D.. Miss E.. Brother Edmund. 33... Parmiter's School.. Cambridge). E.A. 16. MA.. Board of Education. The Vicarage. Bolton. School House. Hillard. B. Rev. F.A. Great Cressingham. H. M.A. M.E. Victoria Park. W. Heward. Henson. Bromley.D. Hicks... Cmion E. Fettes College. M.. L. Hicks. Lionel.A. Fossedene. Hill... Leeds. Xaverian College. R.. S. Su..ssex. 22 West . Norfolk. 48.. Helbert. M.A. G. Hewart. N... 8.

. Harrow. H. Sussex. Vice-Chancellor of the Victoria University of Manchester. Westleton.L.. HoDGKiN. York. A... W.A. A.. Bt. S. B. Rice. Hopkinson.. Berkhamsted. Horsfall. Hulme Hall. Rev. Harrow. M. V. Innes..D. K. High Street.. Columbia University. E. Douro Place. Miss D. Horsley.. A. M. W. Sir A. Hopkinson.A. F... *Horsfall.S. J. HoDD.C. E. Hodgson. M. The School.A. St. Hodge.. D. The Lodge.D..D. B.. Alfred.. Chislehurst Road. M.A. W. Southsea. 14. M. H. Edmund's Road. U.. M.S.A. Hopkins. Manchester.W. Herts. West Kirby. Manchester.A. Hirst. Hollowell. J. Northumberland. Calday Grange School. M. Holding. J.A... W. D. Tunbridge Wells.A... BA.. U. G. H. Holmes. Manchester.. P.. Windsor. Dewsbury.. M. Miss E. Cheltenham. H.A. M. M. Adelaide. Sax- mundham. Barton-under-Needwood. W. Stratford-on-Avon... S.M. Litt. Hopkins.A. J. M. Miss M.. Sidcup. Canon HoBHOUSE. . Miss M.A. M.W. Fallowfield. B... Prof. Hogarth. D.. Miss G. Hogarth. B.. Cheshire. HoRT. Rev.APPENDIX 170 New Hirst.C. Hodges. Kensington. S.. T. T. Hollidge. Abbotsford Villa. Hodgson.. Wheelwright Grammar School.C.. Oxford. LL. Edgbaston. E. F. Barmoor Castle. S. LL. C.B. Holland. Eev. 20. Rev. H..A. M. Forest Row. R.. M.. Saffron Walden.A.. Hodgson.. Hogg. 5.D. N. A. High School for Girls. 11.. The University. Hooper. New York City. D. 45. Hornby. Clopton. R. Miss K. A. A.. Miss M. Staffs.. Regent Street. Holder. Holme.... Barnard College. W.. F. Chelsea Embankment. Hurstleigh. Bii-mingham. M... Miss G. The Wadleigh High School. Australia. Manchester. Beal. Carpenter Road. Ashley Lane..A. M. Archibald L. Moston. The Red House. Eton College. Brook Road. Rev. M. North London Collegiate School. p.Litt. East Hayes. The School. Prescote. C. Conduit Street. J. M.. I.L. Chapel Meadow.A. D. 30.A. G... Twickenham. T. The Grammar School.. 144. Orley Farm School. Honnywill.A. Heatherley.

Manchester. W. Impey. Moss Side. HuBBACK.. M.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 171 Hose. Hughes. *HoTsoN. The Cottage. Wakefield. Woodlands. HuBBACK. Sunderland.A. Levitt.. M. Impey. Mount Vernon Road.C. L. Miss S. R.A.. J. V. Worcs.. 20. Hughes. 2. M. J. 23.A. W. J.A. Consul. Huddersfield. A. W.. E.. S.. S. . J.. M... F.. R. A. Secretariat.. H. HuTTON. F. Burlington Road... Bi-adfield College. Rev. H.A. House. Hunt. Miss E.. Perth. Alvechurch..).. B.. Houghton. Blackfriars Road. Belfield Road. Rossall School. Hatfield Hall. Queen's College. A.. von. Davos Platz. Weymouth. Withington. 49. Warden Glenalmond. Ingle. Belgrave Villas. M. L. Rev.. Bold Street. A. Dudley. of Trinity College. M. C. S. Howell.. Bombay. Torquay. M.S. H.. Hyslop. N.A. Oxford. B..R. Brixworth. A. Rev. E. Miss E. West Australia. 12. Argyle Square.. M.A.. Rev.D. Image. Guildford Grammar School. S. Miss A. 13. Wingfield House. Durham. How.Litt. F.. Manchester.A. Rev. 44..D.B. How.A. Howard. Howarth... Perth. J. Miss J.. M. R.. B. P. HoYLE. Oxford. M. Nelson Square. J. 10.A.. F. M. L. W. B. Nottingham. I.. The College. B. Dulwich College.A. Municipal Training College. Miss G.M.. Iremonoer. HiJGEL. F.A.. High School for Girls. B. Soiith Kensington.A.. B. Miss M. M. M. D. Fleetwood.. Jesus College.B. Great Malvern.. Windsoi*. Hughes. Hutchison. H. W. H.A. S. Switzerland. P. Hulbert. G. W. HuGGARD. E. Baron F. Oxford.E. Kensington.. Drayton Gardens. County Hall. Eton College. Sussex. HussEY. N. Miss C. L. 35. Rev. Hughes.A..E.C.A.A. M. S.. University College. King Street. M. Cardiff. W. p.D.A. *HuTTON. H... C. F. 21. M. M. Trinity College.. Holland Road.. Didsbury. Vicarage Gate. Miss C.W. A. Fern Bank.. Houghton. Sherborne. Miss L.P..A. V. M..A. Manchester.C.. Dorset. (Lend. Houston. M.A.. H. Northampton. A. Berks.. W. C. Buxted.. Irvine.. Cambridge..

Johnson. Dean of Wells. Cyprus. Miss Lucie.. Aldenham Road. Johns. H. R. M. M. W. Hamj^stead. Cambridge.. Somex-set. J. C.. King's Co. W. Jones. E. J. S. James.A. M.A. M. Miss L.. Rev. United Service Club. Keane. H. B. B. Cambridge. Vicarage. Frof. St. C.. M. Jenkins.. Tower House. B.. 2.A.. L. Norwich.. *Jasonidy. *Jex-Blake. Sheffield. Birmingham.W.. Miss E. Limpsfield. D... D.A. M. Jones.. Miss E..C. L. M.. Salop.S. Miss K. Monmouth.A.. St. Chaucer Ptoad. 134. M. *Jenkinson. Watling Street.A. I. H. C. Joachim.. Girton College. St. Jewson. King Edward's High School for Birmingham. Elizabeth. J.. Bracondale. c/o the "Advocate of India. M.A.A. H. Jukes. M. Keble Ptoad.. Willoughby Road. 11.D. M.. B.. W.. O. Frank. Altrincham. Cheshi)'e...M.A. Cambridge.. W.. Guernsey. Willaston School. Lloyd.. C. Rev. S. M. Catharine's College. Jelf. 0.A.A. *Jevons. The Grange. James. Jackson. Folkestone.. Calcutta.. Jones.. M. I.APPENDIX 172 *Jackson. Rev. Miss D. Stanislaus College. Mr. *James. H. Cambridge. Tullamore. Miss S. B. *JoHNSON.D..I.A. T. T. W. King Edwai-d's School. D. Wells. Jeream. M. Trinity College. Limassol.D... C. Oxford. Church Stretton. Johnson. Girton College. *JoHNSON.S. M.. Uon.A. C. G..." Bombay.. West Kensing- ton. H. Ballard's Shaw.A. S. Jones.. Woodleigh.A.W. Johnston. H. 9. Litt. J. Fairlight. Nantwich.. Bombay.A. G4.A. The College. A. S. D. Durham. Bushey.C. New College. Oxford.. Queenwood. Aberystwyth. G. J.. Jones. L. Jex-Blake. The Deanery. Melville. Aston. Jenkins. M. Malvern. C. The Very Rev. F. Litt.. Walton Street... N.A.A..Litt. Wilkinson Street. A.A. Robert.. Cambridge. Streatham.. Girls.. Johnson. Principal F. E. Eastbourne.. The Llangwyryfn. M..S. Joseph.A. L.. B. Ireland. E... . Bishop Hatfield's Hall. The Grammar School. Jackson. C. H. Oxford. Elizabeth College. E.. Jones. C. Mount Ephraim Road. Paul's School.

W..A.A.. Hardman Street. Greenbank School. Oxford.. Herts. J. . Ilaulgh. Kennedy. Eton College. Ph.. Kendall. Keen. M. Alexandra College. Kirdy. Ely. Kindersley. F. M. Windsor. BA.C. C.. 23. Miss J. M.A.. King.S... Grammar School. A. S. E.. J. 826. Hulme Grammar School. F. D. Godahning. Keeling.. King.. Cathedral Library.. Knight.. Ker. Manchester. B. Winchester. Miss M. Prof. Bradford. King. E. Dublin. Kennedy. West Downs. M.D. M.. Vicarage Gardens. Mrs. Cambridge. Kenyon. D. Wilson.. D. A. Miss E. 44. Lord Justice. G. Hon. C. Miss E.C. 40.. S. Rt. Charterhouse. 7. Tappan Arbor.A. The Deanery. M. Haileybury College... Kensington..A. R....NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 173 Keatinge. E. L. Lord Bishop of Manchester. Manchester. Barnard College.. Rev.D. J.Litt. Ann W.. E. St. O. Kennedy. Prof. Shenstone. Kyrke-Penson. Miss F. Birmingham. The British Museum. C. M. Sherborne.. Eshor. Hitchin. W.. The Phillips Exeter Academy. Street. 19. Manchester. Bombay. T. Miss E... M. M. Knox...A. Kensington. D. I.A. H. Sefton Park. M.A.. U. The College. 102. Durham. M. W. Kensington. W. Rev. R. Mr. New York City. KiDD. Bedford. Knapp. •^Kelsey. Rev. Yorks... Claremont Lane. Gloucester Terrace. 145.A.A.. Abbeylands. Rev. Bishop's Court.S. Canon. a. Exeter.. KiRKPATRiCK. LL. Hyde Park. Phillimore Gardens. W. W.A..A. U. The University.. Knott. Sefton Park. Grammar School. Kelly. Kitchener. Canon J. G. King Edward's School. Margaret's Road. King.A. King.A. Rev.. Keen.S. 2.. Brighton. Michigan. Cambridge. Rev. 5. E. W.. E. Brookdale Road. U. Kennedy. Chapel Walks. Grantham. 9. Bedford..A. Manchester. H. Justice. M. llightieldRoad... M.. Kempthorne. Kynaston. C. New Hampshire.A.. Rev. Shenstone.D. (University of Michigan). H. G.. Liverpool. Goldington Avenue.. W. \V.. H. Prof. Grammar School.D. F. M. Prof.S. D. Kelaart. Bolton. Crawford Avenue. W.. W. High Court. E. Edgbaston. R. Liverpool. Liverpool. Keeling. Kirtland. Kelsey.D.

Cambridge. Laurie. N. R. Burma.. Elmshurst.A.I. I. Surrey. Vassar College. N. Oraigellachie. Liverpool. Sussex. Pembroke College..A. University Club. Miss A. B. 50a. Rev. C. Miss J. E.. M. Lancelot. M. W. Ledgard. J... M. L.. Shan Chief's School. L.. R. Leach. N. 3.. Layng. 54. Sidney. H.. Litt. Poughkeepsie. a...C. Legg. H.. T. H. R. Harborne. J. New York City. Taunggyi. Langridge. S. Miss H. Wrexham. George E.... M.. M. 52. Herbert Road. Kensing- W. Lee-Strathy.A.D.W. Richard. Berks. Miss A. Ealing Lee.. Miss E. Liverpool. Victoria University. Lexham Gardens.. Stanley C.E.I. Leckenby. London. Prof. A. a.. Lee. Rev.. Copthill. Leathes. Manchester. M.. Sussex Place..A. Rev.A.D.W.... Grindlay & Co.M. Leighton. a. Aigburth. Layman. Temple Gardens. Abby. Belfast.S. King's College.. . C.C.A.Y.R. U. M.APPENDIX 174 Lamb. Lang. Burgh Heath. M. T. Cambridge. Lee. *Leaf. M. Walter.A. M. E.. Lawrence. Bedford Avenue. E. Burton-in-Lonsdale. Rev.. Legard. Herts.... Cheltenham..C. Mr.. Southcote.. R. Miss E. a.. Elm Grove Road. Southern Shan States. L. North Devon Lodge. Bowdon.S. Horace. Brow Hill. Chesterton Road. U.. 235.. Hon. F. Leman. Liverpool College. Parliament Street. Langdon-Davies.. Croydon. MA. Botanic Avenue. Sherwood Rise. Lee.A. Lamb. Lawson. 23..S. W. Barnet. Bath. M. Legge. J.. Cambridge. S.. Cheshire. Rev. Batheaston. F. B. M.. W.A. M. Latter. Litt. Lang. 108. C. Grove Park. 3.A. 5th Avenue and 54th Street.A. Birmingham.. B. Steyning School.A.. 5. c/o Messrs.. E. M.. M. LL. W. Queen's Square. Wycombe Abbey School.. Leader. LL. M. Leach. N.. East Finchley.A. Common. Editor of School. G. E. Grove Park..A.A. 6. B. Liverpool.. Rosedale Road. Lea..D.. Abingdon. 8. M. Trinity College..A. Prof. G. M.A. Grammar School.A. J. M. D.A. M.. Lawson.S.Sc. Rev. Albemarle Street. R. K. High School for Girls. B. Kirkby Lonsdale. B. Nottingham.S. Bognor. B. ton. Bucks. London.. *Lamb. Temple. Lattimer.

Liberty.. 8. Colfe Grammar School. Oxford. B. Rev. M. W. St. Cheetham. Lipscomb.. M.. 84.. LiMEBEER.. Secondary School. Hillside. Cheshire.. N.W. F... B.. Rev. Miss^ 3. Miss M.. J. S. LiDDERDALE.. Manchester. D. Bradford. B. School House. Girls' High School... Liscard... Lowe. Brighton and Hove High School.A. Longman. LiBBEY. Clarendon Road. Liverpool. LoREBURN. Lewis. S... Liverpool.. Perry Barr. Fulneck School.A. Lindsay. W.A. Oxford.. W. W.W.. W. Miss C.... LowRY. Miss A. The Vicarage. London. London.. 8. Lewer.. A.. D. W. Leeds. M.... Rev.D. 58.. Lewis. Miss A. M. Rt. P. Oxford. A. M.W. College Hall. Castlebrae. M.C. 43 & 45. Miss Jessie.E. LiNDSELL. LiNNELL.. M.. W. Oxford. Stamford. Cambridge. Ambleside. E.A. Hampstead. M.W. Brighton. Paternoster Row. M. A. Lewis.A. Mary's Road. G. Lilley. Loane. Stone. LovEDAY. M. M. Lines. Sedbergh. LoRiMER. Rev. G. Lord High Chancellor. E. F. The Grammar School. Lewis.. " LuNN.. 0.A.D. S.. C. W. Eaton Square.. Miss B.A. P. G.. Manor Road. LoRiNG. D. S. Miss A. Gordon Square. Miss E. Girls' High School. E. Love. Warden of Keble College. Corpus Christi College. Lord. Africa.E. . Queenmore School. Longworth. 64.. Fitzjohn's Avenue. G. Lewis. D.. High School. Miss D. Mowbray. N. Putney. B. Somerville College... S. Leeds.. Charterhouse.C. 2. Linnell Close. Livingstone. Balliol College. Wimbledon. Harley Street. Blundellsands. M. LovEGROVE. Stafts. W. J. High School... 39. Miss G.A. Linton-Smith. Pudsey. W. E..A. L. Oxford. Leamington. Miss M. Bank of England. 175 Cairns Street. Richard. M. Lewis. E. Lewisham. Loly. E. The School. Yorks. C. Dover Street. Halliwell Street. Llewellyn.D.. Lucas. Widnes. C. F.A. Miss M.. Miss H.. Allerton House. Mrs. M. B. 324.A. (Warden) Queen's College. Godalming. Longton Road.A. Kent. Hendon. Birchfield Road.A. Lock. Leavis.A. R. The Gale. Manchester. Cape Town. G. W. L3.A. 19. R.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS Le Page. Lewis. M. Leeds. Knockaverry. S.. Bromley. R.. Jackson. L. Bolton. Montpelier Road. Miss L. Blackheath. S.A. Hon.D. Rawlinson Road. C. LL. School House.

MacInnes. Wokingham.O. MacGregor. H. The School. Queen's Gate Gardens.. F.A. M. J.A.v. Master of University College. J. Durham. West Bromwich.. Magrath. Far Cross...C. Miss A. Mackesy. LL. B. Bev. M.. 37. M.. Calcutta... Magnus. 96.S.. 8. E. P.. Windsor. Malaher. Miss A. D. Wadleigh High School. Leeds.. M.Litt. W. Swindon. *Macan. MacN^ay. D. Luckley..A. H. Ph. (Headmaster). J. Sir A.A.. Springwood. K. Macnaughton. *Mackail. London.D... R.. E. E.. H.B.! W. LL. Queen's Gate. Ltd. W. E. High Street. The University.. Rt. Manchester... London.. Hon.B. U. J. M. C.Litt.. Lancaster Gate. N. N. B. Magdalen College. Rt. Worcester College. Oxford. Marillier. Windsor. Rev. S. LuxMOORE. *Mackenzie.Y.. Macnaghten.. Yorks. Newcastleon-Tyne. John's Wood Park. W. St.D. M. J.O.. . D. Laurie.A. B. Macurdy. Vassar College. Eton College. F.. Miss G.I. C.. Lys. Marchant. M.. M. A. S. C. P. Bombay Co.. Shifnal. The Vicarage. Macnaghten.W. H. Lyall.. The Crescent..W.W.APPENDIX 176 LuPTON. W. W.A. a.. Kensington.. M.A. Miss E. U. D. M.D. Oxford. Salop (Cheltenham Ladies' College).A. H. J. C. Mack WORTH. D.A. H. New Street. Mansfield. J. Windsor. Impington Park. G. Eoundhay.. London. A.A. Rev.. A. Newcastle. 18.. Provost of Queen's College. M. Rev.. St. Oxford. Lyttelton. Poughkeepsie. Manley.O. a. Prof. Pembroke Gardens.... IL. M. A..A. Miss F. Queen's Gate. Cuthbert's Grammar School.. 6. Princes' Avenue. K. M. Manchester..A. G.. E. T. 20. Oxford. Mahafpy.. P. and Hon. Ke. Marshall. Liverpool. Sedbergh School. 198. W.. Macfarlane-Grieve. Prof. Rev. Bedford College..A.. Lord..A. Mann. G. p. D. J..L.A. Hampstead.. L. 27. Lincoln College..M.A. Trinity College. Marsh.. Hon. Dublin.. Bedford. New York City. Macalpine. E. 6. Eton College.A. 11.. Macmillan.L. Stafford Street.. *Malim. Staffs. M. *Macnaghten. 44. M.D. M. M. Craven Hill Gardens.S.P. H. Oxford. H.D. Woore. Rev. Eton College. D.. Cambridge.

Lanes.. Mason. T. T. W. H. 45. Lanes. A.. G. S. Leeds. H.D. M. Rev. Bath College...NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 177 Marshall. *Matthaei.. St...A. 70. T. B. Miss M. Whalley Range. Miss E. Canon A.berystwyth. Martin. Woodbourne Road. Darlington. Prof. Hampstead. 2. Newnham College. Miss A. Bath.. Demesne Road.. E. Fallowfield. E. M. M. Matthews. Masham..A.A. M. J. Independent College. Martin. Currie. Rev. Johu's College. S.. Mason. The Perse School. A. E. 1. Mason. Rev. Prof. Helens. M.. B. Surrey. L. Cowley Girls' School. Eev. York.A.. Liverpool... Mayor. LL. Crossfield Road. Mathews. May. D. p. University College of Wales... Rev.. F. Hampstead. S.A.A.C. Rev. Kingston Hill. W. Prof.D.. Belsize Park Gardens. B. Miss.A.. Stapleton Hall Road.A. Merchant Taylors' School. Leonards-on.. West Kensington. Crossfield Eoad. J. Bromsgrove. 23 . Martin. Lonmay House. Mason.... Warrington. F. J.. Marshall.. B.A. N. Marshall. Savile Road. J.. v. (Scot. Birmingham. Cambiidge. Miss D.. M. Paul's School.A. University Hall. Manchester.D. Rev. J. M. M. Mrs. Stockwell Secondary School.A. The Hall. The Hall. 7.. M. Cambridge. N. Rev.. W. Queen's Gate Gardens.. Oswaldkirk. a. Matthews.C. M. M. Durand Gardens. Wilbraham Road.... M. St. 52. Matthew. Lower Walton.. J. Pembroke College. Bromsgrove School. M. Matheson. Stroud Green. Bi'ixton. Mayall. St. Mayor. N. Cambridge.Sea. Gordon House. Edgbaston. Cambridge. Miss L.A... Marshall..A. Marshall. D. E. Ampleforth. South Hampstead. J. Manchester.. A. B. L..A.W. Chatterville. W. Oxford. H.S. Prof. Highfield. Massey. Matthew's Drive. Mavrogordato. A. D. Queensgate House.A. The Lodge.. St.. Martino.W.. J.). B.W. St. Mrs.G. E.I.E. 2Rss L. West Terrace.A. a.. Pearce. P. Fairfield. G. 3. G. Massingham. Chapel Allerton.

Andrews. Milborne Grove. V. Paul's Vicarage. N.. Norton W^ay N. N. N.A. Miller.. J... James's Street. 14.. British Museum.E.A.. Manchester. Isleworth. 3. MiNTURN. D. G. Miss A.W. C. M..W. D. Menzies. Eversley Orescent. Miss E.APPENDIX 178 Mayor. H. M. G. Rev...C. Compton Road. Prof. G. McOlure. M. A. McCoRMicK.. N. W. R..Sc. A. Eastbourne. Rt. Street.A.. B. M. J. G. G. Montague. W.A. Miss New G. Miss K. W. G. 14.A. Bede's School.. M... Rev.B. Hon. A. Farnham.W. McElderry. 14. Westfield College.W.A. Miss E. R. Haileybury College.A. Canonbury. S. St. Sion College.. LL. 14. High School for Girls. M.. Surrey... Belgrave Road..W. Bankside. Rev. McL.A.. . L. The Boltons. Gal way.. St..A. S.C.W.. *MiLLiNGTON.C.A. Goldhill.A. Merry.. H. S. M. T. B. M.. Michael. M. Milborne Grove... Milne. Letchworth. MiCHELL. 33.D. Hampstead. Hertford.. McMurtrie. N.D. R.. Miss B. Leinster Avenue.B.. M. S.Mus. Brooks's Club. Peak Hill. B. McOrea. Devon Place. Shrewsbury House.R.. Hawkes Bay. S. McDouGALL. Miles... McNeil. M. Mills. McKay. McLean. MiLNER. Miles. N.C. Miss E.. Girls' High School. The Boltons. Wakefield. C.. Surbiton. Askham Rickard Vicarage.. Fallowfield..G. Birmingham. B. B.. Meiklejohn. 110. Board of Education. P. J..A. J. Reform Club.A. Melhuish. Mrs.. St. M. M. T. Liverpool. E.M. Somerset. M. S. J. East Sheen. MiLFORD. Birmingham. Rev. and 105. K. King Edward VI. D. Holland Road.. Rugby.A..A. Chelsea Embankment..A. S. Rev. E.Z. D. Box 24. M.A. Kensington. S. E. King Edward VI. K. B.. Surrey. Sydenham. S. M. G.S. Prince's Park.W.A. 47. Merton College.. W.A. M. S...L. Miss.. School. Oak Drive. L. Oxford. 40. H. York.. Miss Maude V. Victoria Embankment. G. J.A. MiALL.W.. M. *MiLLARD. Measures. G.B. E. Oxford. Merrick. Rector of Lincoln College.W.. W. J.C. K.. Kaikoura North. Viscount. Miss B. St. Miss M. Whitehall. E. Pall Mall. Middlesex. S.. St.. McCuTCHEON. M. Menzies. H. C. W. Milverton... Mill Hill School... A. Leonard's School.. Prof.. C. W. MiLMAN.

MussoN.C. Manchester. The University. Worcester. Australia.D. Birmingham. A..S.. near Oxford. M. Christ Church.C. Kilburn Priory. M. Miss C.A. Prof. J. New Zealand.. The University. Eon. Sir J. George Street.. M. A.. Windsor Buildings. Rev.. MusPRATT. J. S. Moss.. Sheffield. 29. W. I. P. F.. Liverpool. Neild. Ernest.A..A. Myers..G. M. H. Christ's Hospital.. Clifton Hill. H.. S.. Moor..R..A. LL.A. S. Liverpool. Leominster.. E. H. Naylor. MouLE. Appleton Rectory.. Cambridge. Winchester.. North Kanara. 4. Howard. India. G. LIj. Albemarle Street.. MouLTON. Didsbury College. A. MuscHAMP. W.C.A.. J. W.E.C. Oak Drive. *MoxoN.D. The Vista. Dalhousie University.D. Rev.. *Myres. Chislehurst.A. J. MoRSHEAD. S. L.. H.... LL. G. Prof. Halifax.W.A. M. T. Otago High School.W. *MuMM. L. E. Hyde Park Street. Welwyn. London). MoRisoN... *MuRRAY. Canon H.. Kendal. J. Rajkot. I. Manchester. M. M. Oxford.. G.. John..Litt. Corpus Christi College. Rev.D. M.. W.. Greville Road. J. St. Adelaide.. Bristol. Warwick Square. Miss M. 15. Abingdon.. 5. Kahiawar. LL.. Rev. West Horsham. Rev.A. The University.C. M. A. Bombay. MoNTEATH.. S. MooRE. Warden of Winchester College.I. 80.. B.S. Beech Hill Road. K. Prof H.C. Trinity Square. Morton. Mrs. Darnley. Merchant Taylors' School.S..A. Fallowfield. MoRRELL. Queen Anne's Gate.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 179 Montague. 20. Rev. K. M. A. Murray. We. J. (King's College. Mdir-Mackenzie. Prof. MA. Muir-Mackenzie.A. M. 57.. 29.. Highfield Park. L. K.A.. K. George's Square. Karvvar.. Sir K.. Tewin. MA.. E.S. D.A. M. . Southwark.W....C. Grammar School. Litt. Miss H. W.. G. Moore. W. D. Canada.. I. M. Nairne. M. Murray. Dunedin... Morris. E.. A. W.A. (Headmaster). Prof.. A.B. Brackenside. 1. M. M.. Pro/. Miss M.D.A.A. T.^tbury Road. C.A.. J. Bombay Py. Nairn. N. S. M. MuiRHEAD. W.A.. 1. MoNTEATH. Herts. Moor. 50.



Newcomb, Miss
Newman, Miss


HighfieW, Roohester, Kent.


The High






Newman, W. L., Litt.D., 1,
Newton, Miss Adelaide,



Lawn, Cheltenham.





W., M.A., Ivy Dene, Hampton Park, Hereford.
Nicholson, Miss J., Park Field, Fnlwood, Preston.
Nicholson, Miss M., 26, Talgarth Road, West Kensington, W.
NiCKLiN, Rev. T., M.A., Rossall, Fleetwood, Lanes.
NicoL, J. C, M.A., Grammar School, Portsmouth.



Nightingale, A. D., M.A., Sidney House, Oundle, Northants.
NiMMO, Miss, King Edward's School for Girls, Frederick Road,
Aston, Birmingham.
NixoN, J. E., M.A., King's College, Cambridge.
Nolan, 7?ev. Monsignor E.,M.A., St. Edmund's House, Cambridge.
Nolan, liev. T. V., S.J., Clongowes Wood College, Sallins, Co.

NoERis, Rev. John, The Oratory, Birmingham.
NoRTHBOURNE, Rt. Hon. Lord, Betteshanger, Eastry, Kent.
Norton, D. E., M.A., King's School, Bruton.

Norwood, C, M.A., The Grammar School, Bristol.
Norwood, Po-of. G., M.A., (University College),



Road, Cardiff.
NowEKS, G. P., M.A., Haslemere, Baldock Road, Letchworth.
NowERS, Mrs. G. P., Haslemere, Baldock Road, Letchworth.

Oakeley, Miss








O'Brien, Rev. P. F.,
Minnesota, U.S.A.







Ogilvy, Miss A.
*Oke, a. W., B.A., LL.M., Highfield Lane, Southampton, and
32, Denmark Villas, Hove, Brighton.
Oldershaw, L. R. F., Fernley, Maidenhead, Berks.

O'M alley,

B. F. K., Liverpool College, Liverpool.

Orange, Miss B., Oakhurst, Godalming.
Ormerod, J., Lime Tree House, Castleton, near Manchester.
OSBORN, T. G., M.A., Rydal Mount School, Colwyn Bay.
Owen, A. S., M.A., Keble College, Oxford.
Owen, S. G,, MA., Christ Churoh, Oxford.



E,, M.A., Chaiterhouse, Godalming.
Paget, R., B.A., 50, Old Bailey, E.G.
Pallis, Alexander, Tatoi, Aigburth Drive, Sefton Park, Liver-

Page, T.


Palmer, The

Rt. Rev. E. J., D.D.,





College, Oxford.



E. p., M.A., 17,

Dewhurst Road, West Kensing-

Papillon, Rev. Canon T. L., M.A., Acrise, Hall Place Gardens,


Parker, Miss 0. E., Westfield College, N.W.
Parkinson, Rt. Rev. Monsignor, D.D., Oscott College, Birmingham,
Parry, E. H., Stoke House, Stoke Poges, Bucks.
Parry, Rev. Canon R. St. J., B.D., Trinity College, Cambridge.
Baton, Alfred V., Orleans House, Liverpool.
Paton, J. L., M.A., Grammar School, Manchester.
Paul, Aliss A. S., M.A., 1, Nightingale Lane,


Common, S.W.
Pavri, N. p., B.A., LL.B., Small Cause Court, Bombay.
Peacock, M. H., M.A., School House, Wakefield.

Peake, Prof. A. S., M.A., 16, Wellington Road, Whalley
Range, Manchester.
Pearce, J. W. E., M.A., Merton Court Preparatory School,
Footscray, Kent.
Pearman, Miss 0. G,, B.A., Ladies' College, Cheltenham.
Pearse, p. J., B.A., 13, Barrow Street, West Bromwich.
*Pearson, a. C, M.A., Nateby, Warlingham, Surrey.
*Pearson, Miss E. R., M.A., Abbey Park South, St. Andrews.
Pearson, Miss I., West Garth, Malton, Yorks.
*Pearson, Miss M.
Park, Cardiff.

J., Lltt.D.,


M.A., University Registry, Cathay's

The Lodge,

Christ's College, Cambridge.

Pendlebury, C, M.A. (St. Paul's School), 33, Brandenbvn-gh
Road, Gunnersbury, W.
Penny, Miss D. A. A., (Clifton High School), The Hermitage,
*Penrosk, Miss E., Somerville College, Oxford.
Perman, Miss Ida A., M.A., County School, Pembroke Dock,
Peskett, a. G., ma., Magdalene College, Cambridge.
Peskett, Miss


M., 80, Huntingdon Road, Cambridge.



Peterson, Principal W., M.A., LL.D., C.M.G., McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
*Phelps, Eev. L. R, M.A., Oriel College, Oxford.
Phillimore, The Hon, Sir W. G., Bt., D.C.L., Cam House,
Campden Hill, Kensington, W.


L. A., Theological College, Lichfield.

W. Richmond,

M.A., South Lodge, Lowestoft.
*PiCKARD, Miss E. M., Overdale School, Settle, Yorks,
PiCKARD, Miss K., B.A., Bradford Commercial Institute,
Phillips, Eev.

Telegraph Chambers, Market Street, Bradford.
Pickakd-Cambridge, a. W., M.A., Balliol College, Oxford.
Pickering, T. E., M.A., The School, Shrewsbury.
Plaistowe, F. G., M.A., Queens' College, Cambridge.
Plaskitt, M.A., LL.B., Grendon, Walm Lane, Cricklewood,

Plater, Rev. C. D.,
Plunkett, Count,

S.J., St.

Mary's Hall, Stonyhurst, Lanes.

F.S A.,






Pollard, A. T., M.A., 24, Harley Street, W.
Pollock, Sir F., Bart., M.A., D.C.L., 21, Hyde Park Place, W.
Pooler, Rev. C. K., D.Litt., B.D., M.A., English Street,
PooLEY, H. F., M.A., Scotter, Well Walk, Hampstead, N.W.
Pope, G. H., M.A., B.C.L., 60, Banbury Ptoad, Oxford.
Pope, Mrs., 60, Banbury Road, Oxford.
PosTGATE, Prof.

J. P., Litt.D.,

The University,


Powell, J. U., M.A., St. John's College, Oxford.
Powell, Miss H. L., Ladies' Training College, Cambridge.
Powell, Miss M., Orme Girls' School, Newcastle, Staffs.
*PowELL, Miss M. H., St. Michael's Hostel, Grove Park, Lee, S.E.
PoYNTER, A. M., 56a, Pall Mall, S.W.
PoYNTER, Sir E. J., Bt., D.C.L., Litt.D., P.R.A., 70, Addison
Road, VV.
Pratt, Hon. Mr. F. G., I.C.S., Poena, India.
Preedy, J. B. K., B.A., H, Hillside Gardens, Highgate, N.
Price, A. C, M.A. (The Grammar School), 29, Wood Lane,
Ileadingley, Leeds.

Prichard, H. a., M.A., 43, Broad Street, Oxford.
Prickard, a. 0., M.A., New College, Oxford.
Prideaux, W. R., 82, Arnndel Avenue, Seftou Park, Liverpool.
Purdie, Jlfiss E., Ph.D., Ijadies' College, Cheltenham.



PuRDiB, Miss F. M., M.A., L.U.C. Secondary School, Sydenham
Hill Road, S.E.
Purser, Prof. L. 0., Litt.D., 35, Trinity College, Dublin.
PuRTON, G. A., The Grange, King's School, Canterbury.
Pye, Prof. J., D.Sc, University College, Galway.

QuELCH, Miss K., Women's Settlement, 318, Summer Lane,
QuiN, Hon. Mr. II. 0., I.C.S., Bombay.

*Rackham, H., M.A., Christ's College, Cambridge.
Rackham, Miss J. M., B.A., 53, Dovonda Road, Heme
Radcliffe, Rev. R. C, M.A., Eton College, Windsor.


W. W. Fonthill, East Grinstead, Sussex.
Miss Evelyn, Uppaston, Buckland Monachorum,
Yelverton R.S.O., S. Devon.
Ragg, Eev. W. H. Murray, M.A., The Cathedral School,




Rainy, G., I.C.S., Simla, India.
*Raleigh, Miss K., 8, Park Road, Uxbridge.
Raleigh, Sir T., D.C.L., C.S.I., Reform Club, S.W.
*Ramsay, A. B., M.A., Eton College, Windsor.
Ramsay, Prof. G. G., Litt.D., Drumore, Blairgowrie, N.B.
Rapson, Prof. E. J., M.A., 8, Mortimer Road, Cambridge.

Rawlins, F. H., M.A., Eton College, Windsor.
Rawnsley, W. F., M.A., J. P., Shamley Green, Guildford.
Reid, Prof. J. S., Litt.D., West Road, Cambridge.
Rendall, Pev. G. H., M.A., Litt.D., Charterhouse, Godalming.

Rendall, M. J., M.A., The College, Winchester.
Rendall, V., M.A., 15, Wellesloy Mansions, West Kensington,


Rennie, W., M.A., Trinity College, Cambridge.
PvHOADES, J., M.A., Monkswood, Haslemere, Surrey.
Rhodes, Miss C. M., M.A., Oakhurst, Puvley Oaks


Sanderstead, Surrey.

Rhys, Miss M., The Lodgings, Jesus College, Oxford.
Richard, Miss K. A., G7, Gordon Road, Ealiag, W.
Richards, F., M.A., Kingswood School, Bath.
Richards, Miss F. G., B.A., 1, Thornsbeach Road, Calford,
Richards, Rev. G. C, M.A., Oriel College, Oxford.
Richards, H., M.A., Wadham College, Oxford.


Lichfield Road. Miss Hilda. Newcasble-on-Tyne. B. Aberystwyth..A.. B. MA. E...C. Miss M... (and University. Miss E. Cardiff. Prof. Leeds). Roberts. Cheltenham.. L..W.A.APPENDIX 184 E. RiDGEWAY. 31. Robinson. B. J. Aldenham Road. Cambridge.. LL. Ltd.. Gonville and Caius College.. Ritchie.. Westfield College.A. Yacht Club. Liverpool. Miss A. Co.A. Litt.. Bradford. Bushey.B. E. Roberts.. O. 9. L. Roberts. S. The Rectory. Germany. J. Headingley.. Bedford.. Halle. B. B. St. L. Bombay. Felbrigge. 3U. Oxford.. C. S. c/o The Booth. Rev. Miss M.A...C. Sc..ICHARDS.A. *RiDDiNG..B. G. Windsor Court.A. M. M. Andrew's Crescent.. N. Fairlight. B. V... 9. M. S. Burton Terrace. M. Victoria College. Bocardo Press. Richardson. Richardson. Jesmond. M.. Finstock.. M.. E. Richards. Sheppard Street.. F. Robertson.S.. Dr.A. Bayswater.D. The Lodge. Robert. Robertson. Miss C... South Luffenham. F.A. St.D. C.. F.. S. R. Beech view. Leeds. Hammersmith. M. Stamford. S.. Charlbury. S. Sutton Coldfield.A. M...W. B. Cambridge. c/o Alden k. Richmond. W. aS'iV W. W. F. Andrew's Road. Michael's Crescent. 64. Prof. Prof. Cornwall Gardens. Rev. Yorks.W. RiSLEY. Richmond. F. Litt. M. T.. Robinson. Oxon..A. Rev. Robertson.W. Oriel Place. M. Prof J. M. Priiicipal T. Toronto. G. Rickards. Stoke-on-Trent. Robertson.A.A. Rhys.. Roberts.. Girls' Grammar School. K. Robertson. G. A. Richardson. M. Cambridge. 57.. E... Robertson. 9. Richmond.A.A. S. T.. Riley. W.A. Sevenoaks. M. S. .A. Gordon. C.D. 13. 11. Hampstead. Fen Ditton.. Karlsstrasse..A. Miss S.. 14. Canada. 41. Victoria Square. B. D.. W. Trinity College. University College.D. Beavor Lodge. W. Harrington Gardtns.

. Newlyn. Brighton. Sale. Milutliorpe Road. M.A. E. E. J. RusHBROOKE. J. M. Oxford.AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS xNAMES Robinson. J.. Sant. Sargeaunt. Ilsley Cottage. Leicester. Rev. E. West Hampstead.A. H. Miss E. Reading. Charterhouse. Victoria University. Blackpool. Eltham College. Perse School.. Manchester.. Miss E.. G. RoBY.. F. B.W. Didsbury. llolmfield. W. S. Eev.. N.A.. W. S..E.. S. Deanery. I. Stoneygate School. M.A.A. M. T. Oundle. W. Aigburth. W... 16. Saunders.. H. Woolstone Road. Sands. RossiTER... S. Stieatley.. Souldern Rectory. M. G. Esmond Road. *Salmon. B.A.W. W. Exeter. Bedford Park. B. N. D. Litt. Manchester..A.. S. Hull. Olave's Grammar School. Miss G. K. RuDD. Tower Bridge. Prof.. Notts. Central Provinces. Russell. Stoneygate. Miss. College House. Grasmere. Lhxncvigg. Miss A. Sandys. S..Bailey. Leicester.. Queen Anne's Gardens. W. India.A. Litt. Robinson.... A. Cambridge. Westminster School. M. N. J. M. Malvern. Miss CM. D.. *Sadler. South Shore. 39. Khandwa. Banbury. M. The School. Sanderson. Beverley. RoBY. RouGHTON. G. The High School. Reigate. Mansfield Road. Schomberg. M. Godalming.D. Miss M. M. Miss M. Tunbridge Wells.A. *RousE.A. G. German Place. Merton House. B.. 32. Bedford Park. J. A.S. 199. M. M. W. RuBiE. Ladies' College. Russell. Rogers. RooKE.A. C.. D. J. RoMANis.A. Saunders. Liverpool. Prof.E.A.. H. Fern Lodge. Westminster. Sandford. Oxford. Rogers. M. RuNDALL. F. Arnold. Woodstock Road. The Close. 328. Coldhurst Terrace. Westmorland.A..A. E.A.. Kent. Armitage.. J. Miss A. The High School. Sanders. C. Veri/ 185 Rev. M. E. W....A. E. Miss M. *Ryle. J.D...A.A. Forest Hill. Hymer's College. Cambridge. RoscoE. High School for Girls. E. M.. 15. G. West View.. P. Sarson. 11. B.. Eastbourne.. M. Museum Road. W. 80.. F. M.. Miss I.. St. Rev. A... M. M. High Bank.C. 24 . B. G.A. Cheltenham...W.... H. Carrington. RuDD. Saunders. V.. The College. 7.D.

. J... John's College.G.M. 13a. M. B. J. A. E. Hereford.D. Oxford. Manchester. Siiarwood-Smith. Rev.Litt..sington Road.D.. Selwyn. Leicester. Shadwell. Prof W. Sloggett. J. W. S. Blackburn. D. I.. ... Miss L. Hindhead. The Old Hall. Miss A. Llanishen. Oxford.O. Shepherd.. Newbury. Sloane.. 24. Anderson. Rev.. S. D..O. Sleeman.C.A.E.. 64. A. M. King's College. M.. M. M.. R. Simon..A. S. Cheltenham. High School. Sheffield. Maresfield Gardens. H. Cross Street. 5th Poena Div.A.A. Villas. Rev.. School House.W. Manchester.St. 2.. S. Oxford. I. Dover Street..M. Manchester. B. Tower Bridge... Salisbury Cambridge. B. H. T. M. C. Slater. 5. Miss N. D. Slater. Sharpley.. Liverpool. H. West Duhvich. SiDGWiCK. T. Skeel..L. S. Harley Court. Oxford. Bombay. Rev. 11.B.A. G. M. Woodstock Road.APPENDIX 186 ScoLES. Hampstead. shii-e Hill.. Scott. 33. Welford Road. Simmons..A. C.A. Manchester. L. Elgin Avenue. M. St. H. D. Sheppard. c/o The Times of India. Poona..01ave's W. 3. Mary's Hall. Prof.... The College. Miss W. W. P. Miss E. C. M. Bombay. M.A. Miss A. M. Down- Hampstead.. Scot. Victoria University. E. Shawyer..D. Cardiff.A. Beech Hill Terrace.W. Stonyhurst..L. C. 2. E. Walter.E. 83. The Close. Rev. J. Prof. Bijapur.A. Mrs..P. Kettlewell by Skipton. Addison Road. Seebohm. Shillington. SiDEBOTHAM.. T. Sharp. GruarcUan Office.A. N.A. 0. J. 114. A... Girls' Seaton. N. 13.D.A. M.-Gen. Scott. H. 6.. Bombay.A.A. Yorks. Scott. S. Ponders End. Kendal. M. Oi-iel College. T. SiKES. *Sharpley. W. *SiLC0X. Cambridge.. D.. Miss A... High School for Girls. Newsham Drive. Litt. J. A. Parktown. C. Sinclair. A.A. J... Miss C. M.. Skirving. 15.. Miss E. Upper Brook Street.. M. John. Cambridge. M. Manchester.A... A..A. Ros. M. Sir *Skeat... E. Clarendon Villas. C. Bingley.. SiLCOX. M. LL... D..A. Lathbury Road.M. Sitrg. SiMPS0N. Lawnhurst. Cambridge.S. Gloucester House. Sheppard..... W.A..C. J. E. E.. near Hitchin. M. Didsbury. Scott. R. Scott. Newnham College. Grammar School. Grammar School. Yorks.

Basford Park. F. Rev. 2. Italy. Smiley. D. B. Afiss W. Linnet Lane.A. Smith. D.A. Leeds. R.A. Miss S.A.A.A. F. Bedford Park. Spencer. C. Felsted. M. Trinity College. Spenser. Smith. Prof. Steen. Northants. H. Dr.D. Christopher's. Northwood. Bombay. C. M. Bradford. Liverpool..W. J. *Squire.A. . 9. *Spilsbury. A. N..A.D.. Winchester. Smith.. Rev.A. Fidd Place. M.. H. The University. M. Eev. J. Steele. Battersea.A. Dingle Hill. Miss G. University College. Miss F. St. M.. Wales. Hamp- N. Grammar School. 9... Colwyn J. Drake Street. E.. M. Rochdale. Liverpool. Oxford. Oundle School... Essex..A. Spooner. B.. SowELS. N. M.A. A. 3Iiss E. E. Bay. a. M. Norland W. Westbourne Park Villas. M.A. M. Smith. Bath. M.A. *Stawell. Smith. G.. John's College.A. St. Godmanchester.. H... F. Smyth. M. SoNNENSCHEiN. M.A. M. Kittsbury Road. J. Stroud.. Smith. Prof. Cambridge. F. C. M. Snow.. Borough Road Training College.A... W. T. A.. Herts. Florence. S... S... 14.. 47. The College. Ingham. Douglas. Stenhouse. Canon A. Linnet Lane. A. 31.. Birmingham. Frognal. Toronto.. The School House. S. Yacht Club. 41.. *Smith. J. J. liei\ W.. Whitburgh. M. Miss A. K. W. W.. C.A.A. 3fiss L.A. Prof. Berkhamsted. Via Pico della Mirandola. J. Netting Hill Square.. King's College School. M. Cambridge.A. J. Jliss R. University College School. Canada. Hunts. N. D.. St... Stanton.. Southlands College. High School. p.. Carlton Street. Aske's Haberdashers' School.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 187 Sloman. 0. M. Smith. C. Gloucestershire. Inglesant.. Moss Side. E. Eev. Queen Anne Terrace. The Avenue. Darlington. Oxford. E... G. D. Stoke-on-Trent.W. Stephenson. Smith. The Vicarage... chester. Bath College... Man- SowELS. Warden of New College. Miss J. stead.Litt. M.. M. M.. Stephanos. M. Hunter. Sonnenschein. 166. The Grammar School. Smedley. Stanton. V. G.... Sydney Street. Isleworth. Girls' High School. Wimbledon. B..D. Spalding. P.. Christopher's. Middlesex. *Steele..

A.A. J. Cambridge. VV. J. *Stone. Littleboi-ough. M.. The University.A. M.APPENDIX 188 Stevenson. Prof. M. *Stuart. Chatsworth. H.A. Stone. Stoneman. Queen's Gate. H. M. Government House. H. M. Streane... W.A. Miss E.. High School. Oxford.. M.. C. LL.D. W.. Stewart. Blairgowrie..B. M. B. Strangeways. Tait. A. M. E. Bombay Presidency. Stuttaford.. Stokoe. Strong. B.S.A.E. George. *Strachan-Davidson. J.A.. L.. Stuart. Birmingham. J. Ca2jt. Board of Education. Stevenson. Queen's Road.A. Leyhillock. Miss E. S. M. Rev. M. A. Port Elizabeth. Tib Lane. Bank of England Chambers. C. Talbot.A. Acton. Rev. W. a. LL. Bombay.. Balliol College.. Miss Tabor. B. The Manor House.. F. St.. Oxford. The Malting House.A.D. Rev. South Kensington. M.. M. Storr. Stanhope Gardens.. M.W.D. M. Swann. Miss A. C. Cambridge. B.. G. W. Sevenoaks. A. 5.. L. Horn Lane. S.. West Kensington. Arthur. Syson.. Trinity College.A. Rev. Stobart. SwiFTE. Norland Square.. Chigwell School. 4. Stoker.A.. W.. Strudwick. M.. Collegiate School for Cape Colony. C. 3frs. Oxford. H.W.A. Nottingham.C.. Dunmarklyn.. 3Iiss H. Weston-super-Mare. W. Surrey. Trinity College.A. Bishop's Court.A... Corpus Christi College...B. Rev.. N. 12. a.. D. E.. D. 40. Sutton... Cheam. Eton College. Cambridge. Connaught Plouse. W. M. Park House. C. Windsor. Strong.A.. E. S. F. M. G. Helensbourne.A. 16. Edith Road. T. C. W. Endchffe Rise Road. Sykes. A. J.. Kent. Poona.. Prof.. . *Sykes.A. The Very Rev. Miss SuTCLiFFE. W. LL. Stewart.D. Cambridge.D. Bedford College. Canon R. R. J.. E.A. S.D.W. D.W. Gii-ls.. Summers.. Redington Road. C.. Hampstead.. Manchester. Sheffield. Christ Church. Chesterfield. Essex...D. J... M. Lessar Avenue. L. Clapham Common.. S. G. A.. Apsley Terrace..A. N. W.. Sullivan. C. Major-Oeneral J. Tonbridge.C. 133. M. Notting Hill High School. F. 15. E. I. Swallow. Mecklenburg Square. E... B. Bombay. Strong. A.. Abingdon.. 9. Dean of Christ Church. Stock. Shore Mills.

R.B.. Little Trinity.. Bradford.P... J. Thomas. M. H.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 189 Tancock. K.A. Tayler. Brighton Road. C. M. M.. Woodlands. H. Abingdon.. Serge. F. M. M. M. W.C. Miss L. S.. Ealing.D. Sussex. Alderman J. M. L. LL.W. R.. S. B. Taylor. 33.. H. Taylor.. Mayfield. M.. N.... Wilmslow. Thomas. J.A. F.W. . M. C.A.. Seymcr.Litt. Carleton. Tonbridge School. Wandsworth Common. *Tanner.A.. Philip. E.. Terry. Joseph. Charters Towers. Rev. *Tennant. Baring Road. Dublin. Eaton Rise..D. East Albert Road. Eton College.. M. Bombay. Taylor. C. Quentin Road. Thomas. Surrey.A. Miss A.. Miss C. G. 18. Rue Washington. N. H. E. S. Lanes. 4. Crescent House School.. Michael's Place. Liverpool. Tarachand. D.. Miss M. A. Taylor. A.O. Cambridge. Uppingham. Belgium. G.. F. Miss D. Lisson Grove. K.E.. Thompson.C. Miss L. Taylor. Taylor. 16. Thompson. M. Whitehall. 51. M. TcHiRKiNE. The Manse. W.. Tatton. A. Yorks. Blackheath.. Windsor. Cambridge. Thompson. Middleton Tyos R. Avenue Louise.W. E. Kent. Cheshire.A.. Taylor.A. M. John. Primrose Hill Road. F. Wakefield. Thompson. B.A.A.B. Tatham. B. 2. Thompson. 14. Fleetwood. W.E..A. G. Ballater.. Taylor. S. Missel. London. 21. 14. B. St. Thomson... Tonbridge. 19. Miss M. N. D. Taylor. St. Riversdale. Bishop's Street. Thomas.S. Haman Street. Buarth Road.. S.. Harrington Square.. Wastover Road. H. Minist^re des affaires 6trang6res.L. Silcoates School.C. D. Thompson. India Oflice. Rev. Brighton.Litt. Maunde. 169. T. C. West Deyne. Grange Road. D... M. East Grinstead. M.. Brackley Road. W. J.. Aberystwyth. Tatham..W. F. Taerant. Grove Park. Plymouth. Thompson. Petersburg.A.W. Eryl. 53.A. Rev.. M. J. Sir E. College House.. Miss E. E. Passmore Edwards Settlement.. Mutley.. N. Sefton Park. 11.A.A. Northcourt.A. Thicknesse.. B. Royal Holloway College..A. Brussels.. 20. The Boltons. Beckenham. Englefield Green.A. B. Rossall School..

3.... Liverpool.A.A. M. Leamington.. Afiss A. Haileybury College. Litt. A. W. Selwyn Gardens. Sandbrook. *Varley. Cambridge.B. Earlsheaton. W... M..A. C... *Vaughan. Sind. J. R.A.A. Dadar. Kensington. T. B. Rev. H. Christ's Hospital.. India. E. 53.A. Herts. Eton College. Leeds. The Wick. A Hants. LL. Albans. near Settle. Winchester... Vernon-Jones. 5. Kensington Park. M.... The University. Selwyn Gardens. Windsor. M. Miss E.D. E. Valentine. Miss E. S... R.A. Old Elvet. M. B.. Bramshott Rectory. St. M. Liphook. Giggleswick School. Wellington College.W. C.. J. W. 2. Turner. M.. Miss E.. L. . Thornton.. Cambridge.. Hertford. M. Hove.A.C. S. S. St. Cheltenham. West Horsham. Luxemburg Gardens. B. 30. 10. Bombay. Turner. Shoreham. Cheltenham. Verrall. Vaisey.A... M. Albert Court. Kingston Road.. H. R. Everton.. Vaughan.. B. TuNNiCLiFFE.. H. Tombs.. TiLDESLEY. E. Vallis. Turner.A.A. C.. Cranleigh School.A. B.. a. W. Vernon. Thring. St. W.A. Hyderabad. Miss E. Cambridge...A. Clapham Park. M.. S. M. M. E.M. TiMMONS. Sherbourne Lodge.APPENDIX 190 Thomson.. Edward's College.. Prior's Field. L.A... 3. M. *Trollope. Trenerry. H. 10. M. a.O. Essex. V.A..A.. W. W. Stanley Gardens.. N. Lyndhurst. Upper Lattimore Road. M. North Road. M. West Downs...A. B. A. Dewsbury. p. A..A.. L. Dovercourt.A. A. Durham. Titherinqton. Vaughan. Miss E.. TJre.. Stone Buildings. Tyttenhanger Lodge. J. liev..A.. M. Trench. Unwin.A. I. Vaughan..A.. L. Tottenham.. Tyler. Holborn.W.. 0.. J.S.A. V. F. M. S. Albans. B. H. W.. Berks. Eev.W. Magdalene College.. 11. The College. Brook Green. Wimbledon. M. M. M. F. The College. Sunnydene.. M. Haileybury College..A.A. B. M. Trayes. E. Godalming. Hertford. Upcott. Lincoln's Inn.. Head Master. C.A. Towers.. S. A. A.. B. TiLLEY. M. B. Lancing College.A.C. B. A. *TowER. Surrey.A.. Staple Inn. B. L.A. S. IJpcoTT.

North Bailey.A. Crafts Street.A. Cowley Girls' School. H. Clare College.. Miss I. WilUam.A.. Harrow).A.A.C. B. Rev. Walter. Wallace.. Bosloe.A. Walters.. M. Horncastle. E. British Museum. Queen Anne Terrace. W. Ward. 14. Walters. W. Walker.. M. King's College.A. Miss H..A.L. Birmingham. Mass. Middleton School.A. Miss C. T.. H. Newtonville.. M. M. G. *ViNCE. Waldstein.. Master of Peterhouse. Cambridge.A. Devon. F. Wage. J. Technical College. W... M. Pembroke College. Flamstead. C. The Grammar School.S. H. Litt. Cheshire..A. D. Virgo. 10. Selwyn Gardens.. Vincent.D. M.A. Alexander. F. The Vicarage. M. Birmingham. Ward. G. W.. (and Braeside. Wardale.. A.. Ward. 20-21. Walker. C.G.. M. D.. 3Iiss. W. M. M. Manchester. Old Hall. Conway.. Walker.. M. Prof. East Teignmouth. M.. Surrey. Walker. J.A.D. IL. Warner. 3Iiss T.. 39. VouLES. R... B. F. St. 5. A.A. Bev. 43. D. B.. A.A. Edmund Street. Bradfield College.. M. Laurence Pountney Lane.D.. Mrs. Helens. *Walters.. Falcon Villas. M. Prof. Cannon Street.A... Cambridge. Langton Rectory. Noel Street. W. W. M. W. W. Durham. Roxburgh Park. Oxford.. Huddersfield. St. de G. Cambridge. W. J. 5.C. B. Master). Bognor. S. Southern House.A. W.. Vincent. ViNCE.. High School. Berks. Cambridge.. A. Warner.Litt. W. Warburton.. President of Magdalen College. B. Cheetham Hill. M. Christ Church. H.. Islington Row. British Museum. Queen's College... M. B...A.. Oxford.. *Verrall.A.. King's College.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 191 Verrall. Halliwell Lane.. Miss E. Edmund's College. R. C. Cambridge. J. Ware. M.A. Wallasey High School. Edgbaston. a. Warren. C.. B.. Manchester. near Falmouth.A. Litt. Rev. M.. M. Rev. Pittville. Walker.A. Lanes.. Walters. M.. F. Canon. U.A. Cambridge. Rev.C..B. Vice-Chancel lor of the University of Oxford. de G. Selwyn Gardens. Oxford. Nottingham. E..A.. D. Cambridge. M. B. G. B.. Rev. 141.. Cheltenham College (Head . W. Waterfield. E. Cheltenham. Warman. Sutton..C. Ward. *Veysey.

G.G. Tirhoot. Watkins..A. Tighnabruaich. Caterham-on-the-hill. Eev. Rangoon. Miss C. M.A. 66.. Crich Common.. M. Whibley. Hertford.S. S. a. J. M. D... Magdalen College. G. Southsea.A. Mozufferpore. B. M.. J. F. B. *Whiteiiead. A. Stanwell Road.. The Dene. P. B. 3Iiss E..A.B.. N. Vincent Scjuan:. M. 91. Whishaw.. 7.. 21iss E. The Wyggeston School.. Albany Road. Wells. India.. Miss T. W. H. W. M. Weech. A. K. White. Watson. Watkins. M.. M. M. W. Prof.. Wedd. M. G.A.. W. M..A. Wortley. Beds. Manor.... Grammar School.A. N.E. 82.. Cambridge.A. W.W. Bedford. M. R. Ipswich.. White. by Greenock. R. The College. Jlfrs. Miss J. Eev..A. B. B. Cheltenham. Wadham College. Went. Waters. Abercromby Square.. Education Office. Et. King's College... S.. Wadham College.. a.. Whitestone. Watson. Madison Street. Miss L. A.. Oliver Grove. H.A. Watson. India... Glamorgan.A.O. A.S.A. Sydney. Webb. G. E. Lancaster. Pemberley Crescent. West aw AY. R.' M. Hillside. U. Waits. London. Windsoi-... Welldon. White. E.A. Abingdon Road. Wedd..... L. S.. The Grammar School..A. Lines. INI. C. Watson. M. W. Michigan (summer East 509. Watford. Ealing. Matlock Batli. N. Whitefield. L. Oxford. Upper Cheyne Row. 1. Freelands. Sussex.. M.. Waters. Kensington. G. A.APPENDIX 192 Waterlow. Woburn Sands R.. Wavendon Whibley.. Mrs.A.D. Rye.. University of Michigan. C. 7a. J. Watson.A. M. A. Queen Anne's School. J. li. Wenley. Oxford.A. B. Cambridge.A. M. Merchant Taylors' School.A. G. Disraeli Road.A. address in Scotland. *Wells. Heidelberg... Boston..A.. Haileybury College. M. 3fiss E. . Ann Arbor. C. Peuarth. Eev.A. H. C.. E. Surrey. T. M. Eton College.. Oxon. Caversham.). Liverpool..A. N. Warwickshire. The Deanery. Watson.A. W. Oxford. Wedderspoon. M.W. 17. South Norwood. Manchester.. Pembroke College. B. Leicester. Webster. Solihull Grammar School. Newnham College.. W. Wells. Cambridge. Eev. Corran. B.. 0. Derby- shire... Fairlie. A. School House. Miss E.

R. S. Worcester. Wilson. 25 . L. D. W. Grindlay.A..A. Malone Park. WiLLiNK. 54. Plas Tirion.. Very Rev.A.A.A. Hudson.. I. W. A.. M.. Willis. A. Williams...B. B. Rev.B. Cook.. Basil.A.. Stoneycroft. Belfast. Williams. J. W. WiOGLEswoRTH. R. M. Bombay.. Spenser. Wilkinson. C. M. Prof. W. Savile Club. The Ryleys.A. Oakley Street. Williams. Marloes Road. Harkness Road. Banbury Road.. Miss S. Tasmania. J.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 193 White-Thomson. 107. M. Grindlay. Deanery.A. H. Liverpool. Oxford. J.. M. Quentin Road. near Batb. Blackheath. Carlisle.E. Williams.. Kensington. 21. 7. Rev. Parliament Street.. Moray. C. B. H. The College. 12. Willis.. E.. South Yarra. L. Wickham. G. Oxford. M.. Park Road. Castletown Man.. Willis.A.. A. Derwent Square.A.. Hans Place. 46.W. Engracia. Cambridge. Hertford College. Bangor.. S.S. J. Williams. Williams. E. BA.S. B. M. Piccadilly. Grammar School. 4..A. Eastbourne. Williams.A.. S..P.C. Rev. Williamson. 70. R. W..A. Mus..A.. Bangor.W. Bombay. Williams. M.C. L. M. J. R. Bowstead. H. 32. B.A. Dingle Bank. Williams.C.A.. The University.. Bedales Scliool. Miss J. M. E.W. Merton Hall. Wilson. W. IST.A. M. Manchester. Selwyn College. Cheshire.. Williams... Knightwick Rectory. The Rev. Victoria. Hants.. Williams. Wales.. Grammar School... C. Chelsea. c/o Messrs. M. Edgbaston. Groom and Co. B. LL. Herbert. Monkton Combe School. S. 99. A. Toxteth Park... R. F... Birmingham. H. W. Oxford. Fyfield Road. Wilson. Petersfleld. Williams. H. Hobart. Magdalen College. Orchai-d Road. Liverpool.. A. Colne. Manor Road.. Prof. Lanes. Miss M. J. Whitty. M. T. Stanley. Wilson. Alderley Edge. Rev. Rev. IL. Whyte.A. Prof. Canon J. Williams. Whitwell. The College. E.. WiCKSEY.D. W. Pendleton. Eastbourne. A. 20. B.. M. T.. 6.. N. Groom and Co. Isle of Langroyd Road...s' School. F. Lincoln. I. 39. Williams. G.. Australia. c/o Messrs..Litt. S.. Oxford. Miss Wild. Williams. M. Miss M. Worcester. H. Friar.A.

. Carl..C.A. Wright.A. F. Mrs. Sittingbourne. M. L. M.. R. .. Hertford. Miss M. Leeds. Wood. S... Crimsworth. St. WiNTON. M. M. C. Gore Court. Miss J. Luke's.. Trinity College. Glossop.A. K. Bedford.. WoTHERSPooN. Ballsbrook Avenue. M.A.D. Lincolnshire. McKinnon. W.APPENDIX 194 Wilson. Balliol College... H. School.. H. C. King's College School.A.A. Wood.S. Miss L. Miss. Herts. Yeater. Wood.A. Aldis. The University.C.... E.. Manchester. Yorks. Louth. DE. N. Second District.A.A.. High School. 3Ess E.. Wordsworth.. R. Whalley Range. M. Grammar School. Wroth. Repton. D. Wright. R.D. Cheltenham. Oval Road. Litt.L. Richmond. Surrey. A. Shifnal.A. Grammar Wyse.. Janet. H. 7. C. B. Woodward..C. Rev. British Museum. Brighton).. St. Didsbury. West Horsham. M. Fails worth... Cambridge. WiSHART. Wood. J. R. B.A. Oldham Road. Aske's School for Girls. Gifford. H.. Lady Margaret Hall.. J. Thoresby. State Normal School. Wood.. Wood.. S. Oxford. WooLRYCH. W. B. H.. S.E.. Brighton Terrace. Yate.. Wordsworth. J. The Lodge. Thackley. A. U. R. B.. M.W. 146. Redcliffe Gardens. Wimbledon. Banbury Road.A. M. 21. I. 20. S. Prof. George. W. 31.. Eev. MA. WoRRALL.A. Miss E. Hatcham. Wren. F. M. Mrs. LL. Miss M. Ph. S. WoRTERS... Moorside. Regent's Park. A..D.. M. Manchester. M. Nottingham. W.E. (Roedean School.. Christ's Hospital.A. Grammar School. Worrall. Warrensburg. YouNGj Miss M. WiTTON.. Beckbury Hall. Wood.A. P..D. Principal. Lieut-Col. Kirkby-Ravensworth.A.. Wood. Olave's School. Oxford. B. M. Liverpool. Wilson.. Bishop's Stortford. T. LL.A. W. A. Manchester. The School. W. High School for Girls. 119. Young. Halford.. Miss E. Land's End Road.. R. London. H. *Wright. Prof. Wynne-Edwards. S. S.L. Oxford. Clapham Road. MA.W...A. 17. The College..A.. Bombay. Oxford. D. Surbiton. Dovedale. B. Shipston-on-Stour. Haileybury College. WiNBOLT. J.. Eev. Leeds. H. WoRLEY.



Young, R. Fitzgibbon, M.A., The University, Leeds.
Yule, Miss A. F., F.S.A.S., Tarradale, Ross-shire.
Zachary, Miss K. T., 6, Lynwood Grove, Sale, Cheshire.
ZiMMERN, A. E., B.A., New College, Oxford.
ZiMMERN, Miss D. M., Oakhill Drive, Surbiton.

Public Libraxy, Newcastle-upon-Tyne.

Lake Forest



Forest, Illinois, U.S.A.

University of Texas, Austin, Texas, U.S.A.
Public Library, Dartmouth Street, Boston, Massachusetts,


Mount Holyoke





University of California, Berkeley, California, U.S.A.
Princeton University, Princeton, New York.

Library of Congress, Washington, U.S A.
The Mitchell Library, Glasgow.
Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.A.


an index intended for refere/ioe only. For fuU titles the alphabetical liitt
Names marked * denote the Local Corresj}ondent for the
should be consulted.
jjlace or district.)

('/7tw is

BvGKmGHAuSHi^B— continued




Blakiston, C. H.
Bowlby, Rev. H. T.
Brinton, H.
Broadbent, H.


Belcher, Miss B. M.
Davies, E. J. Llewel-






Cattley, T, F.
Ohittv, Rev. G. J.
Churchill, E. L.
Cornish, F. W.
Grace, J. F.
Duckworth, F. R. G,
Good hart, A. M.
Headlam, G. W.
Hornby, Rev. J. J.
Impey, E.
Kindersley, R. 8.
Luxmoore, H. E.
Lyttelton, Rev. and
Hon. E.

Edghill, Miss.
King, J. B.

Kyrke- Penson, Miss E.
Marsh, W.
Robinson, F. P. G.




Westaway, F. W.
Edmonds, Miss U. M.


Whibley, 0.

Wobur7^ Sands

Barker, E. J. P. Ross.
Gibson, H. H.
Layng, Rev. T
Moore, Rev. W.
Stone, Rev. E. D.


Tatham, M.








Badley College


Wcllingto7i Coll.



Radcliffe, Rev. R, C.
* Ramsay, A. B.


Gray, Rev. H. B.

Rawlins, F.H.

Irvine, A. L.

Stone, E.

Beckwitb, E. G. A.
Oldersbaw, L. R. F.
Anderson, W. G. F.
Bingham, H. B.
Cobbe, Miss A. M.
Sharwood-Smith, E.
Devine, Alex.
Field, Rev. T.
Eppstein, Rev. W. C.
Harris, H. W.
Herford, Miss C.
Roscoe, H. W. K.
Upcott, E. A.
Mansfield, E. D.

Tatham, H. F. W.
Vaughan, E. L.
Wells, C. M.
Welsh, Miss E.
Parry, E. H.



Macnaghten, H.


Stoke Poges






Wycombe Abbey

Daniel, Miss C.


Dove, Miss J. F.
Harris, Miss M.
Lang, Miss H. M.



Caius College


Allbutt, Prof. Sir T. C.
Reid, Prof. J. S.

Ridge way. Prof. W.




Christ's College

Austen-Leigh, E. C.


Roberts, Rev. E. S.
Campbell, S. G.
Hales, G. T.

Cambridgeshire — continued
Cambridgeshire —continued
Cam ridge — conti n ued
Cambridge — continued



St. John's

Chrisfs Collrge Peile, J.
Skeat, Rev.


Clare College


Sikes, B. E.



Atkinson, Rev. E.
*Wardale, J. R.

Selwyn College


'Edwards, G. M.
Trinity College. Butler, Very Rev.






Moule, C. W.
iStreane, Rev. A.

Cornford, F. M.
Duff, J. D.
Frazer, J. G.
Harrison, E.
Hicks, R. D.


Chawner, W.
Giles, P.

Greenwood, L, H. G.
Girton College .'Jex-Blake, Miss K.
Jones, Miss E. E. G.
Abbott, E.
Jesus College
Browning, 0.
King's Colh'ge
Bury, Prof. J. B.
Durnford, W.
Headlam, W. G.
Nixon, J. E.
Sheppard, J. T.
Tillev, A. A.
Waldstein, Prof. C.
*Wedd, N.
Magdalene Coll. Benson, A. C.
Donaldson, Rev. S. A.


Wedd, Mrs. N.





Hadley, W.


Lawson, J. C.
Mason, Rev. A.
Wace, A. J. B.


Whibley, L.


W, E.





Edwards, H. J.
Ward, Dr. A. W.
Queens' College


Cook, A. B.
Gray, Rev. J. H.
Plaistowe, F. G.




St. John's Coll.


Jones, W. H. 8.
Glover, T. R.
Graves, Rev. C. E.
Mayor, Rev. Prof. J.
E. B.
Sandys, J. E.


Rennie, W.
Robertson, D. S.
Stanton, Rev. Prof.
V. H.

Trinity Hall


Stobart, J. C.
Stuart, C. E.
Verrall, A. W.
Wright, W. Aldis.
Angus, C. F.

Cronin, Rev. H. S.



Adam, Mrs. A. M.
Beck, Rev. Canon E. J.
Burkitt, Prof. F. C.
Bury, Rev. R. G.
Butler, Mrs. H. M.
Byrne, Miss A. D.
Clark, J. W.
Collins, A. J. F.
Colson, F. H.
Flather, J. H.
Gibson, Mrs.
Giles, Prof. H. A.
Gwatkin, Rev. T.
Hayes, B. J.

Kennedy, Miss J. E.
Kennedy, Miss M. G.
Leighton, R. L.
Lewie, Mrs.
Macfarlane - Grieve,



Mason, W. A.



Lamb, W. R. M.
Canon R. St.


Gaselee., S.
Peskett, A. G.
Vernon Jones, V. S.
Keivnhain Coll. Conway, Miss A. E.
Gardner, Miss A.
*Harrison. Miss J. B.
Matthaei, Miss L. PI
Sharpley, Miss E. M.


Jackson, Prof. H.
Jenkinson, F. J. H.


Fe m broke



Corpus Chris ti

Stewart, Rev. H, F,
Williams, W. N.


Nolan, Monsignor E,
Peskett, Miss S. M.
Powell, Miss H. L:
Rapson, Prof. E. J.
Rouse, W. H. D.









Devonshire— con^irawerf

Taylor, J. H.
Thompson, E. S.
Verrall, Mrs. M. de G.






Walker, W. W.
Blakenev, E. H.
Chase, Et. Rev. F. H.,
D.D., Bishop of Ely.


Glazebrook, Rev.
Canon M. G.
Kirkpatrick, Rev.
A. F.




Howard, Rev. A. W.



Bensly, Rev. W. J.
Hoyle, Miss S. F.


King, H. R.
Iremonger, Miss E.



Fuller, Miss B. B.


Massingham, A.

Alderley Edge





Williams, L. Stanley.
Johnson, Miss L. A.
Baines, Miss K. M.


Smith, A. J.
Bramwell, W. H.
How, Rev. J. H.
Jevons, Principal F. B.
Kynaston, Rev. Prof.
MacKenzie, Rev. H.



Griffin, F.





Lang, Miss E.
Day, Miss K.
Limebeer, Miss D.
Jones, H. L.
Moor, S. A.
Danson, F. C.






Gray, Mrs.





M. L.

West Kirhy

Hebblethwaite, D. N.
Zachary, Miss K. T.
Gardner, Miss.
Walters, Miss T. G.
HoUowell, Rev. W.


Thompson, Alderman




Radford, Miss E.













J. S. 0.

Walker, Rev. D.
Hughes, Miss M. V.









Courtauld, G., Junr.
Bean, Rev. E.
Chigwell School Swallow, Rev. R. D.
Bourne, Miss M. E.
Valentine, J.
Stephenson, Rev. F.
Saffron Wnlden Hirst. Miss M. E.
Guy, Rev. R. C.











Ward, W. W.
Flood, Miss M. L.

Glo ucestebsh ire—




Brooks, Prof. F.

Cowl, Prof. R. P.












Matlock Bath


H. B.


J. G. S.


Pooler, Rev. C. K.



Elliot, C.

Williams, Rev. G. H.
Lewis, Rev. F.

Strong, Mrs.

Newton, Miss A.

Watkins, Miss L. B.
Cattlcy, Rev. A.




Ford, Rev. L. G. B, J,
Wilson, T. I. W.



Boyd, Miss H.
Cade, F. J.
Ellam, E.
Exton, G. F.
FaithfuU, Miss L. M.
Horsfall, Miss.
Latter, H.

Malaher, Miss F. E.

Newman, W.



Siiverton .

Church, H. S.
Bubb, Rev. C.



W. H.


Pearman, Miss C. G.


(Ladies' College).
Risley, C. S.

Saunders, Miss M. B.


. Prof. Sittinghovrne SutUm. H. J. Miss M. See STONYHtTRST. H. Lee Bochester . H. Gibson-Smith. Miss. Mrs. A. Gorse.APPENDIX 200 Lancashire — continued E. Watson. Carter. Prof. Le Page. Theodore. Miss A. Kempthorne. A. Rev. Newcomb. K. Miss G. Lawrence. Very Banks. . Archer. Bennett. Miss E. Church. Woodward. Myres. . M. S. Brown. . Tollbridge . . Gordon. . Canon. H. Miss D. Canon. J. E. H. Brett W. Alfred V. Sutcliffe. Miss E. Kenneth. R. A. Mason. Rev. J. J. Prof. Mrs. F. M. A. Ormerod. Rev. .Valence. Stokoe. O. F. Crozier. F. T. Pallis. . . W. Miss F. E. Brockman. Littlelorough Liverpool . A. . Kidd. . G. Dakers. 8. Mrs. S. Burstall. Smith. H. Kitchener. Canon. Forbes. G. Keen. .Rev. Very Rev. Ewart. M. Timmons. Willink. R. F. . Henn. E. J. E. Miss L. Cradock-Watson. E. Lancelot. Browne. Rev. C. Barlow. Boyd. Dr. Clarke. Rev. T. W. H. Postgate. W. Wharfedale Bvrnley . Hooper.'ZU'V—eontintc^d Hooper. Miss E. T. Blackhv rn Gladstone. Cran. Sanders. Miss A. Tait. McCormick. Miss 0. Arnold. J. C. Rev. Legge. Bull. J. Miss E. W. Tbicknesse. Buller. O. Muspratt. Rev. C. J. Frank. D. J. Prof. W. Williams. G. . Rev. W. G. Rev. Harrison. . Fletcher. O'Malley. W. . M. E. E. Ashton. Dawkins. . B. de. Forbes. Hon. H. Sidcuj) Winton. Rev. D. Alexander. Paton. Wiggleworth. Robinson. Henn. . Crompton. Prof. Tancock. W. Miss E. . Beaumont. J. . CoUis. H. . G. Rev. Rev. Miss. Linton-Smith. H. Cotton. F. W. Agar. G. J. A. Mrs. . Miss S. M. Seveniiaks . Miss E. Rev. L. Hall. J. A. A. R. A. Burley-iri' Goodrich. M. Dr. Miss A. G. M. Miss M. A. Ritchie. M. G. Cunnell. W. Miss E. Dale. Dvmond. Miss F. Philip. Burrows. M. Prideaux. R. E. A. B. Macnaughton. Liverpool . (^continued) Manchester Allen. E. C. Conway. J. Blackpool Bolton . N. Silcox. Smith. Miss W. Prof. E. Bevan. Miss E. Ashton-on. Rev. P. Coleman. J. R. Honnywill. Brooke. . A. H. Campbell. L. . W. Robertson. Dr. Prof. Dauncey. R. Hardeman. Lancashire— Meosfi/ J. J. T. Conway. Cadleton Clitheroe Colne Lancaster . L. W. A. ^iarson. Rev. Rev. Carruthers. Richard. S. Bramley-Moore. Caton. Canon. Joseph. K. Lipscomb. Miss. E. P. Rev. F. Rev. Watts. Robert. B. R. T. . . Rev. Hartley. . P. Tvnhridge Wells Barnard. Bosanquet.

Ilampstead Coll. Kossall School . Rev. J. L. E. Miss. Campion. G. Fairbairns. J. Miss J. Rev. Dr. G. Davis. Lovegrove. Knott. W. H. J. L. J. S. J. Montague. T. . Lutterworth Oadhy Currie. Miss M. Went. Rev. Hughes. Rochdale . Eckhard. Young. Howarth. Shillington. . C. Prof. Prof. Miss A. . Miss E. Janet. Nicklin. H. way. C. Martin. Canon E. 26 . F. T. Hopkinsou. Hor?icastle . H. Louth Stamford . J. C. Carl. Prof. Rev. G. E. (oontinued) . . Lincoln . Matthews. Love. . Stenhouse. H. (Bishop of Salford). Rev. Rt. . Ingle. . L. P. . . E. I. S. E. (Bishop of Manchester). Mrs. Warman. N. Prof. 201 . W. Harper. Limebeer. F. Miss C. J. S. Bishop J. M. T. F. Walker. Worrall. . Taylor. D. Mrs. Rev. W. J. Miss S. Alfred. . St. A she's Schoo Welldon. E. Helens . Miss. . J. C. Horsfall. J. Dobson. . Sidebotham. Miss A. Rev. . Sloane. G. . . Rev. A. O. M. H.— TOPOGRAPHICAL LIST OF MEMBERS LAtJCXSmu^— continued Lancashire — continued Manchester . Wickham. Richard. J. A. A. . Russell. Casartelli. C. Sir LlNCOLNSHIBEBoston White. A. Gregory. Keeling. Maclnues. — Spencer. L. Miss A. Rev. H. Prof. F. Con- . Rudd. . E. Rev. Rt. Miss. Houghton. Salford . Dean. Wood. Miss J. L. Horsfall. C. Horsley. B. H. H. Dawkins. Miss D. Miss Boyd. R. Lamb. Rev. Henry. E. J. P. S. Nicholson. Rev. J. Paton. H. . Hall. John. . E. May. W. Grundy. Massey. Roby. Sinclair. C. Sir E. T. G. B. Spilsbury. A. Lilley. Williamson. . WarburtoD. Kelly. Scoles. Fox. Macalpiue. . E. Browne. . Rev. C. H. Kelsey. . M. Moulton. C. Strudwick. R. Wood. Guppy. . Worrall.. Hogg. Bedford Girls A she's . E. Manchester . Billson. . W. Walter. J. Furneaux. Rt. A. Richardson. C. Brother E. Lei CESTEHSniRB Leicester Miss M. J. I for . Miss A. J. Rev. W. C. E. Knox. C. Preston Frestwich Goodyear. . . Rev. Plater. Lewis. Joseph. H. W. School. {continued') Newton Heath Oldham . Grantham London . N. . E. Herford. Simon. . Sadler. G. Montague. M. Scott. Mrs. Fry. Prof. Stonyhurst Hicks. Hopkinson. Rev. Widnes . W. Donner. Morton. MacGregor. W. J. Sutton.. Peake. A. Mrs. . Mrs. Darlington. Hewart. . W. D. Gleave. E. W. Canon J.. Miss E. . Rev.

H.lones. M. Rev. . .H. A. Miss H. G. . C. Miss B. H. Furness. /ScA. Paul's Sch. Dr. Balcarres. Col- legiate Sch. Armstead. London . P. W. Paul's Girls' School Westminster Bailey. Dulwich Coll. . W. G. Melhuish. Miss M.Rt. Rev. W. Or. J. W. G. Rev. J. Hillard. J. Miss H. St. Rev. P. Smiley. D. . . Coll. *Pantin. Mrs. . H. D. B. E. B. Miss E. Caspari. E.. Bamfylde. Oakeley. K. Highgatf. Coll. B. R.C. Gray. Kensington Park High School King's College S. Rev. Mrs. A. F. Miss W. A. Godfrey R. School . S. Gould. Skeel. Guthkelch. . F. Bate. Sion College Southlands Coll. McDougal. E. J. Balfour. Miss E. Lewer.H. Masham. Trenerry. Nairn. . Miss M. . Smith. L.M. C. L. and J. F. Miss R. T. King's Coll. E.APPENDIX London — continued London — continued City of London Chiltou. C. D. Baker-Penoyre. S. J. Harper. . . Spenser. Rev. B. F. Douglas. . P. Miss E. Giveen. Gardner. Turner. James Alley ne's School Mathews. . . W. Y. Parker. Armitage. F. W. S. P. A. E. Prof. Nairne. Rushbrooke. Miss E. Miss M. Armstead. Mill Hill Sch. Behrens. R.F. Wotherspoon. Bell. P. Stationers' Sch. . . V. Gerald. H. Miss E.Miss S. L. Univ. A. Bewsher. Barker. S. A. Rev. G. Streatham H. Wimhledon. K. A. Milman. J. 0. Melville. Prof. Anderson. St. E. School Merchant Miss Richardson. C. Smedley. Wimbledon High . Mary's Olave's School . H. Miss M. Cholmeley. Silcox. J. Felkin. Miss H. Lamb. G. E. E. University Heppel. A. E. Legg. Waters. Kenmure . Lord. A. Miss F. . Rev. Holding. J. J. Hales. Abrahams. H. Gr. Coles. Sch. A. London Queen's College St. Asquith. Rev. Wood. Spalding. . J. J. . McClure. F. Rogers. Lewis. A. Miss C. Westfield Coll. . Slater. Rev. Coll. K. L. Benson. Walters. Coulter. Bell. U. M. S. Ross.Hon. Gavin. Claphavi H. Miss. Miss E. Spalding. H. Prof. M. A. Dulwich H. Prof. Dr. F. Pendlebury. Sargeaunt. JV. N. Canon H. W. R. M. E. E. Hamjjstead Rev. G. Colfe Gr. . . E. Hawkins. Canon G. Compston. G. ' . C. F. H. Hose. . . E. Bennett. J. Hill High School St. Rapson. . Cai-penter. Rt. . Miss C. A. J. Dr. J. Emanuel School Macassey. F. J. R. *Conway. J. Barnett. Miss H. Witton. Rev. Hon. C. Cbettle. School . Headlam. Sch. Miss. Wells. H. J. Linnell. Loane. Botting. G. Lucas. Miss C. Kotting . S. S. W. Gow. Taylors' Sch. Simpson. . Sch. . F. G. C. D. Marshall. . W. Fotheringham. Miss G. Powell. . . Rev. Miss A. Miss E. Stoneman. S. (S'. . Miss L. Alford. B. E. Colet Court . Beeching. Norwood S.

Linnell. Mayor R. Q. J. Kennedy. T. F. Johnson. Martin. A. L. Miss M. L. Eve. D. Bradley. Miss C. Miss B. A. Miss A. J. Magnus. H. Miss M. H. Johnson. A. Dingwall. Rt. Headlam. Admiral Sir C. F. Davidson. Lord Justice. B. Grigg. Hon. Derriman. Burton. Hon. Sir J. Butcher. Leader. Miss H. N. Lord. C. J. Gosse. Gaselee. R. H. Colvin. John. J. R. F. Hodgson. A. Miss A. Rt. Miss T. J. Miss F. Kensington. E. Earl of Crofts. C. Calthrop. H. Harper. Mackail. W. G. J. Colquhoun. Et. Hicks. N. Miss E. MacNaghten. Bonser. Gilson. Sir R. J. Sir P. E. D. de Gruchy. Loring. G. C. B. H. T. *Crosby. Campagnac. Right Hon. M. G. A. C. W. Miss A. E. Haynes. J. Holmes. M. Miss F. Garnsey. J. Collins] V. F. Rt. Dill. Burne-Jones. S. Miss M. R. D. H. Leathes. Miss E. Sir A. Leaf. Marillier. Walter. Liberty. J. Dale. W. . Gurney. S. Bridge. Miss B. Hildesheimer. Rt. Langridge. W. Dickin. Miss M. Loane. Sir R H London . E. H. K. Bruce-Forrest. Hon. Gibson. Bruce. Heward. Cromer. Goode. Lee. W. B. Forbes. G. G. Cohen. G. N. Hill. Heath. T. Miss L. Canon R. Craik. . H. J. R. W. Matthews. Miss M. W. C. Hetherington. G. Droop. J. Ker. Curzon.TOPOGRAPHICAL LIST OF MEMBERS London — contmued London — contimied London . G. Miss K. Halsbury. H. Charles. B. Ernst. H. {continued) . Mrs. . R. Prof. P. S. Prof. M. F. Mr. Collins. W. H. 203 Hon. W. Lamb. P. H. Macmillan. L. C. Curtis. Miss A. S. A. Hon. Miss M. G. E. Miss A. Mavrogordato. von. R. Kenyon. W. Hon. Rt. L. Sir R. Finlay. Bewsher. Browning. G. S. Chapman. P. W. M. P. W. Miss E. R. P. Sidney. Sir H. Dr. Haigh. A. F. K. Lattimer. Lvall. Loreburn. Chambers. Miss D. Miss A. Campbell. G. Haydon. M. B. Blundell. Hutton. T. S. A. M Baron F. Ghey. Miss L. Earl of. Cohen. W. Hiigel. Rice Howell. A. Hon. Lindsell. Benson. J. A. Mason. B. A. Farwell. Lord. {continued) . Lee. Miss A. Judge W. Gurney. Hodd. F. M. J. Longman. Esdaile. Hon. Higgs. L. N. J. Duckworth. E. Hon. Lord. Miss C. G. Ford. S. Butcher.

Miss B. G. Williams. Trayes. l^otmos —continued London Taylor. G. School Harrow . P. Rt. Phillimore. M. Stuttaford. Twickenham . Thomas. D. Wilkinson. 204 APPENDIX London — continued London . R. Miss M. R. Vaisey. J. F. Rev. E. L. Paul. William. F. Steele. E. Pollock. Bagge. . Miss A. Watson. H. Taylor. W. W. Rev. K. Miss C. Pinner . Jewson. R. Sykes. M. Green. J. K. J. Hallam. J. . John. Morison. A. Miss E. Miller. Sir F. B. B. B. Du Pontet. T. S. G. Adshead. Innes. Ogiivy. . Norfolk — Storr. Miss F. K. G. (cojitimwd) . Thomas. J. Nortliwood . Rooke. Miss Hilda Robinson. Dean. S. B. L. F. A. Clark. Millington. Raleigh. A. Thomson. Miss D. G. A. F. E. E. Ickenham .. S. Richard. Whitehead. A. . L. A. B. . J. Miss Plaskitt. Tatton. Minturn. Market . O. A. Sir T. Norwich . Miss J. A. F. McMichael. . 0. G. D. B. L. 1\I. Warner. C. Miss C. Stawell. . S. Miss M. Mumm. C. H. R. Miss A. H. Richard. Hon. Terry. Scott. White-Thomson. Viscount. J. C. Hort. Burrel!. . A. Woolrych. Miss M. A. M. Paget. M. Lee. M.. H. Great Cressing- ham Holt . Miss E. Tennant. Ponder's End Tottenham . R. Miss K. K. Sir W. R. C. Basil. Sonnenschein. Purdie. Richmond. Miss K. Seebohm. Whitestone. W. and Mrs. W. Heseltine. Raleigh. J. A. Robertson. Sands. F. . B. Wroth. H. G. A. McMurtrie. Pooley. F. Thompson. E. A. Watson. Miss J. H. Menzies. Willis. A. R. Sir B. Richmond. J. Miss F. Poivnhnm . Meiklejohn. Poynter. Beggs. Miss J. . Pollard. Nicholson. Poynter. Miss H.. C. Wild. . B. M. Stoker. Miss M. C. J. E. J. Rev. Hopkins. Whyte. R. — Middlesex Haling Harrow . Spenser. E. Oakeley. Miss L. F. Sir A. L. Ridding. V. Miss E. Miss A. Miss N. F. J. G. E. B. Miss D. D. Morshead. W. Miss L. Miss F. Rev. Miss M. Virgo. Stevenson. Hodgson. H. A. . Rendall. Rogers. . Mr. W. Preedy. (continued) Taylor. B. Richards.SirK. . M. . . T. Isleworth . M. W. 8ir W. Vincent. Piss Stuart. Muir-Mackeuzie. W. Miss J. Milner. Spilsbury. Miss T. Clarke. . . C. G. W. Rev. . A. Rackham. R. Miss H. Tarrant. Miss M. H. Talbot. Simmons. Rev. Murray. E. P. Walters. Menick. . Spalding. V. L. Miss E. F. W. F. . Richmond. Varley. .

. OxfobdshireBanbury Brackley Caverskam . E. W. W.Binney. P. . A. A. H. H. R. H. McKinnon. Fletcher. Fowler. . Miss A. C. H. Rev. Rev. Strangeways. F. . J. Livingston. Rev. Lady Margaret Guilford. P. M. Coll. E. Gardner. Rev. Granger. 8. A. C. E. W. Zimmern. J. E. . A. Miss G. H. R. Hulberfc. F. S. H. E. H. T. Cook. J. G. 205 H. Shadwell. F. Prof. A. T. E. Rev. C. Warren. H. . . Grenf«ll.. W. . E. H. Blunt.. Walker. B. Ashwin. Williams. R. B. S. Scott. T. Davidson. W. Brightman. R. R. C. Kchle College Owen. Miles. . Warner. M. C. Rev. T. E. Miss S. Prickard. Wood. A. Argles. Charlbury Henley-on- . Exeter College .*Genner. A. Wood. Gough. Robertson. Northumberland — Beal . . Rev. Prof. Prof. G. W. A. Merry. W. . Farnell. Rev. H. B. Mann. M. . . Nottinghamshire— Nottingham . Duff. Rudd. L. G. Jesus College . Rev.: . D. Rev. Oxford All Souls Joachim. A. Wordsworth. *Burroughs. Murray. Merton College . S. Richards. V. Charlesworth. B. G. Bussell. J. J. E. . W. Whitwell. Warde. Magdalen Coll. N. M. S. H. C. Rev. Scott. C. Rev. Thames Gwilliam. W. L. G. A. L. L. Rev. Leman. F. . Wright. G. F. Marchant. . W. Barker. Hall Webb. S. B. S. Prof. Bell. Rev. Miss E. B. Walter. Hodgkin. J. Blagden. Matheson. Clay. Greene. M. JVew College . Strong. G. . S. A. S. E. Lindsay. Cowley. The Very Rer. W. P. W. W. Joseph. * Clark. H. Godley. Prof. P. W. Houston. Oriel College Phelps. Turner. Rev. Retford. Lincoln College. Prof. A. W. G. R. H. P. Hunt. Garrod. D Pickard-Cambridge. R. Benecke. C. H. W. A. J. T. Oundle . C. A. C. W. Bailey. A. K. M. Balliol College Greene. Mackworth. M. Qiicen's College Allen. G. Rev. M. W. . A^'eweastle-on- Tyne . *Butler. B. J. H. Prof. A. E. C. Strachan - Davidson. P. TOPOGRAPHICAL LIST OF MEMBERS Oxfordshire— co7rfireMe(Z NOBTHAMPTONSHIBB— Brixioorth Northamj}ton . Brasenose Brown. How. Watson. A. W. II. G. L. Hughes. . A. Squire. C. Henderson. *Cookson. W. Keatinge. J. Rev. . Owen. W. G. A. L. 0. . Stewart. Hertford Coll. Miss C. Haverfield. Wilson. Prof. J. H. . . Sanderson. Sidgwick. . Spooner. E. R. Miss E. Wilson. Cyril. H. G. W. J. Christ Church .' . D. A. Prof. Richards. Wortley. F. L. Lock. Anderson. J. L. P. Rev. . W. Wight. F. Miss E. .. Nightingale. Russell. — Oxford continued Corpus Christi College .

T. T. J.-Col. W. . C. J. W. A. R. F. West Bromivich Manley. Rev. Miss M. . Mills. E. Cowell. . Denman. Miss M. . Grenfell. Richards. Leeiotwood Shifnal . R. SOMKHSETSHIRE— Bath . Rhys. S. H. Moss. Watson. Wells. Church Stretton Johnson. . John's Coll. Dr. Drewitt. J. W. M. G. R. Jex-Blake. LiohJieM Bakewell. R. Uttoxeter Daniel. T. South wold Fleming. Chavasse. E. H. Rev. Coll. . U. R. F. Trinity College Ellis. Miss A. Weston T. Mrs. Miss I. Wolverhamjjton Ager. Kendall. *Lorimer. Miss Inghano. Rev. JJath (continued) . T. W. . . . R. Farley. Davies. Mrs. RUTLANDSHIHE— Uppingham . Walker. G. M. A. G. R.E. A. Brvton Exeter Milverton Ball. Syson. Miss E.Rich- Lowestoft mond. Wells . L.M. H. Miss M. H. . G. E. J. T. Cooper. N. Lewis. A. P. Miss M. S. E. F. . I>egard. . Miss M. Oxford . Canon H. . Penrose. G. F. T. L. A. S. The Very Rev. CIay gate Cranlcigh Sch Allen. H. W. M. Pickering. F. Catherhamouthill Charter ho Jise School Watkins. Prichard. Phillips. W. S. Robinson. A. A. R. R. Sutton Coldfield Richardson. Stoke-on-Trent Riley. A. Page. . Newcastle Marshall. S. R. Bryant. Prof. H. A. Miss B. Powell. E. H. G. . J. Hodge. Alington. Stone Llewellyn. .. Rev.M. W. Magrath. L. Densto7ie Coll. F. M.. Williams. . Graham. Rev. Rev. Schomberg. G. Worley. J. R. . Goodwin. Branfoot. C.— — ArPEx\DIX 206 OxFOEDSHiRB Oxford SOMERSETSniRE. Wein Gough. Rev. Jerram. •Rogers. Rev. Miss M. H. Selwyn. N. Moor. Richards. . L. Suffolk Caldecott. Rev. H. Rev. W. Antrobus. . D. C. G. L. T. E. V. A. E. SUKEEY Burgh Heath Langdon-Davies. . G. Longworth. . M. T. Mrs. Smith. Rev. Battiscombe. S. Ealand. Martin. Pope. Farquharson. Colwich Balfour. D. F. Miss A. Norton. E. Miss M. . Miss G. Miss A. Armitage. L. Miss A. H. Rev. Shropshire— Shrewshury Yate. C. Wadham • Mare Somerville Coll. Miss D. Phillips. C. . J. Rendall. Miss G. J. W. Miss E. Romanis. W. . P. H. C. C. M. . H. Clark. Tyler. A. . Miss H. C. L. A. Rev. F. — Barton -underNcrdwood Holland. . Miss N. — Ipswich . Snow. Sowels. B. C. . Rev. Pearse. A. C. M. Univerrity Coll. Miss E. Genner. *Hall. A. A. Lt. Rev. Pope. Rev. Lys. super Stafpoedshihe Macan. G. Ilandxworfh Webster. . Elliston. . B. Worcester Coll. J. E. C. Clendon. A. Elliott. E.F. Rev. . Miss D. M. Miss B. N. W..-continued continued — continued Queen' g College (continued) St. Taylor. . Cheam School A. Gerrans. . W. Powell. M. J. Barke. Corley. . . Sandford. Tabor.

Eastbourne Browne. Rev. . Arch- deacon W. Rundall.MissE. Jackson. R. . . McKay. C. R. H. Rev. B. G. James.F. N. Thomson. Miss E. Hove Carson. C. Dr. . . Miss M. Rhodes. W.. Lancing College Thring. Rev. G.. Rt. Sussex— Bognor . Prof. R. E. Dakyns. P. Rev. Rev. . A. Miss. Miss G. . Ledgard. N. W.B. A. . Dawes. Miss M. D. E. Mrs. Baugh. . A. Miss E. Norris. S. Richmond Sanderstead Streatham Surbiton . E. Martino.. Maunde. Miss E. W. Giardiner. Ryle. C. Millard. A. Parkinson. O. A. Geden. Upcott. Rev. .. . H. Gilson. Rev. Kfliv . . A. M.. Burrows. A. Compston. S. Rev. E. C. Guildford Rawnsley. T. Miss J. H. . H. T. . . . Rev.. G. E. . L. Miss M. G. . Ball. . W. G. H. Vaughau. Wordworth. . Wilson. Miss H. Stock. Tildesley. L. Miss E. Elliman. Virgo. H. . L. . Waewickshiee— Birmingham . King. McCrae. Worthing Rhoades. D. E. . Miss E. Hayes. Johns. fl. F. H. Harris. . B. Critydvn Englejield Green Donkin. . Miss S. Miss E. W. Lee-Strathy. Kingstooi Hill Limpstfield Leives Mayfield . Monsignor. . E. Williams. . W. C. Ferard. Rev. Rye . Waterlow. Miss M. Miss C. Radclitte. East Grinstead. A. John. Hett. G. B. Archibald. Chambers. Prof. Lea. Tadworth Warlingham Weybridge Wimbledon . Hardcastle. . Usher Milne. A. A. C. W. J. Barrett. Gore. Miss D. C. C. . Zimmern. W. J. Chapman. Oodahyiing Carlisle. M. Rev. Worters. H. . J. Ven.. Orange. Saunders. \V. Miss E. D. West Horsham Marshall. S. H. . C. 207 S. P. Rev. Bennett. E. Sutton .. . B. Haslemere .. T. Oxted Reigate . Dom. T. J. Rendel. Foreit . Bayliss. A. F. Gilson. Richards. Lea. Miss K. . S.. St. G. S. Miss E. Row . F. G. Winbolt. Dawes. A. Miss A. . J. Canon .. George. Jackson. V. P. E. Bernays. F. Vincent. Taylor. Rev. B. Nimmo. Geikie. 0. D.Rev. . H. A. . D. Sir Hobhouse. Thomas. Quelch. Creswell. Alder. A. M. Herbert. . G. . Miss C. R. Hogarth. Moore. C. . Heath. Mayor. R. M. Vince. Frank King. A. Brownjohn. *Belcher. . F. J. E. Leonards Steyning J. H. . Rev. . . Miss A. Tower. J. . Epsom . Dawes. Mrs. Rev.H.— TOPOGRAPHICAL LIST OF MEMBERS Sussex — contiyiued continued SUREEY Layman. Sir A. Hussey. C. . . . E. Prof. J. A. . E. R. Williams. C. Kelaart. £rigJifo?i Buxted Thompson. G. Pearson. Rt. J. . Muirhcad.. Rev. Pearce. W. Richardson. T. Miss E. . . Miss B. H. Voules. . H. Ti. Terry. Miss E. C. L. H. . E. J. T. Jones. Davies. Sonnenschein. Lunn. M.. B.. Sydney. V. . Williams. M. M. Farnham . (Bishop of Birming- ham).. St. Rev. F. Measures. Lewis. H. . L. E. Dawson.

208 .

Kt. Rev. . J. Thompson. J. F. Deniigh WrexJiam . G. WALES . C. . H. Miss Castletoivn . T. A. Sleeman. . W. Skipton Wah-field . . G. F. li. Henry. W. Marsh. D. Rev. . Cardiff . Miss L. Miss C. Prof. T. Whitefield. M. Prof. Prof. 27 . Allen. W. Rev. )enbigh Colwtjn Purser. Bidgood. Rev. Abel. . M. Rev. G. W. . . . Brlt(house. Prof. Pearson. . Plunkett. Monmouth . G. E. G. C. . Jenkins. 209 Wakefield). N. G. . Eden. Prof. MAN Wicksey. Ferrall. Miss. W. . A. R. Perman. R. Henson. Johnson. . — Bay . Jones. H. . . Count. G. . Osborn. Monmouthshire— Ashforth. Arnold. E. Robertson. Keene. Belfast *Dill. M. L. Dr. . Rev. Prof. I. Doivnpatrick \NGLESEY Beaumaris M. Leckenby. . Heathcote. . Pye. . A. T. Swansea . M.. Prof. * Summers. . H. Pembroke . . P. . Sir F. . . Miss E. . Strong. Prof. Miss. E. Peacock. . Evans. Roberts.*Beare. Slater. Keen. C. E. A. Rev. Prof. Finlay. Sir S. H. . J Hunter. Miss M. H. T. Allen. Geo. J.— — TOPOGRAPHICAL LIST OF MEMBERS Yorkshire— continued G LAMOEG ANSHIEE Nhetfield . Galway . J. Ballater Blairgon-rie . ::!AED1GAN— Anwyl. W. Prof. Browne. J. Eobert. Bundrum . 'Willianis. Pooler. Rev. V. Miss E. T. SCOTLAND Smith. Prof. A. Miss M. D. A. K. (Trinity Coll. Miss M. . J. E. Forster. McNeil. Houghton. W. G. Rev. R. S. E. E. A. K. — Pembrokeshire Haverfordtcest . . Shawyer. A. Aberdeen . . Prof. VV. Delany. Mis. IRELAND Miles. G. A. Aberystiinjth . Cruise.). CHANNEL ISLANDS Otiemsey . Prof. J. John. R. . C. Carleton. Tullamore . Pena/rth . 8. Rev. L. Bowen. Willis. J. A. . Newman. V. R. :!ARNARVON— Bangor . Taylor. Lloyd. {continued) Escott. Green.. G. C. James. Williams. Rev. . Hudson. McElderrv. Thompson. E. Marshall. Principal. E. Prof. Eckersley.Exon. Cowhridge . . Prof. A. Prof. Prof. Bmidalk. Rev. N. Gibbons. J. E. Norwood. Mrs. J. Prof. A. W. Wood Nolan. (University). T. . S. Benger. E. Prof. R. P. Thomas. . H. L.. Cartwright. Miss I. Miss M.s. A. . Clongoioes Bervock ISLE OF . T. C. Hubback. Ramsay. BuMin.' J. E. L. Miss C. . Miss G. ihniskillen. Laurie. . Dodd. J. . Mahaffy. (Jjord Bishop of Yeadon York Burrell. W. T. . J. . Ahertillery . G. . C. Harrower. . Sowels. . Newman. Davies. E. Musson. J.

Piof. Miss L. P. Haigh. . W. J. Prof. Prof. Prof. Prof. Miss G. Carnoy. Prof. U. . . Smith. . W.A. Petersburg . H. U.S. Yule. W.S. Mi. Prof. J. Hodges. Hon. . C. Miss J. Pearson. . A. Haig. . R. . Peterson. Prof. 0. D.A. Wenley. Howard Anderson. S. .S. . Miss A. *Auden. Mrs. Massachusetts Nentonville Wallace. Haigh. New Hampshire— Exeter AUSTEIA Innsiruek Grafton. . . J.S. Prof. W. . T. C. E. French. C. W. J. . I. Faulkner. Dr. Rev. Huggard. . C. Prof. Miss Goodell. . — Missouri Warrensburg Yeater. M. M. Davies. Hardie. * Hirst. Mr. Abby. C. U.A. A. L. Prof. M.A.S. R. New York — . D. . Jenkins. Ashmore. Davos Platz Bright. Steele. . A. . Rev. Murray. Jukes. G. J. Prof. — . . J. . Beaman. BELaiUM— . E. G. Mr. . Tarradale W. Cappon. Montreal . Hon. St.S. APPENDIX 210 Seoul. N. Prof. Cordue. Virginia- Charlottesville . A. . Boyd. Fitzhugh. . B. — O'Brien. Prof. Grant. F. B. Prof. McCutcheon. Principal W. T. A. Connecticut— Newhaven . Glenalmond Hyslop. E. . E. J. Harper. Illinois— Chicago . Prof. . Kuapp. India— Cobham. Robertson. Rev. W. T. Lieut-Colonel W.A. Miss A. RUSSIANS'/. D. Campbell. Colville. R. G.S. Prof. Prof. Miss A. St.S. VV. A.— . . Bolus. E. Schenectady — Mediterranean Poughkeejisie U. G. Burnett. Hale. H. A MERICA— continued U. . MacVay.^s A. 0. L. . . P. TcLirkine. P. Germany— SalU Kirtland. J. . C. .A. U. M. . U. Johnston. J. C. Dr. Rev.A. D. Glasgow . Jasonidy. Xingston . ASIA £om bay C. F. . H. S. \V. H. . Cyprus . . P. A'SD— continued Edi7ihurgh Dunn. Michigan— Anil Arbor Jolin. Halle . Prof. .A. . Prof. R. R. Miss E. Ashby.Brown. Buckland. Green. G. B. Benn. Prof. AMERICA Canada— Halifax . Rev.der Robert. Srusnels M. . L. F. Lawson. Ithaca New York Louvain Taylor. Miss G. . A. Ailinger. . Macurdy. S. Switzerland— Toronto Mr. C. Kelsey. ""Leach. B. K. Djelal &ey. Italy— Alassio Florence Rome . . F. R. M. Hon. G. . Elmer. . J. G. . .A. U. P. B. W. . Batchelor. Andrew's. . Heard. Justice. Justice. E DROPS U.S. Abernethy. Hotson. G. . Mrs. . Miss B. Father. . Miss K. G. Minnesota Paul .

AUSTEALASIA— wn.^mw^rf Neto Zealand — continued 211 . .TOPOGRAPHICAL LIST OF MEMBERS Asia — contimied — continued India Bombay .

M. MacInnes. M. M. Esq. Right Rev.S. : H. Dobson.A. Esq.D. H. Esq.A. The Right Rev.Litt. Sadler.A. . D..) Professor R. J.. Montague. . Esq. P. M. Secretaries Miss M. B. Bishop Welldon. M..A.R. . (Scot.A. Archdeacon Sir E. . Canon Hicks. M. Hogg. Esq. On March 1st the Branch held the second of its combined Professor meetings with the Manchester Dante Society.. : Lilley. J. HoPKiNSON.. Esq. .. Williamson. Llewellyn. B. : Dakers. Rees. The Vice-Chancellor of the Victoria University H.. A.. .A.A. Dr." giving an outlme of the growth of the conception of the after. The Year's work began with the Annual Meeting. . M. F. H. E.. Guppy. M. Kenyon lectured on " Greek Papyri and the History of Greek Literature. J. Committee Agar. Professor M. Miss G. THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION MANCHESTER AND DISTRICT BRANCH President The Rev. S. Donner. Miss R.. The University. Vice-Presidents : The Right Rev. . Barrow. . Rev. D. M. (Chairman) The Rev. Bart. at the University. Kelsey. E. Esq. F.A.D.A. M. . Esq. Professor H. .. Warman. . D.A. Boyd Dawkins. The Yen.A. Treasurer H. F. Manchester High School.. Moulton. HoPKiNSON. E. M. T. S. H. held on January 29th. LL. .A. Esq. Shillington. Esq.D. . A. B. .A. Conway lectured on " Per una selva oscura.. M.A.A. the Lord Bishop op Manchester The Miss S. B. Conway. L. . Litt. The Allen. . B. Professor R. .S. Hon. M." and the Officers and Committee were elected. . . S.A.:: . 212 . Thomas May.A. Secretary of the Excavation Committee J. Professor W.A. Baton. G. Burrows.A. the Lord Bishop of Salford BuRSTALL. Miss A. H. M.A.. J. C. C. F. . L.A. Esq. Esq.A. J. . M. .Sc. . M. from Homer to|Dante. Esq. J. W.

During 1909 the Branch numbered 90 regular members and 93 associate members. edited by F. is described and illustrated by the Editor the the Roman inscriptions of Manchester by Mr. G. W. over two thousand in number. itself. H. Mackail on " The Aeneid. and Mr. Thence the party were Professor Boyd Dawkins again kindly specially to the relics in the djiven to the site acting as guide. with all that is known of the plan of the Roman fort. M. E. A. The Roman Fort at Manchester. especially when given by a visitor. who had kindly undertaken the guidance of the visit. The Toot Hill excavation disclosed no Roman remains whatever. The new session opened on October 22nd. J. pp." or. On December . Bruton.A. Maclnnes. 26th an expedition was made to Shrewsbury and The party first visited the Shrewsbury Museum. C. i. J. . (Manchester: University Press. 1-160). Circulars were sent to a number of schools in the neighbourhood. Excavations at Toot Hill and Melandra (pp. referring Museum. J. Hopkinson the name of the fort (" Mancunium. had already been promised by classical teachers in the University and different schools of the district. 1909. 3rd. gave a brief summary of what is known Professor of Viroconium. Mr. Response was made. with an opportunity A number of such lectures for questions or brief discussion. J. suggesting that the regular course of class-work might be made more interesting by an occasional interchange of lectures and papers on special subjects. Williams the Roman pottery is Mithraic monuments by Canon Hicks very fully described and illustrated by Mr. and was largely attended. . and the co-operation of all such teachers was invited. A social meeting for members followed. 1-52). with a lecture by Professor J. and nearly twenty such lectures have been given since the scheme was begun. where most of the On June Roman finds from Viroconium are collected. Phelps. The Branch has now published its second Annual Report. Bosanquet lectured on " Recent Excavations of Roman Sites in Wales. less improbably. . with the ancient form of an introduction by Mr.-xvi. The Branch has also continued to pursue a scheme set on foot in the autumn of 1908. with a supplementary volume entitled. and of the questions connected with it. 1-194. Professor R." This was thrown open to the public. hitherto discovered in Manchester. . . Professor Conway.MANCHESTER AND DISTRICT 213 Wroxeter. intended to further the interests of Classical Study in the schools of the district. Boyd Dawkins. . In the first volume the excavation in Duke Place in 1907. Brooke present a complete catalogue of the Roman coins. " Mammium ") is discussed by Professor Tait finally." A social meeting again followed. H.

Esq. T. The Right Rev... The Branch has held five General Meetings in the course of the year.S. R.A. M. Esq. A. Barrett. M. Dr. Esq. P. " The Roman Satirists. M. The Rev. Esq. . A.A. Miss Professor St. M.A. City Road. Edmund Street. R. Edgbaston. A. A.P. D. Heath. Gary Gilson. The Rev. Reynolds. M. . W. M. R. The Rev. A. F. Chappel.A. M. E. The Rev. M. Hon.. Lowes DickinMartin. F." by Mr. Miss Loveday A. Canon Hobhousb. W.A. Esq. Clendon. George Stock. at which the following lectures have been delivered " The Excavations Roman City : by Mr. M. The Rev. H. Esq. Esq.A. of the New Street. . Professor The Rev.Litt. M.. Beaven. . The Rev. . J. . S. . Vince of the of Caerwent. M. D. A. Esq. Committee The Rev. .A.A.A.D. James. . M.. Esq. M.A. R.A. M. J. Sonnenschein. W.A. R.. M. D.A. M.A. Secretary King Edward's School. APPENDIX 214 BIRMINGHAM AND MIDLANDS BRANCH President The Right Rev.A. M. . Balfour.A.:: :: : .A. Sonnenschein. " Iphigenia son . . Canon Ford. Bishop Ilsley. Hon. Middlemore.. F. Norris M. . 100. Treasurer C. .. Hon. .." . M." by Mr. Secretary R. Rev.Litt. The G. H. C. . M. The University. .. Archdeacon Burrows. J. . the Lord Bishop of Birmingham.. Quelch Miss Baugh .. J. D.. . G.A. . Cattley. Esq. : .A. T.A.A. C.D. Vince. Burn. Gary Gilson.. D. . Hookham. Chambers. Esq. The Rev. Waterfield. Esq. . " Democracy and Art.A. Burnside. Reading Circle Miss H. Hendy. . . M. . Esq. C..A. Vice-Presidents The Ven.. M. M. Measures.

. Hon. . Postgate Weisse. M. MacCunn Professor J. . Bosanquet The Rev. B. . The numbers factory level.: : . Kenneth Forbes. . CradockF. V. . . in Tauris. . C. Mackay Esq. The Reading Circle has been meeting fortnightly during the winter months at the beginning and end of the year. . Esq. the Lord Bishop of Liverpool . A. Caton. Strong. of the Secretaries Esq. Farnell. H. Connell H. . Treasurer A. . M. L. Hebblethwaite Esq. Esq. . Canon Professor P. Esq. J. The Rev. . T. Esq. P. to it by the Bishop of Birmingham. . . Esq. BIRMINGHAM AND MIDLANDS BRANCH 215 new translation. Watson. L. and is now engaged on Tertullian's An address on " Tertullian " has been delivered Apologeticus. . LIVERPOOL AND DISTRICT BRANCH President Emeritus Professor H. It has finished Minucius Felix. V. . Butcher Professor E. A. Robert Gladstone. S. Vice-Presidents : The Right Rev. Kempthorne The Rev. Professor J. Branch have maintained a There are 32 full members Esq. .D." a reading of his . Joseph Browne. Myres Professor J. H. : Hugh Stewart. Campagnac R. G. Hon. . Esq." Murray by Dr. R. by Professor Gilbert " The Hero Cult in Prehistoric and Early Greece. Paton. Esq.J. E. Alexander . Legge. H. Professor S. fairly satis- of the Association. The Vice- Chancellor of Liverpool University Miss Baines Professor R. Griffin. Pallis. . Professor J. Vipan. Lancelot J. . The Rev.

S.A. to whose hospitality the members of this Branch are deeply indebted. — — — " Greek Classical Costume " (with lantern illusby Professor G." by Mr. — December \st. " Malaria in Greek History. D. is looking forward to Association on the . H. " The Teaching of Latin in the Light of Modern Requirements. A. B. — " Excavations at Sparta.A. with lantern illustrations. March 8th." by Mr. Hugh We have been fortunate in securing as Stewart. of Trinity College. June 26th. trations). at which lectures have been delivered October ISth. Wace. M. Jones. : — " Early Civilisation in Northern Greece. Postgate as a member and a Vice- President of our Branch. February 8lk. Arthur Acton. Y. J. Litt. Lecturer in Classics at the University of Liverpool.A. his successor Mr. near Wrexham. P.. M. Strong. — We cannot refrain from special mention of our gratification welcoming Professor in J. Campbell. October I9th.D. M. Zimmern. John Sampson. A. Mr. followed by animated discussion. This meeting was held in conjunction with the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. The Annual Meeting of the Branch. Cambridge.. A. up his work at Reading. M. It only remains to say that the Branch the pleasure of a visit from the Central occasion of the General Meeting in 19n. and an address was given by Professor Ronald Ross. Baldwin Brown. W. H. Classical Texts and MSS. by kind permission of Mr. Rouse.APPENDIX 216 besides 52 associate members who are accorded local privileges only. A visit was paid to the excavations at Holt. May 25th.A." by Mr. " Was Greek Civilisation based on Slave Labour ? " by Mr." by Mr. Dawkins. Litt.D. K. E. W. The following meetings of the Society have been organised during the year. At the end of the Summer Term we lost the services of one of who left Liverpool to take our secretaries.—" The Teaching of Latin to Beginners. November 1th. A.—'' Exhibit of Early by Mr. January 2bth. M." by Professor H.

Conway gave a lecture upon " Horace as Poet Laureate. Barker. R. of Miss E. Miss C. who presided. The third meeting was held on November 19th. Justice Batchelor. B. E. Professor S. G. discussion of Classical The inaugural meeting was held on February were elected following officers Baynes Vice-President. Symes.NOTTINGHAM AND DISTRICT BRANCH 217 NOTTINGHAM AND DISTRICT BRANCH At tlie beginning of 1909 several friends of Classical Studies decided to take steps towards the formation of a Society which should meet occasionally for the jects. in the course of his " For some years back the Association opening speech.. R. and Mr. Mr. Strangeways then proceeded to open a discussion upon " The Present State of the Homeric Question. FORMATION OF A BRANCH IN BOMBAY On January Bombay. which numbers over fifty members. Strangeways. and there was a good attendance. Walker.A.A. At the same meeting it was further resolved to take steps to become affiliated with the Central Association. Secretary. The Committee consisted of the officers together with Miss Houston. R. P. Sub- The Bishop Hamilton Treasurer. a meeting to form a Branch was held at the Town Hall. Professor W. Mr. said of the Classical Association.A. 19th." The pubUc were invited to be present at the lecture." The second meeting was reported that the by the Council of the Society thesis. L. The Hon. 20th. : President. Granger . read a paper under the was held on May 21st." This was the subject of Miss Symes's which was shortly afterwards approved for the degree M. It had been approved rules of the Society Roman Empire. Principal . 1910. M. Symes . : 28 . Steps are being taken to extend the work of the Branch. L. London. Mr. of University College. on " The Education of Women of the Classical Association.

and Member of the Legislative Council. Butcher and some correspondence with Professor Sonnenschein. : The Bishop of the of Bombay . Vice-Presidents Jenkins. Justice Beaman. the only Branch outside the confines of England and Wales. Mr. January 21st. Chief Secretary to the Governor Bombay. which the Branch had sustained in the tragic M. . 1910. Jackson. after when Mrs. About twelve months ago our Organising Secretary. and the larger number youth had attained to some measure of scholarship. » From theBombay'jOazette. A : some original work by scholars in India." In concluding his speech. visited England last year.E. Haigh an interview with Dr. The Hon. Judge of the High Court. The idea was communicated to the authorities at home. she was and finally. A. of life in India were pointed out. L. Haigh. : President : Sir : George Clarke. Bombay Court of Member . The Hon. T. the Chairman referred to 1 the great loss death of Mr. to get all difficulties cleared away. J. able. Mr. letter was read from the Private Secretary to his Excellency " His Excellency wishes me to say that he will Governor the of the Bombay Branch of the Classical Associapatron be gladly His Excellency hopes it may be the means of inspiring tion. . were given a centre where they could meet. Mrs. Judge of the High The Hon. Mr. who had taken the most lively interest in the scheme. As a result we have now the Central Association's full approval of the formation of this Branch. who was an original member of the Association." The Branch was then formally constituted. Governor of Bombay. Lamb. Justice Batchelor. began to think that the cause of Classical Studies in India might be advanced if the few professed scholars in the country.APPENDIX 218 has been represented in India by a few scattered members. Executive Council of the Governor of The Hon. and the following were elected Patron officers H. but they have had no opportunity of meeting together. who at first suggested who in their the foundation of an Afiederated Society similar to those in The practical difficulties arising from the conditions Australia.

Walson fortv d: members. Mr. Kniglit. J. S. Treasurer Mrs. Hotson. B. T. P. L. E. Monteath .FORMxVTION OF A BRANCH IN BOMBAY Committee Court Whitty : The Hon.. . Secretary tlie 219 AijUihuri/. London and High Mr. F. Ld. Viney. B. Sheppard . Judge of Mr. . P. Mr. : : Mr. R. B. Haigh. The Branch numbers over PrinUd by Hazdl. Haigh. . Justice Mr. G.





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