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CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION
PROCEEDINGS
JANUARY
(VOLUME

191
VIII)

WITH RULES AND
LIST OF MEMBERS

LONDON
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET, W.
191

All KiGHib Kkkkkykl .

. 1909. 1910 21st. 1911 1 3 Friday.: : til CONTENTS PAGE PROCEEDINGS OF THE EIGHTH GENERAL MEETING Thursday. Rules 191 Names and Addresses of Members 194 Topographical List of Members 240 . January 5th. January 6th. Manchester and District Branch 256 Birmingham and Midlands Branch 258 Liverpool and District Branch 259 Nottingham and District Branch 261 Bombay Branch 262 . 264 265 .. REPORT OF THE JOINT COMMITTEE ON GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY STATEMENT OF ACCOUNTS. 1911 101 Saturday. New South Wales Branch South Australia Branch .. DECEMBER DECEMBER 17th. January 7th. 1911 INDEX TO THE PROCEEDINGS . 142 144 TO 184 APPENDIX Officers and Council 189 .

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I. under the direction of Messrs. LIVERPOOL." IV. the Nether World. Aeneid VI. Vergil." killed — — — Miss Florence Farr gave a recitation of the Latin passages represented by each tableau. Eclogue VI. Vergil. the sight of Cassandra haled from the Temple of Minerva drives Aeneas' followers in frenzy to attack the victorious Greeks. Georgics IV." VII." V. Aeneid — XL by Arruns. Aeneid II. breaking the compact by which Eurydice was returning with him from the dead. Vergil. rare publications of Classics. 13 £E.m. a reception was held in the Tate Library of Liverpool University. Tibullus. Vergil. F. a series of Tableaux was presented in the Arts Theatre by Students of Liverpool University and of the City School of Art.m. Postgate. Allen." " Orpheus looks back.EIGHTH GENERAL MEETING. January 5th p. Bosanquet." 799 ff. 1911 Thursday. F. 402 fl\— " At the downfall of Troy. The scenes from were in illustration of well-known passages Augustan poets : — " Aeneas." II. containing translations into 1 Programmes were distributed English Verse or Prose by the . 295 ff. Aeneid XL 1 ff. erects a trophy to the God of War. J. and P. " Aeneas. Gethin. iii. " Silenus is caught napping. 485 ft". C. C. journeying through I. where the guests were welcomed on behalf of the At 8. Vergil. R. Burridge. At 9 p. " Camilla is treacherously III. and Professor and Exhibits were made of Aldine texts and other Mrs. 83 ff. Vergil.30 Association by Vice-Chancellor and Mrs. portrayed V. Dale.— " Tibullus is reunited to Delia. sees Charon ferrying the ghosts across the Styx. having killed Mezentius. thus VI.

. Mackail. F.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 2 following Mr. members of the Association J. Mr. The best thanks of the Association are due to the members of the City School of Art. W. to Miss Florence Farr. Comford. and to all others who contributed to this excellent result. and Dr. Billson. Professor J. The performance gave manifest enjoyment to the large assembly which witnessed it. W. M. A. James Rhoades. C. Verrall. : Mr.

and as a power in the educational world. and as Chairman of that body after the retirement of the late Lord Collins.m. was cast upon the Association by the prominent position that to the mass of administrative Society owes to he held in it. As a Member from the outset. Meeting having been taken — " The first duty which devolves upon me in this place is a peculiarly melancholy office it is to ask you to render the last tribute of your gratitude and affection In losing Mr. Mr. His work as a teacher and need nothing that belongs to a somewhat earlier period and it has been. . service. has taken a chief and everincreasing part in the furtherance of its welfare and the direction Professor Postgate said. merged in his later and more manifold activity. January 6th The Association University met at 9. he devoted all the keenness and loyalty of his nature knowledge of its of the Council work of the Council.45 a. His great distinction as a scholar and as a sympathetic interpreter of the classics. we lose one who from the day on which the Association was founded. just over seven years ago. 3 . The minutes Postgate occupied the of the last General as read. Butcher to the memory of the honoured dead. it is some has been fully granted to him — the The only reward which he asked comfort to us to-day to feel is one that great and ever-growing prosperity. But I can still remember the great delight of my experience of I can say to-day. first President of the Society. and all can testify to the tact and insight which he displayed in presiding over its deliberations. What the him in that capacity only those who have been But all know the lustre which associated with him can fully tell. Butcher gave himself without stint to our of its policy. in the Arts Theatre of the Professor . chair. are not less known to all.Friday. so to speak. .

his graceful rendering of which. by your kind invitation. but yet senior in . gifts can hardly trust myself to speak. not wound . untimely lost. their deep and grateful appreciation of the devoted services which he has rendered to the Association.— THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 4 nearly forty years ago. And all the reasoning powers divine. tives. —" I feel it is a great honour to have been asked but no one can be so painfully conto second this Resolution scious of the fact that he cannot speak adequately on such an occasion. Chairman of the Council. When Mourn genius high. when under his teaching at our I for common all too brief a time came I Of his personal College. I speak not only as a Member of this Association. and the classical studies of this country. and fancy's glow. I have to propose to you.' . so stately in its procedure. The up aud makes me fear that I should fail in sense of private loss my duty to the years go but young as common sorrow. in the Latin verse of which he had such a mastery. To penetrate. have sustained in the death of Mr. best employ'd. S. and lore profound. an Association smaller in numbers. the following Motion 4 of the : The Council and Members of the Classical Association desire to express their profound sorrow at the loss which the Association. H. I will for the spring has : me ask you to allow gone out of to conclude with a few from a passage of English poetry. resolve. and wanted most. Our friend was not us perennial youth. And wit that loved to play. combine And feelings keen. on the recommendation Council.' Dr. Butcher's representa. but : as the representative. " Heard. For he of he had in him the buoyancy the truth feel once more to-day and we will be always young wells . is one lines of my earliest recollections ' : For talents mourn. of the immortal phrase of Pericles our year. Butcher. They sleep with him who sleeps below. . Vice-President and former President. and their sincere sympathy and that a copy with his relatives in their bereavement of this Resolution be forwarded to Mr. of the Classical Association of Scotland and perhaps not .

VOTES OF CONDOLENCE point of origin. I remember very well the speech that he made Dinner when he resigned his Professorship and at the Farewell left Edinburgh. and was a kind of exposition of all that we owed to Greek. We are apt to think of these great scholars mainly as producing pupils somewhat like themselves. His loss indeed is an untold loss . Butcher from Scotland. I . amongst the have attended the lectures. there will still many And I who students abide in their minds that love for the sincerity and strictness of thought and expression in I it Greek which Butcher was the first to make them recognise. He was. and all man who felicity of expression. Mr. and by extraordinary but also by his very personality had a wonderful attractiveness as an interpreter. students. with no sense of effort or elaboration. the best interpreter it so obviously himself in his personality we have had of the Greek he lavished upon everybody. natural way. think throughout Scotland. and yet was a student at the University. But it was delivered in a very simple. do not think any stranger that came to Scotland ever left I believe his influence was very extensive so much beloved. compensation for it in thinking of the large under his influence. because proceeded from the man himself. I never heard any one speak with more enthusiasm of Butcher man who was working in a shop kept by as Professor than a his father. I of gratitude is there at that literature owed it is its existence in no small degree to impossible to estimate what a debt due to Mr. . Butcher a It think 5 . and in whom number who came to a certain degree his spirit. was a speech altogether unique I never in my life heard anything similar to it. indeed. and I believe there are many men now who are better men from what they remember of Butcher as Professor at Edinbut there is some burgh. him . Butcher. His coming a kind of revelation of what Greek moment was meant Mr. But Mr. It was full of deep thought and very graceful expression. Butcher's influence extended And spirit. all this I have never heard but one opinion about have never known any one who was not proud to have been under his instruction. as I say. It . Of course such a teacher produced but he also had a great influence upon the humbler great pupils over a very wide area. through every one that felt we had in not only by insight.

When he resigned his chair in Edinburgh some years ago. Butcher about I think. one got into the habit of saying. of what — for myself is the severance of a continuous friendship of Mr. I remember attending as an undergraduate some of his lectures in Oxford when he was a Fellow and Tutor attended lectures they were. and I have done so continuously through But my last note of topics was never discussed. — was much impressed by the great sympathy and insight with which he had mastered the whole system of education in Scotland.— THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 6 I believe. he was my colleague. I gladly give this very imperfect testimony to him whose loss is very brief and for me. all these years. colleague's I heard of . As it he. of course. work for nine years at Edinburgh academic years in many allowed to speak of him for a few moments as be may I perhaps When I went to Edinburgh in 1895 teacher. and not only to those on a teacher he is his not known to own me side of it.' I used to collect topics on which I meant to consult him. and by the influence which he exerted as an educational I authority in the country. . College— largely of University were like.' Only a year or two after that an occasion occurred in which a Bill in Parliament was introduced which seemed to interests of the Scottish Universities . we all feel in Scotland that I think I need not add more than a very few words to what he has said. his lectures lectures. I When ' I said to him. ' You must regard yourself not only as Member for Cambridge." " Dr. Heard has so well expressed what Professor Hardie. must ask Butcher about this. It is very difficult to speak all his friends. so directly. and shortly afterwards became Member for Cambridge University. and spoke on the subject in the House with the grace and lucidity that characterised all his utterances. will always survive. Butcher is one who needs no eulogy to this as one who was actually his colleague for However. but as Member also for the Scottish Universities. with that simplicity and obvious good sense which appealed to all Members of the House. as a colleague and a sixteen years. and for one of the greatest losses we have had in life. Mr. audience. and when I affect the wrote to most loyally responded. from which struction what I much inknow directly derived did not At Edinburgh I One does not attend a but or hear much about them at the time and inspiration.

perhaps I might say no other man. and the fact that he came over to undertake that office He tained. could have done. even in ways beyond those that have hitherto been found possible.VOTES OF CONDOLENCE 7 them afterwards from many graduates who told me how much Many of them are in India now. though he had lived out of Ireland a good deal. But we do not know what exactly the country has lost. and helping a cause like the cause we have met to represent. Butcher. but it is one that I relations of this country — could not refuse to undertake. but I feel sure that all these graduates of Edinburgh share the feeling of loss that is ours to-day. this Motion because I I have been asked to support have come from Ireland to this meeting as one of the representatives of the Classical Association of Ireland." The Rev. we think it is in of him connexion with the Classical Association that to-day. made it we have at- was. I will say no more except to express my members Classical of the hope. and in other distant places. if he had been spared some day. and I think the hope of the other Association. Professor Browne. . Of course. one of the causes which possible for us to have such measure of success as has left us at a critical time for the interest of and one cannot help specially regretting that he was so suddenly removed from this earth at a time when it seemed perhaps that he might have helped to bring people together and so promote the work of the Classical Association. classics . that if we have not . and Mr. in Professor a I : way that very few men. interests as that of education throughout the country. I think. have met or heard of. always felt and spoke as a thorough Irishman and I think . " I feel that a great responsibility has been put upon me at short notice. I should like to say that when we founded the Classical Association of Ireland a few years ago he was our first President. We have heard a good deal about him as a scholar and as he always struck me more as a man who was singularly gifted with such charm. that the interests of that country were perhaps as deep in his heart as any of the other large interests which he represented. to deal with such they owed to him. or the and Ireland. and such wonderful power of sympathy for bringing people together. We know what we have lost I know what I have lost in losing such a counsellor. in high office perhaps. and such personal magnetism.

The feeling we have about him was summed up in a single sentence by Lord Cromer in a letter written to me the other day. as Sir by Collins.' It was not so much our admiration for his brilliant scholarship that lay deepest in our heart it was our affection for his beautiful." The Kesolution was Professor Collins. transparent. Butcher himself has been he has been our That undisputed leader. us all attended the meetings of the Council most regularly. gave the benefit of his legal learning. term of "notwith- standing the important avocations and serious duties of his high office.' he said. Mackail. Butcher any longer something of his Professor J.' what Mr. carried in silence Postgate next paid a who." spirit left W. and affectionate peris . all Postgate.. No one can fill his place. — " It is to still have perhaps hardly necessary add anything to what has already been said on the subject yet I cannot but feel it something which is in all our hearts of a melancholy satisfaction to be able just in a very few words to . office." said memory of Lord the Classical Asso- for a second Professor of Master of the Rolls. and brought his luminous to bear upon the problems of the Society's organisation mind and direction. more deservedly beloved. and also the which he conducted the will be remembered by unfailing courtesy with affairs of the Association as well as of . Collins. was unanimously chosen first President and who was elected afterwards "Lord standing. ' ' . among us we may hope among us. like Dr. Postgate and myself. Butcher from the beginning of this Association till now can fully realise to express feeling. he said type of the scholar and the humanist perfect stood as the he has the . and no one can fill his place. THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 8 Mr. have been more universally or death. been working with Mr. I immense service which he did to it. His genial hospitality members of the Council. ' : for years past he has been the undisputed leader of our band. just after his Few men. He was indeed the life of it and I can hardly put it better than by quoting words of hisfcown when he was our President at Cambridge three years Speaking of the death of Jebb. my own do not think any one who has not. For our generation that office. who was to have occupied ag&. tribute to the Richard Henn ciaton. sonality that remains with us as something abiding through life.

" The Council is glad to report that the Association has every reason to be satisfied with the work of the past year. and I well remember how keenly interested he was in the promotion. now stands at about 1. where he put at our service consummate legal knowledge and his wide experience of Nor is it right to forget that he was not content with affairs. As one of the Secretaries of the Association I . and the development of classical studies. but he has always taken the deepest interest in the Association's welfare. his taking a part in our deliberations . at 1. membership 1908." This Resolution also was carried by all standing. its first President. and how He was frequently living was his sympathy with all our work. friend. he desired to enter into personal relations with us. SLEEMANread the Report of the Council as follows. and even if I were to speak at length I could not give adequate expression to the great loss which we have suffered through the death of Lord Collins. or to the sorrow which we feel at separation from so warm a was brought and into contact with the late Lord Collins on many occasions I endorse very cordially what our Chairman has said in regard Lord to the great help and encouragement which he gave us. Mr. we have The Resolution I have to propose as follows is : The Classical Association desires to express its sense of the grave loss which it has sustained by the death of Lord Collins. . Collins was himself an accomplished classical scholar. and to record its deep sympathy with his relatives " in their bereavement.' Professor Sonnenschein. the furtherance. from me — " Very few words are necessary in seconding this Resolution . and to acknowledge with gratitude the invaluable service he rendered to it and to the promotion ' of classical study by the ungrudging interest he took in its formation and in the early stages of its organisation and work. and on several occasions he and Lady Collins extended to us the graceful hospitality of their house. in attendance at Council meetings. and I am him sure that in lost one of our sincerest friends. H.400 in 2 The which stood at 1.— VOTES OF CONDOLENCE the Council.350 in October January 1910. He left 9 us owing to the pressure of public business soon after his Presidency . J. of the Association.500.

large increase of not only to professed students. with special reference to Lord Cromer's Presidential Address of last Classical Review. Mr. On May 6th the members of the Association resident in Oxford held a meeting with a view to making the objects of the Associa- At the afternoon session held at All Souls' College (Sir William Anson in the chair). welcome a wider and a more rapid extension of memberThe objects of the Association should appeal ship at home. year . wishes it to be generally : The Year's Work. 107 ff. Butcher and Professor Gilbert Murray spoke on the value of classical literature. The Council is glad to announce that. The Year's Work has been handed over to the Classical is now responsible.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 10 The active support of the Bombay Branch has resulted in a membership in India. for the publication of three journals The and The Classical Review. on which to record an account of their work during the year. however. The Council known that persons who join the Asso- end of April in any year are entitled to receive The Year's Work bearing the date of the preceding The Classical Review and The Classical Quarterly will ciation before the copies of year. acting on the recommendation as to the requirements for University Matriculation Examinations in Latin adopted at the last General Meeting. but to humanising influence of and the importance who all the Greek and believe in the Roman of ancient ideals in the life civilisations of the present day. the Board of Greek and Latin Studies of the University of London has unanimously recommended the adoption of Set Books in its Matriculation Examination. and these papers were published June 1910. The Council would. in future be supplied to members of Affederated Associations on the same terms as to members of the parent Association. to each of the Affederated Associations. financially and other- Journals' Board. which wise. In the evening at Magdalen College (the Vice-Chancellor in the chair) five Oxford historians read papers on the subject of Ancient Imperialism. in The . tion better known. It is hoped that negotiations now proceeding will shortly new Branches and Affederated AssociaIn future a page or two of the Proceedings will be allotted result in the creation of tions. pp. Classical Quarterly.

and is now submitted for approval. on his eleva- tion to the see of Lincoln. Chairman of the Council since 1906. since 1905. Butcher. one of its to the Vice-Presidents. A corresponding 20th. with deep regret. Professor Sonnenschein has been one of the two Honorary Secretaries of the Association ever since its foundation Professor Flamstead Walters has held the office of Treasurer during a period of specially heavy work. The Council begs to offer its sincere congratulations Right Rev. The Joint Committee on Grammatical Terminology has conits labours during the past year and issued its Report. 142.REPORT OF COUNCIL 11 Doubts having been raised as to the advisability and of the Resolution of Council re Associate Members (see legality Report of Council for 1909. one of our VicePresidents. and the Council is by glad to welcome their representatives. p. E. The Liverpool Branch has associated in itself with the Council an invitation to the Classical Associations of Scotland and Ireland to appoint representatives to attend the General Meeting at Liverpool. and formerly Only those who are familiar with the inner working of the Association are able to appreciate the unique services which he has rendered it and the keen and self-sacrificing interest which he has taken in all departments of its work. Hicks. Professor Sonnenschein and Professor Flamstead Walters. Proceedings for 1910. At the close of the year a heavy blow has fallen upon the Association in the death of Mr. The Council announces. the resignation of two of its most valued officers. President. grudging services to the Association. The invitation has been cordially accepted both of these Associations. tinued which the Council herewith submits for the consideration of the Association. The Balance-sheet for the period January 1st to December was printed in the last volume of Proceedings (pp. S. 1909. 38). The Council desires to express its cordial thanks to Professor Sonnenschein and Professor Flamstead Walters for their un. L. H. 143). Nor can the Council leave unmentioned the fact that. Balance-sheet for 1910 will appear in the Proceedings for 1911. the Council has resolved that no steps be taken to carry the Resolution into effect at the next General Meeting. he put .

Fellow of St. E. Rouse. W. and has been largely responsible for in its success. Hall. " The following arrangements have been made for 1911 : The Classical who has been Review its will be edited jointly by Dr. private donors and of the Philological Societies of Oxford and Cambridge. Public Orator Classical Quarterly began. lid." and Mr. and somewhat raised the Editors' . Editor since the separate publication of The and Mr. Dr. It is with feelings of the very deepest regret that the Council records his loss. D. Godley. Bangor. and the Board thought it right to assign about £40 of them to Capital Account. F. £150. change in the Editorship of The Classical Quarterly has been necessitated by the resignation of Professor Postgate. the . who has edited this annual from the first. Whibley. of classical learning. The Council has also to lament the death of Lord Collins. The management of The Year's Work in Classical Studies was transferred by the Council of the Classical Association to the Board in the course of the year. thanks to the generosity of of the Association. Harrison read the Report of the Journals' Board. V. and Mr. being practically equal to the original deposit from the funds Thus. will be followed by Mr. reduced their price to its members. the first President of the Association. A. the Association has acquired two journals. Oxford.— THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 12 the hospitality of his house at the disposal of the Association for meetings of Council. John's College. then a Vice-President. remainder of the Association to the amount of £44. Arnold. Rouse. and of a large number of Committees. This Account now stands which total includes loans from members at £184 15s. L. The initial expenses incidental to the change of printer and publisher at very short notice proved unexpectedly heavy. since who took an active part in the inauguration of the Association. Oxford and Fellow of Magdalen College. who has of the University of A edited the journal since its institution to the great advantage His place will be taken by Professor E. Lecturer Fellow Ancient History in the University of Cambridge and of Pembroke College. in particular in the framing of its constitution. Professor of Latin in the University College of North Wales.

kind help in negotiating a new agreement with Messrs. C. John Murray that. making altogether very nearly £700. leaving turn 21st. 1910. R. The Board has also to thank Professor John Williams White. both of which The Board we owe to the publisher's care. Seaton. We now to the present Balance Sheet.— REPORT OF TREASURER 13 honoraria. without any but the smallest expense from its own funds. desires to express to the Association its conscious- ness of the kind consideration which Mr. of Harvard. for his most also to its financial relations with his house. The smallness of the balance towards 1910 is explained as due to the paying of £150 to the Journals' Fund. Ginn and Co. to . or be only largely some £5 short. apart months for the first six it seems from the allowance thus made for fairly certain expenses. Lattimer. as the publisher's account has not been . due to the increase both This satisfactory result in the quantity is and quality of advertisements. said. The and were to and pence . have devoted to the service of the journals. The expenditure was £411. making altogether £506. and to the steady decrease in the cost of production. but from an interim account which was kindly furnished by Mr. the generous interest which Mr. I The to express his regret at his inability to be present first thing to do is need not detain you with them Proceedings. John Murray in it has experienced from and and especially his Editorial Secretary. It was possible during the year to make a further investment of £100. 1909. for the American sale. chief points are as follows shillings to confirm the accounts of 1909. " I must begin by reminding you that the accounts now placed made up by Professor Flamstead Walters. The complete balance-sheet year cannot yet be pre- for the made up sented. from December December 17th. and the expenditure £306. and £23 interest on investments. R. Murray's staff. — were : the receipts — I am omitting £362." Mr. in presenting the Treasurer's Report. B. Mr. initial the income for the year will either completely cover the outgoings. before you have been who wishes me to-day. The receipts were £483 from subscriptions and entrance fees. they are printed in the current some extent discussed at the last meeting.

is to pay 7s. Branch. amount paid back the is That in entrance fees to the branches. which is not already paid have about £95 to the good. and this work has been done admirably by Miss Christian Burke. paid £7 by mistake. and then paying over again. were The £506 has to be diminished by the payment of certain sums. . There was the repayment of £14 18s. The members have largely availed themselves advantage afforded them of paying for the Journals with Bombay of the their Classical Association subscription. On the other hand. They pay the entrance fees. the increase of new memhas been reduced by about £30 bers. not quite so much. Noticeable features in the Accounts are put down by Professor The contributions of Federated Associations the purchase of The Year's Work by the Classical Association so that the cost of The Year's Work of New England and others next. and many more will probably do so this year.. : . has been handed over in the course of the year to the Treasurer of the Journals' Board. however. I may add that a sum of £175 14s. merely a question of account. 6d. and the line of least resistance is found in continuing his subscription. subscription goes on. and then get them back again. the member does not feel so much the wrench of parting with his money. but chiefly to the eminent success of the Bombay Branch already referred to.. not in dropping it. Treasurer in consequence has necessitated the appointment of a salaried clerk to the Treasurer of the Classical Association and the Journals' Board. The increase of work on the Hon. That arises from members often forgetting that they over-paid. A large amount of this is accounted for by the fact that one member. intending The other item of £19 10s. anything to be objected to from the Treasurer's point of view but sometimes they want their money back. In that way the Treasurer gets the money due without having to ask for it. THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 14 The effective receipts. because if he does nothing the . impress on members the great advantage of paying their subscription through their bank. and I would like to without having to send receipts. Since then we have had a number of fresh members from the Walters as follows . due partly to the Oxford Meeting in May.

through their banks. " I beg to second the Resolution on behalf the Manchester Branch." Conway. we know perhaps even better his of Greek Historical Inscriptions. is to distinction we can ask of become our President. entreaty to that of Mr. of his scholarship the greatest service him and we can offer him. of them) of being of service to higher education. and also him for this Association." Professor Conway. Lord carried. as we know. in Manchester. as well as to the Association. in the north. more than to any other English scholar. Hicks' publications of the Greek Inscripis due. Hicks occupied a and his contributions form in that. Dr." The Resolution was Professor Myres. — " In these Reports. Hicks has still and now at Lincoln. of which Canon Hicks was President invite to Professor of the greatest use — . which has effected In his real awakening to a whole fresh side of classical study. upon the distinguished career which has been his.ELECTION OF PRESIDENT 15 beg to move the approval of the Accounts of 1909 which I are before you. and to education great opportunities (and has of every grade under modern conditions. then. The highest recognition. . Seaton that Association would adopt the method I would like to members of the of paying their subscriptions to the Journals' Board. that the present prosperous state of the study of Epigraphy in this country We know Dr. perhaps I formally seconding the adoption of may members the attention of the take the opportunity of calling of the Association here present to the restriction of the privilege of reduced subscription to the Journals to the first two months of the year. Dr. The Council have resolved that any subscriptions paid later than February 28th at the usual rates offered to the public. prominent place in English scholarship tions in the British little Manual busy life Museum . valuable and peculiar taken a have to it it is to him. made He has had. I think. not at the reduced must be rates offered to add my own members of the Association. — " It my is privilege to propose that the Bishop of Lincoln be invited to accept the office of President before he had entered Even of this Association. found time to keep up a real interest in the studies which had made his name known earlier in life.

carried nem. I have also to propose that to the list of Vice-Presidents there be added the name of Professor choly domestic loss. mention the changes it is In the us. two other names be added to the list also Mr. and the Council. propose that Our present President. as hitherto. of proposing that the existing Vice- Presidents should be re-elected for the following year. and just elected our President. owing to a recent severe and melan- any public appearance must be for him a source of no inconsiderable trouble. familiar to all us. con. We are delighted that a whole should confer upon him the greatest and patient guidance the Association as honour it of can offer.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 16 for many Every one who has known anything years. I need not say anything of his they are well known. knows that it owes everything to the inspiration Canon Hicks. if upon it has been in accordance with our practice his vacating the office of President he be elected by us Vice-President once more. be in accordance with the general wishes of Vice-Presidents. But I must say the this. it is. and I am sure all members all his colleagues on of the Association. disappears from the list . now Lord Bishop of Lincoln. Sonnenschein. —" I have the pleasure with certain modifications which I shall state. I need not read the names. I shall. Butcher and Lord Collins. of the Association. and we shall have further conclaims Perhaps I may add in this firmation of them this afternoon. connexion that we all must feel the deepest gratitude to Sir Archibald for having consented to come to give the Presidential Address here at a time when. was Vice-President before being raised to that higher position and it will." The Kesolution was Professor Mackail. . feel . glad to find from the reception with which the proposal has been met that I need not commend it. first place list Therefore I will merely proposed to make. Three of these but by operations Canon Hicks. of course. of these somewhat is members I and as long. Sir Archibald Geikie. therefore. . at all of the work of excavation and publication which our Branch has has attempted. by independent of The think. changes are not being made. that his services as Secretary to the Association from I am beginning have been very great indeed. I am sure.

I would be a personal satisfaction to me to say that I do feel the honour you have conferred upon me very keenly. expressing my I will ask may take this opportunity of personal gratification at the two additions that be made to the will I Motion to propose in addition to the list of Vice-Presidents." Professor Postgate. as one of your Vice-Presidents.ELECTION OF VICE-PRESIDENTS the deepest gratitude towards him for the labour 17 he has spent. I have been in continual communication with Sir Archibald Geikie since our this meeting were set on foot. but he proved himself to be made of more strenuous stuff than myself for he went on with the arduous tasks of the Secretaryship when I felt compelled to relinquish them. And what I am particularly glad of in gratitude for the recognition must not detain you this still as . the Vice-Presidents be re-elected for the ensuing year. and his uniform good temper. The work I have done for this Association has been a labour of love. the zeal and devotion he has shown. with these two additions. — you have given to my work. if — " Before putting the any one has any other name now list Perhaps before us." . I shall have an opportunity of doing the Association such services lie 3 in my power. Professor Sonnenschein." Professor posal and Arnold. am to support the Motion which proposes to honour my old Professor Sonfriend and colleague. what he has done I can speak and I would say there is no Motion the Association could pass which more rightly deserves its assent than this Motion to make him a Vice-President. and his deep regret that he would have to limit his share in it I must say also how gratified I to the Presidential Address. now served for the biblical term of seven years. For seven years he has worked unremittingly for the Association. Professor Soxxexscheix. —" I have pleasure in seconding the proword Professor Mackail in associating myself with every has said on this subject. nenschein and I were associated together as Secretaries from the very first. and I can speak most heartily of the interest he has taken in its proceedings. and has arrangements for . " I should like to say one word of with full knowledge of . I beg to propose that. I could not add more or suggest any- thing other than that. but it connexion is that." The Resolution was carried unanimously with acclamation.

It is obvious to all of us how arduous an office many is fulfilled by the Treasurer that his labours are so Classical Journals. We have already had an illustration of his grasp of the Association's finance." W. Loring seconded the Resolution. he should become the senior And I believe he could have no fitter colleague than who in the early years of the Association was closely Professor Sonnenschein in Birmingham. Walters for his ungrudging services to the Association for so years. C. This is a moment when it is important that there should be continuity in the conduct of the Association. has worked at Oxford and at Birmingham. and to couple with him Mr. as teacher of Ancient possesses qualities for which. we may rely on Mr. with devotion. and the election of Mr. elect five members Perhaps a few words . carried. to fill — " We have now to the five vacancies on the Council. Seaton will prove a worthy successor to Professor Flamstead Walters.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 18 Mr. We are losing several tried officers. Caspari. who. but Sleeman to carry on the tradition Secretary. allied with a distinguished career as historian. He business-like which nurtured will serve the Association. Seaton as Treasurer. and History in is London now making . beg such a work man credit. his mark moreover. perhaps. I of this Association. Sleeman. H. who has had Mr. — " I have great pleasure in proposing the election of Mr. Professor Professor Postgate. especially much am now increased by the accounts of the sure that Mr. Caspari. I We ought not so much to invite as to to undertake the very arduous and responsible of the Secretaryship. Seaton as Treasurer in place of Professor Walters. J. Sleeman as Secretary. . Bosanquet— " I have pleasure in asking the Association to re-elect Mr. The vote of thanks to Professor Flamstead Walters. were put to the vote and Mr. The Resolution was carried. the city of Liverpool him may claim some believe. Professor R." Sonnenschein seconded the Resolution. whose resignation we so much Flamstead and I wish to couple with that proposal a hearty vote of thanks to Professor regret.

15 a." " I desire firstly. and that the scheme of Terminology therein contained be recommended for general use as a standard terminology for the fundamental facts of grammar. Sonnenschein moved the following Resolution : " That the Report of the Terminology Committee be adopted." " The meeting. Chambers. H. Ramsay brought into the net the whole of the assistant masters at Eton without exception. de Winton The Motion was At But that is a matter which cannot be fixed at have to be discussed in the Council. in regard to those 19 whose names have been Professor Bosanquet requires no recommenda- tion to us here to-day. Mr. was most important that it should be recognised as a proper body for all scholastic institutions to support. of at course. the Association proceeded to consider the Report of the Joint Professor Committee on Grammatical Terminology. B. are onerous. Sleeman proposed. J. and Mr. of Birmingham. 11. of Eton. that Miss Jex-Blake will not require any commendation. is recommended to us by the weighty authority of Professor Sonnenschein. And I am sure. of the country. Professor Walters' services you have Mr. A. He conferred upon this Association at its inception one of the It greatest services that at the time it was possible to confer." seconded." he added. Colleges." The proposal that these five members be elected to serve on the Council for the following three years was put to the meeting and carried. His scholastic duties. Ramsay. but he hopes to be able to find time for the work of the Council. looking round at the ladies present. of the Association be held in — " That the next General Meeting London early in January 1912. It will Mr. Mr. " will probably be held at one of the London once.m. already heard set forth.PLACE OF NEXT GENERAL MEETING of mine may serve submitted to us. How he did it I don't know. is a master what has always been considered the premier classical school But that is not why his name is proposed to-day. carried. Besides this. " to offer a few words of . he has served us on committees of which he has proved himself an invaluable member." he said. but he did it.

then. On the contrary. : ' ' neglect of the term ' Apposition ' may add .' The second part Report itself my of (page 7) : — ' double sentence It is the hope is of the taken from the Committee that the terminology suggested in the present Report will be widely adopted by teachers. however. 21). in fact. modified its proposals in such a way as to meet the views of as many teachers as possible. or dissent from. assume to-day year.' reconsidered I that all . See p. that the final form which my Resolution will term ' Bare Subject. (3) . our own term part of this first double sentence ' given in Recommendation VII) is ' (to adopt the ordinary form in which the Chairman of a Committee asks the body which has appointed the Committee to accept the result of the ComIn this instance the Joint Committee was mittee's labours.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 20 The explanation. in deference to the wishes of this and some other Associations. and therefore this. something about the word ' wish to say. Association to express criticism of. with a recommendation that they be modified.] for is in the Proceedings of the Classical Association defective at this point (p. appointed by eight different Associations an equivalent motion. 45 of the present . . by writers of school books. 1 namely. and by exam1 [The Report published 1910 volume. The word adopted is not intended to suggest that the Report must be either taken or left exactly as it stands without any sort of modification. our proposed use of the these points have been and the Committee has.' that the Classical Association be asked to give its is general approval to the Report as meeting the objects for which the Committee was appointed. any particular Recommendation of the Committee and three points were. I take it. I All that is intended adopted. be somewhat like the Resolution passed last That the Report receive the general approval will ' of the Association except in Tegard to certain particular points which the Association refers back to the Committee for further consideration. referred back to the Committee for further consideration Indirect Object (2) our (1) our proposed abolition of the term ' ' . or be moved in eight different Associations will during the early part of this year. I think the method which we adopted last year when the Interim Report was proposed to you for general approval should be repeated On that occasion an opportunity was given to the this year.

common The Committee has . verified. as a standard terminology for the fundamental facts grammar. think our method. and the desire was felt that some movement should be set on foot to secure some greater amount of uniformity in the treatment of the grammars of the languages taught in schools. this end were probably the only ones which were at There is no body in this to secure all practical. and appoint a Joint Committee. shown a disposition for which I. we were attempting the get a Joint Committee like That prediction has not been Of course.' of In this sentence the Committee attempted to Let me just remind you what happened in the year 1908 at the Birmingham meeting. in fact. There the subject was first mooted.a GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY 21 ining bodies. has been the only one possible I that . I am told. in fact. is. or rather Suffice it to no system. then. to secure as wide a basis of teaching experience as possible. to unite the whole country in the adoption of some uniform The steps which we took scheme of grammar teaching. . method the of getting the several Associations interested in this matter to For it is necessary in any such scheme to consider the interests not of any one language. were emphasised. it upon would never contemplate the laborious and delicate task of framing a grammatical terminology for use in all schools. but of all the five school languages in relation to one another. The Board of Education. there have been differences of opinion in But on the whole the Committee has worked together with great harmony and it has arrived at a body of Recommendations which the large majority The Committee has. and. say that the evils of the present system. This is not the occasion on which express the object of the whole movement. of its members cordially approve. thought that impossible — that we should never that to agree upon any scheme. Many people. and it was thought that a serious attempt should be made to see whether something could not be done to put the teaching of grammar on a sounder basis. to repeat the arguments then used in support of this reform. regard to particular points of grammar. as Chairman. country in a position to formulate a scheme for Grammatical Terminology and to impose all teachers. no doubt. feel grateful— disposition to sink individual preferences about particular points of grammatical doctrine in view of the necessity for a scheme in the practical work of schools.

no power to enforce our views upon any body of teachers or upon individual teachers . I take it that no member of the Committee would for other sciences. But no science could advance if the possibilities of future de- on the part of velopments were to be regarded as a reason why the results of present-day inquiry and experience should not receive expression. V. not the slightest idea science. desire to block the the contrary. I think the position of having realised what in other countries —the is only a pious aspiration ideal of a standard terminology in all teaching.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 22 recognised that if those individual preferences of teachers are not subordinated to the opinion of the majority. because or circulated to 1 all [With the view among the it to a document x which has not been circulated members of the Association. grammar but by drawing up a scheme of a standard terminology we have taken an important step in the direction desired. that is. desire also to add. But the game has been worth the candle if. we have made possible a reform which will put this country in If tion. sure to arrive is when some On further action this or some other Committee will be necessary. as we hope. Professor E. in view of a I possible misunderstanding. of course. to you look at the statistics given at the end of our Introducyou will agree that the Committee has worked very hard. that there is on our part Grammatical of legislating for all time. All that to bring our I must refer here for a moment formally before us. the time way to such reconsideration. This is the pamphlet referred to by Professor Sonnenschein and other speakers in the debate. who have it is the pupils pay the penalty.] circulated the of . if teachers and writers of books will try to bring their teaching into harmony with this scheme. We have. members is officially Arnold the Association present at the meeting a pamphlet of detailed criticisms upon the proposals of the Terminology Committee. not but which of lightening the discussion. advances a moment . — we could hope — all that we attempted to do to do was scheme into touch with the best grammatical theory and the most enlightened practice of the present day. like and some years hence it may be found that new light has been thrown on some particular difficulty or obscurity in grammar which will necessitate a reconsideration and revision of some of the Recommendations contained in this Report.

when the whole movement was started but at any rate when the Interim Report was presented he ought to have tried to stop further procedure. this.' GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY 23 has been circulated among those members who were expected to be present at this meeting— I mean the paper by Professor Arnold. With one remark of Professor Arnold I agree. should. If he objected to the whole thing. This he speaks of comes out clearly in what he says about tenses . he allows the Committee to devote He . then it is unsound to attempt to find a common If it is scheme of terminology in regard to almost every point. in one form or another. But there is one matter in regard to Professor Arnold's opposition that I think ought to be mentioned. another year to the scheme.' I with Professor Arnold. if necessary. been denounced. I am sorry to say. have raised his objections in 1908. ' The . but the notion of forcing the tense-systems of the That (p. all his chief points have already been before the Com- Arnold's contentions. mittee. foggy metaphysics about that the Committee only say can and grammar. five languages into one framework is not sound scheme. common scheme of tense that an old evil is much One cannot complain the impropriety of trying to find any terminology. which the methods of the Committee have. that his suggestions for the amend- lose some of their force because it seems that he is in reality an opponent of the whole movement. ' not removed. and does not agree scientific about something knows When ' Professor Arnold talks ' unscientific procedure. indeed. 13). and denounced with some asperity. discuss every point which he has raised and say something on the other side. and then steps forward to declare that our work is practically of no avail although I must add — that in some passages of his paper he does introduce some expressions of approval in regard to certain parts of our work. This is not the place for me to go into a detailed criticism of Professor in But I could. whole to the attitude Arnold's is a sample of Professor ' unsound to attempt to find a common scheme of tense terminology. want rather to say ment of our scheme I is and have been What rejected. Instead of that. because there nothing more clear than that a is common scheme of tense terminology can be found. Indeed. he should have raised his objections last year.

but we had to limit our- is perfectly true in one sense. literary or historical. notified and . Professor ing terms.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 24 report." the attitude of the Committee. General laws have found clear this expression. We desire to change the Report as of the as possible. No other Report are contemplated by the Resolution to which Professor Arnold refers. perhaps I had better close here. —" The Committee seems to have succeeded admirably in its task of which attend the beginner's path Technical terms have been in the five languages concerned. Committee with powers to make such amendments Report as are demanded by the general voice of the Asso- to entrust that in its ciations. as expressed amendments on occasions like the present. Resolution to ' We ' proposed to commit the Association in advance it is any amendments which the Committee may think to in- fit troduce. It It can seems necessary. And it of them interesting for have been freely pro- has been wisely pointed out that some of the Report before us. Illustrative examples. little had intended to speak on one or two matters of grammar in which I am specially interested. only be done by way of a Committee. can be done without violence to the individuality which languages as well as men possess. even in the brief a comparatively advanced stage in the learner's course. and on which I hope that the Report throws new light but the Chairman reminds me that time presses. Possibly some of them will come up to-day in connexion with the proposals for amendment which have been I . vided. By a subsequent selves to fundamental matters. might have gone into greater sorts of matters. and I must reserve my remarks for another occasion.' he seems to forget the practical difficulties involved in bringing eight Associations into touch with one another. reduced in number they have also been made uniform wherever removing needless difficulties . Rhys Roberts seconded the Resolution in the followI have much pleasure in seconding this Resolution. ' even yet not complete That is (p. 1). . many their associations. I shall then have an opportunity of indicating As it is very important that ample time should be allowed for the discussion of any such moot points. then. by simply moving the first Resolution which stands in my name.' he says. belong to distinctions drawn. detail in regard to all When he adds.

Still. a passion for impossibly exact definition. followed the epochs of original production. in its higher phases as reflecting the life fact and not must necessarily come late. among their aims. before rules of literature will be his best incentive encouraged to read rapidly grammar ' now we all know) has existed grammar formal grammar has Literature (as apart from formal . unless Greek and Latin are to become 4 . As was onee said by Dean famous school with which the present the Committee is so honourably connected.' is the modest Here we moderns Another attractive thing about the Report glimpse it gives of a comparative method. mind is . it is cosmopolitan Stoics. as he goes the dead fixity of language. In the is to the Colet. never existed apart from literature. into a doubtful ally of literature. have a clear advantage over the monoglot Greeks of antiquity. it is the power to read Greek and Latin authors with facility and accuracy that the intelligent critic of puts forward as his of what to-day always. he will find that the so-called tions. The love freedom. studies would make it said to have easier for the foreigner to acquire Greek. was a surprising achievement on their part to invent grammar all we must not grumble if they did not discover comparative grammar as well. been of Phoenician origin. is called a ' classical educa- This test must be more fully satisfied in the future than tion. who is and in modern etymologically a literary person. including Zeno himself.' it first test has been in the past. when the more mature and the materials more abundant. but. and it is in mediaeval. certain that for excessive system. in Roman. Homer lived and died without dreaming of Monro's Homeric Grammar. times) tended to convert the grammaticus. men spake such Latin the rules were made. (in is may have hoped that their grammatical But. and he will come and if he to regard as the servant of literature. rather than literature as the servant of grammar. During the long period of analysis which It at . and rightly.GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY 25 It is pleasant to read this explicit recognition of the that grammar. is with wonderful its with excep- bristle ' flexibility . splendid aid though that modern student. The beginner's method must be largely inductive and. particularly in Greek. the founder of the Secretary of beginning ' men spake contrariwise. whether or no this was has too often possible that the who Greek. because not Latin because such rules were made. along.

first of all should come the mother tongue and the national and that there are Greece and Rome. lead us back step by step to the classical world modern literature is ? The cause one cause. any and speedy trial (subject of course to such corrections of actual error as we may owe to the vigilance of Professor Arnold and others) would. The teacher of Greek and Latin is to discard words which have been so often on the teacher of the modern his lips. when is teachers of Greek were prone to forget that for the modern Englishman. cause grave regret to us all. hope that the day ever existed. ' ' ' to ancient tradition in this matter of nomenclature . I noticed . terms of when (as in dative. and the Report which we are now considering recognise this vital fact. but literature only of . as was necessary if anything was to be done at all. together with England.— " My first task of ancient and real significance of the is is that to it seems to thank Professor Sonnenschein for the kind advertisement he has given to my When he said little pamphlet upon this terminology question.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 26 merely a department of learning for a few specialists. Consequently much deference has been rightly paid ' ' ' ' . on our part. ' classics ' in the literatures not and of England. instead of boy who is destined some other career than that of lifelong study. as for the ancient Greek. that the proposals of the Committee were discussed. Another and a final reason for feeling satisfaction with the Report is the fact that it is the outcome of friendly co-operation an element in the culture of many a bright for between teachers who have sometimes been supposed to be at So important is this first concerted effort. of those great continental countries which. and so full variance. for example) their its infancy. give-and-take in small matters throughout the Report. And may not long since past. as protasis and apodosis languages is to abandon terms like possessive and nominative of address.' The governing principle appears to have been that the precise names adopted for the grammarian's tools do not so greatly matter if only different names are not used to denote the same thing.' etymology shows that grammar was then in Stoic origin have been largely retained even if it ' we. that opposition which imperilled I am much its chance of a fair There has clearly been sure." Professor Arnold. of promise for the future of literary studies generally.

I feel very much surprised at matter has been brought before the I heard that which claims to be a great scheme of reform brought before a public body with less enthusiasm and conviction than this scheme has been brought forward to-day. and has been so for the last 100 years. that I have used the words an unfair term Is there foggy any one who ? I get hold of afraid those be disappointed to find not Is that becomes haste to proposals which cannot stand investi- and which would be to diminish will it this Association to ' is less ' such a thing as metaphysics. foggy metaphysics ' is is not the standing danger of grammar. regard to certain most important matters. may First of all I the whole way in say that which this Never have Association. But I still maintain that by foggy metaphysics Report is spoilt all the way through and I shall hope to show that with this ' ' . itself in can hope to do. not for the last 2. commit gation. then I observed a general desire to become possessed of copies.' say that metaphysics generally should say that which The only thing quoted more or There ? will my comments of the asperity to and no remark I if have made can be regarded as more of the nature of a platitude than that. will I seem its am less and less sound as time goes on. I thought it would be of far more importance to the Association that I should assume the position of attack. have I and let me do not is my duty to sit in the judge's chair and distribute and blame.GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY 27 that the remark was received with only modified enthusiasm . I so. Professor Sonnenschein mean that we pledge ourselves to adopt the whole Report. but when he remarked that the Report was commented upon and denounced with asperity.000 years . place in time but . . they will find their I think there are good things in this Report think it praise . The proposal before us is that the Report I would ask you to consider is what these What be adopted. if there are bad things in the Report For an immediate duty to attack them. Professor Sonnenschein has not done confess at once that I also work complained that Committee have not attempted to do justice to the of the . is foggy metaphysics. but that we adopt the general principle and said that it does not . I think that is germane. and to injure such work as it influence who much Professor Sonnenschein has referred. words mean.

Then. and dangerous to the progress I am glad to think that I have with of grammar in this country. me Professor Rhys Roberts. namely. I feel discussion the Association would be Report. perhaps. suggestions such as it pleases maturely to adopt what negotiations. we are to adopt the Report before we know what the suggeswe are to adopt in advance tions are as regards amendments the suggestions of all the other Associations represented on the Joint Committee as well as our own. . will I is going to select from those and that we be the submit that that course for any Association to adopt. . me really most of our own representatives that I have with tions. that Language existed before Grammar. could agree with them. That is the very point for which I have contended in my considerations on the Report. Well now. bound to point out that I regard a number of the Recommenda- and those which are supposed to go to the root of the matter. have pre- shall final result of all these is we If pledge ourselves to a great reform we should a dangerous are going to know what it But the proposal shall this but that we shall adopt the whole scheme and leave the details of the whole scheme to be settled by some one afterwards. have only a small representation. . and who pointed out at the very beginning of his eloquent address that Language existed before Grammar. According to the wording of the Resolution we are to adopt the scheme. and then it is to be printed and circulated with such amendments as may be made by the Joint Committee. and that the . on not do discuss it its merits. That is. on which we that . who seconded the Motion.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 28 we are afterwards going to consider in regard to what details we can make corrections that other Associations are going to consider also the details that the Committee. . . as unsound in principle. some one might propose the adoption of the Report. I do this I think at this stage in the most unwise to adopt the Without wishing to be unfair to the Committee. not know what step to take to meet such a proposal as other than by the direct negative. I venture to say that no The normal great reform has been carried out in that way. . course would be to move that the Report be received and then proposals might be brought forward in detail to see if members we ought to made is that we is . having established agree- ment.

: constructions in a sentence It is laid down has a Subject. The first main point we come to is on pages 10 and 11. As far as I see it is this that when we have noun.GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY function of Language Grammar — that is. With regard to the General Preface. when experience every day shows the contrary ? the Latin teacher great anxiety. It has taken me some time to try to realise to what all this is leading up. then. and they cause Take an impersonal passive there is no observed Subject. ! also English and French and Latin are very unlike indeed German in many vital points. which deals with the that. But I will try to show that in detail. whereas our observation jects . Till that is done no Association can come to any satisfactory conclusion. It is ' fundamental facts laid down on metaphysical ' grounds that every sentence must have a subject. those that study of Language. . How. and to build up the Latin and Greek Grammar upon that foundation. . To and lay down the principle that we are to take French and English and German. The Report ignores the fact that Greek the Committee. especially as stated in the instructions given to is the same the terms Where the matter is the same But the matter very often is not the same. and so on. However. them Matters of this kind must be thrashed out in public in the public press. in print. are we to start upon the principle that a sentence must have a subject. is to lay down a false foundation it is unsound. and will not stand any real test. we do not desirability of grammatical reform : altogether deny. of course. that where the matter should be uniform. The matter of different languages is different. I matters in this Report. is 29 and arrange the facts of come from the propose to refer only to the main to collect the observed facts. there as a general principle that every sentence That is one of the so-called my mind are not facts. The passive impersonal verbs are a large feature in the Latin Grammar. and tells us that numerous sentences have not got sub- this is so especially in Latin. which to we recognise first of all the Subject. and by the ordinary means of scientific discussion. but with the preface that I do not con- sider that discussion in a meeting like this can dispose of in a satisfactory way. verb that you come across every day in Caesar . the Indirect Object. viz. where the Report deals with the Object.

and to put others in another category altogether as Adverb Equivalents. to be in the Latin or. for the present made no way Which recognised clearly that no hard-and-fast line between Object and Adverb Equivalent can be drawn that. " Is that so stated in the Report ? to be so regarded Professor ' ludere. to not the proposal is me call some the Object. The proposal is to run But that is a line of demarcation right through the Accusative uses. it we say If ? is the Object. they are unexplained. " No. " It will remain the Object ? Sonnenschein. .' it we : us take the sentence let Or looks like an ' —" ' I it I ' Translate. If ? all through. neither of these categories can be dispensed with in grammar. looks like the Object. a colourless and unobjectionable statement which have always used I my classes made here. This Report is obscure as to whether it becomes the Object or does not become the Object.' and is it the important problems a state of nebulous fog regarded as such in Latin. If there is an Object." Arnold. it what an Object is is an Object. But. is I In ' Object? translate into English. venture I by this The apparent to say that the simplification supposed to be gained Report largely illusory the whole is simplification is due to the fact that in Latin are ignored any Now another matter it is Equivalent ' gressed at I left in all. in fact.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 30 Next." Professor Arnold. — — — — It is Professor a vital point. Many Latin Grammars speak not only of the Direct Object in Latin.' grammars ' and rate.' Grammar Professor Sonnenschein. but of the we say ludum the Object. at ." " Arnold. the two things run into one another. . nevertheless. Is 'progress' here the progress. If I Professor Professor Retained Object. asserted that there it is but neither does ." Sonnenschein. — " We have arrived at the point that. If ludum to play the game. and stands at the root of the treatment of the Accusative Case in Latin. have made no progress. it will . in way in a general expressed by the Accusative Case that : that which seems to it is a statement and found convenient. " of the future ? think it is have many an Adverb have not pro- it Adverb Equivalent. I do not deny seem very obvious.' they will call understand these proposals rightly it will cease become an Adverb Equivalent. " Yes.

" or . Adjective Clauses. bid defiance to historical grammar. — " May I point out to Professor Arnold that he will have an opportunity of dealing subsequently with and with other points of detail on his altersorry to have to make this suggestion." later Vice-Chancellor Dale. Professor Postgate. Adjective Clause. which cannot be proved and cannot be used and I venture to say that no Latin teacher has ever been able to use this division to any practical purpose. Now.. although Adverbs may be like them. I am endeavouring to . thing . But what is an I presume it means something that is more or less like lent ? an Adverb. though I may see occasion to Arnold. that is in my opinion a most vital error. when I have ascertained more thoroughly the members present. this particular point native Motion ? I am but considerations of time make it necessary. division of sentences into the Noun For this sub- Clause. GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY although it is asserted there is an Object. it is 31 admitted that it drawn between Object and Indirect Object. I maintain these things are not in the least That is to like Adverbs. . I have assisted by one of the members of the Association to trace been the source of it to a German authority of almost 100 years ago. I understand he is moving the Motion of which he has given that notice ? " Professor schein's I of the I Motion at present. Well. between what is the Object and what is called Adverb Equivathe Adverb Equivalent. It comes from the land of foggy metaphysics. do not propose to do so —" am speaking to Professor SonnenMy Motion is one for adjournment. that is. move it now. and Adverb Clauses. the subdivision of I pass on to the next main point the sentences into Noun Clauses. — " May I suggest that Arnold does not move his Motion now he " to do so later ? will if feelings Professor not be in a position Professor Arnold.—-" I think it is best on the whole that I should take the position of opposing Professor Sonnenschein that is substantially my position to-day. Adverb Clause rests upon a pure illusion there is no such it is mere fancy. and that explains once more why we have foggy metaphysics. I think we are not clear where the line is is to be ' ' — misled in endeavouring to follow the Germans.

It is if I can that there are views held I to point out Grammar. Thus the clauses called Noun Clauses have not properly any real resemblance to Nouns . Some of us who signed the Report are entirely in sympathy with Professor Arnold on this main question. It is not necessary for me to attempt to demonstrate to you here present that I have views upon this subject which are more sound than those is of the Committee. but that the Report not proved with regard to its main features. of not. — ' ' : ' ' — ' . Yet it is the exact equivalent to Hannibal the conqueror of Italy. Adjective Clauses. and I will explain why they were avoided. and which have not which have not yet I by the Recommendations of this Committee. and Adverb Clauses is very familiar and almost established with regard to modern languages but I wish to point out that it has never by respectable authorities in . . but there is nothing in it that as Subject Clauses and sometimes as Object Clauses. and occupies such a large field in the teaching of language. . time I am taking up but it is much regret the my choice.' The conqueror is substantive. Latin Grammar is such a large subject. be fairly said that they are used sometimes But they and not any of them used as Adverb Equivalents nor have they any correspondence whatever to other parts of the Noun system. The division of sentences into Noun Clauses. had full consideration. therefore.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 32 show not so much that the Report is wrong." Professor Conway. and in common use. are not in use as Indirect Objects. It might just as well be called the Noun Clause. yet been upset after all. sufficient for me do not expect to be able to do that. They also have a great resemblance to Nouns. There are certain of them which are used as the Subject of the sentence and it . " The structure of the Report on this matter was very careful. Sentences which are called Adjective Clauses have some sort of resemblance to adjectives. nor explained in a satisfactory way. can. but by no means exclusively. Professor Arnold is putting before the Association examples which have been carefully avoided. they are also used as the Object of the sentence . I have given an example Hannibal who conquered Italy that is to be called an Adjective Clause under this classification. been demonstrated. but always assumed. they have resem- blance in their use to the Nominative and Accusative Cases.

for in- . in justice to the majority Adverb Equivalent. But this Report makes no that direction. W. teacher to say whether he regards It is left to the individual as a Noun. are equally illusory. — is we had something approaching uniformity Grammar. G. Report itself. Noun Clause applies equally every Noun can be used as an Professor Arnold's objection to a to a 33 ' ' Adjective." Professor Sonnenschein " With the approval of the meeting is room. they Professor Arnold. order to secure the fullest possible discussion of the Report was agreed that after an adjournment In it for luncheon the session should be continued in the afternoon. It would have been if I interpret it aright. and therefore equivalent to an Adverb must. English Grammar. Rushbrooke as to the length of time to be accorded to single speakers. — " In regard to these Adverb Clauses. according to the preceding part of the Report.GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY requires any one to describe this or that particular clause in Latin in this or that particular way. this Report are divided the final clauses. Adjective. as introduced and by qui and by ut. There are a great number of sentences which are essentially one in character. The and they have been shown to be so by the Report describes as Adverb earlier part of the Equivalents certain parts of the anything which is Noun system. to separate . of the am bound I to submit that they thought these distinctions of great importance in Noun ' ' for in English . Committee. are essentially the same. But I do not believe that by any hasty Adoption of the Report we shall reach any important reform. in Report. be equivalent to a certain part of the Noun. Now. The obscurity is deep. and two-thirds an enormous gain if in terminology in Latin progress in of our terms are not in the least touched by we it. our teaching we have to bring them together. and which by where they ought to be put together stance. or it On the other hand." At this point a question was put by Mr. we have In this them one an Adjective and the other an Adverb Clause in any case the matter is left in some obscurity. if give time — 5 . which are so entirely ignored in this part of the Report. I believe there and consideration. for great progress in this matter. and for great improvement in our terminology. we have the as against that facts of the Latin language.

would be three out of four.' and in another of their random methods. but I want to meet at once Professor Arnold's deprecation ' asperity ' as attributed to his pamphlet. G. Mr.' and again with an endeavour to thwart the Committee's ' ' ' ' Upon page the future progress of grammatical science. in opinion." THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 34 I would change the words like to ' be adopted ' to ' generally approved. —" I do not think I shall trespass long on the time of an almost exhausted meeting. they will.' . ' Then on page 5 we Whilst classical teachers should always be ready to consider suggestions my made by teachers of English. has dissented from more than one of the fortysix Recommendations of the Committee. be entirely false to their trust if they allow the teaching of Greek and Latin to be distorted in order that they may follow where they ought to lead. then.' because a large proportion of this Report was received and considered by the Association last year.' and take was the constructed. W. which was accepted.' Again it is not quite fair to say (p. of the charge of It is difficult to avoid using such a term of a pamphlet which speaks in one place of random remarks. and the only could have been secured. ' give criticisms ' may principle principle But the principle of upon which the Report was upon which any united action But the value of Professor Arnold's be estimated not only by the ' asperity ' and . though there are fifteen or twenty references to grammatical books dealing with the progress of grammatical science. Rushbrooke.' while elsewhere he charges them with blindness to patent facts. ' the positive achievements of grammatical science. It would be fairer and more exact to say only one of the Association's representatives.' Professor Arnold's Considerations that the Report ' it is somewhat 1 of unfairly said has never been considered by the Council of the Association. 4) that the Committee has paid little attention to representatives. the Chairman put to the meeting the proposed substitution. so far as is shown by the signatures. more unfair to say that ' a large have not won the approval even number of its It is still Recommendations of a majority of the Association's The whole of the representatives of the Association number four a majority. are told.' Rhys Roberts Professor agreeing to this alteration in the Motion.

then I by- am prepared to join issue with him at once and to say that not only is useful Noun.' As one who has taken part I am bold enough to think that amount of in the it work of this Committee. . I should like to propose. but He directs his chief attack. and which be of practical service to teachers in this country. Professor —" of I agree teaching. and Adverb Clauses.' but understand what he means I unscientific. and to the most though . Again and again in the discussions of the Committee our proceedings have been shortened by the consideration that we need not hope to arrive at absolutely final decisions on all the questions we were content to go as far as we could. inconsistent. ' sure whether I 35 . if am not quite he means impracticable. Adjective. —" I it stands — ' That the Report of the ology Committee be received. not practically useful to the teacher. and Adverb Clauses this division into purposes practical for eminently useful. has succeeded in doing a certain work which need not be done again. events all we tried to point out clearly the grave difficulties of existing practice. On will the other I never dreamed that it would be possible for any one Committee to draw up a scheme of Grammatical Terminology so perfect that it would be enforced as a kind of Athanasian Creed." Granger. as an important of advance towards a practical degree of uniformity in the use of grammatical terms." Conway. He Adjective. generally approved. made on Much of the eloquent attack which has been the work of the Committee seems to be based on a misunderstanding of one of the prefatory sentences of the Report.GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY by the point against which he unfairness of his pamphlet. It seems to be assumed that the Committee recommended that the Grammar of Latin and of the other languages should be . the Report ' as ' speaks of ' the crowning error of the classification of subordinate clauses as Noun. instead of the the two Resolutions first of is it as a step towards a reform which cannot be long it Professor that with the advisability of signi- fying general approval of the Report as only regard but careful consideration of the teachers Termin- commended and the writers books dealing with the languages concerned. and at that emerged hand. as describes this classification and impracticable. delayed.

But the Recom- mendations of the Committee do not do that rather the reverse. then. all present to give it support. and laments on the other that we have not done enough. Surely it will in the least. and this kind of practical form the least injured if we is not in leave on one side the totally distinct question of improving the terms of Latin Grammar. of the hand to the task of rewriting Committee was to face the difficulties that presented themselves when the different languages are taught to the same pupils. The work of the Committee will not be wasted if we can do away with something of the appalling contradictions existing in grammatical termin- English and French ology in schools. Serious attempts are being made to exclude Latin and Greek from the curricula and examinations of our learned professions. be an excellent result if but in the teaching of English and other modern languages (especially of French) there can be introduced at least something of the precision and comparative clarity of terminology to which classical teachers have been accustomed for centuries past. — " Shorthand and other subjects are rapidly taking the place of the Classics. I beg therefore to move the Amendment I have read. Professor Arnold has brought two different accusations against the Com- mittee which are mutually destructive." Thomas May seconded the Amendment.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 36 constructed on the basis of English Grammar. and appealed to factory. to stick at swallowing a few verbal changes in grammatical terminology when the alternative abolition of classical studies from our is to swallow the entire modern curricula. I would beg the members of the Association to remember that the Report is not enforcing a new system of terminology upon all the languages it has merely sought to find more useful substitutes for the terms in use in teaching certain languages where these have proved unsatis- The business ." . the he would have desired would have been that such a last thing composite assembly should set its Latin Grammar. He accuses us on the one hand of doing too much. that the terminology used in one class-room shall be in harmony with the terminology used in the next class-room. If Professor Arnold had been a member of the Committee which represented eight different bodies. and with those difficulties it has tried to deal quite faithfully. Grammar have never been considered from this point of view. He said. Mr. We ought not.

A certain number of meetings. way's Amendment quite as well as avoiding the will — " It meet the my own difficulties in 37 seems to me ? Professor Con- essential needs of the situation Motion. the meeting the substitution of the Amendment to for the original This was agreed to. must be held.GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY The Chairman. Headlam. But how much longer the Committee would be prepared tion the representations that Association and to go on with its labours I Professor Conway. —" I Resolution being passed. Therefore I think I may. I think. and may be made to it by the Classical by any other Association represented on it. to bring officially before the Association that may be made and any further suggestions " ? Professor Sonnenschein. in the event of this valuable criticism of the details appear in the different learned periodicals — I would ask whether the Committee would be prepared to continue their labours." the Chairman put assenting. — " The Committee has already deit would not. however. though I think a limited amount of further work might be undertaken. whilst at the same time the direction of apparent stringency. to consider minor improvements. Headlam proposed of the Association a hearty vote of thanks to the who had served on for the great labour they had given members the Terminology Committee in drawing up the Report. Mr. would be desirable. would all and justify the work that I it can reasonably be expected to hardly think the attempt to arrive at finality the considerable expense involved in further meetings. be prepared to go on with it indefinitely. as Chairman of the Committee. and would ask if if. but I feel sure that the Committee as it is constituted of the has done achieve. Motion. three or four more perhaps." The amended Motion was put to the Meeting and carried nem." — " It seems clear that one more meeting Committee. am not in a position to say. J. Mr. con. Amendment — " Will Professor Sonnenschein accept the " as a substitute for the original Motion Professor Sonnenschein. take the responsibility of accepting the Rhys Roberts Professor Amendment. . the Committee is prepared to take into consideravoted a great deal of time to this subject. W. In any case.

with the Subjunctive (c) The terms Past Subjunctive and Past Perfect Sub. that to be further considered. Friday Afternoon The discussion on the Report of the Terminology Committee was resumed at 2. The desirability of supplementing the terminology for the special needs of Latin and Greek. As to Dr. be convenient if the points the in Amendment Professor Arnold had given notice were discussed Professor Arnold. not perhaps in the it know accepts ought hope that we shall . opposed Recommendation. H. J. H. N. The Motion being put to the vote. was carried. Professor Conway moved Amendments as an introduction to any specific " That the Association ex- that might be added plicitly reserves its : judgment on the following points: — Mr. " Taking point regard to it is (a) first. junctive (d) . then. Classical Association feel Professor I think the strongest argument in the hesitation which the representatives of the Conway about this particular specifically reserves his to the division all the mittee.— " THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 38 Professor Arnold seconded the vote of thanks. Baynes made a suggestion that a selection of criticisms passed during the ensuing year upon the Report of the Committee should be published in one of the Association's periodicals.m The Chairman (Professor Postgate) suggested that it would .m. Rouse. Mr. I in favour of It is a point. it time Thompson has been has been before the Com- Mr. : " That this xlssociation explicitly reserves its judgment on the following points (a) The classification of subordinate clauses as Noun.30 p. approval on the point it cannot find that he is Professor Sonnenschein only with certain reservations. —" I propose the following of which first. I from anything he says.15 p. The meeting adjourned at 1. This was carried by acclamation. as requiring further consideration. Adjective. and Adverb Clauses (b) The position of Latin clauses in which cum is used : . Sleeman seconded.

" The next point is the terms Past Subjunctive and Past Perfect Subjunctive. I think. therefore. — — Arnold. we ought to reserve ourselves in regard to the Latin Grammar. Past Subjunctive. which cum of Latin clauses in My own feeling is — used with the Subjunctive. Glynn Williams seconded. and give ourselves the option to have a special Clause point. has no advantage except that it brings this about it is helpful it brings uniformity modern languages. the proposal was put to the Meeting and was lost. After a short rejoinder by Professor Sonnenschein." it The proposal was then put to the Meeting. for this purpose. I think. If this proposal in use for the is accepted I think we shall then have two terms Imperfect Subjunctive — the Past and the Imperfect . " The next point upon which I would ask the Association to reserve judgment is in regard to the position Professor Arnold. their doubts whether something else might not be substituted had withdrawn in deference to the overwhelming majority of the Committee in favour of this classification." The motion having been duly seconded. namely.' It is proposed to introduce a new term." Mr. Professor Sonnenschein pointed out that the Committee as a whole was very strongly and almost unanimously in favour of the classification Some members of the Committee who had recommended. but at any rate with the idea that 39 we may arrive at the possible limits of divergence. because as a matter of fact this particular tense does not in all its uses correspond to any one tense in any modern language. but was lost. So far as but in other directions it is harmful.GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY ever quite agree. but sometimes with one and sometimes with another. for a term which is universally accepted. Of course is I not satisfactory as am aware that those interested in other languages might not be interested in this But the position of Latin clauses in which cum is followed by the Subjunctive Mood is that they do not correspond with any one of these Sections that are here mentioned. He added that did not correctly represent his attitude to say that he accepted the Report " only with certain reservations. is that this subdivision regards the Latin language. in connection with certain uses in . the Imperfect Subjunctive. The new Professor ' term.

but on being put was lost. I think this particular innovation we have now under consideration ought not to be accepted until there are some signs that it Subjunctive tive.' (Of course the term Past Perfect Subjunctive follows upon the use of ' ' ' Past Perfect Indicative. As with the Nominaand so on.' But if the Association thinks the term French undesirable." The proposal was then put to the Meeting. " Would the acceptance of this Amendment mean delay in the publication of the Report ? " Professor Sonnenschein. new term like —" I think the inclusion Past Subjunctive for one familiar so long would introduce practical difficulty as regards the acceptance new terminology. R.— THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 40 — which will mean confusion. Allen. be acceptable in a larger sphere than can be represented will to-day." Mr. Loveorove. no doubt. E.) of ' Past Subjunctive' not necessarily ' Imperfect ' in meaning. — " And I the desirability of supplementing " terminology for the special needs of Greek and Latin. viz. E. would further move. of a J. in the form desire that the point should be reconsidered Professor Arnold. the to the meeting . " At the request of our Chairman I rise to say that the passing of any of these proposed Amendof the — — ments would. delay the publication of the Report. said. for the English wrote. long use has so established these terms that every one knows what they mean. the Association thus signifying its it better not to call Subjunctive' is Imperfect.' suggested as a rider. it also that it ' applies to Latin the ' ' ' by the Committee. ' The Motion was seconded. that the Latin ' Therefore scriberet ' is we thought The advantage of Past same term as may be used for the corresponding tense in modern languages namely. Vocative. The last speaker but one objected to the term Past Subjunctive. and would tend to prejudice teachers against adopting the new scheme. but not necessarily for any considerable time." Mr. without attaching much importance to the intrinsic meanings of the terms.' the German schrieb. it might be reconsidered by the Committee. in seconding. It was carried by a majority of one vote. Accusative. which we proposed and which we think The defence important.' and the ecrivit. contained in is the note at the foot of page 33.

I Pronouns. in the sense that I find it less On Page puzzling than what 19. When I look at their names I am amazed at my own temerity in having the audacity to bring forward any proposal. Section 1. On Page 9. No one wants to see the attempt made again. however. Notwithstanding what has been modestly put forward by Professor Sonnenschein.' ' 6 ' ' .' because I am young pupils to up the meaning of the sentence all difficult for it fills is set forth in this Report. I hope that this Report will at any rate settle the question of Grammatical Terminology for some time If. But we do want something a little more simple in certain respects than On Page we get in this Report. or without a criticisms of due sense of the enormous pains and trouble taken by this Committee of learned experts. which the late head master of Eton aptly described to me as trying to explain ignotum fer ignotius. My claim on your indulgence must be that I have had thirty-five years' experience as a teacher of young boys. Section 2. Predicative Noun. or Predicative Pronoun. I would suggest that for Predicative Adjective. the thing with which it agrees being frequently understood.GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY Mr. Any one accustomed to teaching Latin knows the dreadful confusion in the youthful mind between ipse and best to treat ' ipse ' ' ' ' ' and the only good explanation one can give is that se is always a noun standing alone.' as Adjectives and not Pronouns. would move to omit the words perfectly convinced myself that ' or it is and words like meme. and ipse always an adjective. de Winton. but I have found the word ' complement ' is not at understand. would propose the omission of the group of words. In that capacity I would plead earnestly for greater simplicity of Grammatical Terminology than is given in this Report. Section 19. especially in regard to long terms which my experience enables me to say would confuse and daunt the youthful mind. They I suggest that the words 'or Pronouns' be omitted. there 8. I ' should be substituted tbe word ' complement.' selbst. it is to bring about such settlement I do to come.' on the ground that it is very much simpler to make one word the subject of a sentence. ' ' se. think that more time is needed for the discussion of some details.' may seem This a contradiction of what I said about simplicity. 41 —" I hope it will not be thought that any mine are made in a captious spirit.

Section 35. — — I would ask that after scripsit Perfect. ' block to the small learner. and plainly Subjunctive Tense I beg to thank the Meeting for ' to ' left out. Section 40.' I find it a great advantage as a teacher to get boys accustomed early to those two uses of the Latin Perfect. Section 43. or accusative ' is undoubtedly to produce confusion from Latin to English.' ' wrote of ' I It hold For had better Aorist.' and Aorist. not Imperfect. is arrangement ' scribebat ' 35. would have written ' a better term is —and would have written — from the Indicative Tenses. I is proposal here past the in which ordering of events takes Objective ' Future Perfect in the Past confusing. ' Page write I think 28.' It seems that in that clause the ' adverbial force of those words Page 25. there be added ' ' strongly. would propose that we retain I for purposes of English ' Grammar. And I do not think any harm or confusion would arise from admitting there the word I propose. Page it ' important not to elaborate instances too much. Page is in Table. Why not I must say call it simply ? its kind patience in listening . of either sex. and my suggestions. the word ' Objective is left — Here out altogether. I would beg leave to propose that the term ' Subjunctive Equivalent me seems to unnecessarily clumsy. both of place in our classes. — Omit that strictly the word simplicity be scribebat it is and clearness before ' scripsit. Section 30. After the words recognise that I ' ' — ' ' would propose that these words be added.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 42 might be called emphasising adjectives. whether passing from English to Latin. have frequently in addition an adverbial force. and involves a contradiction in terms which is is very bad for the learner. Line 13. To adopt the word ' in the youthful mind. —My — Future — Future Perfect in the Past think the expression ' Fb ture ' ' submit that To call would ' ' is omit to ' would ' I in the Past ' is a terrible stumbling- With due deference all only Future in an Indirect Clause. that better not to use long terms. I urge that Page 31. 32. Page 23." ' ' be omitted. although I think the word emphasising is rather hard for small boys. — On the ground I have already urged.

fore. and attempt always various Objective Cases of very great difficulty — " The In such a language as Latin we have it. ' Future in the Past. he would withdraw many In regard to of his proposals. W. which seems useful that ' Further. number ' is a G. not once but often. the Nearly to be inserted again. The only term properly applicable is Accusative. and I imagine that a great many recommendations from we represent if. R." Rushbrooke.GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY Mr. " That is a strong point. There- make any distinction between the when we have only one form is a matter to and of little practical value. would I take as an example the difficulty of distinguishing the Dative in thank him I ' from the Accusative ' in ' him. Frank Jones seconded Objective is in the following two Objective Cases. Elliott. I would support the better description of the tense.' I see I would support the last speaker in regard to his contention on the point of ' the Past ' Emphasising Adjective. all the mover of this Resolution it would take the different Associations word ' complement ' were the points brought forward to-day have received our close consideration. to terms. and if Future in speaker in what he said about the Perfect and Aorist. is already Representations came from one or two Associations on that point." Mr. —" I will of these suggestions. its use has been found practically useful in France. —" I should be against the points raised being . that only say.' Yet it is not the Nominative. However. last In regard to Future from the Past ' I am sure that had heard the debates in which these questions were canvassed. for instance. in regard to a they have been very carefully discussed by the Committee.' that term adopted by French grammarians. there is more — " From my experience I to be urged against the use of the Case than Accusative." So I hope that point would say that word Objective may not be re- — Sonnenschein. considered. Grammar which one of the few terms used in English really has sense behind 43 in English one Objective Case. The term Objective would be inapplicable in such a sentence as He lived here many years. H. in teaching.' it seems to me that Mr." Professor ' Miss Silcon.

After " scripsit Perfect. dicative Noun. — — — — — — — — — junctive Tenses. to add " these words have frequently in addition an adverbial This was withdrawn. in seconded. The voting showed 11 for and 11 against. the Report." — . To omit " scribebat " before 8. Section 40. de Winton's results put to the Meeting each of to Amendments separately. Pre2. To omit the term " Subjunctive 9. Page 31. in the Past " and " would have written " from the Indicative Tenses. and the decisions arrived at being set aside in favour of others. G. ' : ' That may sale at the price ." Lost. " scripsit. with the following : On Page — Section 1. For " Predicative Adjective. for purposes of English Grammar. Page 23. Page 32. Section 35. think most important to keep the it distinction of Emphasising Adjectives or Pronouns. Section 2. Professor Sonnenschein. Equivalents " altogether. and to call such simply the " Sub1. To strike out the words "the Lost." Lost. Page 19." Lost." Lost. Lost. " After the words " recognise that 4. " I have found one of the greatest difficulties that children experience in I is the hard-and-fast line they draw with words which Latin can be adjectives and which are constantly used alone. Page 35. To omit " would write Future 6. force.' Mr. Line 13.— THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 44 brought forward again. Section 43." The Chairman proceeded Mr. The Chairman gave his casting vote in favour of the proposal being sent to the Committee. in Table. " and Aorist. Page 28. Page 9. Section 30." Carried. Section 19. be published simply down W. Page 25. with any fit I will the second Resolution put comment think —" Amendment to introduce. 3. To strike out the words " or Pronouns. Rushbrooke move without any my name : — that the Committee and put on of sixpence as early as possible this year." to add 7. 8." " To retain the word " Objective 5. or Predicative Pronoun " to substitute the word " complement " the word " terms " afterwards to be read " term. group of words or.

. 1911. January 25th. . and some of the evidence for them presuming. and other Associations at an early date. tion meets next week. — This statement should be added at the foot of p. 45 — " Do the Committee anticipate Amendments " coming from other Associations before holding the final meeting ? " The Modern Languages AssociaProfessor Sonnenschein. Professor J. L. sation in its geographical aspect will necessarily be discontinu- ous . London. held at King's College. Mr. that the majority of the facts are familiar to you. need to be amended by the insertion of a statement : that the Interim Report of the Joint Committee on Grammatical Terminology was approved subject to the reservations and suggestions contained in pp. as I am sure that I may. 21 of the Proceedings for 1910. and in a selected light. — So there need be no delay. 12-14 of the Proceedings for 1910. passed the following Resolution " That in the opinion of the Council the Minutes of the General Meeting. [Addendum to the Debate on the Interim Report of the Joint Committee on Grammatical Terminology.] At 3. The Council of the Association. The two things ought to be compatible and indeed all that I shall attempt is to state broadly and in outline a few general ideas.30 p." Note. if they leave you with at all so lively an impression of how things looked and felt in the early Mediterranean world. 1910. Jan. in January 1910. and only exhibiting them to you Like the at a less accustomed angle. at a meeting on Saturday." The Resolution was put to the Meeting and was carried. Myres read a paper on " The Geographical Aspect of Greek Colonisation " : " The programme of the meeting tells you that this lecture is to be short.m. and my friend Professor Postgate tells me that he hopes I shall keep it plain.— GEOGRAPHY AND GREEK COLONISATION de Winton. I shall have succeeded better than my hope. these glimpses of Greek coloni. tableaux which we have enjoyed.

and with the variety of the regions they inhabited.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 46 The geographer. as indeed it own fate. our world venerates terranean world as a no was less something called to bear witness. not wholly for himself. if he is also a The geographer in historian Why then. and two questions only. there not also it is This also just there it ' Why did what happened then. we mean. The Mediterranean world of classical antiquity owes its place in the history of man to the fact that it is essentially a Greek any way conflict with the notion of a Mediterranean world which politically was an Empire of Rome. the light to which he alone It is as the vehicle of Hellenism. Carthage. more than the material basement of an Empire and the Roman. when his hour came. like the chronologist. struck his first blows out- built anything . long centuries after its prime. I need hardly say. how much we classical scholars think it know about words. nevertheless. I sometimes wonder that we are content with so moderate acquaintance with th. coherence which Roman mainly because of the administration had enforced. than of Christianity. monument But neither nor Tyrrhenia. especially in the history of lands about the western basin. and continued to enjoy its inheri- To world. its or become. that Rome and while we speak of the MediRoman Empire. side Latium. Considering necessary to used them. by . asks two questions. ' \ an aspect is beginners as happen some- not one of them which has the historical geographer. and in that order ? and having Where did it happen ? the same way asks first — ' ' — ' — ' ' ' ascertained the geographical distribution of his facts. nor that earlier civilisation whose is the pre-Minoan masonry of Malta and Sardinia. most unfamiliar to some teachers of I fear.e distribution of the men who history. of his materials. as well as sovaewhen. There have indeed been moments. does not in tance. whose privilege its interest for to ask the double question. . assert this. The chronologist asks first When did the events occur ? and then. he goes on to ask Why there ? And as all the facts of history where. happen is of historical study as attractive to has been. when it lay in the balance whether this western sea should not find sister . but in defence of external. regardless of its eastern did in later phases of disruption. the consort or the dependent of Atlantic sea-power. and the arrangement and nomenclature of them.

but the whole foreshore Macedonia and Thrace. And this pervasion of Greek seafaring enterprise is Genoa and the Mediterranean Sea by not a thing of yesterday. but to reclaim. Their activity measure to the presence there long standing. it was to commemorate the successful of the oldest facts in struggle of a league of Greek sea-powers. Adriatic. more particularly as one In every port of the Levant. In the Aegean Archipelago. as the ports of the Black Sea. when Herodotus was first writing continuous history of a European nation. to-day by continuous Greek-speaking folk. It is one European history. the Mediterranean as a Greek sea. and Etruria. not only Crete and the Cycladic Islands. and as far west as Tripoli and Tunis. and Syrians (and a few Armenians also) approaches its on the south coast. and backed by the full weight of the armed force of Persia. and the may be seen. . of Greek lands. Already in the fifth century B. leagued under the patronage of the greatest land-empire which the world had known till then. all an organisation of regions its and peoples. from the combined aggressions of rivals in Tyre. not to win. the national flag of every boat that has on board a mast and a man a gracious custom more honoured in the breach in the Mersey it is the skyblueeastern end. For already in the sixth century. as it does. as now. — — and-white of Greece which forms a steady background to the and the same flag is commonly seen to be as far north rest . Greece itself (meaning by that term the Greek-speaking extremities of the Balkan Peninsula) was but one.. This Greekness of the Mediterranean seaboard has been as persistent as it is Far outside the area which ancient. swarmed with Greek colonies and Above all. every bay and creek of western Asia Minor had already its Greek city. large or small.C. when Sunday morning brings out. the Macedonian coast. which in 47 almost achievements was essentially Greek.GEOGRAPHY AND GREEK COLONISATION that. say that all is peopled broadly true to the seaports of the Levant and also of the Black Sea owe their main importance and prosperity are due in a of it is Greek trading houses of to Greek enterprise. Carthage. and by no means the most pros- perous or influential. not infrequently in harbours so far afield as Marseilles. It too. with some four of trading depots. whose only rivals are large the Armenian merchants in the north.

Up the Dalmatian coast indeed there were few Greek colonies. and directed mainly towards the ' pacific penetration liberation of its trade the from an incubus ' of the country of Manchu conquest was when Europeans For the administration or Persian. through the eastward parts of as well as in all Sicily. of growth and prosperity. from Rhodes to Tarsus. Orientals. and these of less repute and more troublous but Greek metal-work and pottery found their way history . intercourse. then as now. promoted and financed mainly by Greeks. Even infant Rome grew up well within a penumbra or outer halo of Greek civilisation. and to one or two sacred spots in the interior of the island. the effects of political intrigues. Further westwards again. somehow to the markets of Bologna and Este. and experienced. intellectual. and from Messina again northwestwards to Paestum. string of seaport settlements. among Italian states. and an uninterrupted record. had its treaty- ' under Greek jurisdiction and management at Naucratis. ports and landing-places from Otranto and Tarentum to the Strait of Messina. except on the port ' averse. material. nage of Hellenism. from the Bosphorus to Trebizond and Batum. . whether Assyrian the effects unfavourable to Mediterranean associate in our day with the Manchu regime in China. to its early patroNaples. Then too. Westwards we have Greek again. Even Egypt. the other shores of Asia Minor north and south. and owed much of its exceptional character. which had a busy export trade across the Alps into the parts about Switzerland and Bavaria. during that period. and beyond. prolonged far into the Levant and the Euxine the Cyprus too was mainly Greek. all colonies of southern Italy. though Phoenicians clung jealously to the anchorage where modern Larnaca stands. holding all the strings of inland trade up the Rhone and down . from foreign most restricted scale. as now.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 48 or five centuries of history behind it. from this ancient Shanghai. Marseilles in Herodotus' time had been a Greek city of wealth and influence for more than a century. and aesthetic. had all enterprise which we of Egj'pt by and the conquest as recent as first landed in China. together with the European coasts of the Black Sea past Costanza and the mouth of the Danube to Odessa and ports of the Crimea and Sea of Azof. but in far greater degree.

or oceanic navigation to the Indies. that in both cases the colonisable parts of the Mediter- ranean basin had really been probed pretty well to their extreme limits It by a nation is. and commemorates some forgotten victory of Greek Antibes is Antipolis. the gulf of the Lion. which in all the principal several parts. from Marseilles itself and from Ionic mother-state its Phocaea. all. and Pyrenean Spain. over the for the way Ampurias ' . a is. * . Yet this is only one side of the matter. in this sense chiefly that the ancient world has been handed down to us as being (what indeed essentially a Greek world because it was . But even the Eastern Mediterranean had not always been World which we commonly figure it and. namely. and this for a very good reason. towards Marseilles. a continuous series of daughtercolonies. the trading consignment of goods into Spain above . Indeed the suddenness of achievements like the opening of Sicily or Pontus provokes comparison the Greek . it is possible to name centuries. the town settlers over Ligurian natives mouth of the Ebro. to the far-off coasts of the Baltic and the Channel. Monoikos. and it was) Greek world just seen. extended from Genoa on the east almost as far as the The very names of these Massiliot States survive as those of the modern towns of the Riviera.GEOGRAPHY AND GREEK COLONISATION 49 the Rhine and the Seine. faced inwards upon the shores of a Midland Sea. of experts in transport and exchange. wards and westwards. but it was. for the datemarks of its Hellenisation. with the discovery of America. that life. and even to Kimrnerian lands beyond while east- . with the voyages of the Renaissance is Our comparison a just one in this also. past Thus the total area of distribution of the ancient Greeks in their prime upon the shores of the Mediterranean Sea shows much similarity to that of their modern counterparts. Nice is Nicaea. and even decades. stands ships as they Sardinia and Corsica. factory ' ' Monaco was the great landmark where the temple of Herakles of the Lonely —where now the palace House. along the shores of Savoy. in fact. in a sense. gleamed far out to sea —to guide Phocaean worked their way. that there was all the difference between the discovery of a New World and the creation in it of an organic counterpart to the 7 . is Emforiai. as essentially Mediterranean human in all the chief functions of human we have relations between its —a world.

North of the Aegean again. Greek colonies existed in the west. the question we are forced to ask about the Western basin is not. Indeed. South Italy and Sicily are Greek as far as Selinus and Ilimera but west of Cyrene and her sisters— almost an African Sicily there is nothing. — ' How find did Greeks expatiate so far room there at all ? ' of course in great part historical sounder if it is ? ' To questions . than Trafalgar falls below the Battle was gradual. the great failures were not Acre or Jerusalem. struck at once with their strange irregularity. as an and ports. . even in their in the sixth map century B. I think. And even farther below falls Salamis. but ' How did Carthage like these. been long . were Famagusta and Rhodes. but Antioch and Alexandria retained in alien hands. with even our present knowledge of Minoan seamanship and trade. it is mainly because it is at last possible to look back into an earlier cycle of enterprise. but the Battle in the Bay of Cumae of the Nile. the but our history answer will is be the based on a reasoned geography of these striking and surprising distributions. THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 50 Old da or to vary the comparison. Westward. but to the Crusades viewing the latter. between the voyage of Vasco . Crusaders' Seas . than the prelude to Portuguese discovery.C. Now. and a little cluster on the Cilician coast. Gama and the proclamation of an Empress of India. swarms with nearly a hundred Greek cities. we shall be While Pontus and small. in fact. in the perspective. the Tarentum and Syracuse of the well as much effort to recover lost provinces as a lost sanctuary. as well as to look forward . as we . but beyond Adriatic is almost bare sentinels in Rhodes.. may. Greek settlements are rare southward the and secluded. we should more justly recur for a parallel not to the Great Voyages.C. of the Mediterranean with maturest distribution. a full generation before 700 B. and in many directions more spacious as fruition too. the Ionia is as Greek as Euboea. and the belated and disastrous venture of Dorieus shows clearly there how the Greeks had missed what little chance there was. large . as Alalia and the Cinyps River had been But if we people the physical Greek colonies. I mean. quite The solid gains. so preparation had incomparably longer. With the successes of Cumae and Massilia before us. the Thrace ward parts have the same uncongenial look. until we come to Cyprus.

to tell us a little of how man's triumphs look when they are regarded in the as corollaries and resultants can win as well as we. in cockleshells and . and at times with the other men. still less the revengeful interiors of his Oak and Bull. to be worked over again. all Our chief hope of advance is to agree quickly with our rivals Faculty of Science. often futile.. in the diffused daylight of would rather look to is class- a reconstruction of a Mediterranean World. conflict with scenery and climate. or their precise internal sequence. It is rival efforts. I of great conflicts in which Nature do not mean any such latter-day anthropomorphism as inspired Maeterlinck's impersonations of Fire and Water. students of the humanities phatically for those of us them— to who force ourselves once in a certain respects we — and em- are so closely engaged in teaching way remember that to in are within measurable distance of knowing that can profitably be known about these phases of man's work. These. and their like. or a forester. as a geologist like our distinguished Presi- man minute dent. very humbly. indeed. GEOGRAPHY AND GREEK COLONISATION 51 over the subsequent ages. looks at it and ephemera] working infinitesimal in a corner of the picture. or inertia. It is rather . lutionise our conception of its outlines and personages and elementary to us need not expect to revo- Dates facts of the distribution and remain. familiar as think. only flatter our human pride while they pretend to warn their limelight rooms. . In a few cases. deserves. than with their formal shape. that to be concerned with the efforts of . in rather unexpected ways. so long as we look at the matter from man's point of view. or a naturalist. as I and general course. the scepticism which was wholesome twenty years ago begins to be shown superfluous new finds on the sites (as in Sicily) supporting old genealogies. with the content and meaning of the enterprises. —no What I it less . man we are now as one of the minor forces of Nature. it is We grouping of the colonies may all. as they were. and Thucydides' abstract of them. in aggressive. they keep man posted in the focus of than we. of very good for us. on the whole. and ask them. that the Greek colonisation of the Mediterranean coasts. with — defacement of the foreshore and marshlands damage that one storm or flood that meant business could obliterate in a night slipping across to new hunting-grounds.

beyond it. not of an island accessible and approached from all sides. all till recognition . and as an introduction half as far from Liverpool as to the method terranean and is of them. such as the Adriatic . which demand. their insular aspect becomes sub- for we must remember that. is The cradles of both and in both. probably quite as aspect of the matter completest — and will . receive. It lies also far enough forward in the total perspective for us to see. for our this explanation will itself the physical as from the knowledge of Minoan probably long remain so — on man come human is still those sides which brought him most directly in touch with Nature mere struggle for existence and for material efficiency. into what I may fairly call. time. Crete plays the part. and the Pillars of Herakles are as near to Sparta as Samos. of a effort. sufficiently within the light of history. are maritime or insular . are once started. lore of ' which seems to me to preserve much the Late Minoan Age. but of a continental region forming a continuous land-barrier along the south shore of a landlocked Archipelago. in something more than outline. Foremost among the points of similarity between the Minoan of his life in the and the Hellenic Aegeanisation their essentially movements movements ordinate . to which I have alluded already which in some ways anticipates the Hellenic . until a late stage in both. when the seaborne distribution. dispelling and perforating he has distorted the features of his world out of till obstacles. that earlier movement peoples outwards.' sea- is still washed by a mare superius. the Greeks' expansion over the Medi- a favourable It lies field.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 52 walnutshells. for its knowable adequately to be in its main outlines . Man's Place in Nature. and London barely most places in Kent or Sussex. Aegean movement and yet in others offers strong contrasts. near enough to ourselves. Even in the Odyssey. Attica and Southern Italy look like Scythia. human yet aspect it is early enough in the history of material science for Man to be still under fairly strict control. of the surrounding regions. the south side of Crete top-side. and will surely And much from an explanation. between them by squadrons waves and lightnings which could wreck yet by these and other expedients saving . For such inquiries as these. annihilating space. by a borrowed name. alike as regards his own movements and his enjoyment of Nature's gifts.

me no Greek colonisation less clear. and these exceptions. is forced it progressive. with a few exceptions only. or Fairhavens. and Caesarea and Tiberias to Hadrianopolis. as has been observed more than once of late. seaborne This colonisation is both quality Minoan and of so familiar to us all be emphasised by a contrast . first . are due to the fact that in all headlong advance the van- men. it is as an auxiliary. is that after sense had reached This much not so obvious. Once established. was then given to Greek energy and enterprise by with the result that. for whom in his turn to play the part of oikistes Greek East was filled and eponymos. predominant Egypt. treat as a process of intensification rather than of further spread. Pompeiopolis had given place to the Caesareas. .GEOGRAPHY AND GREEK COLONISATION appeared to be in the Crete ' sailing-directions faces north. is What familiar enough. wrecked the Minoan Age in its true. it. one monarch after another. guard of the pursuer. or even to Phaestos. till the with Antiochs and Seleuceias and Attaleias nor did the process cease till . of every line. that the seaborne at all . in hardly more than a genera- whole regions and kingdoms unapproachable before. I think. in the Greek world were not essentially an idea. and daily multiplying throng of Greek adventurers. with the but the very reason why architecture) continued in the the great advances which we know. or a predominantly Egypt- It is only a seeking commerce. which intersected inherited skill of the preceding age seamanship (and still more naval Hellenistic centuries to make . TToXvirXdvrfTOL Kapra. for the greater part of its history. it is true. intrusive across land avenues. for that it is it Hellenic of needs perhaps to not at all so familiar two greatest changes of distribution. but they used it The Migrations which decline were migrations of lands- land frontiers and along The sea stopped them. though is it indeed is seems to in the accepted and the Greek World so constituted had spent nearly two centuries in what we commonly its full tide oversea. inevitably swept onwards with them. geographically speaking. a new career Alexander tion.' that ' is of ' Cumae and 53 Ostia. this regime of continentaV Hellenism used the midland seas. they used the sea. which can give temporary importance to Hierapytna. were injected and infiltrated with an active. as at sight seemed. not as their chief vehicle. entangled with stragglers of the pursued.

is the best evidence of the degree to which preparation had gone forward. of have ventured to sketch of stress the outlines of this companion landward expansion. in vocabulary like his Semitic' They that go occupy their business in great — the amazing Works of the power. unawares.' ' Princely. amid the state of things reveals itself. So that. Satraps and concessionaires. remain Greek sea-poets. the uncanny complexity of the ' Lord ' Limitless. by comparison terror. prospectors. and agents of Eastern and Western finance alike.' or ' Penny-wise. these in the The merry Grecian coaster. and faineant kings sat in the seat of Darius. had been organising. on their part. the cry grew urgent among the practical men. civil service. found the other half of that something done already for him. very dust of Alexander's marches. Greeks. spite of and historical partly to insinuate.— THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 54 was that sea-trade was forced now for the first time into lively competition with land-trade. silent and ubiquitous. one of the most obliging enemies of the hardships and of speaking down waters rival. had swarmed in and taken occupancy wherever there was a collector or a post-office. as travellers.' was at bottom a land animal. as the fourth century drew on. with the zeal inspired ' ' . all through the Persian decline. that something had got to be done and Alexander. between Helles- all pont and Indus. that : men see the into in history. ' to the sea in ships. of time. in the fullness pattern. and but macadamising his kingdom of kingdoms. Echoes of the which they achieved their end. all through the days of Persian rule. and was not without echo in journalism. above all as the foremen client kings. in a regime whose land and sea were alike in the hands of Greeks.' it The King made no of Kings difference with administrative and mercantile genius from Babylon and Sardis at his elbow.' . ' Paternal. partly to put the seaborne colonisation of the earlier age into geographical perspective of a struggle with some notion . by the completest and most business like organisation. with this new The suddenness. traffics which too. and engineering. and the finest I the pre-Roman world. also incalculability of the task which faced the seaborne colonists. were filling in the by commissions such as theirs on the business which they brought in to the mart of marts.

Paul's crew. the permanent depth of stable contours of bays harbours and shoals. for pitiless hail and Kimmerian darkness. and St. even the seasonal winds can faint at times I : have spent three days of bonatza drifting from Amorgos towards Kalymnos. in the sailor's is the summer . which have myself worshipped before a troglodyte " Phocaea " off of normal Greeks to deter an " emancipated one " alas a 'odaKaXos from wasting revolver-shots on the porpoises. and they were abreast of Sicily before they grounded. and eleven between Cyprus and Alexandria. counted for much. No wonder. 1 and even among the sharks the big bad ones are of the water. indeed. quite plausibly explains his casting up in Ithaca by a shipwreck 'out topside of Crete /xcWov virlp Kprjrrjs. of almost all currents (Euripus and Charybdis were as weird as they were. Of course there is another side to the picture. 1 I Budrum. marked 55 Mediterranean There regularity of the seasonal winds. and joined with a boatful — ! — . of course. driven out of their bearings in the same bad will ' — Cretan water. Aegean and indeed all seafarers have their lot cast in pleasant places. Only this autumn I had news of a British liner. you remember. There is the rarity of great sea-beasts.At these graces easy. from day to day. and in the Age. as well as to the predominance of pure limestones on shore. and Magna it was which set Sicily same way also Egypt. and consequent uniformity. and forced to shut off steam and lie to.GEOGRAPHY AND GREEK COLONISATION many In ways. made navigation when All was possible at all. Graecia. and sea-drifts hardly worthy of the name of currents. Paul. Odysseus. so near. that currents.' past Ithaca therefore a long in fact ' way driven . and for river so remote from the ordinary run of adventure . shoals. it the other extreme. all and capes . the bright limpidity and tunny alike — itself in part due to tidelessness. again the seal and the porpoise are harmless. and Cyrene and the Cinyps This current. the practical absence of tides. involved in Euroclydon at the same place and season as St. in the Minoan Hellenic sailors likewise. : the gift of de Lesseps . assume after a while that they are being up. then. and down. betraying rocks. once they were known. and rank as benevolent. in Adria. they come up through the Canal. just because they were so nearly unparalleled) and the . when man's other motive-powers were so small.

or men either. its own creator and patron. more (as was obvious at first). and there was an Attalus. to Antibes and wvr/p oTSe to Atyco. I must speak with a landsman's reserve. as it beyond. facilities and these . still the outward alone which really matter. ingenious mode of return. indifferent. but vestigia nulla retrorsum is a Yet the export of goods men which export of is is poor motto for the merchant. plodding up-river ever from Babylon to the Armenian uplands. it is difficult It was. it is In the export of men. the natural facility of river transport that initiated this kind of trade was . Any one who has watched the glacial outflow of in the the Var. No procession of timber-laden donkeys could have been noted by Herodotus. This is true enough. or donkeys. and eventually round past Alalia to the long chain of the Phocaean Riviera from Monaco to Marseilles. mention to believe however. but. see fair play for convoys through the hinterland of that long cross-winded traverse which separates Rhodes from the Helles- Something of the same weight. so very unlike that In one of the essence of colonisation. . it looks as if winds and currents such as these withdrew with one hand the blessings they gave with the other Phocaean exiles may sink their iron and vanish in sunset glory sight first . almost all trade tramping and the — I exclude mere — has an outward and a homeward side. even in the had no head file of donkeys. the great seaports of the world. if it had not been ' ' casual labour ' ' of ship-society which Euphrates permitted Armenia to supply Babylon for palm-wine and other up-country produce and we may be sure that many a merchant let sound boat-ribs go at firewood prices before some one devised that for the ease with the demand of . pont. broadly speaking. to . as we can see. ovtos At smears the blue bay far westward. for boats.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 56 isolated so remarkably the few early colonies along the south coast of Asia Minor and then made the fortune of Attalia when an Antioch was strong enough to hold the land roads to the East. in the export of goods. has to be allowed Western Mediterranean. the mode of return. for business) omits to the one which carried the wine-price — for that Armenians were trading for glory. too. after all. not. for a similar set of the current northward from Messina to Campania. Herodotus (who I fear Meanwhile. or a later refinement.

Rome own. complete. may conveniently be noted here. the fact that Greek colonisation was many in so cases ' down-stream in the early phases of the ' matters a great deal. make the Po Valley roads.GEOGRAPHY AND GREEK COLONISATION matter the more at if. Brindisi. which those armoured avenues offered. on the other all the end it way to Ravenna and side. diroiKia. late : cation at Two all with its metropolis. stepping-stones At its southern opens on to one of the most crowded highways of Greek navigation. in which and weather went far to determine the behaviour of the Greeks. or enterprises self-sufficient abroad. an aTroiKia had land-communitheir to ' colonise ' oversea. Nothing. from old to new homes. the it is transit from Corcyra to Tarentum. in spite of was and precariously. than a physical regime in which return was favoured. Castella- mare. movement. Ancona. again. to adapt. a midland institution to transmarine conditions in Greece it was the rarest of accidents if. however. Its narrow shape should restrict the force of its seas innumerable special regions special regimes of water . as so often happens. the pendant- Rome. OLTTOLKelv. for whatever resolved to be quit of you. the spur to colonise the resolve to be quit of the homeland finally all is amounts to much the same reason. northern. by themselves are The very significant of this. In the event. is 57 — if — what or . Here. and utilised supplied by the practice of citizen-population the security of habitual return. could have been more unfavourable either to the spread of Greek emigrants at to the creation of independent and all. Bari. with the possible exception of Propontis and the Gulf of Alexandretta. on at words. picture is and irreversible. to retain its colonists as citizens of its For change of domicile. Otranto. and Spina. or permitted. 8 Yet while . as with Gela and Agrigentum. not oversea. which emerges also from every foundation-story that we can the Greek colony had to be planned from the moment recover . which propagated a along land-routes. all the same terms as emigration. the homeland. of its inception as a transmigration deliberate. At its the terminal of more first-class highways than any equal stretch of the Mediterranean coasts. At first sight the Adriatic would seem devised on purpose to be an avenue of access to the North. coves indent its eastern shore .

Rhodanus. and draws all drifting traffic to Tarentutn and Croton. of which the historian had any fuller information is a land-road through the Dalmatian highland is non-Hellenic as far south as Dodona. We know the precipitation all rainfall. the more hospitable those seas. even in the fifth century Hero- dotus had to write for a public to which Rhenus. And the Adriatic should repel a Greek. in geography as in philology all . from the south. has the best fish-market in its Saint Nicholas has beacon fame. the Adriatic remained all but inviolate . Bocche ' are Scylla and Charybdis in one shall save In a lengthward swell. this at the physique of the region. and the land-wind Eurus it is Zephyr who who makes it vanish and we remember the pitiless persistent drenchings which saturate Miss Durham's books. . you till ' of the Dalmatian coves the Italian harbours are hardly even Ancona crooks the wrong way . with the distribution of European copious is shore. seen. and the detion solves itself. The only Great Northern Road. and hateful. which holds so many graphic touches of western Greek nature and scenery. ' Etesian ' where it meets the Ionian winds of the familiar Aegean kind are in any case hardly to be counted on. sweeps past the . on a main in line probably for Taren- tum. eloquent of than of rescue from them. One of the most prevalent winds blows directly down the length of the trough deterrent in itself. there If we we is another are familiar are aware how along the Dalmatian and Illyrian from our Odyssey. then as now. for the heavy rollers which succeed it. To pass from any part of penin- away . as we have mouth of the Adriatic. and Miletus had its eighty depots round the shores of the Euxine. testable choppiness at the entrance main-swell. but no perils reason less why . and Eridanus were but synonyms. but South Italy. If we look and even . neither god nor skipper you are abreast the kind I of the Strophades. of for traffic Bari. moreover.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 58 Phocaeans were settled at Massilia and trading at Tartessus. so far to the west and north and such off-shore winds as arise within the Balkan coastline are dangerous and incalculable Harpies. Once caught by these. even more. that pours out the snow. and away from Brindisi. or perhaps for Cumae. the ques- The general water-circulation. Aristeas emerges from his northern journey not at a Venice or Ravenna. not into it. even below Corcyra. . however. have described.

000 Arcadians. in collusion and we . the rain had found out the weak places in the City-State. had to bow to the storms. were best arranged. we on the border-line of really fasti . for drama and literature In Rome. clearly in active shore of Italy. Far earlier. however. in the western parts of Greece itself. — ' Mediterranean ' for all that are already weather . did in fact spring up. ' upper I it . The Adriatic. with the Clerk of the Weather power Even it of veto entrusted in Rome at most its dies like Coronations. In after days. we may be sure. . public air. it is a commonplace of out-of-doors life is life it involves long sittings in the open life liveable. most intimately adapted to normal Mediterranean business. sea-powers of its intercourse with the defenceless 1 Infested by 10. 1 Up the Adriatic. Country. Not only was Adriatic weather thus exceptionally unproAny local traffic there was. inhospitable than their successors. the state occasions of society. and adjust itself to local conditions.GEOGRAPHY AND GREEK COLONISATION sular Greece. and festi. ' was had developed. the soul of the City-State. as we know. as suspect it was irvv£ in more . or from its exchanging Norfolk for the Now. and originated at that end of the long trough where tradeable wealth was nearest and most accessible. Aegean shores. was to federalise and get wet by deputy. . into Adriatic weather. Lakes or the West from is like the books of antiquities that Greek is life. as we are now beginning to realise. that conditions is. of Scotland. Dalmatia and Illyria themselves. for religious rites. seasons of the Latin year. in navigation and trade. and again. in fact. long after. as we know well. own in the interval. skill thus specialised. for makes 59 recall the tremendous to the Meteorological Office. . TrokiTiKT). had utilised the dark ages of the Migration Period in something the same way as had their Italian counterpart. and most of all Ionia. at Venice but this also was down-wind export. Molossians and Illyrians were content to be ruled by kings and the few Greeks who traded thither saw little inducement It was hardly what you might call a Dry Man's to colonise. and popular instinct At Megalopolis the Thersileion had a roof. at Hatria and Ravenna. senses than one. therefore. Etruria. was at a discount. found this sea rather The latter came too less late. Certainly Minoan traders pitious. and.

from Homer's poos 'EXXno-irovTov onwards. to trade of own To what extent it. as other faint hints at least) as far afield as Syracuse as . access to which seems at first let sight even us turn to another. For the Greeks. the very access to the Euxine is precarious. The Phaeacians in any case were known to have made exodus from an inland and upland home along these coasts. which would naturally petitor. . from these internal The strong perils. had probably immigrated into Albanians did again in their turn. 3 Professor Mahaffy reminds me very justly that in estimating the inhospitality of the Adriatic account should bo taken also of the geographical obstacles to landward enterprise across so abruptly mountainous a hinterland. imply. indeed. and perennial current of the straits is outwards to the Aegean shore. as its names. and complete exposure to violent winds. Adriatic culture affected but if.about the sa me 2 time as the Achaeans broke out into the Aegean.' ancient and modern. seafarers traded outside their selves. has been strong enough to class the Hellespont as a river rather than as sea. we have ample reason shown why Greek enterprise left the Adriatic on one side in the decisive fashion that we can see. . it was 7t6Vtos without comIts southern and Asiatic shore. 3 In contrast with this blank region. more ingeniously beset with physical obstacles. there really existed something in the Adriatic itself. at all events. is an evil Its great extent. 143-4. of the southern fringe of Phaeacians a may which the Greek represent a memory. almost to the local Etesian : is . give almost oceanic violence to its waters. lead me to believe. The Black Sea. too. but where the Greek colonised strongly and permanently in spite of them. Hi. ' strike us as likely to lend importance to the region. in fact. it 1 Liverpool Annals of Archaeology. both seasonal and spasmodic. within it. as the these Adriatic water.* THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 60 the tribe-names show. sea-front settlements of the Minoan series (in their latest stages. Quite apart. from the Bosphorus to Trebizond. and if. is its lee- Batum and more on-shore than along-shore from Bosphorus to Danube also. or even devoted them- any peaceful sort at all. some indications suggest. similar influences were active on the western Greek coasts as far south as Elis and perhaps even in Crete if. is still obscure . Taphians and tales of — then. stepmother of ships.

is surprising Genoa. made upward navigation possible. society which was harassed. 1 With all these mitigations. The proximity warm water guaranteed when we attend of so large a mass of moderately a climatic uniformity which to its details. traffic There were mitigations. between roadsteads facing inwards and outwards so that the sea could be abandoned. probably at eddies and backwaters. or corrupt. and the swift run home on the return voyage was small consolation. In the Mediterranean region generally. Abydus. except to men for whom this was the motive of the whole trip. and sea-going vessels. never a place of portage. . it is true. and Tarsus Crete. There were local morning and evening winds like that which served Phormio it Makeshifts such as these so well in the Gulf of Patras. and perhaps elsewhere besides. had a significance wholly lost —as — which Sigeum. Berard has shown. has a winter no colder than Peiraeus. del ical <hg &v 6 <j>p6vi(ios ipt<rat . as Mr. lie wind. not only that a new home was to be accessible without too grave peril. in those seas carried a reserve of oarage represented by the full strength of the crew. or merely over-populous. and Cyzicus. . however. on this reserve of motive power is perhaps best measured by their distracting reluctance to use it except wq last resource. even by the moderns. Cyprus. indeed. when was impossible up-wind. Troy. made many long There were other portages. not emigrants. for it is in fact their very . seems possible that all ' if the gods played fair ' . 61 almost in the eye of the seasonal In the earliest times. and Ephesus. But this presumes imports. its successor. temporarily or for good. A seaward current so capricious in its course as Xerxes' engineers found it. is intelligible enough. this could almost be taken for granted. and Carthage have no hotter summers than Corcyra and Per1 The value set. however. for example. too. as the primary cargo of Euxine shipping Straits . the navigation of the was always laborious.GEOGRAPHY AND GREEK COLONISATION The straits themselves. and face hardship and risk to win security and fair play. but that the physical surroundings of it were to be tolerable when you arrived. it presumes. in antiquity as now. and we find ourselves confronted by a different type of enterprise from that which we commonly and rightly regard as characterThat men should willingly leave a istic of Greek colonisation.

the only province of the whole Greek world. being <j>vaei butter-eaters. the sophism of Thales. beyond the range and what its oil-trade meant to of its Megarian doorkeepers Miletus. I do not mean to press to an absurdity the predicament of an oil-bred man transported beyond the frontier of the buttereaters. which compare at this season with the Riviera. it is far less efficient to Odessa ranks approximately with Vienna and even Sinope rather with Rome and Madrid than with Miletus or Metapontum. of all the great well as his comfort. as well. had multiplied the nation and not . the presentiment of famine was ever present. we know from such early hints as the strategy of Alyattes. . And these rigours of course affect man's food as Sinope and Amisus alone. and Paris. to tolerate food cooked with oil or who have transgressed that other gastronomic frontier which lies next northward of our own. culture —the latter an integral part. Now. we can estimate. but something of his revulsion and distress of body will be real to those who have made the reverse experiment. and Solon's encouragement of olive moderate the winter. Greek world. with built like the fertility dotted about or of no less ' its in a desert of harvestless ' ' ke}' was the to this In a world minute detached oases of thorns and stony ground. and exchanged our milk-fats for blubber. however. Greek world had serious interests in Pontus. and the exceptional and otherwise inexplicable enterprise. as I think is appreciated now. How serious a drawback the deficiency of olives was to the Pontic colonies. Material prosperity. we know Pontic corn. and are markedly cooler than either Salonica or Dyrrhachium. of his attempt to redress that ruin of Attic agriculture which came by influx For is it the of Pontic corn. in which this staff of life failed. Pontic cities. THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 62 But whereas the Black Sea gamon. which are nearly on the same grade of latitude. down to Alexander's time. reviving after the searaids and the Migrations. so very potent to cool the is that Constantinople and Trebizond range as summer stations with Marseilles and Genoa. great heat about its shores. that primary motive of Pontic colonisation. and tried. can grow their own olives and the oliveless region It is presses hard upon the Thracian shore of all Propontis too. . from glimpses Only one state of the whole of efforts to supply this need..' ' ' waters.

vivified. But the majority of these found their cornland at hazard and unhaving other aims and interests. like our Saskatchewan and Miss- it is still is a too early to attack. further than to note that. else gifted country as their adventures swung clear zone of Alpine mountain-structure . that Periander learned that other lesson which gave Corinth. and its and alone among the great colonising its fall. that other contrast a native Scythian hunt and fight. too. Hudson Bay Comown counsel. and for the same reason. the the corn. with good fortune so incredible that I am impelled to ascribe some of it to anonymous foresight and invention. and how far Hellenisation either precluded or replaced settlement of real Greeks inland. and escarpments of marls and sand. on the other hand. to have kept Greek world. Louis and St. was only gradually that they had surplus for sale. with a navigable river-system which drained corn like water straight into the Great Lakes. ' or Baltic was a far ' windfall. mouths must go —oversea or perhaps also the less and some oversea. into some Caspian ' Bay present. until some kind of hand over its factories. or high dry plateaux. round Metapontum and Sybaris . Greece issippi. corn for their own needs. It was probably indeed from his friend Thrasybulus.a GEOGRAPHY AND GREEK COLONISATION Either fresh corn must come. found of these exiles. and made Olbia the Duluth . by sea-wind and dew more than by rain. as in Calabria broad tracts of river-silt. or some of the increased the joy. to weary you. that . like the discovery of our own North-West. sought and so that it — black. opener and more 63 of the contorted states and mouths lesser sent their spare even outside Pontus. need not press the analogy. Gulf. like the pany. fertile The underground. problem which I of instead of outwards. the backwood riverborne timber that came from behind furs. they grew their first awares .seafound on the prairie beyond that Lacus Superior water indeed. Miletus. — coast-wise St. eVi o-myo-i. of the gold. Miletus kept its vast monopolies states of the . rolling chalk-downs. like those other Scythians . seems. sole imitator in this respect. like its New World antitype a Manitoba and ' — ' Alberta of inexhaustible grass-land blessed above all fertility.' For the which supplied plough as well as population that could How they could be Hellenised beyond the baboo-stage attained by Skyles. Paul as in Cyrenaica. .

No wonder that with this world of wealth at occupied a place apart. in enjoyment of the favour of Persia. with the justifiable . Potidaea. which as usual was trying to make the best of both worlds. unhampered by the political quarrels which elsewhere transformed partly also so much human energy into mere friction-heat . and estimate estate. because for this very reason it the history of Greek freedom. less practised eyes of wonder that the greatest its the eye of the King of — to its cal- probe the hinter- value as annexable wonder. been had they when titioned Alexander's empire in a new sterner sense. and west of Chalcidian either Chalcidian or Phocaean. either. No No which fill the Fourth (and Herodotus. Darius acted promptly when that dispatch from Megabazus came. obviously exceptional in is . to mind the King's Peace. I have chosen partly because it this quality and position Pontic region for more detailed study. that with his new knowledge thus gained. and their own the City-States . we may refer most Apart from one Pro- pontid adventure at Lampsacus— dear above all Hellespontine towns to the King of Sardis. partly because it is geographical its one of the few which in we can see Creek enterprise at work on a really large scale. in culated —whatever Book of land of this Milesian Canada. in the no itself. profitably to the enterprises of Phocaea. both of the North and of its great Captain. as a prospective place-of-arms. should reason fail to move the Doge of Miletus— I cannot recall any Phocaean colony lying east Messana all is of Messana . was apparently actual performance its Miletus of those Persian reconnaissances preceded the direct attack on Greece. To compare with Milesian organisation. and apparently also of a monopoly of the Hellespont under the very eyes of Xerxes.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 64 control over its later colonies which endured the siege of till Only after the destruction of Miletus do we find Aegina. and part also of the Third) command Cyrus and Darius. business. in Ionia Sardis. much that is had become otherwise exhibited only after which parBeasts the Great of encysted in the densening tissues constrained. anticipates at an early stage in commonly so-called. must at that administered the Pontic Manitoba The hand all cost be prevented from creating an Ontario in Thrace.

It is less easy to see minor cities and repeat themselves along the seaward spurs of the Pyrenees. we have here. and also after failure reconstructed. what Phocaea gained from the string which gem the Riviera from Genoa to Hyeres. up against the old desperate consideration that objects of 9 so long as primary exchange were as perishable as either men or salt . can be studied so closely its long prosperity and its literary record. partly to the copious or clearly as Marseilles. There was all is Provence to plant and a backwood trade in pig's meat. was both designed. prodefinite plan and that the last ill-fated expedition. northward. What use Phocaea made perhaps not hard to divine. commentary which is supplied from southern and In particular. over which series of periods the actual and the successive it is possible to trace for a long importation of manufactured articles effects of their styles on native arts. — Few colonial cities of the first rank. which With the known are the postern gates of Sybaris. -n-p-qai. foes of Phocaea itself in our mind. and Laus and Scidrus. ceeded on a which began so prosperously at Alalia. Marseilles. to left . and away beyond towards the Ebro. thanks partly to the consequent fullness of archaeological central Gaul. of sub-stations . and not improbably a good deal of tin and other northern goods. and right of her second self at Massilia. of her great success. C7ri not unworthy of Chicago — . Were they just cutting timber and making pitch ? or had they already olives and wine for sale ? or must we fall back upon those vaguest and yet probably most ubiquitous of commodities import of salt and of — export of men ? Massilia certainly was both a salt-factory and and both these businesses involve a multitude but the bare mention of them brings us hard a great slave-mart. for once. and ended at Velia so lamely. we need have friends little and hesitation Phocaean specialisation and Phocaean privilege and the same understanding with the Chalcidian syndicate which held the keys of the strait. in fact. an area of great magnitude.GEOGRAPHY AND GREEK COLONISATION 65 exceptions of the Samian Lipara. to complete her lines of communication from Messana enterprise. olives with. there was the famous pitch one old-world substitute for rubber from Auvergne and Savoy. and many other keys besides that the development of Phocaea's in concluding that in the west are aspects of one .

Official documents were indeed written in Semitic at Citium but Idalium was bilingual. The legends which connected Curium. in the early iron age. when Aegean adventurers began to come to slight. though threw them at this them derelict in a sense. though late. was exceptionally vigorous and thorough. Cyprus lies so far afield. and Lapathus with Sparta. The reasons here seem to be mainly three. . the Minoan occupation of which. Greek-speaking. the culture of which. and to rank with the Cyprian adventures of Teucer and Menelaus. — — system of Cypriote city-states that they rallied for further and there was therefore no more need of It was not oxkistes or formal apoikia thau in Crete or Rhodes. In Cyprus. ' ' ' ' . much more to estimate their extent. The so-called Phoenician cities. I have had to mention more than once already the obvious fact that over a large part of its area Hellenic colonisation was but reconquering regions which had been exploited and colonised by Aegean people once before already. and it is matter of common knowledge that for loss as well as for gain the new distribution does not square exactly with the old. differed in no essential point of culture from their and Greek neighbours. fresh Hellenic enterprises hardly appear at all. seem rather to refer to Achaean or preAchaean than to Dorian foundations. though the evidence is here very if Thirdly.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 66 it is almost hopeless to prove their occurrence. Citium. anything. the collapse elsewhere of the regime to which the Aegean cities of Cyprus had belonged. First. that the worst fury of the Northern Invasions was spent before they touched it. for example. Secondly. was certainly at work in the island. of Armageddon reached it as struck Cyprus at all Such spent missiles seem indeed to have by ricochet from Asia Minor. and is so well protected by inhospitable shores and adverse way currents along the direct thither. for example. with Argos. Cyprus more frequently again they had probably never wholly ceased to find their way thither it was round a fully-constituted sources. Amathus. But this was not always so. and Amathus. indeed until the far later breakdown of the balance of power in aggression eastwards . growth upon their own re- it left crisis in their and the event showed that they were strong enough to survive. Idalium.

and lasted long. Cyprus . It is hardly longer still for conceivable that the direct first settlers from Cephallenia attraction in Sicily ventured on the oceanic voyage was some strong some good reason why Such a reason would exist either therefore there . Yet in Sicily a completely with Archias and Theocles new . Minoan settlements fate of 67 in the In Sicily they were of earlier origin by far than in west.. sites of the settlements are Only at Syracuse does the plural form of the name suggest that the memory of an originally multiple settlement had not quite died out when Archias landed on Quail Island. Magna Graecia was preoccupied by the survivals of an earlier enough indication of such survivals to make this alternative worth studying. and there is just ' claimed origin from heroes ' ' returning from the Trojan War ' claims which. Apulia and Iapygia had been considerable. at Syracuse and Naxos . certainly. GEOGRAPHY AND GREEK COLONISATION when the Levant. for much so strangely adhered they may very well have secondary sense which made 'Axatos — brother of "Iw in the Hellenic family-tree in the sense. namely. itself. which we should naturally have expected to precede the exploitation of Sicily. and even with Sicily. the ' bruised reed gave way again to Nebu- ' chadnezzar and to Cambyses. and like the Cypriote colonies. and reinforce the glimpses South Italy. is but little they were able to maintain themselves for some while after they were isolated from Their influence on the arts and industries of their fatherland. like those of a few sparse settlements which professed to be Phrygian or Trojan. or there was they should pass by Magna Graecia. that the same stresses in Central Greece and the districts round . even Tarentum. and more vaguely others of the Achaean group of cities. that anything prise was required with Contrast Cyprus to keep in this the its like missionary enter- Hellenism dominant. on the stress to these been ' ' Achaean Wc ' should not perhaps lay too name which has Magna Graecian towns Achaean ' in that . which are of acquaintance with given in the Odyssey. if regime. Metapontum. subsequent . More surprising still. and Croton and Sybaris. the new colonisation begins almost not precisely the same. start even the had to be made altogether. one of the latest of them. there is long to wait even for Tarentum and the new Corinthian Corcyra . seem clearly to point back to memories of the Late Minoan Age. at the farthest end.

they are merged. I all largeness of scale not only because the distractions and entanglements of individual caprice are thereby made more nearly negligible. Minoan and To sum up Hellenic colonisations seem distinct but superimposed. To-dav all . or Megarian geographical ' interests. For in the Mediterranean. the idiosyncrasies. whereas in Cyprus. and those resultants of them which are do elements of order and instructiveness begin to emerge. as elsewhere. . as we have seen. respected as when we n^. and I think I confess has a growing fascination for may venture to say for other students have purposely confined myself to a few special instances. but also because in them we are on safer ground for . and an outline of Greek colonisation as a whole. because they had Ionia. when we come to the details. has an infinite diversity which a romanticist might of detail. or Parian. as the student of a geographic region must. in South Italy and Sicily. Some day. like Man. which drove out eastward the men who colonised were apparently believed to have thrust kindred exiles westward more fortunate at the moment. and in addition were to be exposed. kinsmen of the ' of their Trojan own War already oversea on the Late Minoan sites series Tarentum and elsewhere . the distribution of Erctrian. fit. at less enviable. such as we have ' but ultimately now recovered. our analysis of the geographic situation. the individual cities and the men be the time to dwell on the wonderful likes and dislikes of they bred . in that the fair lands which they occupied had only agricultural value. and look steadily. not once nor twice. But the clue which comes little to us in both cases use in either. into which. we severed In the hope of commending to your interest an aspect of Greek studies which I myself.' as bewildering as the colonial interests of Holland or Portugal or France would be if we had not the historic clue. we may find that those details calculable. a long story.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 68 the Isthmus. at the larger uniformities. and a Greek while he shrank from converse with it. Nature. call caprice. to bar- barous inroads not unlike those which they were trying to escape. but not now. characterised by comparative simplicity of structure and here. it may diversities. if from the archaeologists would be of it from its geographic setting. Only force ourselves to put the detail out of focus for a while.

It seemed that somehow I had received a communication that must have been meant for some one else. personal friends. the their letter first impression office of President made on my mind by was one of great astonishment. Sir Archibald Geikie delivered his Presi- dential Address " Before : my beginning Address I should like to be my own sympathy allowed to add an expression of which has been manifested to-day in my own deep As members of by the sustained deaths of Mr. cherish to the last When moment of our lives. to find words for to that regard to the loss which and the country have Association the 69 It is not easy regret at the loss of these the Association know. I have no pretension to classical scholarship. I If I have at At least to point to uniformities is have not succeeded in being and trace broad very short.— THE PRESIDENTS ADDRESS I have tried to do outlines. and that we are without the help of his wise counsels and his sound scholarship. Butcher is a with their friendship. He was the man life and soul of this Association. In considering the subject of the Address which it . national loss but to us it comes with a more personal touch. they had a rare power of endearing themselves to those privileged The death of Mr." 5 p. Butcher and Lord Collins. I hope been plain. which were a joy to me in But they have been taken up by me only fitfully and at long intervals. Butcher did for the We must all deeply regret that so and lovable a nature has passed away.m. I suppose no ever worked harder for the interests of an organisation with which he was connected than Mr. I can only claim that in a life devoted to the prosecution of natural science I have not lost the taste for those classical studies my younger days. But he has left a memory that we shall Classical Association. as a relaxation in the midst of wholly different pursuits. the Council of the Classical Association honoured me by proposing that I should accept the of the Association. kindly. . gentle.

and other spheres of political and social activity they were unrivalled by any race in ancient times. . — those which prevail in our own day. in tracing amonjj the authors of antiquity the mental attitude shown by them towards the world around them. of a subject which has long engaged my and which recommended itself to me as in some degree a kind of compromise between classics and at least one aspect of natural science that is. But before entering upon this discussion let me invite your attention to some preliminary considerations. while. between your special studies and my own. knew my weakness in the field of classical learning. and in thus learning how far they expressed feelings that were in sympathy or at variance with I made choice attention. in art. There is a common belief that even when they gave expression to their own genuine and spontaneous sentiments they consciously or unconsciously imitated or actually reiterated what they had imbibed from the Hellenic world. and to inquire in what forms this feeling found utterance in literature and in art during the later decades of the Republic and the first century of the Empire — the This theme is obviously so wide that not more than a mere sketch of it can be com- golden age of Latin literature. as a student and lover of Nature. Instead of attempting to range over the whole of I its extent shall restrict myself to a brief two or three subdivisions of it. and in science they owed their knowledge and inspiration to the Greeks. yet in literature.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 70 my would be I felt duty to deliver at the Annual General Meeting. in philosophy. but would be rather out of place before such an assembly as the present. I Finally. that to choose some scientific theme might be con- venient to myself. engineering. That the intellectual debt of Rome to . essentially that while in law. on the other hand. prised in a single address. military affairs. I have found much enjoyment. discussion of We are sometimes told that the Romans were a practical or even a prosaic people administration. propose to consider I the evidence for the existence of the love of nature among the Romans. architecture.

Some of the physical doubtedly had a development of its features of the country have un- potent influence upon the history and inhabitants. as well as the fertile.THE PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS 71 Greece was gigantic has never been disputed. deep and which such a climatal the cultivable areas is usually yielding all kinds of crops. From the cool. On either side of the peninsula a long extent and endless variety of coast-line is washed by the two seas. choicest flowers soil in and fruits. nestling within of extinct volcanoes. of . a genuine national Roman spirit can be recognised both in literature It and in art. the . mossy the craters springs plains. it embosomed among the mountains. . which on their placid surface reflect the deep blue of the Italian sky. always discriminating between what was borrowed from what was truly native. together with that diversity of vegetation The range ensures. Yet careful analysis shows that after full allowance is made for Greek influence. and without finding for these impressions and own feelings language of their Europe is more choice. among its hills rippling brooks descend into the The geographical form and position of the country have given it a singularly wide range of climate. eminently fitted Probably no part of to awaken enthusiasm. indeed inconceivable that is an people intellectual could dwell in such a land as Italy without being directly and powerfully impressed by the various natural features around them. race could always not how eventually discovered and victions may be live vent for find own forms of feelings in its difficulty in to But such a masterful intellectual in It fetters. and was freely admitted by the Romans themselves. Among these features. to quicken the growth of a patriotic at the national and same time to stimulate that love of nature which is implanted in man as one of his pristine instincts. it is of loftiest Italy mountain traversed by ample rivers some lakes. own its con- There expression. a conspicuous portion includes chain on the Continent numerous comprises northern spirit. others farther south.

and the other characteristic plants of the southern provinces. In one important respect the seashores of Italy wear an aspect different from that which of Western tideless level of sea. rice-fields. and by many groups of hills up whose steep slopes. and the storms which disturb it. comparatively is little Hence the frequent wide surface. exposed between high and low water a nearly variation in the tidal flats. myrtles. little towns have climbed (' scandentes de vallibus arces ') which still remain inhabited and form so and delightful an element in Italian scenery. though someestuaries after times severe. are day the water keeps nearly within the same limit along the shore. characteristic From the northern frontier. with snowy. and rugged the whole length served to separate the dwellers on the plains along either flank of this great back-bone. and by the far gleam of the open sea The on the other. there its is familiar in the countries The Mediterranean being Europe. various tribes from each it To other. western lowlands are diversified by many isolated eminences on whose summits citadels were built long ages ago. from time immemorial. their him league palms. the traveller passes southward across the rich corn- and mulberry plantations of the Lombard woods and vineyards and olive-groves. the wider landscape has always been bounded by a mountainous distance on the one side. The eruptions of Mount Etna were a source of wonder and awe throughout the basin of the Mediterranean ere the dawn of history. plains to the flanks of the Apennines. Another characteristic which marks off Italy from the Europe is furnished by the volcanic energy of which rest of the country has been the theatre since long before the advent of the earliest human population. after league until and lemon orange he finds himself among the trees. Made known . many bays and here absent. are less so than those of the ocean outside. laurels. pine-covered its Alps. Day in so on the coasts of the Atlantic. with their meadows.v THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 72 special significance has been that of the broken down chain of the Apennines. which runs of the In early times peninsula. which accompany lands.

arisen to recount their terrors. and Volcano Stromboli. A land so varied in so fertile in its scenery. continued their eruptions after the aboriginal settlers appeared for even now hot springs and emissions of sulphurous and other mephitic vapours show that the subter- among them. engendering superstition and colouring the popular conceptions of an underworld. in its ministration to the well-being of been feelingly claimed by one of been dowered with ' the gift its modern poets of beauty. not infrequently of a disastrous type. indeed. Lschia. which is still constantly active. Furthermore. for poured out her riches for the service of man. It was not only however. so benign in its climate. that such manifestations of subterranean commotion took The place. too.THE PRESIDENTS ADDRESS 73 to the Hellenic. various manifestations of These mysterious underground energy could not but deeply impress the imagination of primitive races. Italy from the remotest time has been subject to earthquakes. therefore. ranean fires are smouldering not far beneath the surface. that an apprecia- tion of these charms was one of the grounds of that national sentiment of patriotism for which the tinguished among the peoples Romans were disThe more of antiquity. islands of Li pari occasionally broke out in eruption. There can be little doubt. has again and again Nor is it difficult to believe that some of the numerous now extinct craters that stud the region from Campania to Tuscany may have been the scene of disastrous outbreaks. the stronger grew their conviction that none of those was so pleasant a land nowhere had Nature so bountifully to dwell in as Italy. has to have thousand years ago the same natural charms existed.' Two man.world by the Greek colonists and traders. in their fatherland 10 is well brought out in This pride the picturesque . they afforded a theme for Greek poets long before any Latin had singer in Sicily. appears to have been in this state as far back as history extends. its vegetation. and it would have been strange had the Romans proved insensible to them. so prolific. they saw and learnt of other countries. so exuberant in its soil.

glories of Italy as in the often -quoted passage in the second Georgic. I. finds its expression fullest The contemplation of Virgil. seas. spelt. his feelings on this subject found vent in a burst of enthusiasm. her many lakes — the huge Larius and winding shores washed by two sea-like Benacus — her her numerous havens. with walls. and looking at a painting of the return One Italy which appropriately decorated the opposite wall. they asked. remembrance the richness of the Italian landscape filled while at the same time De Re Rust. that yielded in What abundance everything useful to man. could be compared to that of Campania. writings ? of the in the manifold awakened in that sweet singer a vivid emotion and became a main inspiration of his muse. oil to what wine to that of Falernum. her abundant flocks and herds. what that of Venafruin The same of ancient It olive * through the poetry patriotic fervour breathes Rome. II. Now and again. her many towns perched on rivers gliding beneath their antique Such passages may be cited not only in proof of the poet's intense loyalty to the land of his birth. it brought to his Geury. her noble rugged heights. which in their opinion might be regarded as a vast orchard. but as evidence of his vivid appreciation of the beauties of Nature. allegorical figure) they The map should meanwhile seat themselves on the benches. 2 cities. (or perhaps 1 of their country led to a conversation on the various merits of Italy. her vines and olives. which grew more overmastering as the varied elements of Italy's loveliness his poetic vision and strength passed in —her eternal spring. The 1 him with joy.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 74 scene with which Varro prefaces his treatise on agriculture. . ii. mi-OS. what corn to that of Apulia. He describes how when he entered Tellus he found there a group the temple of the goddess of his friends waiting for of the sacristan. of the company old proverb jocosely remarked that as according to the Roman the ' conquers by sitting down. 1. her wealth in veins of brass and silver and in the gold of her rivers. her succession before rich fields of corn.

The love of flowers is one of the simplest and most Beginning in rudimentary forms of a feeling for Nature. I. and it it found often gave a tender touch to The wearing of wreaths on festive occasions and at ordinary meals was a pretty usage. No their literature. Beyond these more or less domestic uses. feature in the internal decoration of a Roman dwelling-house was more conspicuous than the profusion with which flowers. Mountains and fourth. Magna magna parens frugum. Saturnia tellus. Flowers appeared at bridals. moor and mountain. third. First. conventionalised to . and fruit appeared in the frescoes on the walls both of the rooms and of the open courts. leaves. until it grows into that affectionate appre- mute appeal made to the human heart by meadow and woodland. Flowers. divisions of my theme which I have selected for consideration on this occasion are four in number. it advances by insensible degrees in races as in individuals. Rural scenes .THE PRESIDENTS ADDRESS 75 men of the past by whom the country had been fused into one nation and had been made the deeds of the illustrious mistress of the world. . second.' This commingling of the most devoted patriotism with a deep and pure affection for Nature gives to the poetry of Virgil an The undying charm. though it came to be debased by ostentatious luxury. expression in their art. flowers played a prominent part as subjects for painting and sculpture. at burials. virum. sea and sky. or to the treasures of the Naples The visitor to Pompeii museum cannot fail to be impressed with the exuberance of this Although much of the vegetation is floral display. earliest childhood. Romans It the love life. of flowers was intense pervaded their social customs. ' Salve. and on endless other occasions when joy or sympathy was to be expressed. ciation of the which becomes one of the purest pleasures of Among and the universal. the Sea.

away. but showered their shapely leaves and fruit over every space artistically available. and the olive. broken-hearted at the faith- by the sun. Among the relics of Roman sculpture in Augustan the age none are more impressive for their truthfulness and their exquisite grace of treatment than the leaves. it is almost a surprise that even the political Imperial plants. 22. symbolise a flower on the edge of the meadow which has been caught by But often ex- is and among the poets has suggested some patheticThus. were never conventionalised. thought of quitting Italv the image that seemed most fitly blighted affection was that of ' His tender feeling for flowers is to ' unknown by the breeze. XI. who those are familiar with the conventional forms of the lotus in Egyptian art. Strong that while ' plants appear in Greek art only to be conven- Roman tionalised into architectural forms.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 76 suit the recurrent festoons and garlands that stretch their we can easily see that the graceful forms across the walls. upturned by no plough. caressed shower. in art the love To of natural form conquers the stylistic tendency. nourished by the many a youth and many a maiden. it fades then coveted neither by maidens nor youths. the symboliclaurel.' In 1 x Latin literature appreciation of flowers pressed. and his the passing ploughshare/ passage wherein he compares a maiden marriage to in despair. fruit. to OotutanHne.'' Sculpture from Augustus Catullus. 39. or of the acanthus in Greek art. 76. lessness of his beloved. 1907. 3 . similes. plants were copied directly from nature. and branches carved on the Ara Pacis and other monuments of the same period. has been culled from its slender stalk. flowers. the oak. • j». for their forms and colours are often accurately rendered. It has been well remarked by Mrs. and coveted ^by after own a flower that has grown sequestered in a fenced garden. Still more artistic and elaborate are the detailed floral studies in some of the ancient mansions which have been uncovered in and near Rome. strengthened it is 1 ' Fomnn 2 conspicuous in the familiar before and after to cattle. when Catullus. 1 LXII.

THE PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS more luxuriantly do Still flowers 77 bloom almost everywhere Like his own bees ('tantus amor he loved to linger among the banks of wild thyme in the poetry of Virgil. the shore-loving myrtle. One of the objects in the formation of a Roman garden was. They may be only a few square yards and they are to be found even in small and modest Outside of dwellings closely pent between narrow streets. room was found for plots of flowers. a group No visitor to of trees. the blue-grey willow. the walls of a town space could be given to much more extensive gardens and pleasure-grounds. in extent. ' magnos Senecae praedivitis the (like city mansions in the but even within the enclosing walls of small houses. and violets. 68. with which the shrubs and trees in a town garden were 1 Am. Even in the Aeneid. the bee-haunted saffron. and was more conspicuous than Not only around the large the desire to gratify this taste. he compares the dead body of the youthful Pallas to a blossom plucked by a maiden's hand from tender violet or drooping hyacinth. the late-flowering narcissus. or even sometimes a single tree. the lowly broom. and the generous. the poet chooses an image that will deepen our sympathy for the untimely fate of a hero. — to epithet the soft hyacinth. as Cato prescribed. A 1 it can no longer draw sustenance from mother its 1 love of flowers involved a fondness no feature in Roman domestic life for gardens. which has not yet lost its radiance and beauty. to supply the family with the floral chaplets that were needed for festivals or daily use. florum ') noting by name and affixing some appropriate each plant that had given him pleasure the scented anise. long-lived olive. the bending acanthus. green shade in the open We can imagine the care air during the heat of summer. where possible. Another end was to provide. of these frequency Pompeii can fail to be struck with the hortos '). or a shrubbery. ' though earth. . XI. amid scenes of carnage. intramural gardens. the white lily. where. the wan-coloured ivy. the yellow marigold. fosterer of peace.

Rome life.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 78 tended. . Even among the tiny gardens within some Pompeian houses the same taste was displayed in miniature the flower plots had their spouting statuettes and mosaic fountains that kept up into all . who had given the fields. Varro. rural inhabitants. and were the only repre- sentatives left of the virtuous race that lived in the reign of Saturn. frugality. when comparatively small. close-trimmed hedges. and the growing luxury of the upper the idleness and thriftlessness of the lower orders. led to a serious relaxation of the pristine virtues of the Latin race. murmur a pleasing II. art and nature were combined in a characteristic fashion. while human thought it wise policy to bring the divine Nature built the cities. tastes existed probably Rome was still for the little difference between those who dwelt within the walls and those whose daily work and domicile lay out- But with the growth of the city and the consequent increase in the requirements and amusements of urban life. together with all the evils arising from a constantly increasing servile population. i. there gradually grew up a diversity of manners and morals between the town-bred and the country-bred parts of the side. In the gardens. 1 people back to the land. 5. and most part engaged in habits and inhabitants were its in agriculture. Where space permitted. were interspersed with statues. III. straight tree-shaded formal terraces. . whether urban or rural. when the family was too poor to migrate from the city during the hot season. alleys. 4. this deterioration and some efforts held that art had ' was plainly perceived by observant men. of falling water. and other architectural objects. The population. were made to stem its progress. ' Before the end of the Republic had led a pious and He useful maintained that the peasantry life. hermae. 1 1 1 De Re Bust. their industry. and whether all small or large. In the early days of the Republic. especially in the upland long retained their simple districts. vases. and shrubs cut manner of topiarian vagaries. while in classes.

He appears to have been fond of making a round of sojourns at these houses. while the ' cauponae and tabernae in the country towns and rural districts were generally small. spending a few days at each in succession. besides his larger villas at imperious in those days than they are now. had some seven seaside houses along the shores of Latium and Cam- Tusculum and Arpinum. Of the may have 2. Cumae. the proportion less 1 * Meg. II. 1 By Dog-days drew near. the throng to thin. and Pompeii. so that the erection of 1 ' private houses in the country became absolutely necessary. . others for the cool grove of Diana at Lake Nemi. The wealthier Romans provided different districts. or the forests of Mount Algidus. dirty. Astura. 2 A large proportion of the migrants went to the seaside. and the demands of fashion appear to have been not pania. and the tumult of the year.' THE PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS 79 growth of the city was to drive the well-to-do classes into the country during a part of Owing to its dust and smoke. iii. 3 The annual summer exodus from Rome became the vogue. that they themselves with villas in might vary their ing to the season of the year. little towns and The 'mansiones 1 an Bay almost on the high roads were not attractive dwellings. s It appears from his letters that he had a house of his own at Antium. of the citizens made for Praeneste. which all the way from the mouth of the Tiber southward to the far side of the was dotted with of Naples continuous chain of villas. as the of society in the city country retreats received their summer Some visitors. IV. Silvae. and crowded. who would hardly in those days have been accounted rich. result of the Rome grew by summer degrees so intolerable in that escape to some country retreat was made by all who could afford the expense of removal. Puteoli. or the pleasant freshness of the Anio among the woods of Tibur. and the numerous 'rapidly used the time of Statius. iv. Even retreats accord- Cicero. Formiae. multitude that fled from the city. Tibullus thought a man must be made of iron who could remain in Rome. Sinuessa. or shady Tusculum. One important its noises.

Er. Rome. and that when at rare intervals he could escape for a few days from his duties in Rome. Ait. As many urban doubt many of the transported were no dissipations as could be carried to these various summer of the sojourners were glad enough summer and probably when the passing resorts. heats allowed them to resume their gay life in the city. 1 Epixt. they were of the utmost value in resting and restoring his mental powers. As a philosopher and man of in the Epist. in describing his Laurentine villa. be called fittingly. ' how many thoughts have you inspired z The feelings of pleasure awakened by country sounds find full and joyous utterance among ! poets. however. he stands out as the one and Nature. or by the they lived in shores of the sea that they found their inspiration. xvi. who may most the poet of widest sense. To those. . XIII. true and retired place for study how much have you taught me — ! . for instance. . by the brooks and rivers. among the picturesque defiles of the Fibrenus and Liris. Epixt. I. Quint. reinvigorated him. . O Shore. III. breaks out into an apostrophe to its charms ' O Sea. who took pleasure in the fresh and open face of Nature. De he devoted Leg. he was glad to retreat to his native home at Arpinum. or modern time. also. ix. He tells us that it was his habit to keep up his spirits by seeking rivers and solitude. i. i. these temporary absences from the magnae vaga murmura Romae must have recruited mind ' ' as well as body. younger Pliny.! THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 80 been small of those who had a genuine love of the country and of a simple life there in the enjoyment of Nature. To such a man as Cicero. science. it was not in the city but in Even when the memory of what they had seen and heard among the woods and meadows. the solitude and The 1 the health-giving air of the place. II. where the extreme beauty of the scenery. It is interesting to trace how these rural influences impressed the Among all the poets of ancient colossal genius of Lucretius. These writers delighted sights the and Latin in depicting rural scenes.

. but sometimes impressively noble and solemn. Creation and decay were seen by him to be the invariable system but he also recognised that there had been an upward evolution both in inanimate and animate forms. full of sympathy for sorrow and suffering. or to impart the thrill of delight with which his contemplation of the inner workings of Nature had filled his own soul. indeed. He was filled with what he called a divine pleasure and awe as he contemplated Nature. whether . Amid all his speculation he retained his of the simple beauty of the lowliest flower. ! ' in man love or beast. 28. and with what tender sympathy and profound melancholy he felt the human life. and he threw his whole soul into the task of expounding this knowledge and showing what he believed to be its practical utility in dealing with lieved his fellow the most serious problems of human life. connections of on earth. he had gathered would benefit much knowledge which he be- men. poem abounds with passages His great which show how closely he noted the changes of the sky and the varied aspect of the earth in the succession feeling he watched the of the seasons. the regulated movement and order of the universe. sea.' THE PRESIDENTS ADDRESS 81 the contemplation and investigation of the His intense and insatiable desire was to seek out and to interpret to mankind the hidden causes and interhis to life universe. to doubt whether any language would be adequate to reveal what with his mental vision he had seen and learnt. the changes that are unceasingly in progress all and Following the teaching of his master sky. And yet this sublime poet. Let me give only a sadness and the frailty of 1 11 De Rer. He seems at times. soaring amid the heights of his atomic philosophy. had the tenderest and most human of hearts. and his interest in the welfare of every living creature. and in language often rugged. No one has ever had a more vivid perception of the beauty and harmony. he tried to convey to others what he conceived to have been the history of this world. Epicurus. with toil what kindly of the husbandman. Nat. III.

. wearied bodies amid the glad pastures. wantonly with feeble limbs upon the tender grass. . too.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 82 single quotation from his poem in proof of how genuine and At last all-embracing was Lucretius'^ love of the country : ' the rains cease which our father the sky has showered upon the bosom of our mother the earth. the fat cattle rest their thence. Virgil's memory for the details of the scenery and rural life amidst which he spent his youth must have lieen extraordinarily retentive. what they seem literally to imply. The many similes in the Aencid drawn from his youthful reminiscences bear still stronger testimony to the fidelity of his observation and the pleasure he took in recalling scenes which he so vividly remembered. when he had risen to fame and had long quitted his paternal home. the ' divini gloria runs. had irradiated his boyhood. that the . They inspired his earliest verse and in after years. which are soon heavy with fruit. 1 which as a bright 250. and the branches grow green upon the trees. made light-hearted with the pure milk. in a striking phrase. 2 If the last eight lines of the fourth cit. 1 Op. From these sources our own race and the race of beasts are nourished thence. we see happy towns alive with children. i. Luxuriant crops spring up. called. remained with him and animating influence to the end of his life. what he Italy sketched so often Virgil. 2 Thus. ing on every side with the voices of young birds also. mean. he was fortunate in the smiling landscapes amidst which his youth was passed. His descriptions and allusions are given with as much force and accuracy as if the landscapes of the north were still present before his eyes. Georgic can he understood to whole poem was written at Naples. and the leafy woods ring. sports 1 1 By none of the Latin poets were the rural landscapes of and with such loving devotion as by Born on the fertile plains of the Po. and a new brood. these same scenes continued to fire his imagination and to give a life and charm to all his poetry. while the milky stream flows from their distended udders. yet within sight of the towering Alps on the one side and the heights of the Apennines on the other.

and the of the turtle-dove from the It moan tall elm-tree. and of life in every form. But to Virgil it proved a congenial theme for poetic treatment. awakens Virgil's there thin or ungenial plagues. fields. the merchant. affected farming. Illumined by his agriculture. poem he amply recognises the laborious and unintermittent toil of the husbandman. rich in his life. We seem to hear the murmur of bees from his willow-hedge. the soldier. the reed-fringed the farmyard that lofty far-off' mountains that cast their long evening shadows across the plain. no lot is more to of one who has to till the soil or to rear envied than that be And to illustrate how far this lot is flocks and herds. became it of for the meadows and in his hands one of the great masterpieces of literature. which precise own imagination. however. or . The struggle with Nature. The subject he chose was nominally the rules and practice of had been recently discussed by Varro in a and methodical manner. near the his own little home. soil. and affording at practical experience of country every turn opportunities expression of his love of woods and streams. and early meadows along see the green river-banks. was in the composition of the Georgics. man Yet is not always the in spite of here and or inclement seasons. that found fullest scope for the expression of his joy in Virgil rural scenes and his meditative appreciation of Nature. wherein victor. he feels assured that in human employments. all the range of happier than that of the sailor. the trees with their was perhaps seem to of venerable beech- line doddered tops.THE PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS The whole atmosphere of the Eclogues is 83 that of the country. or other too sympathy. and more especially of the district in which the We poet was born. the cooing of his wood-pigeons. wherein the varying and sea and sky are depicted with the most and the most consummate art. or insect- numerous evils. The poet's boyhood and youth had given him an intimate knowledge of the life of the farmer and a warm aspects of earth enthusiastic affection feeling for the trials which. even in so favoured a country as In his Italy.

like that where Virgil saw the but in a somewhat rugged and light. I. i by the fury of the Aufidus acer. IV. 58.'' for in in his verse. first sterile territory on the eastern flank of the Apulian Apennines. while in the hot season it may dwindle to a mere shrunken streamlet. not in a luxuriant plain. and rushes 1 plains below." it to the down with ' Roman army against the bull-like Aufidus as dire havoc he waxes upon the fertile 1 Horace was an eminently social being.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 84 the politician. greedily seeking for more than their fair share of this world's goods. He remembered summer many of the it springs and brooks cease to flow at the surface. he likens wroth. that he refers when he speaks of men who. 25. remained floods of this river memory in his of Nature in her most energetic mood. are apt to be swept away. and he was consequently welcomed among the cultivated circles of his day. and the drainage in large measure finds among its way towards the sea in underground passages But still more did he recall the the limestone rocks. or had heard of. A stranger. As another and remarkable example of the influence of an early life in the country upon a poetic temperament we may look for a few moments at the case of Horace. He was born. as The as a kind of type its impetuosity and rushed along with a roar that could be heard from far. intro1 Sat. to which occasional allusion as ' pauper made is aquae. which. xiv. indicative of destructiveness. occasion to bring it its name it Every time he takes into his poems. Of this early home the poet retained two vivid impressions. one large river of the district. together with the bank on which they stand." And when he wished to 1 picture the irresistible onset of the barbarians. Not improbably it was to some catastrophe which he had himself witnessed. . i. He must have been excellent company. the Aufidus. heavy rain bears headlong to the Adriatic the in seasons of accumulated waters of the greater part of Apulia. Carm. he draws the well-known picture of the oldstyle farmer with which he closes the second Georgic. he couples with a different epithet.

as is upon 1 Until hardly more than a century and a half ago. 4 Or at times he would lie stretched in reverie upon the sward these He inspiration. I. mountains. X. of this little valley Thus among to the varied and genial the Apennines. I.' well acquainted as taken him for a typical ' with the latest gossip of good society. literature influences is largely indebted for the Odes. stir 2 ) for the quiet of his country home. 49. which have been a perennial joy to every successive generation. he felt restored to himself and to the Muses. 2. known. lviii. repulsive. lxx. which he owed to the appreciation and generosity of Maecenas. near the mouldering shrine of some half-forgotten native divinity. 1 ' and there his assertion that in the city he often longed (' no reason to is midst of the mens animusque . xiv. 27.THE PRESIDENTS ADDRESS duced to him 85 he strolled along the Via Sacra. He calls himself a ruris ' doubt the truth of and noise of the amator. He complained that amidst the turmoils of town he found it impossible to write poems. III. 8. ii. all over the world. complaint was made by Martial. . by wood and stream. . life equally clear that he did not find there his greatest happiness. 3 A * Carm. might have man-about-town. It was in the midst of surroundings that he found his highest compares himself to the Matinian bee. flitting over banks of wild thyme. I. 5 for human associations ever mingled with his delight in Nature. XII. where he found the fullest pleasures of his life. x. were looked with general abhorrence as barren. by the clear Bandusian spring little and the prattling brook Digentia with its mossy rocks. 3 But at his farm among the Sabine Hills. century later the same Epig. among the fields and woods which he loved. and well Epist. s Epist. IV. and have placed Horace in the first rank of lyric poets. tellers Rome and its varied That he was fond of Yet it seems cannot be doubted. lvii. x. and not unfamiliar with the newest tricks of the cheats and jugglers and fortuneof the Circus and the Forum.

as are Of all Lucretius the poets of the golden is the only one climbed mountains. desolate 1 Hut he alludes to some of his own experience in the ascent of mountains. following the standard. After the Conquest came the crowd of traders who. it may seem strange that they should have received such scant treatment in Latin literature. 200. He complains. that half the surface of the earth has. the swamps. established com- munications with all parts of the subject lands. and solitary regions. or only to be traversed when necessity compelled. V. the range of the Apennines brought mountain scenery within reach of everybody. Yet when we remember the conspicuous place which mountains hold in Italian landscape. where cloud and storm have the forces of lofty. Yet to our modern eyes it may passes. Again. hills He speaks of and waking the echoes by Rer. noblest theatre for their display. from one end of the peninsula to the other. been greedily seized on by mountains. and then with due circumspection and every precaution against possible disaster. especially after seem astonishing that not only is 'little notice taken of these conspicuous features in the scenery of the country by the writers either of prose or verse. age of Latin literature. therefore to be avoided. forests of wild beasts. On the northern frontier the chain of the Alps had to be crossed by the Roman armies before the transalpine territories could be conquered and incorporated into the Empire. haunted by wild beasts. must have been frequently traversed and become fairly well known by the beginning of the Christian era. and in some places by still men wilder . The various good roads had been made through them. who appears His keen interest to in the have himself grand elemental Nature would naturally lead him into those rugged. . and the sea. and in watching the movements of clouds above wandering among the dark 1 De their summits.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 86 dangerous parts of the earth's surface. rocks. but that such brief references made to them not infrequently include some accompanying epithet of disparagement. Nut. indeed.

. easy to see from the epithets with which references that mountains had he couples his no attraction for him.THE PRESIDENTS ADDRESS 87 shouting for his companions. snowy. too. He several times merely mentions the Alps. gives us no mountain pictures. 331 .\ are to mountains at a distance. IV. Op. and not case. II. the loftiest once refers to and most prominent peak to the west of the basin of the Po. frightful beauty they but not a word . The Eclocmes contain allusions to mountains that are not most detailed reference to the subject is. indication throughout the poem that the no is impressive scenery of these regions had exercised any special fascination on his mind. may is said of in themselves possess. this tumultuous mass of among men appears to be among forest fires at rest. Aen. Although was born and spent Virgil youth his within sight of the Alps on the one side and the Apennines on the other. remote. if I mistake not. 897 . with their marches and charges of infantry and cavalry. more remarkable in his rocky scenery. or left there any marked and indelible impression. neither range draws from him any description or encomium. 703. inhospitable. though he It is frequently alludes to the heights as beheld from afar. Horace. that in which he alludes to 'great Father Apenninus as he roars with his quivering ilexes and joys to 2 All the poet's references raise his snowy crest into the air. 575. the pine-clad Vesulus (Monte and Viso). Virgil's Of of his landscapes. x\fter a picturesque account of a review of great legions on the plains. seeing that his far any grandeur or And this is all the farm lay among from the higher and wilder part of the Sabine mountains. In another passage he alludes to But there 1 the mighty mountains. he adds that. whose home was on the Lago di Garda. XII. which form the background named. I. wintry. their inner scenery he says nothing. mountain ridges on either side and the snowy Alps at no great distance beyond. Catullus. makes no mention of these Even with its 1 2 cit. They are in his vocabulary cold. seen from a place the high mountains.

. V. to reproduce in visible form the introduced. praises the view of the lake in letters to a friend. where rocks in all varieties of fantastic and threatening shapes forbade the approach of man. instead of drawing from any actual rocky landscape. I. vi. iii. Nor more appreciative of the grander Thus Cicero. widespread popular conception of the horrors of the mountain world. 1 De Amic. endeavoured. and was exceedingly fond of are prose-writers features of Italian scenery. entirely from imagination. . Again. remarks that we may come to find pleasure even in mountainous and wooded places. villa in the and from a neighbouring height.' when he His exquisite refers to ' marching sonnet on Sirmio contains no allusion to the mountainous girdle that encircles the lake. that district. 1 The younger Pliny. the charm of the scenery so greatly depends. . But probably the most interesting. in which he was born. In the large collection of these mural paintings at Naples a few small landscapes show distant blue mountains and near conical wooded hills. representations in that series are to be found in some of the foregrounds and backgrounds of the mythological or other figure-pictures. he makes no reference to the scenery of the adjacent Apennines. It would seem that in these cases the artists. but has nothing to say of the mountains on which. 2 Little can be learnt from the extant ancient frescoes as to the conception which the Italian artists had of mountain forms. 2 Epitt. save on one occasion across the lofty Alps. if we have lived long enough in them. impending in dangerous instability or branching out into rugged fantastic arms from a narrow base on the ground. when discussing the force of habit which reconciles us to what we may naturally dislike. when he describes in some from his Tuscan detail the views to be seen vale of the Tiber. to our modern eyes. II. 19. though least artistic.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 88 uplands. who had several villas on the Lake of Como. where what may be called caricatures of rocky ground are Naked rocks are shown in impossible positions. viii.

Yet it was not commanded by Romans. After the destruction of xx.' the epithets applied to the deep throughout Greek poetry show how much its endless variety of surface and colour. there was much less occasion there for transport by water. 2 The naval service. Greece Her more advennaturally became a nursery of seamen. with its peninsular form and its indented coastline. was never held in at sea as well as on land. Sub- divided by the waters of the Aegean into innumerable islands and peninsulas. turous spirits sailed westward and founded colonies on the most distant shores of the Mediterranean. 1 Not until the year 260 b. indeed. during the first Punic war. were they able to build a navy of their own. no fleet of had to boi'row vessels from the more important Greek colonies in Southern Italy. Beheld the Iliad and the Odyssee Rise to the swelling of the voiceful sea. ' By the time of That blind bard who on the Chian strand. Books III. but by Italian Greeks. 12 1 Polybius.THE PRESIDENTS ADDRESS IV. History oj Rome.c. its beauty and its majesty. however. This national familiarity with the sea is abundantly reflected in Greek From literature. the Latin race and the surrounding tribes which it gradually absorbed into the growing Republic were mainly farmers and When shepherds. 2 Mommsen. I. Italy. But as communication between the different parts of the country could be maintained by land. Moreover. where the scattered communities could keep in touch with each other only by boat or ship. those deep sounds possessed with inward light. might have been supposed to be likely to foster a strong body of sailors. they high esteem among the Romans. Hist. . while its crews were made up of men from the subject states and even of slaves and outcasts. war-galleys. appealed to the Hellenic imagination. A striking contrast Greeks and the Romans is 89 to be remarked between the in their relation to the sea. V. they came into conflict with Carthage they realised for the first time the necessity of being strong Having.

until to the Atlantic ports on the one side India on the other. to summer to Sorrento. and a wide view of the open Mediterranean was a delightful relief from the close-pent houses and narrow. the whole western mouth of the Tiber annual migrants. official Roman society towards the end of the Republic and during most of the Empire may be said to have had a passion for the sea-coast to which so large a Nevertheless. or youths went to Greece for purposes but for the most part. 67 Pompey cleared the seas of the In the year but not Augustus had established strong fleets at Ravenna. were whom the As season. or a tourist travelled to scenes of historic or scientific interest. the margin of the sea seems to have been a favourite place for observation meditation. Although his early years . have I shores of Italy. and the Romans and to the shores of could be regarded as 'Lords of the wide world and wild watery seas. noisy streets of Rome. for example. flock of visitors repaired in the already said.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 90 Carthage the fleet was allowed to fall into such neglect that piracy became rampant in the Mediterranean. corsairs . and Frejus could sea-borne commerce pass freely b. from the crowded with these freshness of a sea-breeze was a welcome change from the stifling air of the town. Here and there a philosopher journeyed to make acquaintance with far countries. Misenum.' Yet although a considerable seafaring element may have grown up in the population from the early years of the Empire onward. only men who had some duty abroad or an overmastering curiosity to visit foreign scenes ventured upon the open sea. and he has records of his and put into words some memorable musings there. the changes and excitements of sea-voyages do not seem to have had much attraction for civilians. To Virgil. of study .c. On much the less-frequented parts of the to engage the attention of those coast there who cared was to watch the changes of sea and sky and the effects of these changes on the land.

the launched into black sands and to raise a tumult that reverberated to Procida and 3 Ischia. his home on the Bay of Naples that he became fully familiar with all the varying moods of the sea in calm and storm. His acuteness of observation as well as his gift of felicitous expression are well exemplified in the similes which he takes from the sea. The its application of the term is familiarly There can be known little to be pale yellow or even doubt. till at last it breaks in loudest thunder upon the rocks. bearing its broad breast from the deep and rolling onward to the shore. alike in the Georgics and the Aeneid. 2 ' black 1 deepest eddies and to sand in this simile deserves remark. 83 1 Echg. IX. however. not improbably infer that the storm which supplied may him with his image occurred in the Bay of Naples. however. III. sometimes even of passionate invective. 715) where reference is made to the building of the villa substructures Huge masses of stony materials were there at the Bay of Baiae. which was so convulsed as to throw up the sea. 3 must be confessed. 91 he had doubtless with his eyes beheld the mirror-like surface of the neighbouring and had listened to the murmur of its waves 1 But it was only after he made breaking on the flat shore. 57. 2 Georg. . for ordinary shore sand white. This inference derives support from a passage in the Aeneid (IX. 237-41. like a mountain. II. that the general burden of Latin poetry in regard to the sea is one of disparagement and complaint. Adriatic. We look there in vain for anything akin to the enthusiastic admiration of the beauty and grandeur of the ocean. In one of these passages he pictures a wave beginning to whiten with foam while still far from land. now so Even Lucretius. where the sand in some rocky places is black from the trituration of the dark lavas of the district. whose imagination was so alive to the mighty energies of It 2G V.THE PRESIDENTS ADDRESS were passed in an inland own district. . that the epithet We accurately describes what the poet himself saw. while the surge boils up from whirls the black sand aloft. fully recognised by the modern world. .

This general and deep-rooted dislike. such as unquiet. or even abhorrence. how a Roman audience would have received one of our joyous sea-songs. in his own luxurious remarks. or what would have been thought of the sanity of any poet who could have penned the stanzas on the ocean in Childe Harold. that one cause of conceive the general Roman dislike of the sea is traceable to a temperament that was specially Then. Epi. I. as Horace man who had Poets who had once undergone the miseries of sea-sickness revenged themselves and their fellow-sufferers by heaping opprobrious epithets on the cause of their distress. wicked. 2 some was his conviction that a man who sailed three or four times a year into the Atlantic and came back each time Dp Rer. Like Lucretius he preferred to behold the hoarse.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 92 the world. could see in disastrous storms which have strewn the shores with wreckage shun the wilds of the trust it. Nat. being. 10. calm.it. and his experiences in these voyages left In the course of his an indelibly unpleasant impression on his memory. be prostrated as the to content himself with a hired boat. * II. no rank liable to suffer from sea-sickness. I think. There can be little doubt. of the sea finds characteristic expression in Horace's poems. as now. which awaken a responsive chord in the heart of every average Englishman. It fury of the deep from a firm and safe platform inland. He makes no attempt to disguise his feeling on this subject. its force ' warning to mortals to snares. as liable to trireme. of society was exempt from the complaint. black. xi. 552] . nor ever to and treacherously smiles with an alluring fickleness and treachery.' ! even when It is it the only a sea. the wealthy prevailing constitutional owner. the fury and destructiveness of the deep that are most frequently dwelt We can hardlv upon by the poets of Ancient Rome. life he had several times occasion to cross the Adriatic. He hardly ever mentions the name of that sea without adding uncomplimentary epithet.

THE PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS safe 93 and sound must certainly be under the protection of the very gods themselves. 1 Of Latin poets none has so fully foreshadowed the all done the modern love of the as Catullus has has clothed his We language. had sailed over the Aegean. . his many reminiscences of his journeys are preserved. how her. 2 During the many weeks in which the yacht was his home he came to look on the vessel almost as a living friend that shared with him the daily pleasures and risks of the voyage. and to fly to the famous towns of Asia Minor. is that all has descended to us as memorial. sea. Although he died when he was no more than thirty years of age. he had already travelled far both by land and sea and in the precious little volume of poems which to us something of his . in of the praetor a charming sonnet. he bids farewell to his companions. xxxi. in which he bids his friends listen to the tale how no sails which the ship has to tell them of her adventures. Catullus. whether with she had braved the threatening Adriatic. craft afloat could ever outstrip or oars. and had made acquaintance with the wild Euxine. had coasted Thrace and the Propontis. The pride and affection with which he regarded his 'phaselus 1 found vent in another exquisite little poem. the long voyage home. written out on his return. had threaded her way among the Cyclad Isles and past famous Rhodes. with which to make he purchased and manned a yacht. appreciation in hear from him such and none felicitous no complaints of the On comforts and perils of seafaring. and gives words to his exuberant joy that the coming of spring allows him to escape from the Phrygian plains. 13. Memmius. XLVI. When he determined to end his sojourn whither he had gone with the staff* before setting In Bithynia. he conveys own pleasure in being upon the water and watching there the ever-changing aspects of sea and sky. I. joyously dis- the contrary. written on his return. It was from the Pontic shores that the 1 s C'arm.

for instance. the well have risen in the poet's vessel that sail deeds rememever and scudding and now speeding along under oars that lashed the water into white foam. made by the There can be doubt. the lightest breath of wind. Pallas had built the frame. Mount Pelion. the first dared to scour the blue deep. broadened more and more as the breeze freshened and as they glided far away from the brilliant reflection of the rising sun. 1 represents a scene which he himself witnessed from the deck. until at last. where age she was dedicated to the sailor's furious quitting Po and in peaceful old friends Castor and Pollux. and the wavelets. The same masterpiece among his poems begins with a striking exordium wherein the thought of the voyage of the Argonauts at once calls up. was evidently pleased to picture to himself the birth- place of his favourite yacht. in the ' Peleus and Thetis.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 94 materials He had been brought of which her frame was built. From that far-distant many clime the vessel had borne her master through seas and through had that as witnesses waved green on first the appealed to Pontic Amastris and all kinds of weather. rippling gently with the sound of laughter against the sides of the vessel. now under across a windy sea. that the beautiful description of little the all dawn at sea. according to tradition. the salt main. when the first breath of morning was roughening the placid deep. Recollections of this voyage or of others poet are sprinkled through his poetry. Cy torus box-clad through pines their that these timbers had once mountains and that her oars had been dipped in their waters. she was steered up the broad rivers Mincio into the placid lake of Garda. a vision of the pine-clad with characteristic enthusiasm. to think of her native forest and the wind whistling He supplied her timbers. As in imagination he . joining the ribs to the curved and completing a sea-chariot which would fly before herself keel. the timbers of their vessel were brought. of his own yacht may The memory of brance as he pictures the Argo. whence.

for safety to the 3 to the prayers to Castor and Pollux for a calm and prosperous voyage offered up by the sailors who have been tossed about a dark tempest. Catullus did not wholly escape the storms that beset the Adriatic and Aegean waters. musings on shipboard. In his cruises the and disregard of had doubtless impressed him conditions. nor return any reply ? 4 And when she is forsaken by Theseus the faithless memory of the hero is likened by the poet to the clouds which. probably less self-possessed. by Catullus to the sea and its 1-18. In the touching poem on his brother's tomb he speaks ot himself as "multas per gentes. but he avers that never gods of the shores whence we may perhaps infer that he But his crew were rather enjoyed rough weather at sea. 164. applied LXIV. into the do wishes and efforts. driven by the winds. when gods and men were young. IV. 2 IV.' THE PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS how watches her progress. i. he thinks in 95 that heroic age (' nimis optato saeclorum tempore '). 1 account of them. 3 * LXIV. mouth of Ariadne vainly complain to which can neither hear the words addressed to them. IB. 22.). et multa per aequora vectus " (CI. and he may have been thinking of them when in an ode to his friend Manlius he alludes did he make any vows by which he sailed. together with their independence human all in his I He puts his own experience when he makes her exclaim. in poet would learn the seaman's habit of scanning the changes of the winds and other aspects of The fickleness of atmospheric the sky and the weather. He speaks of having sailed through many Although he made furious seas (' little tot impotentia freta 12 ). or perhaps a reminiscence of the Alps beyond the far recesses of the Lago di Garda. 'Why the regardless and senseless winds. the faces of the Nereids would peer above the waves wonder on to gaze with this new monster of the Ocean. leave the lofty crest of a snowy mountain a simile which may be a recollection of — what he had seen when coasting past the ranges of Thrace. . The 1 epithets Catullus.

87 LXIV. LX1V. 155 . The ceaseless motion of the sea greatly impressed his ashore ' 1 imagination —the -1 tremuli ' lentum aequor. 3 . 1 The cadence of his verse life and movement of seems at times to be charged with the the waves. mourning the loss of a beloved brother. and he refers again and again to a whitening shore ('albicans litus ) and foaming shores ('spumosa litora''). 179."' and speaks of himself. Republic under which Rome amidst the carnage of civil liberty our attention this impression that suggests itself first we note the rise see is apt to the downfall of the achieved greatness. and from war and the ruins of political of a great military empire. as where in two lines he brings before eye and ear the plunge of the breakers on a far stretch of sandy beach 1 Litus ut longe resonante Tunditur unda. perience and such whom the objects He more than by a man to selected shipwrecked man who has been cast by the foaming waves of the deep. LXIII. as friend Manlius to a would as (alga) in allusion to a characteristic feature of the strand. the We be one of continual unrest.2 THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 96 shores are always felicitously descriptive. 121.' In conclusion Eoa 3 a few moments we look back across if for : : the gulf of twenty centuries. suggested human alludes to the ' (litus) ' were once by using His seafaring ex- language in which he where he compares his sorrowing figurative grief.' the with their ' 1 ' salis undas. the ' ponti trucu- rapidum salum truculentaque spumantibus undis. and try to form a mental vision of that momentous period of human history which has sup- plied the memorials that have engaged evening. 128. 3 XI. as one plunged in the billows of misfortune/ His eye had been continually fixed with delight on the waves breaking along lines of beach. picturesquely varies the word for in its stead the word for ' shore ' seaweed . 1 pelagi. . naturally be and familiar pleasant to recall. We think of the alternations of benevolent despotism and brutal 1 * LXIII.

establishment of a strong central government gave a Wealth commerce and industry. Christianity. in spite of this gance. which had been one of the distinctive features of the Republic. We realise that religion and morals no longer bygone days. each with its specious panacea for the ills of humanity. thought recovered some at least of its was there and then that those literary and masterpieces were produced which are the immortal In these wide freedom. no We perceive serious arrest of their decay was accomplished. the cause of the most gigantic moral upheaval that had ever was steadily making of its way visited mankind. controlled men as they had done in that amid the general ferment. but rejected and derided by the more educated members of the community. and science. And yet during the period with which we are dealing when the there were long intervals of outward quiescence. sway into every region under the Rome. history. prosperity. It was natural that intellectual activity should then seek escape into the opener air of poetry.THE PRESIDENTS ADDRESS 97 tyranny which marked the course of that empire through the We centuries. the openings for the gratification of political ambition and the attainment of civic distinction. observe the ancient national cult still hold- ing an enfeebled sway over the main mass of the population. and invaded by new and strange forms of superstition and worship from Egypt and the East. Pax Romana was maintained throughout the The vast empire. and that although efforts were made to restore their influence. distributed. We seem to hear the discordant voices of the different schools of philosophy. tended to become in various ways restricted or closed when the direction of the affairs of the country lay in the hands of one man. It is easy to under- stand that one effect of the curtailment of political freedom would be to turn men more than ever to Nature in search 13 . philosophy. artistic It memorials of the golden age of Rome. generally more became rapidly increased and bringing in its train an acceleration of luxury and extravapowerful stimulus to material Nevertheless. fields.

" Our Association has had the good fortune ever since it was founded to be presided over by men of classical and literary distinction.— THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 98 of that solace and refreshment which they could find nowhere To some minds else. it is manifest that we still enjoy that advantage in an eminent degree. soul and vibrate to-day most clearly and and bring us into spirit of the best express the instinctive joy him Rome of chords are those loudly in our closest touch with the inner of the man Romans. was the it especially furnished this mental contemplation scientific world around them that or attentive observation of the relief and enjoyment. for I venture to the reason that it is mention this very obvious the dual point of vantage on which he stands as a classical scholar and a great authority in natural science which alone has rendered possible the production of so unique and delightful an address as we have heard to-day." Upon Dr. others mere contact with the free. in addition to classical and literary distinction. and. fact. brings into one brotherhood the thoughtful spirits common of every century and of every tongue. we know that. as in the case of Lucretius at the beginning of the period. whatever the modesty of Sir Archibald Geilde may imply. Moreover. Caton proposed a vote of thanks in the following terms. the conclusion of the President's Address. in the For they world around — that ' Primal sympathy Which having been must and which. and of Pliny the Elder and Seneca at To its close. and ever-changing face of Nature brought with it a full measure of delight which found an The utterance in the rich music of Latin poetry. along with the expression of his own profound sense of the beauty and wonder of Nature. fresh. have been interwoven . as ever be/ a universal bond. he also holds premier rank in the scientific world. Sir Archibald's intimate knowledge of the gems of Latin prose and verse. that were then struck in the literature of which still own hearts.

shall have the opportunity of reading this address music its hope we I not is it .VOTE OF THANKS TO THE PRESIDENT which in in a strain of graceful English its charm and has captivated his audience in no ordinary measure. with regard to Aratus. any more than was Johnson in the eighteenth century with the wild mountains of Scotland. we cannot know. that. when you have read it all through. it ! did not expect was the grace and with finish which he treated the Humanities. and none of you could well that. which he called the I will ' protuberances of the country. I have had. and Virgil. 99 enough merely to have heard it on one occasion only.' immemorial elms. and many put them together so ably. I think there is a feature worth mentioning. that I cannot but think he has produced a very favourable picture of Latin poetry indeed because. and for his most interesting address. are really scanty. has been the main poet who has I think. except in Virgil. I confess that whatever doubt Sir Archibald Geikie might have felt about his capability of treating a classical subject. passages. and also about the sea." At this late merely repeat by hour my full Sir Archibald . He has gathered interesting and delightful passages from the poets." Mahaffy. having translated line after line of Aratus. I beg to propose a sincere and hearty vote of thanks to our President for his visit to our meeting. but will appreciation of the admirable address given Geikie. and murmur Therefore I think they were not pleased with great mountain scenery. and from them we can find a great deal of what he said but with this wonderful feature for having felt the Greeks of course . he has turned the Greek silver into Roman gold. From what Sir Archibald has said about mountains. who knew is founded upon a rock But what I had none. which one would think very far so removed from the main studies of his life.' not detain you any more. Romans a character How much Virgil took from given the and loved Nature. whatever his knowledge. Professor —" I beg to second the vote of thanks which has been so eloquently proposed. you will find that those . except so far as his treatment of Theocritus and Aratus goes. which is that the ancients loved the sounds of Nature more than the sights — ' the moan of doves in of innumerable bees.

said. though it has been at some little personal inconvenience. It has been a pleasure to me to come. but I for my have not done my duty failure. " I thank you heartily for your vote of thanks. — In simply giving this Address.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 100 The vote of thanks was carried by acclamation. I as President. in acknowledging the vote. Mason-Hutchinson) Town feel I must throw myself upon your indulgence Hall. Sir Archibald Geikie." On Friday courteously evening the entertained by members the (Councillor S. of Lord the Association were Mayor of Liverpool and the Lady Mayoress in the . Probably it has been explained to you why I have found it difficult in making an appearance here to-day.

But Aeschylus did not hesitate to depict the struggle. in 101 . Headlam's paper on the paper —con- Agamemnon Choruses and Dr. between the new gods of Olympus and the primitive chthonic powers whom they ousted. and his most signifiBetween his Zeus is . 1906. Of this struggle the end is always the same the mastery . above and : of Zeus.45 a. and by a deliberate blending of the older powers with the new harmony. his and the other Olympians there is no rivalry for Zeus stands aloof. in his This volume taining also the late Dr. met at 9. January 7th The Association University. VerralFs introduction to his edition of the Eumenides have suggested or provoked the better part of what I have to say — — on the Eumenides.m. Miss Janet Case read the following paper on the Eumenides of Aeschylus : " Aeschylus received his gods of from Homer. Professor Ridgeway has argued convincingly that behind the Suppliants lies of the older social the memory of a conflict system of exogamy (or between the ideals marriage outside the which mother-right prevailed. Professor Ridgeway has thrown much light upon the Sup- resolves the discord into a pliants incidentally on (and the Eumenides) contained in Cambridge Praelections.— Saturday. Verrall's on the Vote of Athena — and Dr. but he left his Olympus as an inheritance own imprint upon them deeper and more spiritual conception of Zeus cant gift to the religious thought of Athens. who establishes his rule of reason for the rule of violence. in the Arts Theatre of the Professor Postgate occupied the chair. of which Homer seems unaware. and of the newer system of endogamy (or marriage within the limits of limits of kinship).

and is still rebelling against But we know that at the last Zeus was bound to win. in the Danaides she is arraigned for disobedience to her father and the marriage. in the Prometheus Bound we see the Titan Prometheus defying Zeus. but lies 2. is complex . your assent are these That in this new or controversial) to which I : play the conflict between Old and New. The way of Zeus prevailed but for Aphrodite And herself.— THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 102 kinship). or indeed. with the specialised function of mother Erinyes second part. where. and stand for avengers of wrong done to god. upon the older race of Titans. guest. Hypermnestra refrained from love but one. for that (a) the Erinyes and Apollo. as in the case of Hypermnestra. In the latter second play of the Trilogy the marriages were consummated but on the wedding night each bride killed her husband. involving a more stable conception of marriage. The treatment of this theme in the Eumenides is the subject of my paper. but that (6) in the they reassume the wider character of the other plays. with reconciliation of the old ideals and the new. That (a) in the first part. or even wider range. love set its seal on the newer and stabler bond. (6) human up to the verdict it lies between from the verdict to the end it between the Erinyes and Athena. who has only just set his heel Fate. a new and truculent god. of wrong of . And the to a place And in the points (not necessarily either invite 1. is so the . the unwelcome suitors of the fifty daughters of Danaos. and even guess at his ultimate admission among the gods of Olympus. which holds the imagination almost to the exclusion of any interest. The Suppliants ends with the repulse of the fifty cousins. and we can foresee the reconciliation of Prometheus with a wiser and a nobler Zeus. which system was associated with Zeus. which means a temporary reverse for the newer system. Again. but acquitted by the pleading of newer way of Zeus was justified. All . Eumenides as well there is the same progression from conflict to victory and conciliation. as throughout in the lyrics. . with the corollary of father-right in exchange for mother-right. or parent. with the exception of the lyrics. And of Lynceus. the Erinyes are blood-suckers on the trail of a matricide.

. Camb. outcome of the second conflict is The Erinyes need not have been appeased. as Aeschylus calls her. for the pitiless hunt of the Erinyes. Verrall. B.. and the dissipation of the bad venom of the Erinyes by Athena's power of persuasion. as we know from Prometheus Bound. and quoted by Dr. 1 That. alike show the working of the law of Zeus. 6. Aes. defeated ' first conflict expressly cites the authority of (kovttw tls el?>e ' No one could be fore- Zeus . and as ever yet. THE "EUMENIDES" OF AESCHYLUS That 3. but that (b) the not to be so easily assumed. a daughter peculiarly his own. * though Apollo and Athena appoint the and Eur. 5& tqvs Taur.. the son of Zeus and his 7rpo<f>^Trj<i. ov /cot' 1<tx^ v °^^ ""P^s rd Kaprepbv xpeLy. kinship .. B. should uphold the father-claim thus associated with Zeus and that the Erinyes. S6Xip .. 514). El. saw Zeus Zrjvd 7rov vtKw/xevov) . Prael. and Athena. 90). 970. that it is natural that Apollo.. under which mothera son's to his 4. with its corollary of father-right. it on two rests : Which is the closer bond. trial 214-5. for Apollo Eteocles says (Sep. not violence.. 1906. and regarded as the institutor of marriage. a wife's to a husband or is mother ? That we have here in opposition the newer law of Zeus. Cf. That (a) the outcome of the seen. a son's to his father or a son's to his mother (6) 103 Which ? the closer bond. 2 7. I think. P. ws inrepax^Tai Kpardv. akin to the Earth-mother the All-mother. versions it seems that they were not. of Delphic religion And upon a more primitive that this procedure of Apollo and Athena. (-n-a/x/x^Twp. And right prevailed. marks the advance mode of thought. who is father of gods and men. Eur. that wit and reason should be the ruling principle. 5. p.. P.. mother-claim. primeval chthonic powers. in the and is conflict first the question turns solely on probably reminiscent of a transition period from mother-right to father-right considerations (a) and that . which is. should uphold the older. where each side can be heard and a deed of blood may be condoned by reason of extenuating circumstances. 1 According to some That the actual substitution of a trial. 92.. Iph. and the older law that preceded this stabler marriage law.

true. In direct opposition to Apollo blood-tie of a son to his and that a his father.' ' By your By my ' oracle. 2. failing obedience. the spilling of kindred- The mother-murder was an act of faith Apollo's word that stands to be condemned or blood (Cho. they are only instruments of Zeus. and ye younger gods. For I persuaded mother yap KTavetv a' e7T€Laa fj. And. rules and reconciles. It recurs so often we have for example. who. The competing points of view are plainly set out more than once. divinities grown grey (vcos Se ypcuas SaCfiova% Kadnnrdab)) Eum. very penalties.: THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 104 Athena wins the Erinyes.. clear is his alone. 'Thy youth hath ridden us down. Cho. threatened sickness and exile. It is hardly necessary to by quotation the antithesis of Old and New. in which attend the fact. he obeyed if but . ' ' . for the this is so is full responsi- ' You are wholly and singly responsible (uAA' els to rrav £7rpa£a? 7ravamos). tov That the Erinyes are here specialised as mother-avengers is clear from the line taken in the prosecution. in his curias kciktJs.' oracle. . It is The justified. 150.rjTp<Zov ( xal which assumption is fully endorsed by the Erinyes bility for the cleansing of Orestes you to kill your 8e/i.. 1030). here as elsewhere. ye have ridden down establish : — ' ' the ancient laws — 778-9 (iw deol vturrepoi 7raA. he had simply obeyed the god who bade him kill his mother to avenge his father. begins it is dilemma he had had but one motive to do the right. mother is they maintain that the than that of a son to closer blood-tie between husband and wife is non-existent. deed ' ' ' themselves at line 200.atm>s vo/aous KaOnnrdcracrOt) ' and the references to Apollo tricking the Moipai (the Fates). mother. Orestes.as. 1. (1) In the dialogue between Apollo and the Erinyes in temple. his own judgment failing him. in God. 84). 1. and so on. That which Apollo assumes the responsibility from the way in and his trial. and promised him he should be quit of blame (cktos the defence.' his you bade him kill his Apollo replies. 269-97). I bade him exact they say.. the pursuit of the Erinyes. To turn now to the play itself. which is based solely on degree of affinity. In regard to the But first conflict. 3.

. Trap' /cat ovSiv rjvtjtru "Hpas reXdas Kal Aids maTw/xaTa. beware thy mother's the Choephoroi.. — true reading —instead of the p. yiyverai t& <pl\r conducted by Athena at preliminary enquiry the ar a (213-6). He appeals to the sanctity of marriage. as she stands face to face with Orestes. Apollo on the other hand argues that marriage constitutes the closest bond of all. dv yevoiO' o/zaipos ( ovk of kindred -blood by kindred . dishonour by this argument. refuse to admit the claim of the murdered husband for vengeance for spilt kindred-blood. Kuirpts bdev (2) At 8' dVt/*os rcpS' dirippiTrTai \6ytf.T?Tpa\oias of 210.O'L drive so Orestes. dear father's death TTOIVOA. < — 202—3. ' Trapeis rdoe . if I (pv\a£ai firjrpos lyKorovi nvvas.) —211. joys their dearest and Cypris too Teleia. Orestes mother to avenge T6KOWaV And to be the slayer of his ^two-aTo) . cXavvo/icv). ' Dishonoured and of no account you make the troth-plight of Zeus and Hera nearest and <pl\TOLTa.THE "EUMENIDES" OF AESCHYLUS vengeance for his father tov Trotvas expytra Erinyes define their their even ( Ixp^o-as she be a husband-slayer voacpta-ij. and the binding character of the Cyprian. 1. and his ' And how leave this thing undone ras tov 7raTpos Se ? 7ru>s (pvyu>. ' angry hounds. . my shall I escape father's. 77 Kapr' ArifJia. symbolised by the mystic marriage of Zeus and Hera.' they say he thought fojTpos ' slew I TTjV fit my 14 (3) — 425. from ' ( whom come is to cast into men their Dr. This is quite in the spirit of the Suppliants.' said by Klytaimnestra. ' ? M &vov ^ OT£ T0V At T P OKTOV " v ' 210 the drive mother-slayers from We ' office. (opa. ri ydp. ywaucos ^rts aVSpa a primitive conception of The answer reveals That would not be a spilling marriage that implies no bond. the Chorus once more deny the blood- . ) 7rpa£ai (tons /x^TpaWas Ik So/xwv homes' if ' 7r<rrpos 105 ( line 'What. 924-5. These Erinyes. Athens the Erinyes again define their office using the general term /JporoxTovovvTas (421) but this time . if CIVTIKTOVOIS at the trial my —and mother repeats ' that be the ' We (<poveis Apollo's (plkr&TOV yap ' for elvai argument.) — 212.) — CflO. TTCLTpOS) ' (e/crciva 464— 5. homicides from their homes. specialised their in capacity. flpoTOtcrt. which was freely admitted in Compare the Take heed.hands ' ' avdfvrrjs <t>6vo<. Headlam's translation of 216).

According to Dr. — 738. c/. constitutes the defence. And when the Erinyes press him hard. says the dead reproach her for the murder of Agamemnon but no spirit is angry for her sake. 4. Eum. as naturally take the mother's. with a side-appeal to the Athena Athens. THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 106 relationship oyu. i. and Athena. If The votes the votes are are equal. and he a king. and ovk ? /iT/rpos ' rjv Orestes asks. Where father and mother claims conflict. was too big a thing for any man to think to judge it nor might she. Aea. note on 658. Tranal. an act that avenged the father's death without thought of what was due to the mother. you disown the alfxa man And am Klytaimnestra and the of <£wtos ov KareVravcv (605) <j>l\to. though she died by her sideration that by his wife's own child's There is hand. At 1.) — 606. citing Athena. The claim of the father So And has prevailed. no other argument. it is Apollo.) she slew I. by her vote Orestes is acquitted. tense is the crisis. who had Zeus for father. tor which he quotes Diod. she is wholly on the the discussion. hers will be cast for acquittal. Like him. an Egyptian doctrine.' {a-mv-^i- ' Do a^toos 216. Sic.tov ? ' (cyw 8e The Furies are aghast — 608. But in this case there is a At line 470 Athena said direct mandate from Zeus himself. and by guile (625-30). he maintains on obsolete physical grounds that fatherhood counts for more than motherhood in procreation. that comes to prick on the sleeping Furies. 80. chthonic deities akin to the Earth-mother. and hand too.. which gets a curious backing from the underworld. closes Enough has been said. the daughter natural for that had no mother. so hard the apportionment of claims. tt}s c'/xt)? at such impiety. so she cannot refuse him and yet.. instance of father's side ' ' (Kapra 8' el/xl to£) irarpos) equal. to take the father's side. if the Erinyes are this — . Headlam. son of Zeus. self-interest of This. 1 . while the Erinyes. the blood-relation of ray mother lv al'/xaTt .100 Klytaimnestra's ghost. 1 He denies to motherhood the very function and name of parent.ai/105 ' ' . by the conApollo justifies it is worse for a man to die. but no mother. For Orestes is her suppliant. She catches up Apollo's her own birth. closest tie of mother-blood . This is the standpoint of Olympian Apollo.

I recognise that Professor Ridgeway's 2 contention that this was that Dr..' as he does in his introduction to his edition of the Eum. | to vfjbfji' — 61 5-2 pXv SiVatov €7no-7reo~#ai is woman and I tov0'. ' anything am a prophet. Zeus' word the verdict to expect.. Introd. Verrall can say. it To me her vote seems of the very essence of seems quite in keeping with the religious fundamental issue should after of Aeschylus that this spirit all be taken out of the jurisdiction of men. and knew that he spoke the He said. . father of the Olympians. if/eva-op-ai. | o Opovois. ov 7roAea)s jriwv Trar-qp.. Frazer and Professor still ' a burning question W. even of the best of them. I opKo% yap ovtl Zryvos j3ov\rj icrxvei 1 After that her way was clear. Verrall's warnings x against attributing to Aeschylus a knowledge of origins that he had not got. did not have you know how weighty my obey (fidvTis Father's wv 8' ov For an oath will. p. is will of Zeus. this claim. casting vote heard Apollo's plea. and left in I lay to the hand of God. 107 King of fact. (p. ov-trw-nor | ovk dvSpos. they will blight the land. that 'Athena decides upon a Cambridge Praelections. command. heart Dr. Verrall. I KeXtucrat Zeis 'OXvp. is now more Olympian than decides.a6elv. 1906.. and I on my prophetic seat. 1906. p. once the local Kop^. I or of city. nor she. as he does in p.avTiKolo~w iv irepi. dilemma It is the And. xxi and is not proven. varpos. And indeed later on (797) she herself explicitly refers the victory to Zeus when she reminds And the baffled Furies that the testimony was from him. Pelasgos in the Suppliants (S. it. I know Ridgeway know a great deal more than ever Aeschylus did of father-right and mother-right. I shall not man of or that Zeus. I would I not mightier than Zeus' 6o~ov | say charge you cIttov p. composed of the best of the burgesses (487). Never did lie. the Olympians. 8 Camb. 90. ' in fifth-century Eum. ov yuvaiKos. 158. The judges' votes are was determined only after she had as president of the court. xxviii). 1 A. do not understand how Dr. or how he can call Athena's vote ' essentially accidental.- /jlt] o~8evu p. neither her court. the play and . Prael. as a 472-9). 8' jrupavo-KiD rrXiov) 5. casual preference ' . THE " EUMENIDES " OF AESCHYLUS beaten. audience must have known what Athena. xlvi. Athens p. decided Her equal..

aspect of these old-world divinities. We turn now to the second conflict. ttio-to. rt 8pacru) ' And Cho. And as mother -avengers. the rival claims are there. of the vorcpoVoivov by Zeus on the transgressor and of the 1 of the law of curse-spirit (dAaorwp) of the race. that this case is argued. it I to scruple to kill al&ecrOu) /x^Tep' . His father was confounded by the instinctive appeal instinct of loyalty to his ties dead of the mother- tie. viewed from the standpoints of the old order and the new respectively. But the fact remains. Trv96)(pr}(TTa. for the May not the split votes of the judges.— THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 108 me. as it appears to as Professor Ridgeway indicated. men ) . t ' (ttov in equal again the votes of numbers. whose - . . who shift their character with bewildering rapidity. Camb. had presented equal claims. oracles of Loxias in time to have he gives (IIiAaS^. 589) sent hospitality . 1906.. Against the plea that has behind it the sanction of Zeus. that. Orestes hesitates in an moment of doubt. they were bound to go under the But that is not the only existing social and religious system. 1 and was but dimly conscious of a basis in historic fact for rival claims in law of father and of mother. as Sophocles did in his Electra. 899.. Already in the Agamemnon we have heard 'Epivvv {Ag. Si] tvopKMjiara . 1 6. i)(6pov% Ttov 6(wv rjyov nXiov) —Cho. As implacable blood-suckers. where the mother's claim conflicts with the father's. on the basis of affinity. Even if Aeschylus was walking by tradition only (though in face of the Suppliants this seems hard to believe). Xoi7ra a7rairas 900—2.. indicate that here is recorded the parting of the ways between the old law and the new ? father. and of nothing else. Pratl. the Erinyes were bound to go before the newer law of Delphi. ' mother ? what shall I men all do Pylades answers. but the word of And now ktovuv then becomes of the your enemies than the gods Aoftov pavreutiaTa At the agony are cast this God was way and But Olympus stands undivided clear. Orestes boggled at the choice. it its full weight. He does not even belittle critical my Pylades.. that take no heed of circumstance. Better ? to. ' Am ? What come and his sure pledges | to. which Aeschylus never ignores. he sets To Orestes the two the tradition of immemorial custom. only half of whom were swayed by Zeus' word. of the Choephoroi.

). So are the two threads interwoven. and so we are prepared beauty of the close. the embodied Erinys of his father.THE "EUMENIDES" OF AESCHYLUS mere embodiment Klytaimnestra claimed when she to be we have seen killed In the Choe- her husband for her dead child's sake (Ag. phoroi 109 Orestes and Electra evoking their father's Erinys in that strange. in the this first No State Athena knows. though they are not expressly . as Miss Jane Harrison of Greek Religion (ch. in her Prolegomena to the Study the identification of the Erinyes (angry ones) with the Semnai (the dread goddesses). could dispense with them and In her it of the sanctity of family life first prosper. showed v. father or mother as As guardians — —they must stranger doing may be. after whom the play gets its title. in the Eumenides. they felt the beginning of the end. whose action wakes to And fury the hell-hounds of his mother (Cho. who had a cult on the Areopagus. and the Eumenides (kindly ones). and to blast the growth man or beast or field. Orestes is himself. For. primitive scene where they lash the angry ghost to action at the tomb. she had counselled the citizens to honour neither a lawless nor a despot-ridden rule. part of the play (696-9). though now they threaten the land with blight and ruin. as the rugged majesty of the Erinyes for the shows through their monstrous forms. not have been foreseen.. when. whether of 5 (6). with the institution of the court and the possibility of the sinner's escape from doom. 924-5). as the Chorus burst into song at sight of Orestes crouching at Athena's shrine. and protested against the upheaval of the old order (490-565). and to give it increase. sooner or later. 1501). And speech to the court. nor yet to cast out Fear wholly from the land. And here the end could of wholesome life.. It is Athena's turn now. punishes wrongat all cost be retained for Athens. as it were. and of the helpless servants of Zeus who. and in their awful binding hymn. they avow themselves the punishers of wrong done to god or guest or parent. Her task is to win these great Earth-powers to keep watch and ward over the city's morals. For what man that hath no fear is just ? In this she had but echoed the very phrases of the great song of the Erinyes earlier still. compelling admiration as well as awe.

6. I learn from the article on 7m#« in Roscher's Lexicon. Aeschylus was calls her the daughter of Aphrodite (with and in fact associated in cult in art). winning Persuasion simply In the Suppliants whom she their nothing is ptraKotvoi 8e <pi\a fiarpl irdpeicnv TfXeOei OiXnTopi irtiOol) | — \ Slip. * Rise of Ok.. 1 simply a vision born of the creative thought of Aeschylus. . 1906. with true. Aeschylus. p.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 110 named. with will to reconcile. that by the fifth century 7rei0w was regularly contrasted with fica and dvdyKt]. Ill. 265.^> ' ( ovh\v awapvov whom And companying dear mother (Aphrodite) are Desire and she to denied. is towards the purpose of the God of the the consummation of the Trilogy. lays a man open to wddd) Contrast the fact that there was at Athens a local cult of Proin conjunction with Hephaistos. 447.v6ol (81) 2 which Apollo had from the very first indicated to Orestes as the saving means. defined by Professor barriers that would restrain with cuow? in him. 3 Cf. He pays back was not trial own the Erinyes in their Athena to show to the full the compelling force of 0eA.. that which passes all vfipis. Her persuasion coin. Headlam 6 showed. Sup. Titanic handling of sin and punishment.. It is touched to quickness by the If the trial. 1 metheus K Camb.a. its was more in accord with the law of Zeus (that reason should be the ruling principle. ' 7ro0os t <C. ordered speech before the Sucaorai. Herodotus. which may well have helped to determine the mode of working out the reconciliation of Zeus and Prometheus in the last play of that Trilogy. 1038-40. as Dr. viii. not force) than the relentless pursuit of the Erinyes. Pracl.' This. 3 both in things politic and She in love. It is left to of the divinities of the old order to renounce their antagonism.KT?7pioi /j. has himself to thank in part for his undoing He too. who in turn falls for Murray a man 4 as the most part through ' In the becomes the victim. yet the bearing of Apollo at the exactly conciliatory. in part the abstract quality of winning speech. was not something that really happened at Athens. quoted by Roscher. it is Agamemnon. is in part a goddess. (all but Orestes). its knows a sinister irei6d> the avenger in the blood-feud. Ep. 3 Cf.. and incline their hearts new.

too. 7m0io Aeschylus calk this (Ag. avrov Set) — 829. bless the land with recalling their dyvov «tti the words Belike you will charm me.1 fjieiXtyfia ovv /acvois dv) . force. The trial resulted fairly in equal votes. trial. own my why. To the first hot outburst of the Erinyes. : ' ' ( Again she says. while Athena. When Persuasion has done her work. ' (ovk Iot' art/Aot). stay here —885—7. 385). 6e\KT7]piov) . x ar-q But. They Nay. to thy dishonour (794-6). as in the 1 8 ptarat 5' r) rdXon'O Aavatdes frag. and the Erinyes consent to lay aside their anger and accept a home and worship on the Areopagus. tra. Ye are not beaten. on And me ' to they consent to be soothed increase. are not dishonoured But there is no need Be thou persuaded' (av She holds the keys. . their curb 7. She has respect for their age. and on the lips She Hypermnes- epws 2 that justifies it is of Aphrodite that wins her case. last .. not The testimony was of Zeus (797). She proffers a dwelling-place in the land. — ' Ye She hints at 824. that of 8' tin (aW eiOrjs oi8kv ifioi). ' She could use the thunder of Zeus. And then at make tentative el hymn. in of the binding evil-doing.rj<. They shall curse.THE "EUMENIDES" OF AESCHYLUS 111 (Temptation) or to cpws (Passion). \ irpopouXou 7rcus &<pepros tfras. then.6t n lO e o. Prometheus' word) have robbed me of mine ancient honours (845-7). This brings tongue begin to tell. have part in the marriage rites (835). But again they The cunning tricks of the gods (SoAot. Trei6u And to arrj (Ruin). citizens.' and to /xiv the charm and soothing of o-e/8as). ireidd). as in the Danaides. so here too ireidw on Athena's lips pelling violence. enquiries. if curse again but Athena will not tire of well-speaking. ' I .6 1 ) not to take it so sorely. glorifies words the power of Persuasion has had her perfect work. my last point. Here. the daughter of a divine instrument of peace. ' ko. The Chorus At 900 we have dik£nv p eoixas.. Athena's answer is Be persuaded of me ifj. dis- is is the final way vindication of the of Zeus. the victory belongs to Zeus. But Athena's courtesy is unshaken. Athena claims no triumph. ' ' ' : Persuasion o-oi 7r c 6ov 1 (y\(i)(ro-7)s (trw 8' is a thing sacred in your eyes (dAA' s i/j. which leads him on to fresh and so vf3pt<. and honour from her This is met with the same outburst.

" Mr. it is clear that some two or three hundred years later it came to be considered an entirely non-Greek custom. whatever may have been the view of that of the Couvade. dAA' 8' ofx/xara TrtiOov.C. If you read Apollonius Rhodius. Professor Postgate having vacated the chair.. the last words link the names of Zeus and Fate. one point I should like to mention. Zeus has triumphed. Zeus who conquers. evidenced by the peculiar custom Now. — 970—1—3. found in South America.— THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 112 am glad at the eyes of Persuasion that look upon and my guide them. not by dispossessing the Fates and the by walking with them in the way of peace. custom in the fifth century B. Zeus who reconciles. . 623-4. but " Mr. | otVw — 1045-6.) and Fate have irav6ina.<. iKpa. you will find a passage in which there is a clear reference to the custom among the Tibareni as a curiosity and mark It is heard of also in Corsica. as is well known." Furies. Any comments of mine would sound like howling after music' ' I shall therefore confine myself to proposing a sincere vote of thanks to Miss Case for her lucid exposition of the complicated and not always consistent doctrines lent Goddesses." The Vote of Thanks was carried by acclamation.T7](Tf x It is still | Zcvs dyopaio?) on /uoi my tongue God of Elothat won the Zeus. lips to . however.T€J3a. and has been of barbarism. Professor Postgate read a paper on " The Truth about i Of. Book II. it was taken by Professor Conway. Glynn Williams. R. and therefore I have feel it would be presumption on my part to criticise Miss Case's There is. And as the great procession leaves the stage. C. . ' Zeus All -seeing <o> joined to bring this thing about' (Zeus fiolpd Tf <TvyKa. —" no special knowledge of the Eumenides. . Headlam's translation of dyopatos) fight' (crTtpyd) .. .. in proposing a Vote of Thanks. the it is yXwarcrav kclI arofx iiraiiro. . but quence (Dr. Seaton seconded the Vote of Thanks. The former is. lecture.' in and of Aeschylus in the for the fascinating ' Benevo- and arresting phraseology which that exposition was couched. Sup. the curious question of the Mother-right and the Father-right. said.

experience what not already taught really think that the gymnastic.' The argument. and is an old mode of locomotion. value Exon of a subject see but has is discipline. he says (p. and indeed without follows. generalise. or disciplinary.' gymnastic. propounds a thesis which may be set out as follows. Does ? Apply the principle elsewhere. prevalent rather in Germany and other countries than in this. as he seemingly prefers to call Here he ventures to value.' ' besides Latin . This a plain issue. and also separately issued.LATIN PROSE 113 Latin Prose. and should be abolished. at. taking phrases from Professor Hardie of Edinburgh. himself to the argument that applies first provides a valuable mental discipline. for the liver.' or. earlier stages of but the one aimed is defensible and should be retained and not mere grammatical accuracy. I am says.' he And traditional. iii. vol. aviation a good its same may be said a considerable. new it must be gravely suspected subjects to the curriculum is to be questioned. . and I shall endeavour to is same quality exhibit the Exon Professor Latin Prose Composition that an it has a ascetic ' ' ' in discussing ' it. " Professor Exon. Equestrianism one.' of the reply. No. 11." in which the conclusions of an article by Professor Charles Exon of Galway. it has never been advanced . : only as a reason for retaining No mental ' Mr. in which. Of the two different ways in which Latin Prose composition has been cultivated. Horse-riding has generally been held to be Why not question the validity of this plea for horse-riding on the ground that for aeroplaning ? 15 value as a provider can be estimated without some. discussions on education unsoundness. is subject that ever examined with a view to testing of of radical appealed to as a reason for adding It is never certain subjects the teaching of which come it. afraid the new ' though sincere is not quite serious. the one. were examined. literary qualities are is not defensible. which treats it merely as a means of enforcing an exact knowledge of syntactical rules in the Latin study. 4 of the reprint) to other subjects but wherever and whenever we meet with it in ' It is applied. plainly put. published in the Irish Educational Review for 1910. as in this country.

' of all defences of importance by modern languages and literatures. though miscalled accurate. These it shares at any rate with indirectness. paragraph Professor Exon betrays a sense of The least admirable. as I have read somewhere. Not a few present will bear me out when I say that an exercise in Latin Prose is often at the same time But I agree with Mr. and I should cite in illustration the case of John Bright. was innocent of both Latin and Greek. In his next ' irritation. who. he most highly developed modern languages. 4 eq. there is no better way of learning to write a language than by writing it. beyond dispute. Let us leave to the gladiators of the it political arena. Darnley Naylor's complaint (in his admirable little book Latin and English Idiom) against many of the current versions of the Greek and Latin Classics. I do not suppose that any one would claim more than that the close attention to the original.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 114 Professor Exon next alleges that Latin Prose is now a sur- had a practical use. Exon Professor traverses the confers the power of writing good English. Exon when he suggests (p. substance assent. But the explanation is not so simple as our feeling for its style ' Professor Exon supposes. and expression. In a well-known manual 1 we read that the chief faults of English are " looseness.' transference of an issue from the arguments for and against a policy to the motives of its supporters and opponents is a vival from times in which it ' familiar irrelevance. and that its This practice is really kept alive by conservative feeling. pp. . Exon that a lesson in English literature. sharpens and clarifies which the effort of rendering it involves. But we have again to join issue with Mr. This accusation. I believe. That this it does.' he writes. as we shall presently see. and this to an extent that he is reported to have said that the translation of the dialogues of Plato by Jowett was a greater feat than the writing of the original. 6) that devotion to Latin must injure our English by encouraging that bald and wooden. That these faults exist is undoubted. is." Latin Prose is that which seeks to exalt its belittling ' 1 The quotation is from Sermo Latinus. which is the burthen of Professor H. and inconsistency.' style of translating. now with Grappling contention that it we may in To this details.

' ofltcium (p.' and so on contemnis ' ' duty or Here Professor Exon himself discriminates affect to despise. abite .' 115 ' accurately reflects their indifference to fine dis- and he seeks show to by this citing instances in which the analysis of a thought in expression is not pushed as far in admiratur means he admires or Latin as it is in English ' ' : ' he expresses admiration for. but here is the present for the future in dependent sentences an example of a different kind.' mendabit' and the distinction in Cicero's tenses between present and future recommendations is obliterated in the English renTurn to persons. of these failings in our native tongue that frequent lack of precision was notorious. It is for accurate expression not that English the trouble : is is that is an late Sir its to amdraw destitute of resources it does not use what machinery for expressing time in verbs is far more but is it employed complete than that of either Latin or Greek I need say nothing of the well-known misuse of consistently ? it has. Is not the merging of the singular dering. is to prove of the not He Romans tinctions. and the plural of the second personal pronoun under a single form (you) a serious defect ? Look at the confusion which it commend him to you . 7). In an idiomatic version of a . to these fine distinctions .' you despise or you sense of duty. The John Seeley once observed to me in conversation that biguity was so great as to make it a most difficult thing a treaty in English.' and adds that no serious attempt is made goes on to urge per contra that the language ' true. ask the official draftsmen of our laws if Ask our English unambiguous language. sessum. 706 sq. letter of Cicero we read ' : Therefore own I shall much not so as re- recommendation But the Latin is ne commendo quidem and comenough.' it. But it is with no small astonishment I learn that the existence I had thought is denied. Vos in ' Exi aram natum quantumst hominun sacrilegissime.' And what are we to say for he and e fano. Its . and hear what they say.LATIN PROSE ' says. The reproach of indifference should be reserved ' ' for languages which possess fine distinctions and yet neglect to observe them. its judges. but their language had not reached the stage in which they are fully developed. his ' arrival will be ' ' introduces into the translation of passages like Plantus' Rudens. The Romans were not ' ' ' indifferent ' ' ' insufficiently.

Latin reported speech ? but most it is not and sometimes im- difficult. When she might have gone free. and this in Latin would be shown by But the English phrasing gives no clue. considered as language." that he means plaintiff. and why he had come to be in this place. The room was still a prison. not accept his state- should not accept the statement. to discover often . A Gentleman of France. I claim that. and have never had a pupil who translated it correctly.) . postulating given us to express our thoughts. I draw attention that language is to the last two sentences. who has exerted an enormous. and not wholly upon subsequent English Sedgemoor of writing. There was a similar causeway across the Langmoor Rhine but the guide in the fog missed his way. where a the writer passes from narration of occurrences into a description of the actor's reflections ' The passage runs upon them.' (Stanley Weyman.' ' . G. in which it is possible. Another part of the indictment may be illustrated from a of the onlooker a change of mood. a prison with broken mortar covering the floor and loopholes for windows but the captive was held by other chains than those of force. and. I felt unmanly tears rise to my eyes. this they fail to do— that one of the chief . is Lord Macaulay. passage in a novel of Mr. beneficial. surviving all that he had done to kill it. I passage of English which has been admirably rendered into The author Latin by Professor J. as follows : and remembering how he had treated her. her woman's love. influence and the subject is the battle : The horse and foot in a long narrow column passed the Black Ditch by a causeway. The words from ' The room was still a prison ' to the end of the extract are not a description of the scene. Frazer. and whose statement should he not accept a perfect should of expression English. chained her to his side with fetters which old wrongs and present danger were powerless to break. but the thoughts upon it. Looking on him and her.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 116 they ' ? Addressing the magistrate and referring to the the defendant " said Who : ment. Stanley is far superior to that of I recall Weyman. where a report begins or ends.

— LATIN PROSE ideas 117 without expression. English right. The mouse ran up the clock.' Or you can say. traiciunt. . .' Why tell us that he ' rode ' Was ? his Grace of Monmouth had he but just The clock struck eleven. dock. Take another example. cui Nigrae nomen. dickory. but the was a similar causeway across the Langmoor Rhine guide in the fog missed his way.'' But you cannot contrast an aberration and a causeway. Frazer applies the method of Latin to set the features of the country You can say ' ' if ' ' ' .' How do you know that. hour of an army's march to battle through bewildering darkness a proper occasion to describe what were. or have you contemporary evidence that its striking gear was in order ? But perhaps you would imply that the strokes of the clock started the Duke on his march ? Dickory. ! ' ' : cum delectorum manu ex arce proficiscitur / and own that in his Latin you have a more pertinent and dignified Caecina representation of a general's departure for a battle. the salient And what is the meaning of the but ? ? you like. . than its dis- inclination to call anything. about which it by the is talking.' Suppose there was. earlier in the same piece. dickory. Dickory. cum. There is no tendency of English more noticeable. or acquired a horse ? ' ' . aggere restabat altera aggere et ipsa traicienda. The ditch (Rhine is a local word for ditch. ' iamque Alteram ex fossis.' as Macaulay leaves you to guess if you can) was there. They had to cross a but the guide missed second ditch by another causeway his icay. to what Dr. Frazer makes of your English secunda uigilia in the habit of trudging afoot to the field. that the rest of the passage is left is and that two statements which in themselves have nothing to do with There each other are irrelevantly and incoherently contrasted. Is the burdened with the weight of carrying implication.' etc. but it was invisible. its ' . my Lord Macaulay ? Were you there. or were not. and the Duke with body- his guard rode out of the Castle. or less in accordance with any ideal of linguistic expression. sir. Now see how Dr. dock Now listen. which will and futility engendered by our national weakness for picturesque expression illustrate the irrelevance ' ' ' The clock struck : eleven. The clock struck one and the mouse was gone.

' this in whole endeavour to recommend the study of Latin and Greek by deprecating the great modern languages is utterly futile. madam. press.' . same word unless the is with hardly an exception I trust that I The argument my translators chose to vary have shown that there criticisms directed against English as a But Professor Exon. of Plato or Demosthenes a much better medium for expressing his ideas than the Chinook or Arunta of Mr. even when that repetition is demanded by the sense. and expanding 8) (p. — as All languages are they normally do their speakers — equally wants to express. but it. is speakers as closely as the skin equally perfect well if fits they express what the average man among There is the body. Exon) he were a merchant of furs. can be assailed.' Before a proposition of this kind I know I sit no engine of reason by which of down it in stupefaction. I might have argued that a modern Englishman would find the Greek. Of the mischief which it works I have had a notable example in the past term. For this there appear to be two reasons the defect in English pronouns. Exon. only between The language fits the average mind of its native civilisations. no other criterion or standard by which we can estimate the excellence of a language. on the question whether the dead were miserable. on which I have already touched. and particularly of the sporting. for the of expression. skins. There no legitimate comparison between languages. and a purely sensuous or physical repugnance to the repetition of the same sound. but to substitute for this some other title or description more or less inapplicable. was set to our Intermediate students. ' that his sealskins were not so good Pardon You must me . say. you must not compare the only compare the seals. and I must confine myself to the civilisations from which the languages are It is as though (to use the metaphor introduced here by Mr. a customer who observed as they used to be. But I am forbidden this comparison of languages. and should reply to indivisible. — A perfectly clear piece of argumentation from the beginning of the Tusculans. declares .THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 118 same name the second time that it called it by the first. waxing generalisation he as is vitiated kept to render miser throughout good reason is medium in animation proceeds. The tendency may be seen at riot in the columns of the daily.

Nor. Further. and that Latin and wrote I On the think too first count much time I is agree with often spent would be well if our students read more The amount got through nowadays at appears to be less than it was. again. Nor would I maintain that the results are altogether satisfactory. those chosen are often too hard. Free Compo- is. as Prose with ease and accuracy. Having thus got rid of the alleged advantages of Latin Prose by classing them as doubtful.' him. and in this I include speaking Latin as well From the first I than there theory at ' least. ' ' 'the average student does not write Latin effect its object. wrought its name. It is and from it. and at the end it fails to ' . in other words.' Professor Exon next considers or. of the idiomatic character to which Mr. school and college Prose composition. should translation into Latin be confined to passages of These should be interspersed with renderings English authors. in that are The study of the ancient literatures and civilisations is hindered and impoverished through its means. should be as near as possible in matter and spirit to what the students are at work on at the time. and our Latin it less. In the present session I have been struck by the preference which the students in my Intermediate class showed for pieces based on the Livy which they were reading over others which had no such connexion. there should be from the beginning more sition ' as writing it. to this extent that upon it. But this I ascribe to the teaching rather than to the subject. in more than forty years this . the exercises set for Latin composition recommend. . as well as the rest of our work. at least to But the matter in certain cases. I think monument it of ancient genius does. and too few of them deal with concrete subjects and actual everyday in which it civilisation is life. Yet it is just these easiest to realise the differences of the Roman from our own most vividly and substantially. and relatively but of small importance. In the first place there are too many passages of English set.LATIN PROSE The ' aesthetic argument ' is and it. suffers thereby. is Exon Professor tackled next. I have held have never swerved. appears to deny that to imitate a helps us to appreciate 119 some extent debatable. Naylor's book is written Again. the mischiefs the price that is paid for them He finds that these are two. I will indicate some points in which improvement is possible.

' ' — it In affords comparatively little a composer is left to his free scope for that individuality which it even the rendering of set passages cannot altogether destroy. is This cannot one reason why fail to handicap him. no doubt. own resources.' we have surely obtained a result which was worth some sacrifice. of or Livy. language accordingly to the knowledge own thoughts in it. well-chosen piece for translation into Latin Prose forms a perfectly definite test. Translation of set from the curriculum. and as fair a one as can be found. Nor am I greatly disturbed by the apprehension that for much what we may want to say there will be no warrant in Cicero For me the crucial question is not Did Cicero or Livy write thus and thus ? but Would they or their contemporaries have written thus and thus. and by an illogical consequence none in our teaching system either. as all know who have studied the ' fair copies ledged masters of classical composition. and but a minor matter to make it the vehicle of other people's. but nothing to say on the cannot be said of a theme or an essay. had they been writing Latin now ? If we feel we can answer Yes. Cambridge. ' ' ' ' It for may be urged further in favour of free composition that two of the most patent painful hunting inappropriate ' up tips ' of and conceits opportunity or encouragement. . passages cannot. and he has — methods the and the dragging in of faults of our present equivalents. and make it useful in examination.' THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 120 since I proposed to a schoolfellow that homeward plodding through charms He of Latin conversation. but And stipulated that the language should be Greek. and set a subject for original composition at least once in a term. And this. amusement of the men in the street. Latin themes and essays have no place in our examinations. astonishment or the It is surely the chief use and prime test of a fair of a language to be able to express one's this in we discoursed upon our affairs. All ' of the homes acknowof Latin studies might do worse than follow the example of Trinity College. an excellent knowledge of subjects proposed. we should and dreary dirty beguile our streets with the assented to the principle. of course. This The candidate may have Latin. be excluded It has certain advantages of these are just the advantages which A its own.

This is what I would say upon Professor we that all tolerate Exon's German ideal. that Professor stitute. while nothing is to be written in it save and except for grammatical edification. From extent. is so hot in the defence of English. whether and the days lay or professional. 16 I wish it were as . I no sub- In the second place. there has been a great improvement in the style of classical translations. as I have pointed out elsewhere. As Professor would say at once yet a paradox within a paradox. It is not. Professor Exon says it does he writes of a faculty which he seemingly desires to discredit the power of distinguishing between the thought or disparage itself and the form of words in which it is for the moment clothed that it can be imparted as well by translation from Latin into of that for for — • — idiomatic English as by the reverse process. and that it is just because I am convinced that we. honours students is ' credit allotted experience that the English even scandalously bad. because it past'. Professor Naylor was paid to way the in which he and.' . But to Professor Exon Latin is really dead. I say does not discharge the function which it is substituted. For ages it has been held that if you would know a language you must know it from both sides that you must be able to compose as well as to read in it. And now we come place of Latin Prose. For only thus can a language be real and alive to you. its speakers. it.' and his interests paradoxical. are to our marrow a literary race that I hold it paradoxical to imagine any system whatever of teaching any language whatever in which form and style are bidden to stand aside. of the consider what he would put in the to my however. And accordingly composition has formed a part of every thorough linguistic curriculum. it is no because we have ' of Paley translators as a whole are Bohn substitute ' it Exon's already. — ' and the in it are those of the dissector But there Exon is osteologist. LATLX PROSE Throughout his 121 paper Professor Exon deals largely in the But there is surely no greater paradox than his main contention. and no to English style in translation. I that for literary potency and performance I regard the English language and literature as inferior only to the Greek. to some one might think that no regard talk. the in the first place. ' and Buckley and Accordingly substitute ' is say.' In comparatively recent times.

THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION

122

easy to reverse things as
is

this.

But the ascent

to the unfamiliar

something quite different from the descent to the familiar.

Professor

Exon may

prefer going downhill, but he

must not say

it

does the same for the muscles as going up.

is

here following, have not succeeded, as appears to me, in realising

Once more Professor Exon, and Professor Naylor,

whom

he

the very difficult conditions to which translation from the classics
is

subjected.

It is often, as I think, a far

harder thing to render

a piece of Latin into English satisfactorily than a similar piece

Why ?

of English into Latin.

I

have heard the answer,

'

Oh,

you can see the faults in your English, for you are an Englishman.
But you cannot see the faults in your Latin, because you are not
I doubt if those who use this argument are exactly
a Roman.'
aware what it involves. Our knowledge of Latin-into-English
and of English-into-Latin are not two things, but two sides of
the same thing, indissolubly connected and as impossible to
separate as the concavity and convexity of a hollow sphere. And
if our Latin translations from English be unsound, our English
translations from Latin will, from another side, be unsound too.
The real trouble lies elsewhere. It lies in some radical and
essential points of difference between Latin and English.
The
first is that English is a composite language with two vocabularies

;

but Latin

is

a simple language, having but one.

take an instance from the 1st book of Livy, ch. 12

'
:

I will

Romani

Sabinique in media conualle duorum montium redintegrant proe-

lium

;

sed res

Romana

erat superior.'

This might be translated,

The Romans and Sabines renewed the engagement in the valley
between the two hills but the fortune of Rome was in the ascenAnd maybe Professor Exon would be satisfied with this
dant.'
English and would not stick at the metaphor.
But if I
4

;

read the translation to a roomful of average working-men,

should expect some one to ask,

'

But,

I

say,

I

mister, where

In the Latin of Livy, however, there
was the ascendant ?
is not a single word which would not have been at once
intelligible to the youngest child and the humblest artisan in
the streets of Rome. The translation above, then, is convicted
of introducing an element of alien pretentiousness into a phrase
Now let us try the other tack
of simple and natural dignity.
But Rome (or what
and resort to the native vocabulary.
'

'

'

'

LATIN PROSE
was Rome

was the

'

')

the Latin

Romana

res

'

There

higher.'

we

understand, and yet

feel

that

it is

is

123
something that

inadequate.

erat superior,' but

can

all

It translates

does not correspond

it

Now, the translator from Latin into English is continually
harassed by having to make choice between these two strata in

to

it.

our language, but the translator into Latin

from

is free

all

such

embarrassment.
Again, English
language, and

practical purposes, a non-inflexional

for

is,

order of words

its

is

a part of its syntax,

and

so,

from grammatical necessity, invariable or variable, only to a very
slight extent.

medium

as a

the order

It

free

is

therefore, at a considerable disadvantage

is,

for translating

and can be

an inflexional language in which

Lastly, the differentiation of linguistic
carried

much

and emphasis.

freely used for grouping

expression has been

further in English than in Latin.

This

He

hindrance to the translator from English into Latin.
for example, that

concept of duty,'

may

has what I

'

a spirit of duty,'

may

all

call

the

be expressed by ofjicium
'

germinal officium

it.

shown elsewhere.

as I have

Ovid, Tristia III.

vii. 47,

'

passive

Latin

is

by what

'

writes, 'Ingenio

clear
is

verb comitor, and the

and

either

Professor

terse

;

but can

clumsy or

Exon

it

'

'

;

'

the

but when he

before him, he

is

analytical expressions
to grammatical forms,

repeat one example here.

I will

torque fruorqiie,' where the ablative
the

a regard for duty,'

by which of these
The same applies

often in sore perplexity

he had better render

'

no

is

knows,

is

tamen

ipse

meo comi-

constructed equally with

deponent

'

verb fruor.

The

be rendered in English except

false ?

has, I fear, left out of sight these stumbling-

blocks in the path of a conscientious translator from Latin or

Greek.
I

am

I

do not accuse him of recommending inaccuracy, and

demand that our English
make it. But his depreciation of
do harm by appearing to disparage the

wholly at one with him in the

should be as good as we can
'

accuracy

'

is likely

to

prime merit of a translation, which

is

that

it

should be, in the

highest sense, a faithful reproduction of the original.

My most

recent experiences of pass and honours students do not suggest

that they need incitement to pursue the primrose path of paraphrase.

months,

How
'

often have I

Your duty

is

had

to say to

to translate

what

them
is

in the past

few

before you into the

THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION

124

best English available.

You

broider your original.'

Let us by

are not entitled to alter or to
all

means continually

em-

insist

that translations shall be worthy representations both of the

form and
us not

of the substance of

fall

what we are translating

but

;

let

into the error of inferring that because the translation

bald and halting, the original has not been appreciated.

is

me

Let

conclude

with

a Cambridge anecdote.

A

college

lecturer once read aloud a fine passage of a classical author to
his lecture
cies.

room, dwelling with force and fervour on its excellenof the class came up to him afterwards, and said, It
'

But how do you translate it ?
I would not do it such an
said the lecturer.

a beautiful passage,

is
'

One

Translate
a

!

it

'

'

sir.

'

>

injury.

The Chairman.

— " Before

inviting discussion I

must express

the delight with which we have listened to Professor Postgate's
stimulating paper. We have often had the privilege of hearing
writers of distinction in their own branch of work, but we have

never been conscious of listening to one who was a more
complete master of the art of which he spoke. Indeed, in the

and of teaching others to write
the English-speaking world who
of
teacher
no
there can be

two arts

of writing Latin

it,

is

not a pupil of Dr. Postgate."
Professor

Hardie

said that he gladly responded to the invita-

tion to take part in the discussion.

that of a delegate from Scotland

;

His position was not only

he had been a member of the

first, though he had hitherto been unable
any meeting. When he first saw the title of
Professor Postgate's paper, he wondered whether it perhaps veiled
a still more scathing attack on Latin Prose than had been made

Association from the

to be present at

by Professor Exon

;

but he did not suspect Professor Postgate

of such

an attitude, and he rejoiced to

highly

humorous and

delightful

find that

it

was

in fact a

vindication of Latin

Prose.

Professor Exon's arguments had seemed to him altogether unconvincing. The question of " disciplinary " value was never

about any new subject which was surely untrue
no one would propose to introduce Chinese for its disciplinary
value alone which might be admitted. Therefore Latin Prose
should be ejected. But the disciplinary value of a subject was
raised, he said,

;

LATIN PROSE.

DISCUSSION

125

only one of several questions which might be asked about

whether it was old or new.
Professor Exon laid it down, on the authority

it,

of psychologists,

was unnatural to write a language if one did not speak
To say this was to draw too rigid a line of separation between
it.
things not really separate. Psychologists had been known to do
that before now. Extensive reading of a language seemed to
that

it

result naturally in

some attempt

ideas, in writing or possibly

to use

it

for the expression of

even in speech.

To exaggerate the

between speaking and writing led to the fallacious
"
belief that Latin was, in some real and important sense, a " dead
language. There were two things to be distinguished rather than
difference

four

— apprehending a language, whether read or heard, and using

whether in writing or speech.

it,

follow naturally from the

first.

It

And

the second seemed to

ought to follow without very

He was ready to concede to Professor Exon that
much time was sometimes spent over composition. If the
pupil said that it took him hours to hammer out a version, the

great effort.

too

remedy in the case

A

of junior pupils

was

to set

them

easier passages.

senior pupil could be advised to drop composition for a time,

whether verse or prose, and read several books of Virgil or Livy
before he attempted it again. To set an English passage for
composition was not the only resource.
guage could be elicited in various ways.

A

freer use of the lan-

Dr. Rouse had recently

method which he followed
and which appeared to be successful in the
hands of its inventor. Whether it could be prescribed for adoption
by all teachers was another question a teacher would be more
likely to use effectively a method which he had devised for
himself by the light of experience. Good results, he had found,
could be obtained by setting, for Latin comments, a group of
expounded to them

in Scotland the

at the Perse School,

;

passages bearing on recognisable incidents or personages of history or mythology. Sometimes the pupil mistook the allusion,

and wrote a good Latin note on the wrong thing. What was the
value to be assigned to a good Latin note on Tiberius Gracchus
But that was
if the passage was about the Emperor Tiberius ?
work
and when
be
made
to
could
a mere detail. The method
conditions
became
the
class,
by
a
written
such notes had been
;

favourable for using Latin orally in explanation or discussion.


THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION

126

Methods might vary, but he could not admit that, in the serious
and Professor Exon had proposed

study of any language

specially to dispense with composition for

was

in

it,

Honours students

it

either unnatural or inexpedient to require the pupil to write

one way or another.

Henry. " I think we should all be very grateful
indeed to Professor Postgate for his admirable paper. When a
Professor

away not only the
we should point out where the

distinguished philologist takes fright, and gives

outworks but the citadel as

well,

One argument urged is that a great deal of time
wasted on Latin Prose, and undoubtedly there is much truth
in the charge.
Compositions that are too difficult are set, and
fallacies arise.

is

we

are

more or

from the

less suffering

students to write Latin Prose too soon.

what seems

less at

If

we were

and

if

to keep students longer at simple narrative,

perhaps a great deal more would be attained.
his rather persuasive
'

ascetic

'

comparatively easy

we were content with
the beginning we should gain more in the

to write a simple narrative in Latin,

long run.

effort of trying to get

It is

Professor Exon, in

pamphlet, seems to despise altogether the

value of Latin Prose.

It is absolutely

incumbent upon

the teacher to point out the necessity of adequate attention on

the part of the student not simply to the words and the expression,

but to what

the fact.
if

I

lies

behind

to look from the expression to

;

do not know any

properly exercised, better in

discipline better

than that

Another point

its results.

;

is

or,

the

contrast between Latin and English, the structure of Latin and

the structure of English

;

the use of connecting particles, and

the logical relation between one sentence and the other.
teaching one has to point out the necessity of

first

In

finding the

pen to paper. The whole thing
has to be cast and recast by a method of thought the disciplinary
value of which is undeniable. These points Professor Exon overlogical structure before putting

looked.

I

think

we were

all

pleased

certainly

I

was

—that

Professor Postgate's paper dealt with this subject."

Miss Silcox, having been invited by the Chairman to say
something about the disciplinary effect of Latin prose, said.
" It is very cruel of Professor Conway to call upon me. Whilst
listening to the remarks of Professor Postgate, and agreeing as
to the enormous value of the subject, there has been running

he said for themselves. I do not think. entiate between those who will become skilful is how to differ- and those who The reading and writing of Latin is useful for is. throat muscles. is just my difficulty. such as never can be. But . much to be valued if girls can speak French with very correct idiom and pronunciation. Seaton. Walker. however. began from their nurseries to speak the language. The late Mr. these also —that scholars of old. That Mr. incurred in the teaching of French. in my mind DISCUSSION —the great waste an analogous subject 127 of time." Mr. more especially in Girls' Schools. is. to hear — an experienced psychologist. of course. because.LATIN PROSE. but in view of the If blemishes that are in evidence that does not satisfy fearful There everybody. I it When asked how he could defend had the advantage know he used of making boys think to keep boys three or four years doing nothing but Conditional Sentences in Greek and Latin. — " It by the Chairman to conis very good of Professor Postgate to give us such a valuable and interesting paper. were often thankful that they had undergone the afterwards they discipline. . where the curse of the subject lies. the former head master of the school in which I was engaged. R. Although at first the boys felt this was a toil. you can get extreme accuracy. That is. was pamphlet came . except in rare or exceptional cases. " I must express the pleasure I also have felt in hearing Professor Postgate's lecture. I think all this has great But girls who have no ear. or inadequate disciplinary value. invited tribute to the discussion. I have not. if you do not insist upon the most tremendous accuracy. it is of is the difficulty. the difficulty in Latin. others are unable to do the same they think they are without any knowledge at all. Latin Prose. had the advantage of reading Professor Exon's I and moreover I had no intention of speaking what was said. are put through the same mill. It of course. for I have had some experience of teaching Latin Prose. and I do not quite see how to be overcome. I think. said. C. In each case. with consequent To a great extent the same thing goes on great waste of time. If you start at a later stage to learn the language you get the value of the training. unless the subject has been part your daily thought from a very early period." Herbert Richards. All those who have had the great gift of composition.

' in- combined with amusement. and it is by no means easy to explain why the result was not right. Sees. The greater richness of the English language is manifested in ' way in which it is easy to say the same thing in different The speeches of public orators show how they keep repeating themselves. thing is said. and yet appear to be saying something new.' translated by a boy monstravit egestatem The boy had looked up the words in the dictionary." THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 128 that represents an earlier age than that to which Professor Postgate referred. He showed a want of judgment.' raiment. Cookson proposed a hearty Vote of Thanks to taken part in seeking to make the Liverpool a success — all who had visit of the Association to to the organisers. I glad to find that the speakers in agreement with my my cast out in the course of their remarks will receive careful attention offer my general can assure them that any suggestions which have been when I revise my gratitude for the expression of thanks for I my humble mine once attempt to provide what a former school-fellow of said that he found in the conversation of his master. too soon set to put Latin sentences into English . to the University Club and Athenaeum. You find verse after verse in which the same the words." different ' ' ' Professor Conway then expressed to Professor Postgate. although an excellent book. Stewart. of the Liverpool Branch. to the Committee of the . one is rendered in three ways apparel. Latin Prose. Boys are. to the hosts and hostesses. as Professor Hardie said. I remember finding the sentence. the Secretary of the the Hon. Professor Postgate. on be- half of the Meeting. in the course of — two In the Epistle of St. but in different words. especially to Hospitality Committee. and Bradley's Aids to is too hard for such young students. consilii. as the Bible was so very important. Mr. their gratitude for his very enjoyable lecture. to Miss Dale. the Lord Mayor and Lady Mayoress.' Mr. The Authorised Version of the English Bible shows the same tendency.' and clothing. every word should have a fair chance of coming in. struction most paper for publication. —" I am on the whole are very much thesis.' This was defended by the translators on the ground that. Forbes and Mr. James. Greek word verses.

which has been good enough to invite me here as one of the delegates of the Scottish Association. and I look forward with considerable apprehension to the time when the expression of your gratitude will be received that occurs to me in the at the family circle. I to assume should like gratitude to the Association. an important discussion explanations but perhaps I might in a sentence or two express coming on in detaining Professor ! .VOTES OF THANKS 129 Liverpool Branch." Professor with it the Conway. I noticed eldest daughter. we owe thanks also to the Corporation of Liverpool for the consistent sympathy and support which its enlightened University has blossomed with varying beauty . and nothing but the any way with your truth. Vice-Chancellor Dale. such a guest. guest that I am —" faces before me. and. " I respond not unwillingly to the yet if one must speak the truth. policy has given to the University. of Thanks. I know. many well-known the feelings which to express my own befit But it is difficult of in seeing so me for However. . Professor Gilbert Davies. associated The Vote of Thanks was carried by acclamation. University is their conference in this city. there has been visit my more shadowy and a than thanks for with amusement thai with none connected myself. with the enterprise of her sex. feelings an alien I believe that it is as to second this proposal. in claim unsubstantial truth. I hope it may have blossomed into a room better fitted for our Meeting than this We owe thanks for generous hospitality to the Lord theatre. Conway to make the necessary You have. the whole Chairman's call — . in putting the Vote name of Vice-Chancellor Dale. as friends of learning and Mayor and Lady Mayoress education. and to Professor Bosanquet and the Members of the Liverpool School of Art for the Tableaux. moment is The only remedy that I should succeed and Mrs. and I am sure this sense of gratitude is shared by my brother-delegates from Scotland and May Ireland. On hope that I also express the if the Liverpool so kind as again to invite the Association to hold we may be among returning to Liverpool after four the delegates ? years I find that the many new establishments of when we next come. 17 . has secured for herself the tribute that and audacity belongs to her mother.

The secretaries. My hope is that before long we may be able to welcome the for all the bodies describe as a comprehensive vote. on To the . according to the conditions and the aspirations of particular Universities this principle is . for the principle of Faculty Differentiation admits of various applications. and But it I desire to has no special relation to the treat it as far as possible only in its wider aspects. — The principle is a very simple one that every University ought to require of those entering on a course of study at it an adequate preparation for that course of study. and then interpreted by them in accordance with their own special conditions and aspirations. and as making for efficiency in all departments of University work. Forbes and Mr. as strengthening the position of Classics in Faculties of Arts. When a student enters a University he ought. to come prepared if he comes there to study at for a certain course of study. in others." : ' ' "My resolution does not seek to determine precisely what should be the conditions of the entrance examination at any particular University . older Universities. that Liverpool means to us. and to them especially your gratitude is due. it is knowledge. Thus it has a relation to the question of Compulsory Greek at the older Universities. but it does declare that one which ought to be adopted by all Universities. In some cases he ought to possess a considerable acquaintance with the very studies which he will pursue at the University sufficient which the if he possesses edifice of special a basis of knowledge general may ." Postgate having resumed the Professor Chair. be erected. Professor Sonnenschein proposed " That the Classical Association express approval of the principle of Faculty Differentiation at Matriculation Examinations.— THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 130 you have linked together in what one can only what pleasure it has given to all concerned to do what they could to make the visit of this Association pleasant and successful. but at a pleasanter time of the and with the sky year. to see all when you may be enabled less unfriendly. and indeed indicates the lines on which this difficult question ' ' may find its true solution. Mr. Association in Liverpool again. all. have lavished an enormous amount of work in your behalf. Stewart.

But. is that we should Matriculation whatever their future course of What I recognise that every University course hold of is the nature of special study along some particular lines. the Classical Association answer is that it ' ? Why is this matter brought How does it concern us ? up at ' My concerns very vitally the study of Classics in particular. who had been learning Latin at school. the current practice is that students cally to be prepared for who work and the The weakness of of are supposed theoreti- study in any Faculty are. I have several students at this moment. The great advantage of this is efficiency turning out of a really competent graduate. Professor Sonnenschein read the following extract from a letter written by Dr. The reason is that a University is a place of higher study. But the general practice of British Universities in the nine- teenth century has been to employ a Examination study for all students. and are now taking it for Intermediate Arts. and were then made to lay it aside for about a year while preparing for Matriculation. Fotheringham : " Nothing is more common at London University than for school teachers to select their pupils' subjects for matriculation with an eye to nothing but the passing of that examination. and the first difficulties which year's course in Latin arise if students are admitted to a who do not possess a rudimentary knowledge of the language. A majority of our Intermediate Arts students. This has been generally recognised by Universities. to the latter students of Medicine. and should require of entrants a corresponding basis of knowledge. it may be asked. by imposing a test on entrance.— FACULTY DIFFERENTIATION 131 former category belong Arts students. to be." After referring to the study of Latin in the newer Universities. and without any reference to the Faculty in which they intend to study. pre- pared for study in no Faculty in particular. My for position may be summed up by saying that a candidate any University degree should be required at entrance to matriculate in some particular Faculty. who resumed it after passing Matriculation. in fact. . is common It is this practice which my Besolution attacks as no longer suitable to the conditions of the times.

they In this connexion extracts from a letter sent to-day may as a necessary condition for I will read some by Professor Mackail : much that I am called back to London by and thus cannot be present in order to support the Motion which you are bringing before the Meeting to-morrow morning." Referring to the application of the principle to Oxford and Cambridge. the utmost concession that we could obtain was the insertion of a footnote in the Matriculation Regulation recommending such candidates to offer Latin in Matriculation. it of all Faculties. Birmingham Latin in only. but question of I feel bound to add. Greek I believe strongly in the desir- for all students of letters. whether ancient or modern. according to the needs of particular Universities. I hope that your Resolution. I am entirely in sympathy with the Resolution you ' I regret very official duties. will strengthen us if we renew the attack. or not so necessary. Professor Sonnenschein continued as follows : " I have already said that the principle admits of varied application. ability of tures. and the beauty that no candidate need be excluded from a University course in Science because he has been educated on the modern side of a school where no Greek I desire to avoid as far as possible the thorny 'Compulsory Greek' at the older Universities. On and litera- the other hand. that I its afraid that if demanding Greek from students of am the older Universities cling to their present practice ultimately be unable to maintain entrance on any Faculty. there seems no reason Oxford and Cambridge should not make Greek as well as Latin compulsory for this Faculty. as a member of an Association which makes it is one of taught. if phrased so as to deal only with alternative subjects. languages. have passed Matriculation without Latin. not Greek. for students entering on is a course of study in other than Arts subjects of the principle of Faculty Differentiation is . and that without lowering the standard of attainment in Latin. .—— THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 132 both at King's College and at King's College for Women. is Whereas made compulsory for why Matriculation in the Faculty of Arts. Greek not necessary. objects to maintain the study of Greek. When the Classical Board unanimously asked the University of London to require all candidates to pass in Latin at Matriculation before proceeding to Intermediate Arts.

entrance. FACULTY DIFFERENTIATION 133 hope that you will make free use of this between hours of to-day's Meetings. general and that educational efficiency over the whole field of study the efficiency of any one branch of learning is an index to. that of the test which is applied to ascertain the competence of entrants on a University Course leading to a degree. as though they were ends in themselves and not means to a larger end. the efficiency of all the others.. The answer is that he ought to know that supplementary machinery for meeting cases of change is quite simple and that choice from the outset will save great waste of time and effort in unsystematic study pursued to little profit because having no distinct aim before it. or when he does not know which School or Faculty he wishes to pursue. . relevant. or from any other it is one of adapting the requirement to its object. and of that whole sphere which they jointly constitute. but essential to. The objections. if adopted. object of the Classical Association. the great defects in our national system of higher education is and this the low standard of what University education means lowness of standard in University education directly follows on the inadequate or inappropriate tests of competence set up at are proposing. ' it . and which would entirely disappear if the study of both Science and the One of Classics could be freed of its present vices and faults. This Resolution. This consideration on both its sides implies Faculty Differentiation in form or in substance. I gather. The question of Compulsory Greek at Oxford is only one local aspect of a much larger question. is saving Latin at Birmingham can save Greek at Oxford and Cambridge. The matter is not one of " relief " from Greek or from Latin. ' : ' . In this matter the primary thing to take into account is that the test shall be. but we hold most strongly that this is not only consistent with. are wants to change his (a) The difficulty when a student School or Faculty. adequate. To raise the standard. so far as I am aware of them. will help towards removing the senseless opposition between the Classics and Science. The principle. and a contributory force towards. This is an improper reason for acquiescing in a deliberately low standard of work. which in any case is yielding before better acquaintance. ' . first. and secondly. (6) There is a risk of financial loss if the entrance test is raised. differentiation by function is clearly indicated as the means. I am particularly glad to note the last clause in your ResoTo strengthen the position of Classics is the aim and lution. ' . subject Otherwise we fall back into the old vicious system of " protecting " certain educational industries. and hasty note which I I write ' ' .

for instance. and who must be dealt with tenderly those. admitted by all or most Universities as a possible subject for a degree in the Faculty of Arts. but don't know Greek. I am confirmed. On the other hand. may be all that is practically attainable as a preliminary to a course of study in such subjects as physical and natural science and medicine. of Leeds. the merits of which my will belief that it is the policy be more and more appre- known.' . not perhaps a wellchosen phrase. thing as a liberal education without Greek. Haverfield Professor from letter the following ciated as the principle gets to be better : "I am unavoidably hindered from attending the Annual Meeting and therefore I ask to be allowed a brief word on paper in respect of Professor Sonnenschein's Motion. then. and has worked and I exceedingly well. I may add that the was adopted by the University of Birmingham at its initiation in 1900. in H. is rightly be included in a Faculty. Mr." motion pro forma. A student ought not to be allowed to study at the University what he is not competent to study with profit. said. And there should be no bar by passing an to transference from one Faculty to another. giving satisfaction in all the Faculties am glad to see that it has been adopted quite recently by the University of Belfast. in of the future. J. especially in of the Classical Association. read the seconding Sleeman. for instance. It may be said that a differentiated Matriculation examination limits the student's freedom of choice of subjects of study. continuing. there is no need to adopt a narrow definition of what may Mathematics. which. examination in additional subjects.— " : THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 134 ' (c) There are students who have to be coaxed and bribed into learning something. . should be treated as exceptions and not made into rules. which has lately been much used. though not adequate for a thorough-going course of study in literary subjects. who " can get good " from a Literae Humaniores The answer is that exceptions course. such a is. and to a certain extent by the University principle of Faculty Differentiation . Faculty Differentiation is a phrase. — " My Resolution not inconsistent with the principle of a good general education only we must recognise that a good general education may be is acquired in more ways than one. Professor Sonnenschein. The answer is that some limitation is desirable. that there in fact.

attend on freedom is therefore very small lectures on a far more extensive series of subjects than those which form the basis of their final degree dissertation. The idea underlying it seems to be this that an undergraduate on matriculating should enter a definite Faculty (or course of studies) . The actual working of any such idea must obviously depend greatly on what exactly is meant by Faculty. and I do not think any Motion which (like Professor Sonnenschein's) omits to explain what range it gives to the word Faculty can be profitably accepted as likely to do much good. I have no doubt. that he should pass an entrance examination appropriate to that Faculty. I admit. so far as I can see. and do. as the inevitable conditions of In German Universities a student their courses of study permit. but in German Universities the Faculties cover a very wide range of subjects. or even in a Modern Literature Course. That freedom seems to me vital. urged that no one ought to be allowed to win Honours in a Latin Course. that it is Honour Course should include pursuit of that course. At Oxford. At present in most Universities — — — . Arts Faculty to the Mathematical or Natural Science Faculties would. Let me give two illustrations from Oxford. and experienced teachers tell me that for certain classes of learners the combination produces an exAgain. a definite evil in Faculty Differentiation at Entrance. I see. there is a question which must arise. takes his degree in a definite Faculty. that is. unless he could also show a all it is. Thus most necessary that a University subjects needed for the proper or might be. I had a pupil at Oxford who cellent mental training. men . the question of the freedom of the student to choose his studies. and.FACULTY DIFFERENTIATION 135 connexion with the compulsory Greek question at Oxford and Cambridge. sometimes offer Mathematics for Honour Moderations and Modern History for Honour Finals. ' ' ' — students are free as free. be practically forbidden by Faculty Differentiation at Entrance and Entrance Examinations. But apart from this uncertainty. therefore. of course. and gain admission thereby at and as a sequel that he once to University and to Faculty should not afterwards change his Faculty without (I imagine) complying with some special conditions or requirements letting him into another Faculty. Now. there is at present no agreement among the Universities of the world as to the number of subjects which may be included in one Faculty. The restriction men can. won a First Class both in Literae Humaniores and in Natural Science. profited much by this union of But such jumps from the philosophical and physical science. . I will add that I do not see the need or the use of it. In an English University we reach the same freedom in another way. no matter what definition of Faculty be given.

but that is gation at Oxford. and in archaeology he has since done good work. Amendment ately drafted the I have deliber- so as to leave the question of compulsory Greek entirely outside the scope of the Motion. in view of the specialisation which prevails at some schools it is desirable that he should not be rigidly required to do so. J. ment K. Honours students That may seem reason- not the view taken by the majority of Congre- A in proposal for making Greek optional for Mathematics and Natural Science was dis- cussed a few years ago in Congregation. " for us to pass a Kesolution which could be interpreted as condemning compulsory Greek. able . instead of being left to make their selection according to their own The Association holds that such a differentiation of Faculties would strengthen the position of Classics in Faculties of Arts." he continued. effect of my Amendment original Motion. If is The otherwise identical with that of the the question of compulsory Greek had been introduced in set terms." " It would be undesirable at the tail end of this Meeting. and the proposition waa . In fact. It has not been introduced in set we have to consider how the Motion The mover himself said that Greek should will be interpreted. partments of University work. Fotheringham proposed the following Amend- : " That in the opinion of the Classical Association. where a choice of subjects exists at a Matriculation Examination candidates should be required to select their subjects with a view to the Faculties to which they seek admission. but at the same time cumstances at Oxford and Cambridge.— THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 136 knowledge of Greek. Let me take a case well known to me. A boy was trained in mathe- this matics because at his local grammar school he could get little good teaching except in mathematics when he came to the University he showed an aptitude for archaeology. — — present a final obstacle. and would make for efficiency in all De- discretion. To the right development of such a man hard enough in itself Faculty Differentiation would . there would have been determined opposition to this Motion." Dr. But it would not follow that he must show knowledge of Greek before he is admitted to the University with the intention of reading for Honours in Latin. not be made compulsory upon all occasions and under all cir- terms.

is that the differentia- The effect is that we come knowing little or nothing of Latin. This is not always realised by the advocates of option at Matriculation. 137 At a discussion taken last term. They sometimes feel in that case go in for Honours for in English. our Motion only deals with the simple issue of the optional subjects. a proposal for making Greek optional was again defeated. Genner. If leave that this question is excluded. Every candidate is required in addition to offer either Latin or some kind of . They have not been encouraged at school in spite of their capacity They generally Latin. The but on that occasion we had not the same definite issue.FACULTY DIFFERENTIATION defeated by 200 votes against 163. agree with Mr. make use of our Matriculation Examinations. 18 I should think it an impertinence on . believe nearly all the newer Universities I have introduced a scheme by which some subjects are obligatory at London English and at Matriculation and others optional Elementary Mathematics must be taken by all candidates the Mathematics being not so wonderfully elementary. said. and that must be done by making some amount of Classics compulsory for students in the Faculty of Arts. — Natural Science. themselves obliged to lay their Classics aside simply because they have not started the subject sooner. If the latter is offered instead of Latin. Apart from those restrictions there is free choice. and know that they often to study Classics before they come." Mr. We must. We do not want people to try to make Classics their strong point at the University without having had some strong inducement candidates choose the subjects which they find easiest. E. then some language other than Latin and other than English. therefore. prevailing opinion at Oxford on all students . London. E. At King's College. but the fact tion is not in practice governed by Faculty. especially at the tail end of this Conference. in seconding the Amendment. Fotheringham that it is —" I undesirable. we constantly find good students in Latin who have perhaps started a little late and who have done no Greek. but is that Greek should be compulsory appears to it me that we should a purely open question at this Meeting. to bring forward a Motion which is intended to produce different effects upon different classes of Universities. These alternatives more or less correspond to the requirements of he must offer students in different Faculties.

the Resolution plays into the hands of that differentiation at school. Universities. of which we sometimes see the misfortune. but in the event of that proposed by Mr. that premature specialisation. but to and here we should do wisely not to pronounce oppose it 4 ' bow. all circumstances at Oxford are not in favour of increasing the number We of such students. it seems to me we should face the two intended. like myself. other problem at present undetermined. we should support that . it questions separately we see fit. Fotheringham has proposed. I think. . upon a controversial point but we should pass such an Amendment as Mr. . with a purely Universities of Oxford experience. Even despite ' compulsory Greek. but if possible. but in literary education That may be a generally in the schools of the country. Fotheringham being carried and becoming the substantive Motion. ' I will then submit the following That the Association principle of a common is Amendment : not prepared to question the basis of general education continued to Matriculation level. I am not now moving an Amendment. is since . the University of Oxford.' In general criticism of the Motion to premature specialisation.' some come to us from certain Technical Colleges with an education in Science and nothing else. — engage in an acute struggle of University politics. to include both types of University would diminish the amount of Classics required in. sponsions. I would plead that it tends Surely a boy should not decide at fourteen instead of seventeen or eighteen which course of study he will take when he comes to a University. to dictate to the or Liverpool what they should do Birmingham . because stand. say." " As an Association we should hardly Professor Conway. Just as I feel it . They have had no literary training whatever and those who. if and leave the As regards Oxford.— THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 138 my part. for Greek in Re- we know that the dropping of will it cause a considerable drop not only in Greek. and similarly the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge have The Mover says that his Resolution their own problems to face. tendency of the age to which we in Oxford are expected to But I do not think we ought to bow before it. as regards the ' newer ' the Resolution. would stand for compulsory Greek under .

I regard half a loaf as better than no bread. To change the metaphor.. Fotheringham as going a step in a direction along which I would like to go further. Amendment Though there may be no one present . and should normally say. I should say that we of the schools. I cannot withdraw Resolution. the Universities may lawfully say. should lose some ten per cent. spontaneously to second ation I my —" I am Motion. you mean to study Science. and I do not want to divide the Association on any controversial question. of our students in Arts if we did not provide some rather elementary teaching in Latin for those who come to us not yet knowing enough to enter our Intermediate class." Professor Sonnenschein. aware that no one rose But possibly on consider- some members may see reasons and in view of this I should propose .' Schools . there learn Latin. in favour of the course like to have a little more knowledge of the feeling of the Meeting. I who would regard this Amendment regard the as of Mr. to every intending student. and many of these are students while to encourage. FACULTY DIFFERENTIATION 139 would be undesirable for this Association to express an opinion on the Oxford and Cambridge question which has been raging during all the time this Association has been in existence. I much ' If no need whatever for you to do not want the Universities to say that to the less The Chairman. there is quite a strong party a wise solution of the question. I quite admit that this Motion may be interpreted as an expression of opinion as to the proper course to be pursued at Oxford and Cambridge ." — " The Motion was only seconded fro forma. In each locality it depends upon the resources and curricula Speaking for Manchester. The effect of the whom Motion it is well worth is to declare that. Yet I know that I am not alone among Oxford men in fact. having regard to the views expressed in the discussion. therefore. and. in the opinion of this Association. I is do want I this Association to say it. he will withdraw his Motion. therefore. so I think it equally undesirable for it to hold the scales as between the policies adopted at Manchester and Birmingham and London respectively. must. ask Professor Sonnenschein whether. because the effect would be that the would fall to the ground. I prefer the first Amendment my to that of Professor Conway.

feel inclined to withdraw my — " It seems to me this discussion has taken such a turn that any Motion that is carried. having thus become the substantive Headlam moved that the discussion be adjourned sine die. V." . the difficulties Professor to Conway spoke about the Differentiation of Faculties. if I from all the Matriculation that people may think necessary. resolution. in a Mr. whether it should I from fourteen to sixteen. Much of what has been said by Professor Sonnenschein to-day would have been highly appropriate addressed to another audience. therefore. We could not then maintain any general standard. I would." Mr. Fotheringham's Amendment. it only remains and. The Amendment which was carried by a large majority.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 140 prepared to support me. A Member. like some expression of opinion which would be to some extent adverse to this question of Faculty Differentiation. Cookson. W. Headlam. would suggest that variation in the age at which an examination is taken is an equally important factor. and we cannot come to a decision on this subject be taken without that point being fully discussed. I should like to have some expression of opinion against such principle as that of Faculty Differentiation. Mr." The Chairman then put Dr. and any expression of opinion arising on such Motion. and so on. I feel strongly if may be interpreted elsewhere. This was seconded by Professor E. it opens the whole flood-gates. but it does not seem to me to have anything to do with the Association as such. manner likely W. J. and the removal of Mathematics from Matriculation. — In the short time we have had for discussion of the question have hardly been touched upon. In fact. I should like to have some definite result to-day from the discussion which has taken place. — " As opposing the Motion for adjournment. and upholding the general at Matriculation. are likely to be seriously misunderstood outside this room. J. Cookson. in the schools the removal of Greek to remove Latin after a matter of time . basis of a liberal preparatory education What we do at Matriculation is what we do understand things aright. or at seventeen or at eighteen. I do not Motion. Mr. outdo serious harm to the Association." " I wish to say a word in support of that anything carried to-day side. Arnold. and so on.

. inspected the extensive collection of classical sculptures and other antiquities. Esq. for W." This was carried.FACULTY DIFFERENTIATION The Chairman thereupon put the Motion : 141 — " That the dis- cussion be adjourned sine die. The special privilege thus greatly appreciated accorded to the Association was by those members who were themselves of the owner's courtesy. J. Mr. proceedings The The Vote On of the afternoon of the same day to Ince Hall. J. with the remark that where a discussion stretched over several hours it needed to be carefully. Headlam proposed a Vote of Thanks to Dr. by acknowledged then terminated. a party of suitably members made Blundellsands. Thanks was carried by acclamation and Professor Postgate. and by the kind an excursion permission of the owner. Professor Dobson seconded the Vote. They had had a good example of the way the Chair should conduct itself in controlling the Meetings. tactfully and firmly dealt with by the Chairman. Weld Blundell. Postgate presiding. able to avail .

.......... . .. 144 9 12 3 Votes of Thanks 98 To the President To Miss Janet Case 112 To Prof. .. Postdate (On The Truth about Latin Prose) ... .. . .. ..112 B. ...19 : ... . Postgate 141 To the Organisers and Hosts of the General Meeting at Liverpool 128 : 142 .19 ... .... Committee on Grammatical Terminology Council Journals' Board Resolutions of Condolence ... .. ...— ACTA Balance Sheet Approved Election of Officers and Council Place and Date of Next General Meeting Reports . . 69 101 ...INDEX TO THE PROCEEDINGS A..... . 124 Matriculation Ex- in . 45 the . . . ... .— COMMUNICATIONS AND DISCUSSIONS PAGE Discussions : On Grammatical Terminology On Latin Prose Composition On Faculty Differentiation aminations Addresses Prof..... .. . . . .15 .. ..15 . 132 : ...... Myres (On The Geographical Aspect Greek of Colonisation) The President (On The Love Romans) of Nature among Miss Janet Case (On The Eumenides of Aeschylus) Prof.. .. .. . . . . .

. 141 18. 37. . . 128. 139. 126 9. 37. 9. 127 . L. 33. .INDEX 143 C—-NAMES OF THOSE WHO TOOK PART IN THE PROCEEDINGS PAGE Allen. Sir A. 19. 99 . 34. . W. 39. W. 124. . A. . . Mackail. . 35 Granger. . 138 Cookson. Rev. 39. Rev. G. 101 69. May. Caton. . 129. 45 3. 18. W. Richards. H. 100 Myres. A.136 Geikie. . 37.43 . 38. .43 . . Genner. . R. Lovegrove. . Bosanquet. 43. Postgate. Prof. Sleeman. 17. W. Rhys 24. 7 . Arnold. W. 112. 38. Mahaffy. Miss J. 31. H.98 . E. 8. T Conway. 41. . 33. 15. Dr. Seaton. 134 Prof. . W. Browne. . Dr. 26. J. Prof. 141 Prof. Baynes. 18. S. Prof. FOTHERINGHAM. . . W. 37. . 19. . 128. . R. Silcox. . 126 Jones. . W. R. 43. W. . 39. Elliott. J. 141 44. E. 140. . A. P. 17. 112 45 . R. M. 38. . W. . H. P. 35. Prof.38 . E. Prof. V. Harrison. J. 38. W. Glynn De Winton. Prof. E. . 129 Dobson. . 31. 6. . 139 Williams. . J. 140 PAGE Heard. . 40. Dr. Frank Loring. 129 Davies. 4 Henry. 43. C. Prof. N. 32. 16 8. 44 13. J. 130.34. E. R. J. . C. J. Prof. Prof. R. R. S. E. Headlam. R. H. F. 128. 112. 124 . Hardie. Dale.12 37. E. Roberts. 17.18 . C. 30. Prof.40 J. J. 40 . . Prof. Miss L. Dr. J. A. . 140 31. P. 127 . Case. H. 30.18 . 137 . 19. Prof. 37 Rushbrooke. Sonnenschein. K. . Prof. Rev. 36 15. G. 40.

M. of London Mr. M. P. of London : Nominated by The Headmasters' Association Mr. Paul. of Colchester Mr. Paul's School : Nominated by The Assistant Mistresses' Association : Miss A. R. H. of St. of Oxford Mr. E. S. of Cheltenham Nominated by The Association of Preparatory Schools: Mr. W. E. W. Pantin. Sonnenschein. Thompson. C. W. of London Prof.REPORT OF THE JOINT COMMITTEE ON GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY Being a revised and extended issue of the Interim Report presented in December 1909 MEMBERS OF THE COMMITTEE Nominated by The Classical Association : Prof. W. Milner Barry. L. of Clapham and Notting Hill Dr. F. Eleanor Purdie. Haig Brown. E. F. Clarke. Olave's School Nominated by The Headmistresses' Association Miss R. of Haywards Heath Co-opted : Dr. Rippmann. Rushbrooke. A. of Manchester Dr. Boas. L. E. S. : G. of Sydenham : Nominated by The Assistant Masters' Association Prof. W. L. of London Nominated by The Modern Language Association : Mr. S. Cloudesley Brereton. Conway. von Glehn. W. Compton. of Sevenoaks Mr. of Oxford MiBS Edith Hastinos. of Oxford Miss F. G. C. of Cambridge Prof. of London 144 . of Cambridge Prof. of London Nominated by The English Association Dr. Fiedler. P. H. G. Frank Ritchie. of Acton The Rev. Rouse. G. of Birmingham Mr. Purdie. of Bangor Mr. Thomas. Henry Bradley. D. H. of St. Thrinq. Shaw Jeffrey. P. of Dover Mr.

REPORT ON GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY CONTENTS OF THE REPORT PAGE 145 .

The report of the French Commission was therefore taken into consideration. Gow and Miss Dingwall as . Professor Honorary Treasurer Conway Honorary Rippmann was subsequently appointed and Mr. P. and the teacher of one language frequently undoes the work accomplished by the teacher of another. and taken into consideration by a Committee of the Conseil By the courtesy of M. representatives of representative of added to At the first meeting of the Committee Professor Sonnen- schein was elected Chairman. W. Unnecessary perplexities and difficulties at present other work. Milner-Barry. Liard through the Director of Special Enquiries in June. Brunot and M. was submitted to the Ministry of Public Instruction in 1909. In 1910 a second The Association of Preparatory Schools was the Committee. by official 1 In July the Ministry took action an Arrete (dated July 25. Boas and Mr. and the kind offices of the Director of Special Enquiries and Reports of the Board of Education. 1910). title of its . this report was communicated to the Joint Committee in Superieur. Moreover the Committee has learnt with interest of the existence of an important movement for the reform of grammatical terminology in France. Honorary Secretary of the Enquiries Sub-Committee. The English Association. Vice-Rector of the University of Paris. The report of a French Commission. and Professor Secretary. E. February of the present year. making its total number twenty -four. Pantin was appointed in his place. confront pupils studying several different languages at the same time. and Mr. signed by Prof. with an intimation that any comments on it which the Joint Committee might desire to make would be welcomed. The movement seems to have been well timed. The Committee has received unmistakable evidence that many teachers feel that a reform of this kind is needed.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 146 Language Association and at the beginning of 1910 Dr. containing an scheme of grammatical terminology. Maquet. The principle has been cordially approved by a large number of individual correspondents. At the end of 1909 Professor Conway resigned the Secretaryship through pressure of . 1 No knowledge issuing This scheme of terminology will be referred to below under Nomenclature Grammaticale. and comments on it were forwarded to M. Liard. Thomas succeeded Dr. and by the leading educational journals.

below. and that in each country the mother-tongue should form the basis of the grammatical scheme to be constructed. New York (Educational Review. which preceded what terms of French grammar will be recognized in France hereafter and it has influenced the Joint Committee in their choice of some of the terms to be recommended for use in this country. At the same time the Committee is of opinion that such a conference should be preceded by full discussion in each of the countries separately.e. In America too a need for the simplification of grammatical terminology seems to be felt. ground has been prepared in the several countries concerned." Department in the Wadleigh High School. and Jessie Frances New Smith r Head York. like the report of the Commission it. of our of the English . to the end that the results . 1 " Surely nowhere under heaven can there be a land in which is greater confusion in grammatical terminology or greater there on the part of boys and girls to master the grammar of any even their own.REPORT ON GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY of grammatical terminology Arrete is to be required at 147 beyond that indicated in this any examination of elementary schools or for the certification of teachers for such schools. in The Classical Weekly (New York). may deliberations be available in this recently in their America of their Com- country. 1 The Classical Association of New England has adopted the following resolution and communicated it officially to the Joint Committee — " That the Executive Committee be instructed to signify to the Joint Committee on Grammatical Terminology formed in England the interest of this Association work and to request that the grammars used in be taken into account." Professor John C. N. or at any examination of secondary schools up and to in- cluding that which marks the end of the secondary school This scheme. as indicated great service as showing . when the time is ripe and and the ." munications have also been received from Continental scholars suggesting an international congress on the subject the Committee hopes that. Kirtland. 1910). " It [i. Rahway. an international congress may be arranged. a unified scheme of terminology] seems to me to promise an immense gain in failure single language. But the Joint Committee has found it of course. Oct. 1909.. May 22. deals with the terminology of French grammar only. the effectiveness and — economy work in English Grammar.J.

some of them very full. tending in the direction of uniformity for all the languages concerned. there was on the whole a large amount of agreement on fundamental matters nor did any cleavage arise between teachers of ancient languages on the one hand and teachers of modern languages on the other. A circular letter was therefore issued on March 8 to all the members of the eight Associations represented on the ComThis circular stated the object of the Committee to be "to consider the terminology used in teaching the languages. With a view to facilitating the use of the terminology herein proposed. Most of the resolutions of the Committee have been reached either unanimously or by substantial majorities. in actual practice.148 THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION At a preliminary meeting of the Joint Committee held in London on Feb. It was found that. 1909. confusion. commonly studied in English schools. in the hope of framing some mittee. matical teaching. for the use of teachers in this country who employ these languages in their gramdifficulty in the . it was resolved to make the project known as widely as possible. to be causing error. or other minds of English pupils of any age. The result of the Committee's deliberations has been to confirm its belief in the possibility and the desirability of the reform contemplated. simplified and consistent scheme of grammatical nomen- clature. 27. In reply to this enquiry over a hundred answers. and to invite the co-operation of the general body of teachers of languages in this country. the Committee has thought it well to suggest in the case of each of the English terms recommended a corresponding German and French term. ancient and modern. were received. and the Committee found them of great value. especially in determining the points on which reform is most urgently and most generally desired. although differences of opinion manifested themselves on particular points of grammatical doctrine. At the close of the year 1909 the Committee presented an Interim Report containing the conclusions which it had . including English." It seemed well to ascertain at the outset what points of current terminology were found. Teachers were therefore asked to inform the Committee what terms used in modern text-books they had found unserviceable or less serviceable than others used to denote the same thing.

There have been altogether twenty-four meetings of the Committee. as might have been expected. of the and referred to the Committee for These criticisms were. not entirely consistent with one another. and the present Report contains amendments of detail in many places. recognizes that. which it met with was particularly Certain cordial. by teachers. Committee would deprecate in the early stages of learning a language. At the same time the Committee has not seen reason to depart from its main principles as to what will prove most serviceable to the cause of sound grammatical teaching in the country. in dealing with special points of grammar which arise in connexion with more advanced work. lasting on an average 3| hours each and also many meetings of sub-com. and by examining bodies. by writers of school books. This Interim Report was discussed by nearly all the Associations represented on the Committee at their General Meetings of the year 1910. have been very carefully considered by the Committee. — It is the intention of the Committee to produce a . however. Nevertheless there were several sections which did not commend themselves to a considerable number of the Associations . Associations or On the other hand. and the reception and in some in all cases favourable sections. it will readily be understood that the very scope of the Committee's work has made it necessary to recommend some terms the use of which the sented. What one Association disapproved was in some cases warmly approved by another Association.REPORT ON GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY 149 reached up to that time. The Committee. mittees. and these are now to meet the presented in an amended form. however. as expressing distinctions which belong to a comparatively advanced stage of learning. It is the hope of the Committee that the terminology suggested in the present Report will be widely adopted. But whether from all suggestions from individual scholars and teachers who have favoured the Committee with an expression of their views. in order views of as many teachers as possible. nine in 1909 and fifteen in 1910. as a standard terminology for the fundamental facts of grammar. Report were criticized further consideration. teachers and writers of text-books will find it necessary to supplement this standard terminology by additional terms not inconsistent with those here prereceived.

RECOMMENDATIONS The corresponding German and French terms are given after each of the recommendations. Subject Subjekt Sujet Predicate Prddikat Predicat In the following examples the Predicate from the Subject by heavy type is distinguished : The merciful man is merciful to his beast. Where the Subject consists of several words. head that wears a crown. wholly or in part. an(^ Analysis. ! — Note 1. after it has been submitted to the Associations represented it is therefore desirable that the Report be taken into consideration by the Associations as soon as possible. to be called the Subject ^ie Predicate. I. when necessary. [agis]. Noun or Noun Equivalent around which the other words are grouped may. [Je vous demande] mille pardons. but there are instances in which either the one or the other is only implied.— — ! ! THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 150 the present Report early next year. be distinguished as the the Subject Word. Mopfui Sd^m — • utttos. That the first divide it stage in the analysis of a sentence be to into two parts.— [I] thank you. — Note 2. AL8w$ [Ijt(i> aoi or Ofuv]. the Subject being the group of words or the single word which denotes the person or thing of which the Predicate is said.— What a beautiful night [gebe ich] der ganzen Welt. and the Predicate being all that is said of the person or thing denoted by the Subject. In a normal sentence the Subject and the Predicate are fully expressed. . sweet the moonlight sleeps upon this Uneasy How lies the Long bank live the King Hatte ich es doch nicht gesagt Quid mini Celsus agit ? Cinq etrangers sur dix savent notre langue. Examples Come [you] [it is] ! Diesen Kuss Nugas : here. final issue of . T/j d*yop£V€iv PovXstcu .

but they differ widely from one another in regard to the proportion which that part bears to the part expressed by the Verb. — Are you not he ? : (a) will live a bachelor. elu roi. heisst den Lowen den Konig der Tiere. de- —*EXa/3e tovto SoJpov. Prddikativ Predicative The term predicative ' Adjectives and ' is PrSdicatif also applicable to Equivalents of Nouns used predicatively (Recommendation V. (4) He went to bed happy. ' should be abandoned as unnecessary. " Rubra ' .) is declared to be made named or be called the Predicative Adjective. Nouns.b's pel p.' though useful to describe the Adjective in instances like " Ere humane statute purged the gentle weal " (Shakespeare. Der Himmel wurde grau. and Pronouns always express some part of the Predicate. or PrePronoun and that the same terms be applied to Adjectives. or seem what the person or thing denoted by the Object (see Rec. Thus (1) He is happy. — insula vocatur Mona. 76).' as applied to some of the Verbs employed in sentences of the above classes ' (a and b respectively). — He was made happy. IV. Haec Vous — — — — — made him happy. The ring is of great value. XaXeird rd /caXd. Qalverai irpoSovs rty 7r6Xiv. etes studieuses. iv. Home they brought her warrior dead. (2) He became happy. Nudus ara. (3) He looked happy. Hanc insulam Monam. dicative . C'est moi. Predicative Noun. mesdemoiselles. — Note 3. Macbeth.«-yas. become. be named. Predicative Adjectives. The term proleptic. The terms copulative ' and factitive. IloXXuiv 6 Kcupds ylyvercu SiSdo-xaXos. IIpwTOS irpoaflaWei. (a) (b) of the Predicate 151 which indicates what the person or thing denoted by the Subject is declared to be. vocant. III. Examples He is happy. l'a N<5yutf' d8eX<j>ovs toi)s aXrjdivoi/s (ptXovt. sere nudus.— — REPORT ON GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY That the part II. — I Thou art the man.). : — Note 2. Caesar Helvetioa primos (b) It Man On — bellavit. '0 irora/j. Nouns and Pronouns similarly used in connexion with other Verbs than those mentioned above. — Note 1.

Satire V. Sie hat einen andern erwahlt. Je lea connais. (6) Quadrifidam quercum scindebat. aBepKTwv (a) Fortis ofjL/xdroiv tt/toj/acvos Etruria crevit. Oed. IV. " Zu Dionys. That the term Object be used to denote the Noun Equivalent governed by a Object Examples Objekt : have finished my course. Gorgias adulescentes docebat.g. e. should not be applied to the Adjective or Noun in sentences of the classes referred to in Recommendation II.) is undoubted. dem Tyrannen. schlich " Moros " " The fact that he was there (VIII. tives Epithet Examples Epithet or Beifiigung : the happy warrior der fliegende Hollander la -\ Eomanus populus Epithete V (Epithet Adjectives) Rome moderne &v8pes 'A&tjvcuol J the County Council. Col. 1200). Noun or where also the term Epithete is employed as above. Twv (Sophocles.' which is used to denote the Predicative Adjective in the official French scheme of terminology (1910). a dancing master London streets Gebruder Braun regina pecunia Maison Hachette (Epithet Nouns) f &v8pes SiKourTaf Note 1. The term Apposition may be applied to examples " Peter the Hermit . ' ' See — Note 2.— THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 152 deterges volnera mappa " ow (Juvenal. 4. Objet Noun or . 27). That the term Epithet be used to distinguish Adjecand Nouns which are not predicative. p. III." like . Nomenclature Grammaticale.— The term 'Epithet' has been ' Attribute and Nouns ' preferred to as the description of non-predicative Adjectives in order to avoid confusion with the French term ' Attribut. above. I Verb.

(Ablative Object) MavnKTJ ou treidofiai.— REPORT ON GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY Gedenke meiner. 153 (Genitive Object) Credo tibi. He was awarded the prize. BacriXfi)s vfids rd frrrXa dxairet. e. I ZZevoipQv eTrfTpawT] t^v dpx^v. (Dative Object) Victoria uti nescis. or Adverb in the sentence be called be used adverbially." the words me and me tibi a book. In such sentences as " He gave " Pecuniam tibi credidi. \ lehrte mich die deutsche Spraehe." Examples : was asked many questions. Doctus iter melius. Although in such examples as those quoted above the Infinitive is clearly an Object. Discere cupio. it is impossible to draw the line historically between these uses and those in which the Infinitive has a more or less distinct adverbial character." may be called the Indirect Object. (Dative Object) I wish to learn. 20 an Adverb Equivalent or be said to . —The Committee recommends the term Retained Accusative for use in sentences which are passive inversions of such active constructions as " He asked me many questions." " Gaudeo videre.g. That any group of words or single word which (not being an Adjective) is used either predicatively or as an epithet qualifying any Noun in the sentence be called an Adjective Equivalent or be said to be used adjectivally . Adjective. — Note 2. Illud te rogo. " Possum dicere" " Multa habeo dicere. (Infinitive as Object) He asked me many questions. "j I ' Accusat ives) (Retained v J V." Note 3. Er — (Two Objects) J- J Note 1. and that any group of words or single word which (not being an Adverb) is used to qualify any Verb. Gorgias adulescentes dicere docebat." " They awarded him the prize.

VI. riant 01 vvv dvdpuiroi. La haine est la colere des faibles. reviendra. Elle 6tait joyeuse. (a) That sentences containing only one predication be called Simple. etc. mit Tranen ass Der kennt euch nicht. toujours et a tous. VI. 'A0^vt]o-iv (or «v 'A0TJvais) oIkc?. VII.' which often used to denote what above. Ko\aa8r]<T€Tai. Double Double Sentence Double Subject of this Compound recommendation renders unnecessary Sentence. That the terms Double or Multiple be used to describe any Sentence or any member of a Sentence which consists of two or more coordinate parts.. Wer TlavTa Proposition Proposition Simple Proposition Complexe Satz Einfacher Satz ? (Simple Sentences) }- pel.— A ring of great value. etc. Multiple Coordonne" Vielfach Beigeordnet The adoption ' Proposition Double Sujet Double etc. je . Die mihi quid feceris. I J (Complex Sentences) le lui dirai. 'Edy tovto Trpd^j. Wind reitet so spat durch Nacht und Die. Sei guten Muts. tpio. Adverb Equivalents (b) : Come unto these yellow sands. is is called a ambiguous. . He Wer (b) jests at scars that nie sein Brot Quand il . Regina pecunia.— —— THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 154 Examples : Adjective Equivalents (a) : The man in the moon. being Complex Sentence . Multiple Coordinate the term Double Doppelt Doppelsatz Doppeltes Subjekt (b). domum rediit. never felt a wound. M. Tulli. Horst du's klingen maehtigen Rufes His rebus gestis.— Otov ? 2\8fls. Sentence Simple Sentence Complex Sentence Examples (a) The quality Zusammengesetzter Satz : of mercy is not strained. (b) That sentences containing one main predication and one or more subordinate predications be called Complex. II demeure a Rome. ihr himmlischen Machte.

.e J to Conticuere omnes intentique ora tenebant.—— . The tale is long. . Jean-! remplaca son kepi vieux' chapeau lay. Sentence) • centra dans la maison. die Taube.„ . Lifeless but beautiful he Golden und rosig wehen Die Wolken druber her. i ?? e ' (Double Predicate) -\ j un t par let s'en alia retrouver le cure. and where they most abound 155 : Much fruit of sense beneath is The buyer and the seller came Der Kaiser und sein Feldherr 'H8ov?| Kal Xvittj h TTJ an understanding.~ ( y I rarely found. die Sonne. sa vie d'autrefois. nor have I heard it out. J Apres quoi. Tell me where is fancy bred.oub. finem di dederint.(rTov ko. Words are like leaves. or Adverb. be called a Subordinate Clause (Noun Clause. II . 8ti '4\ov<riv €<TTIV. L. entzweiten sich. "v . die Inlie. ) (Multiple Object) < i That a part of a sentence equivalent to a Noun. .kov tois \ . .^. se debarrassa de son sabre. Adjective Clause. . Subordinate Clause Clause Adjective Clause Adverb Clause Noun Examples Nebensatz Substantivsatz Adjektivsatz Adverbialsatz Proposition Subordonnee Proposition Substantive Proposition Adjective Proposition Adverbiale : That you have wronged me doth appear in this. Hac re homines bestiis praestant quod loqui possunt. VIII. Dixerunt eum esse mortuum. The proposal that he should be appointed was dropped. REPORT ON GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY Examples God made the country and man made the town. Je crois qu'il vient. quern tibi. Tu ne quaesieris (scire nefas) quern mihi. 7r6\« f3acn\ev<reTov. \Ltyi. reprit et continua . or Adverb Clause) and that this nomenclature be adopted whether the Predicate be expressed by a Finite Verb or by an Infinitive. and having a Subject and a Predicate of its own. Predicate) J (Double Verb) (Double Predicative Adjective) Die Hose. Adjective. Die liebt' ich einst alle in Liebeswc ne. T(j5 <pdov(j) tovto fidvov dyaObv wpbveaTi. People believe him to be dead. ~\ I . .

(Adjective Phrase) I stood Ein Jungling von edlem Gefiihle. but not having a Subject and a Predicate of its own.—— THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 156 I wandered lonely as a cloud That floats on high o'er vales and hills. Adjective. (Noun Phrase) — Note 1. (Adjective Phrase) Oi ffrpaTiurrai. (Adjective Clause) Mancher ware kein Bosewicht geworden. which has adopted the term Proposition ' (not Phrase ') for use in France in the sense ' ' . (Adjective Phrase) 'EKparelre ck tov irpoo-t'xeiv toIs irpd'yp. it Main be called the may Predicate or the Main Verb. That a part of a Sentence consisting of a group of words equivalent to a Noun. (Main Verb) Main Main Main Hauptsatz Hauptprddikat Hauptverb Clause Predicate Verb Proposition Principale Predicat Principal Verbe Principal IX. or Adverb. is . The difficulty felt by the Committee in recommending the term Phrase in tins sense (see Interim Report. be called a Noun Phrase. That he has gone is clear.). (Adverb Phrases) The clock on the bridge struck the hour. Adjective Phrase. 9) has now been removed by the action ' ' Ministry of Public Instruction. (Adverb Phrase) Tanta in tanto viro vitia referre pudet. upon the question whether — In regard to the part of a complex sentence not subordinate the Committee recommends that in cases where it contains a Subject and a Predicate of its own it be called the Main Clause but that where it does not. (Adjective Phrase) Mens alitur oratoribus poetisque legendis. wenn dafur gehalten hatte. Examples : (Main Clause) If (When) you call me. or Adverb Phrase. —The man ihn nicht Committee was nearly equally divided participial expressions such as construction should be called Absolute Ablative Latin the Clauses or Phrases (Recommendation IX. oi iv ttj ttoXci. as the case require. of the French p.aa-i tov vovv. (Adverb Clause) Note 1. (Main Predicate) That you are right implies that I am wrong. (Adjective Phrase) Un bateau a vapeur. Ausdruck Phrase Examples Locution : on the bridge at midnight. Note which 2. I will come.

' ' in case. 7roros. viz. etc." " Speak the truth. ." " Tell : me not in mournful numbers.— — REPORT ON GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY of ' Note of. above. and VIII. those introduced by Pronouns. 'how') or relative (e. ." " I speak the truth. Adjectives or Adverbs which in other contexts are either interrogative (e. including Commands. Wishes " So be it. (b) classified as follows in all the five : " It is to logical judgments) so. Ola ! ! " " Que de -rreta-ofjiai fleurs «aKa. e.' ' and Clause.g. 4.g. Prayers. ruthless king.' ' like because ' Recommendation in order that. X. : How true it is How ! true ! " Welch eine Wendung durch Gottes Sendung " Quam pulcher est abstulit error with " Ut perii ! ut " ! me malus " ! " Qu'il est riche " 'fls koAws €t7ras. d> s ). (c) ? " " You think so " ? Desires. and compare Recommendations VI. p.g. " ! (Contrast Questions ws. ' Note. ' —Exclamations such as the following are a fourth always distinct in meaning and intonation and to a great extent also in form (including order of words) from both Statements and Questions but they do not stand on the same level of importance as the three kinds of sentence enumerated above " " " " class of sentence. in some cases mere inversions of them or differing only in tone of voice) " Is it so ? " " What : is it e. That sentences be languages (a) Statements (corresponding e. 157 ' —For the nomenclature of expressions as to.' see XXXIII. Requests." : Questions (the interrogative forms of statements." " May your shadow never grow less." The term Desire is here used in a technical sense ( = Expression of desire). are here exclamatory. Entreaties.) The term Exclamation ' has wider uses but it is here applied to a limited class of sentences.g. but ' . Sentence 1910.g. ' 2.' See Nomenclature Grammaticale." " Ruin seize thee.

158

THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION
Statement


REPORT ON GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY
That Adverb Clauses be

XII.

the five languages
(1)

"

classified as follows in all

:

Clauses of Time
e.g.

159

When

:

my

I ope

mouth, let no dog bark."

(Temporalsdtze, Propositions de temps)
(2)

Clauses of Place

(3)

:

" Fools rush in where angels fear
(Lokalsatze, Propositions de lieu)

e.g.

Clauses of Reason
" Freely

e.g.

we

to tread."

:

serve, because we freely love."

(Kausalsatze, Propositions de cause)
(4)

Clauses of Purpose
"

e.g.

And

:

wretches hang, that jurymen

may

dine."

(Absichtssdtze, Propositions de but)
(5)

Clauses of Result
e.g. " He is so weary
:

that he cannot speak."

{Folgesatze, Propositions de consequence)
(6)

Clauses of Condition

(7)

:

" // you have tears, prepare to shed them now."
(Bedingungssdtze, Propositions de condition)

e.g.

Clauses of Concession
e.g.

" Murder, though

it

:

have no tongue, will yet speak."

(Konzessivsdtze, Propositions de concession)
(8)

Clauses of Comparison
(a)

Manner
e.g.

(b)

"

Degree
e.g.

:

:

Heaven does with us

as we with torches do."

:

" It

is as long as it is broad."
" It is longer than it is broad."
" Blood is thicker than water."

(Komparativsdtze, Propositions de comparaison)

Note

The Committee recommends that the terms
and apodosis be abandoned, and that the terms
If-clause be used for the Clause of Condition and Then-clause
for the Main Clause.
'

1.

protasis

'

Note

2.

'

—The

'

Committee recommends the retention of

the term Absolute (German Absolut, French Absolu) as applied
to the constructions called

Nominative Absolute, Accusative

Absolute, Genitive Absolute, Ablative Absolute.

:

THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION

160

That the following parts of speech be recognized
Pronoun, Adjective, Verb, Adverb, Preposition,
Noun,
Parts of
XIII.

Speech.

Noun

Conjunction, Interjection.

;

REPORT ON GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY
XV.

161

That the words my,' thy/
her/
its/
our/
>'
" his father "
ur
their/
and
his
as
used
in

Pronouns
and
mein/ dein/ sein/ ihr/ unser/ euer/ Ihr
Adjectives.
meus>
suug)
nosterj
vegter
monj
'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

,

«

1

ton/

son/

'

thine

'

.

'

^^

notre/

'

'

'

'

'

'

;

,

votre/

<

'

>

leur

'

.

e/xos,

;

be called Possessive Adjectives. So too
as used in poetry before a vowel.

tfjLtTepos
'

;

'

'

^/xeVepo?,

o-os,
'

>

«

.

mine

and

'

XVI. That in their ordinary use English hers/ ours/
yours/ theirs/ and mine/ thine/ his/ as used in " This
" This is his" " His is better than hers
is mine,"
"
German meiner/ der meine/ der meinige/ etc. French
le mien/ etc., be called Possessive Pronouns.
'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

;

'

Possessiv

Possessive

Possessif

XVII. That English this and that/ if used with a
Noun, be called Demonstrative Adjectives, but if used without
a Noun be called Demonstrative Pronouns and that the same
terminology be applied to the corresponding words in the
'

'

'

;

other languages.
Demonstrative

Demonstrativ

Demonstrate}

XVIII.

That the words 'myself/ 'thyself/ 'himself/
ourselves/ yourselves/ yourself/ themselves/ as used in sentences like " I hate myself/' " Leave
them to themselves," be called Reflexive Pronouns so too
the following words in the corresponding use German
mich/ dich/ sich,' etc., Latin and French me,'
te/
se, etc., Greek Ifxavrov, o-eavrov, kavrov, etc.
'

herself/

'

itself/

'

'

'

'

;

1

'

'

'

Reflexive

XIX.
'

That the words

yourself,'

and

himself,'

'

euros be called

Examples
Ipse

Reflexiv

'

'ipse,'

herself,'

'

'

Reflechi

'

selbst/

itself

'

(in

'

-meme/ 'myself/

the sense of

'

ipse

Emphasizing Adjectives or Pronouns.

:

dixit.
Nomentanus erat super ipsum.
I said it myself.
Here's a shilling for yourself.

Emphasizing

21

Emphatisch or Betonend

Emphatique

'),


THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION

162

That in view of the twofold use of many verbs
terms Transitive and Intransitive be applied to uses
rather than to classification, i.e. that it is better to
speak of a verb used transitively or intransitively
than to speak of a transitive or an intransitive verb.

XX.

the

Examples
Used

:

Used intransitively

transitively

He moved
The

Transitivement
Intransitivement

Transitiv
Intransitiv

Transitively
Intransitively

The moon moves round the

the rock.

birds are building
their nests.

XXI.

That in

pressions as "

earth.

Birds build in spring,

English sentences containing

He laughed

the

at

story,"

it

such exgenerally

is

advisable to treat the Verb as used intransitively, and to take
the Preposition with the

Noun

that follows as forming an

Adverb Equivalent.

Note. In English it is difficult to draw a line determining
what point an Adverb or a Preposition becomes so closely
attached to the Verb as to make the term Compound Verb
at

'

'

But

necessary.

by

there are certain constructions in which, side

side with the analysis just

recommended,

necessary

it is

also to recognize that the process of composition has been

nearly completed
(1)

When

:

viz.

:

the Verb and the Adverb or Preposition are

together used in the passive,

although the Verb

alone could not be so used, e.g. "The matter was
talked about," " The distinction was whittled away."
(2)

Where the meaning

of

the Verb

+

the Adverb

or

Preposition varies according to the closeness of the

connexion between the two
contrast, for example,
(a) H He laughed at everything good " with " Did
"
he laugh at 2 o'clock in the morning ?
(b) "The doctor was sent for" with "The boy
;

was sent

XXII.
sense of

'

for the doctor."

That the term 'active' be no longer used in the
and that the term neuter be given

transitive,'

up altogether

in connexion with Verbs.

'

'


REPORT ON GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY
XXIII.

That the term Impersonal Verb

impersonally) be retained in

its

(or

163

Verb used

ordinary sense.

XXIV. That the term Auxiliary Verb be retained in its
ordinary sense, and that Verbs that are not auxiliary be
described as Verbs with full meaning.

XXV. That the terms Strong and Weak, as applied to
conjugation and declension, be retained.
Examples

;

Strong
to fall

brechen

. then. THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 164 Such words as the following. III. aussi . . aut. In an earlier use. so. .' — Note. firjSe car. ow. German und . namque. There is therefore a practical convenience in calling them Adverbs rather than Conjunctions. -ve . be termed Coordinating Conjunctions. : ni kcu. French el (followed by el) ni (followed by ni) ou (followed by ou). oder . J yap. " They are not ever jealous for the cause. allein. consequently. Latin et. vero . . alors . and either (followed by or '). denn.' 'nor. nam.L = ' also. re : . noch . like other Adverbs in German. doch : . kcu (followed by Kat) ovre (followed by oure). some instances of which are found in Shakespeare. Greek re (followed by «at or re). ou . but jealous for they are jealous " (Othello. Beiordnend Coordinating Coordonnant — Note. quoque. : . weder (followed by noch) by oder). vel. -que .g. sondern . aXXd. 160).' 'or/ 'but. therefore. etiam. sed. neanmoins auch. itaque. /xt/tc (followed by fxtp-e) (followed by rj) /xcV (followed by 8c). y) . et (followed by et). . XXVIII. neither (followed by nor ').— . the English for was a Subordinating Conjunction (= 'because') e.' and in modern English for. vel (followed by vel). ov8e. atque. That the same term (Coordinating Conjunction) both (followed by and '). . igitur . yet. : .' together with the corresponding words ' in other languages. /teVroi. autem. neque . XXIX. are Adverbs daher . verum. aber. at. : soivohl (followed entweder (followed : . tamen . The German words quoted above involve as a general rule inverted order. ' ' : iv. que (followed by que) Latin neque (followed by neque) aut (followed by aut). Se rj . be applied to the words ' ' ' ' ' ' German ' ' ' by als). ko. mais . That the words 'and. : : French Greek et . o/xws. . nevertheless also } moreover . ac. . enim.

etsi. ut . (7) (8) : : as wie . than (9) . Adjectives. That the term Connective be used to comprise words. . That on syntactical grounds order of words in German) (e. the rules for the desirable to give the it is 165 same name in all the languages considered to such words as the German wenn and dass. obwohl . que . au cas ou . S«m. cum . ehe. 6Ve. : introducing Adverb Clauses of Reason .g. . Noun Clauses comme. ubi . si. XXX. <L.— : REPORT ON GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY XXX. avant que . quod. which serve to connect clauses or sentences. irrei. cum. en cas que. wenn. etc. dum . that . on. introducing Adverb Clauses of Place where . als introducing that . . Adverbs. wo-tc. obgleich. damit . 07rws. ut que (after . whether Pronouns. quam quam . ut . : wenn. because . falls . ov. or Conjunctions. bevor . quamvis. koI el. introducing Adverb Clauses of Concession though. XXXI. ut. wo . iVa. wahrend before . d. all [Recommendations XXVII. quoique .XXXIL] . introducing Adverb Clauses or Noun Clauses and that the name for all such words be Subordinat. still Unterordnend Subordinating words desirable to recognize that the these words in case constructions or other some are Subordonnant more important of the of these : introducing Adverb Clauses of cum Time when . eiSa. d /cat. dass . dass . : . r/. 6Vt. als while . £v . . quamquam. though origin of many of it is adverbial expressions can The following (1) (2) (3) be clearly traced. quod. lorsque . : parce que (4) introducing Adverb Clauses of Purpose (5) introducing Adverb Clauses of Result (6) introducing Adverb Clauses of Condition in order that that. : quand. si . : afin que si. .) irptv. w?. weil . oil . quia. pendant que . que . introducing Adverb Clauses of Comparison if . XXVIII. ut . . ing Conjunction. ews. quam . XXIX. ante (prius) . que . sicut.

e.' ' as XXXIV Gender tinction of ' 'in order that.g. roses bloom. as the specific for certain connective Pronouns quae.' as Compound Prepositions. nor is it true that the distinctions of gender in these languages are ultimately based upon distinctions of sex. of . ' mother ' (2) feminine. case." relative ' is.' like ' That groups because of. For the to nothing in English .g. when.' ' XXXII. to use the term masculine ' as denoting male. ' table ' To call neuter leads grammar for.quod)and Adjectives (e. Latin. dis- —The objection to distinctions of gender in English Note. and Greek there is only a partial identity between masculine and male. where.t. is words of Compound Conjunctions. Lat. and groups to. qui. and 'neuter' as denoting neither male nor female is to adopt a false definition of the term gender." " the house where he —The Note. for Connective.Lat. traditional term ' was born. Fr. That the term Relative be retained in its ordinary name use.La. ' ' : XXXIII. and both the origin and the actual use of words like Engl. there is no agreement of the adjective with its noun in gender and further. .' which.' differ from other pronouns by marking the clause or sentence which they introduce as forming part of a larger group. as there are no inflexions gender in adjectives in modern English.' feminine and 'female.quantus).gr. be described as ' unnecessary and (1) masculine. French. ' Brugmann.qualis.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 166 —The term Link may be used as a short substitute Note. ' ' ' ' ' results of modern research on ' ' ' this question set. cum. in- adequate words like who.' In German. que. and as indicating the origin of many Conjunctions. " the season when the (e. of course. misleading. feminine as denoting female.' 'neuter' and 'neither male nor female'.' 'in like that they are father - That in English Grammar the Gender be not emphasized. when they introduce an Adjective Clause with a Noun as antecedent. oil. ubi.

especially in Pronouns. possible far as so that and discarded. XXXV. Tempo's classic vale. § and Possessive Objective. and the English Accidence in the Parallel by J. Hall and E. and the discussion of the question (in a review of the abridged edition of this book) by R. I . 231. Nominative Objective of ' • the two terms Accusative and Dative ' should be used „ ' Possessive Examples am thou art . Who I saw him .. En lish be the Latin names of the Cases be used. (Nominative) etc. Vol. Thus ' ' ' ' ' : Instead of „ „ ' ' Subjective be used ' „ . Nobody saw me. § 74. beam of Good day. in view of the surviving inflexions. Classical Review. to inflected languages.. the term Nominative should be used Address the term Vocative should ' . II. part 1. ' : he is Where art thou. so far as more highly it extends. to recognize the likeness of English. . (Dative) ^ V (Genitive) A stone's throw. Caesar's murderers. (1904). 82-103.— — — REPORT ON GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY 167 Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik. and also because it is desirable for the learner Note. the term Genitive should be used.' That the terms Cases in of names as Nominative of Address Cases. die j j ? saw Mark Antony light ? 1 (Vocative) / (Accusative) v him offer Caesar's trophies. S. Sonnenschein (1889). From this point of view the following statement may be made in regard to the Cases in English b . See the brief statements relating to English nouns and of Historical English Grammar also pronouns in H. 49. Sweet's Primer (1902). § Grammar Scries. pp. J —The term Case is necessary even for English Grammar by itself. Vol. XVIII. p. Sir. A. Caesar's images. 2nd edition. 412. a crown. Conway.

Dat. pp.g. Wundt. Die Sprache (Vol. . § 103. viz." See H. Onions. Gen. Masculines plural all duals in Greek. Part II. The traditional names of the Cases seem to the Committee preferable to new terms such as Werfall (for ' ' . is marked (if at all) only by the order of words in several classes of Nouns and Pronouns even in highly inflected languages and the plural. Kasus Nominativ Case Nominative Vocative Accusative Genitive Dative Examples Nom. see : . J'en ai quatre. In modern English many of the distinctions of form which originally existed have fallen away. T. for example. in the singular and the plural. 1990 C. New English Grammar. Advanced English Syntax. THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 168 German. mon ami. may be seen. Gas Nominatif Vocativ Vocatif Akkusativ Accusatif Genitiv Genitif Dativ Datif : Je l'ai dit. II me dit cela.—— . Herr. On the importance of order of words as one of the means employed by languages to mark distinctions of Case. Der Schlussel des Hauses. Sweet. 73-85). La maison dont j'ai la clef. in the double use of him e. " I gave my son a present " " It saved my father much trouble. Er sah mich. Neuters. has Cases. : e. I. Voc. . but the differences of meaning are English.. as ' ' : between the Accusative and the Dative of Nouns in sentences which have both Cases is marked by their order in the sentence (Dative before Accusative) e. of Cases be used also in German and French. — — — — — — Note. 2 of his Yolkerpsychologie.g. ed. II me vit. " I brought him here " (Accusative) " I brought him a present " (Dative). Ich habe es gesagt. Latin. Feminines. and Greek in German German That the same names . §§ 1823. Vocative. Er sagte es mir.g. Genitive. The distinction between the Nominative 1900. and the Accusative. Ace. Sieh. den Ring. Vous avez tort. in and many Masculines singular XXXVI. like five Accusative. in the singular German. Nominative and Dative. for instance. Moreover the distinction of great importance. in .

— REPORT ON GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY Nominative). 22 and . Grammaire paree des Langues Romanes. Examples : He came to London. see Meyer-Liibke. The retention of the traditional names of the Cases Greek and Latin to denote the particular categories of form is not inconsistent with the treatment of Cases like the Greek Genitive and the Latin Ablative as syncretic Cases the Greek Genitive having absorbed the functions of the in ' ' — original Ablative. In French the latter part of this recommendation can be justified not only by obvious convenience but also historically. 600) and in vernacular modern Greek all Prepositions take the Accusative as their ordinary construction. Com- similarly in Byzantine Greek (from a. p. — Note. ' ' XXXVII. we find the Accusative replacing the Ablative after Prepositions (Satuminus cum suos discentes. He travelled with me. both on inscriptions and in late writers. and that the term Locative be used describe forms like humi. since in Vulgar Latin. which are used by some teachers and writers of grammars in Germany. 79. for the Cases Accusative. i. ' Wesfall 169 ' or Wemfall (for Dative). : the names used Vocative. II. be as follows That in Latin Nominative. XXXVIII. That in English and French the combination Noun or Pronoun be called a Casephrase and that if the case of the Noun or Pronoun depending on the Preposition be named.d. at Pompeii even. it be called the of a Preposition with a .d. Je suis revenu avec lui. Wessenfall ' Wenfall ' (for Accusative). before a. the Latin Ablative those of the original Instrumental and Sociative (which were identical in form) largely also those of the Locative. Nous sommes all6s au theatre. Accusative. ' ' (for Genitive). ' ' to ' — Note. 29) and . Genitive.' ruri/ Romae. Ablative .' Dative.e.

marking the action as either going on or habitual in . and Compound Forms of the Present (does write) and Past (did write). etc. but also of the needs of each language as taught separately. which mark the action as going on. (Ablative for original Locative) XXXIX. wrote to me " (2) as a Past Con- his arrival he .' which denote a state as distinct from an act. Tenses of the Indicative be adopted.). The tense e. English. Verbs like be/ love/ know. Ablative) NaO^ d\ov. has been writing. as follows That the order of the Cases (where found) be : Nominative Vocative Accusative Genitive Dative Ablative 8 XL o/the - That tne fonowin g scheme of names of Indicative. used in negative and interrogative sentences and to express emphasis. (Ablative for original Instrumental) Eo anno interfectus est. ' write ' is The verb taken as an example (3rd person singular). " On called Past has a double use. was writing. (1) as a Past Historic. tinuous. avTois dv8pd<riv. (Dative for original Sociative) Securi percussus est. would be writing.— — THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 170 Examples '0 ddvaros : tXevdepol rrjv tov tyv)(T\v (Genitive for original <rw(jiaTOS. has written will have written Present Perfect Future Perfect Past Perfect had written would have written Future Perfect in the past with special Continuous Forms of each (is writing. have as a rule no special Continuous ' ' ' Forms. will be writing.g. In this scheme account is taken not only of the relations of the tenses in the five languages to one another.

echreibt Present hat geschrieben Perfect wird 8chreiben Future wird geschrieben haben Future Perfect sckrieb Past hatte geschrieben Past Perfect The German Past has the same double use as the English " Als er ankam. ein Fischer sass daran " Past : . As English.' The forms wiirde schreiben. REPORT ON GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY the past. " Goethe schrieb Balladen. das Wasser schwoll." " Ich habe geliebt und gelebet " (2) colloquially as a Past Historic. " while I read." " I thought that he would have written before this." " The poor soul sat England loved Queen Victoria. e." " Milton wrote e. but they belong to the Subjunctive Present Mood (see Recommendation XLIII.g." The German tense that corresponds to the English Present e. " Das Wasser rauscht'. " an mich (2) as a Past Continuous.g. sighing. . except that German has no special Continuous Forms and no Future in the past or Future Perfect in the past of the Indicative Mood.' in order to distinguish it from the English Present Perfect is used (1) as a Present Perfect. ' ' Perfect.." [For the usage in Main Clauses of Conditional Sentences see Recommendation XLIIL] German. " Nach seiner Ankunft hat er an mich geschrieben.g." Hence this tense is called simply Perfect. Note 3). e." " 171 He wrote Latin as well as English verse. schrieb er (1) as a Past Historic. .g. " Er hat schon an mich geschrieben." The Future in the past and the Future Perfect in the past are seen in examples like " I thought that he would write.g. marking the action as either going on or liabitual in the past. wiirde geschrieben haben have the same functions as the Future in the past and the Future Perfect in the past of English and French. e.

172 THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION French. As English. and the Past Historic).g." but also ' as a Past Historic.' because it is used (like the German Perfect) not only as a Present Perfect. e." Perfect a ecrit aura ecrit Future Perfect avait ecrit Past Perfect ecrit 2nd Past Perfect cut ecrit aurait ecrit Future Perfect in the past 'Past Continuous') is to be understood as covering both the durative and the habitual meanings of the tense. corresponds to the English Present Perfect is called simply Perfect. e.g. x The term 'continuous' (in . " Apres son arrivee il m'a ecrit. except that French has no special Continuous Forms and that the two meanings of the English Past are represented in French by two distinct tenses (the Past Continuous or Imperfect. " II m'a deja ecrit. French has The French tense that also two forms of the Past Perfect.

As French. " Scripsi ut rescribas. partly by tenses of the Subjunctive 8cribit Mood. except that Latin has no separate form with the meaning of the French Past Historic. lit. the Latin ' Perfect being used (like the French and the German Perfect) both as a Present Perfect. the past prospective meaning being expressed partly by the Future Infinitive. e. e.g. write "). L\TIN." and as a Past Historic. . " Scripsi ut rescriberes/' " Postero die ad me scripsit." Latin has also no Future or Future Perfect in the past of the Indicative Mood.g. just as the Future Indicative ecrira of ecrire + a is 173 " he had to a compound (Latin scribere habet).' REPORT ON GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY = ecrire + avail (Latin scribere habebat.

174 o THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION .

The examples are in the 3rd person singular. Latin. Moods.REPORT ON GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY 175 XLI. German. and French and in Greek a Subjunctive and an Optative Mood and that their chief tenses . English. : be named as in the following table. write wrote . That a Subjunctive Mood be recognized in English.

Venit ut videret. so that modern German cannot be said to have a rule of Sequence of Tenses. That it be recognized that the above-mentioned Subjunctives and Optatives differ in respect of their temporal signification from the tenses of the Indicative to which they correspond in name. Metuo ne absim. such as " Quid sit noscio. Er wollte nicht warten. He said that he would do it if he were asked ( = ' should be asked '). Subjunctives and Optatives. involve as part of their meaning a reference to future time. — — partit Ae-yoi (El'iroi). Je suis reste jusqu'a ce (_ ' should have gone '). though in some usages no sense of completion Examples is conveyed. ToDto woiQ Iva awepyoi/s ^X w 1 qu'il - ToOto iirolri<ra iva avvepyovs 2\oi[it. 1 the Present Subjunctives commonly referring to what is in prospect at the time of speaking (what is to be).g. Attendez que je vienne. ' should come'). Ae'"yu>(J. The Perfect. describing a completed action as in prospect (now or then). modal tense form has come to refer to the same time as so that the e.' It is requested that answers be written concisely. Anticipation. and in others to what was to be. In some uses.— — THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 176 XLII. . damit er sich bessere. : God save the King The Committee recommends that ! = this kind of clause bear ( shall bear) the name Noun Clause." " Tantopere exarserunt iudices : ut reum condemnaverint" In German the distinction between the primary and the secondary tenses of the Subjunctive has to a large extent fallen into disuse (since the sixteenth century). Man bestraft (bestrafte) ihn. Metuebat ne abesset. bis ich kame ( ' = —— — Quid faciam ? Quid faceret ? Venio ut videam. Past Perfect and Aorist of these moods differ in general from their other tenses in .€v (El/ir(o|A€v). Purpose and Wish. the reference to the future has disappeared. as used in expressions of Will. however. in some Dependent the corresponding tense of the Indicative Questions and some Consecutive Clauses of Latin (relating to a matter of fact). and the Past Subjunctives to what was in prospect at some time in the past which the speaker and the Greek Optatives has in mind (what was to be) referring in some usages to what is to be.

in \ If I asked him.—— . (Contrast might/ . (Equiv. of Present Subj.ov. (Equiv.) 1 feared lest he should write. I Wohnung fande. hv 6's firj fxrj irpdrepos P«|3oT]0T|Kd>S —In some usages (especially in clauses the Past Subjunctive has vp. irpdrepos P«|3ot]9t]k<«>s vplv &t\.ev tws a. occasionally e. especially forms should in ' Subordinate Clauses. Ne dederit gratis quae dedit. Ylepup. of Past Subj. (Equiv.g. / Main Clause) 2 I r am The same idea ' ' lose myself. REPORT ON GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY 177 -Non prius duces ex concilio dimittunt quam ab his sit concessum ut arma capiant.) Antequam de adventu meo audire potuissent ( should have been able '). Examples : (Equiv..) (Equiv. je serais heureux. I should write.4vop. The agreement requires that he shall write. 1 Examples If : he came. 8s Note. . XLIII.vovyjo*Lr\ rb 8eap. of Past Subj. of writing in order that he may write in return.') Wenn er doch endlich eine ' If il die ihm gefiele sera toujours beau de l'avoir tentee. of Past Subj.g.wTr)piov MySevl ruv 'EXXijj'Wf ^oyjdelre OvSevl fiorjOeiv cfiouXeade. That Equivalents of ! may/ or Sub- Subjunctive forms junctive Equivalents be recognized in English compounded with he comes (come). come of condition) to express not futurity from a past point of view but remoteness of expectation at the time of speaking. usque dabit.ooTrjpi. (So even in clauses of purpose. and forms compounded with should would (2nd and 3rd person) in Main (1st person) and ' ' ' shall/ ' ' ' ' ' Clauses.1v tj. he would write. I should be glad. L'entreprise dut-elle echouer.) (Equiv. 2 Cf. : ' Ylepiixivere eus av dvoivOfj "fb 8ecriJ. in Macedoniam perrexi." 23 expressed in French by a past if he came '). shall be glad. " To lose thee were to It would be well remoteness of tense of the Indicative. It were well e. If he asked me. which would also be good English) The agreement required that he should write. Present Subj.) I wrote in order that he might write. of Past Subj. S'il = ' is venait(' ' .

g. expression which originally denoted remoteness in time has here come to be used to denote remoteness of likelihood or expectation. without adding that the same thing still seems likely. where facturus eram is a frequent substitute for facerem or fecissem in the Main Clause of a I is Conditional sentence. are clearly the past forms of have written. whatever their mood may be.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 178 Note 1. ' ' ' . demandait '). merely a remote possibility as to what may happen in the future regarded from the present standpoint. he would) have written as used in Main Clauses of Conditional sentences may also be described by the names Future in the 'past and Future Perfect in the past respectively. i.e.' coming ? means I was under an obligation to do it (but I don't say that (' s'il If it ' : ' ' ' ' ' am The same shift of meaning still under the obligation). inevitably suggests that the likelihood has diminished. be asked how a Future in the past has come to be used to express. to express the idea of conditioned futurity. An e. —All these forms. obligation.' wiirde geschrieben haben may on the same principle be called simply Note 3. i. naturally relate to act which lies in the future from the standpoint some of the speaker or from some other point of time which he has in mind. he was coming. he will) write corresponding in this respect to the Past Subjunctive which is used in the Subordinate Clause of the same kind of Conditional sentence ('if he asked me'). as it does in these cases. being compounds of which have such meanings as permission or verbs possibility. facturus eram.' seen very clearly in Latin.' or 1 shall (you will. . These forms.. the answer is that to state now that something yesterday seemed likely.e. Note 2. Is he will happen only under certain circumstances I should do it properly Well. willingness or intention. ' ' ' ' 1 ' ' . . and to the Past Imperfect Indicative in the corresponding clause in French the forms I should (you would. — Of the above-mentioned Subjunctive Equivalents he would) write and I should (you would. —The German forms wurde schreibcn. si liceret or licuisset. that the thing cf. their mood being not specified.

Historisch-grammatische Einfiihrung in die friihhochdeutschen Schriftdialekte. which are used mainly in Reported Speech XLIV. That in in addition to the : er er Future Future Future Future werde schreiben werde geschrieben haben yp&if/oi yeypa\poiro Examples Er sagt Er sagt Subjunctive Perfect Subjunctive Optative Perfect Optative (Passive) : (sagte). TLlwev bri ypa\poi (fiefivrjaoiro). That the Verb-nouns and Verb-adjectives formed from the several tense stems of the Verb be named as indicated in the following table : In Old German (to the time of Luther) a corresponding Indicative er wurde schreiben. -ndi. which was equivalent in meaning to er schrieb. § 273 Moser. modal tenses enumerated above (Recommendation XLI. er (sagte). 1 German and Greek there be recognized. ' . adjectives. as well as the Latin Verb-noun in -ndum.') The turning of the auxiliary into a Subjunctive gave to the compound 1 existed . under Werden. Subjunctive of the Past of werden) and therefore belong to the Subjunctive Mood.— —— — REPORT ON GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY Future in and Future the past 179 Perfect in the past respectively . -ndo and that the term Supine be . tense the meaning of futurity. Verbnouns Verb- That the term Gerund be used to denote the English Verb-noun in -ing and the French Verbnoun in -ant. . p. Die deutsche Sprache der Gegenwart. XLV. (See Siitterlin. retained in Latin. Deutsches Worterbuch. 226 Paul. two others. compounded with a Subjunctive auxiliary (wiirde. XL VI. and therefore none from which for although they are clearly they need to be discriminated. yet there are "no compound Indicative tenses in modern German of which they can be called the Subjunctives. -werde gekommen sein.). er werde kommen.

THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 180 ^ „ 3 a B ^ ^^ ¥ **< %: •a- a G < * S S 5 ^ -O •s. &< - •!-• •q j3 2 >> jj . 2 « £ E I <o.

Haig Brown. Milner-Barry. W. F. H. Pantin. Fiedler. S. XXXVII. E." But clamations. G. Rushbrooke. and Adverb Clause. 1 Cloudesley Brereton. Conway. Thompson. G. 5 W. Chairman. H. Rouse. Boas.) With reservations. With reservations "on particular points of grammatical doctrine. M. R. W. 4 Edith Hastings. L. D. H." . P. G. * With reserve as to Recommendations XXXVI. C. Sec. Adjective Clause. 6 W.REPORT ON GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY 181 SIGNATURES E. E. Shaw Jeffrey. Thring. is some 2 With reserve as " Cases in French to Recommendation XXXVI. Agnes S. 4 1 F. L. Paul. and the French portion of XL." (L. dissenting from the Recommendation as to Dependent Ex"The point is not. very important.) real difficulty about the class of sentences so named. and there (H. W. Eleanor Purdie. " It seems to me unwise in the subjects treated in these sections to depart from or add to the terminology of the Nomenclature Grammaticale. Thomas. as decreed by the French Ministry. Louis von Glehn. Sonnenschein. should be limited to Pronouns and the Article (in which actual changes of form occur). B. Bradley. 2 R. B. Hon. Compton. M. Walter Rippmann. C. 3 H. wherever they occur. Frank Ritchie. however. P. G." (C. S. Clarke.) 3 With reserve as to the terms Noun Clause. in accordance with the scheme of terminology adopted by the French Ministry. F. A. 6 8 von G. P. E. Purdie.

Milner-Barry. pp. Edith Hastings. regret that the the Proceedings of the Classical Association. Haig Brown. Our views are fully stated in an Addendum to the Interim Report issued in 1909 and reprinted in mittee. E. (1910). Conway. g. S.182 THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION ADDENDUM. R. R. VII. the undersigned minority of the Terminology Com- Committee has decided to make no recommendation as to the nomenclature of French pronouns such as me and moi. rushbrooke. 137-140. M. and to these views we adhere. L. Vol. Eleanor Purdie. . We. w.

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APPENDIX 187 .

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R.....D.A.D. Chicago..C. Litt. The Right Hon. P. The Right Hon. the Earl of Halsbury.D.M. M.. D.S. K.G.. M. Bart.. Liverpool.D.S.I. Litt. LL.. J.D. LL.. M. Poynter..D. LL.. Kenyon..S.. Mr.. Manchester. K. Director of the British Museum.R.A. Lord Bishop of Lincoln.E.C. P..A. LL. D.L.C. Lord Curzon of Kedleston. G. H. M.B.. F. F.B. LL. Esq. Sir Archibald Geikie.C. LL.. P.. G.D.C.D...C. D.D. Professor R. Conway.D. 189 Litt.C. Asquith. Sir R.D. The Right Hon. O..L. Charles Gore.D.L.. Professor Gilbert Murray.I. The Right Hon. K. Edward Lee Hicks.Litt. Lord Bishop of Birmingham. LL. Mackail. Cambridge. LL. K. H.M. Justice Phillimore. G. F. O.C. the Earl of Cromer. Lord Justice Kennedy..D. D. J.C.C. Professor Sir Edward J. Professor W. Gardner Hale. M.C..C. VICE-PRESIDENTS The Right Hon.S. Ph... D. D... The University. LL.M..D. B. Professor Henry Jackson.I.OFFICERS OF THE ASSOCIATION FOR 1911 PRESIDENT The Right Rev. D. Finlay. D.L..D.P. S. Oxford.R.S. The Hon.C.L. The Right Rev. Professor Robinson Ellis..D. of the Royal Academy. Bart. President . Postgate. The Right Hon.. D.C. G.C..L..L. G. LL..C.. D. Oxford. W.D.. Litt. Esq..A.

J.. Trinity College. Herbert Warren. LL. Representing the Classical Association of South Australia Professor J. Woodburn.. The University.D. Litt. The University. Caspari. M...A. E. Taylor. Maunde Thompson. Esq. C. Professor R. President of Magdalen College. M.A. Miss Jex-Blake. D. Ramsay. Roberts. Esq.. Esq. Esq.. E.C. Cambridge. M. : Postgate. M. Professor J.A.. D. British Museum.C... Esq.A. Rugby.. COUNCIL Professor E. B. SECRETARIES J.A. S. T... B. M. Ashmolean Museum.. Oxford. M. Pantin.D. C..A. Granger.. Cambridge. University College. Eton College. Girton College..A. Walters.. Sheffield. M. Arnold.. M. M. HON. P. G. W.A. Sonnenschein. W. St. Master of Gonville and Caius College. Olave's Grammar School. David. King's College. P. 0. E. D.. H.A. Representing the Classical Association of New E.. Reigate.C. Sleeman.C. M. G. The Rev. Esq.A. Esq.. B. Esq. D. Birmingham. A. University College. M.L.. London. M.. C.A. M.B. Ernest Harrison. University College. M. M. South Wales .C. Esq. Nottingham. B. Garnsey. Royal Holloway College. A..A. Miss M. M.. Chambers. Liverpool. A.. The University. Professor E.A.. Paul's School. M.. St. TREASURER R. Oxford.A. W.. Esq. H. Rushbrooke. Sir E.: APPENDIX 190 The Eev.. Cambridge.L. Seaton. L. V. The University... A. Bosanquet. Birmingham. Hogarth. HON. D. Liverpool. R. London.A. Litt. Professor F.A.Litt.. Esq. Myres. W. C. Professor W. Esq.D. Oxford.A. M.. Bangor. Flamstead Walters.A.. G.

The name of the Association shall May 28th. and. subject to any special direction of a General Meeting. 1. two Secretaries. 4. a Council of fifteen members besides The officers of the Associathe Officers. attention to new intercourse and discoveries (d) To create opportunities co-operation among for friendly all lovers of classical learning in this country. Vice-Presidents. and shall be ex officio members of 3. 6. . and ordinary Members. 1910. and January 11th. the Council. The Association shall consist of a President. a Treasurer.— . in particular (a) : To impress upon public opinion the such claim of studies to an eminent place in the national scheme of education (b) To improve the practice of discussion of its (c) To encourage investigation teaching by free classical scope and methods and call . tion shall be members thereof. shall have control of the funds of the Association." 2. 5. provided always that questions before 191 . RULES Adopted at the General Meeting of the Association. The Council shall meet as often as it may deem necessary upon due notice issued by the Secretaries to each member. 190G. It shall be within the competence of the Council to rules for its own make procedure. and. The Council shall be entrusted with the general administra- tion of the affairs of the Association. and at every meeting of the Council five shall form a quorum. 1904 5th. . be ''The Classical Association. October 10th. first Amended at the General Meetings of January 1908. The objects of the Association are to promote the development and maintain the well-being of classical studies.

payable and due on the 1st of January in 15. of the Council shall be elected for three years. but vacancies occurring in the course of the year may be filled up temporarily by the Council. and shall not be eligible for re-election until after the For the purpose lapse of one year. the place to be selected at the previous General Meeting. on retirement Secretaries one year. 14. the Chairman to have a casting vote. Membership of either sex who of the Association shall be are in sympathy with open to all persons its objects. 8. The Vice-Presidents. but shall be eligible for re-election. The Council shall member's name from the 19.. 17. 7. shall be elected for Members 11. notwithstanding. The annual subscription shall be 5s. may compound for all future subscriptions by the payment in a single sum of fifteen annual subscriptions. Rules of the Association shall be made . The Election of the Officers and Council at the General Meeting shall be by a majority of the votes of those present. The list of agenda at the General Meeting shall be prepared by the Council. 18. 16. Secretaries. Members who have paid the entrance fee of 5s. the Treasurer. The General Meeting of the Association shall be held annually in some city or town of England or Wales which is the seat of a University. There shall be an entrance fee of 5s. and the 10. each year.APPENDIX 192 the Council shall be determined by a majority of votes. Vice-Presidents. provide that one-third of its original members shall retire in the year 1905 and one-third in 1906. The President shall be elected for one year. The President. and Council shall be elected at the General Meeting. and shall not be eligible for re-election until after the lapse of five years. and no motion shall be made or paper read at such meeting unless notice thereof has been given to one of the Secretaries at least three weeks before the date of such meeting. or at any place within the limits of the British Empire which has been recommended by a special resolution of the Council . Treasurer. 13. the Chairman to have a casting vote. Alterations in the have power to remove by vote any list of the Association. of establishing a rotation the Council shall. 12. Ordinary members shall be elected by the Council. 9.

The Council shall in each case determine the contribution payable by any such body and the privileges to be enjoyed by its members. The President of any body so associated shall upon their application during his term of office be a Vice-President of the Classical But the members of the not be deemed to be members of the nor shall they have any of the rights or Association. privileges of members beyond such as they shall enjoy through the operation of this rule. the Council shall have power to invite that body to nominate a representative to serve for a limited period (not member of Council beyond exceeding one year) as an additional the number 15 mentioned 25 in Rule 3. The provisions of Rules 8. of any body so associated is If the President unable to attend the meetings of Council.RULES 193 by vote at a General Meeting. . other bodies having like objects with to the . 10. upon notice given by a Secretary member to each at least a fortnight before the date of such meeting.Council and by vote of the same. associated Classical body shall Association. Classical Association shall relations with have power to enter into its own. 12. and 16 shall not apply to the Vice-Presidents created under this rule. The 20.

. Clifford. M...A.A.. B. W. R. Gloucester Gardens. C. Allen. Ailinger. M. Alington... 84. S. K.A. *Alford. Queen's College. St. Adam.Z. with a view to corrections TJte Members to whose names an asterisk in the next published List.. L.R. Commercial Travellers' School.. Oxford. John's Square.A. Birmingham. L..J. M. Allen. Reigate. Andrews. Kidderminster.A. Portoi-a. N. Abernethy. Dunedin. Miss..S... Abrahams.A... S.. R. Miss. Middlesex. G. B. Wolverhampton. Co. Cambridge. 1. M. M. D. Portsdown Road.. and Members are requested to be so hind as to send immediate notice of any Change in their addresses to R. Esq.. Miss M.... St. W.. E. S. Bombay.. S. M. E.A. Lisconnan. F. Miss E. Bishop's Road. Dervock. 194 St. Wakefield.. Maida Yale.A. School House..NAMES AND ADDRESSES OE MEMBERS %* This list is compiled from information furnished by Members of the Association. N. 51. M. Bishopshall West. Adams. Prof.. T. A.. Adam. is prefixed are Life Members. J. *Alder. Oxford. Pinner. Shrewsbury. Cambridge. Allen. S. Miss E.A. Sbaton. Rev.. Jesus College.A.D. Cambridge.C. Edgbaston. Tettenhall College. M.A. Miss A. Mrs. C.. Woodburn. Radegund's. A. B. M. Abbott. M. Xavier's College. B.. B. 12.. *Allen.B.. Fermanagh. M. Rivershill. M. Cairndhu. M.A.B. E. Rev. T. Co. Barton Boad. Agar. Allbutt. Francis Road.. Adshead.B. Merton College.. Otago University.. Aldersgate Street. P. M. F. Ager. Glebelands Road..A.A. W. St.. M. H.. Sir T. Antrim. 180. Ashton-on- Mersey. M. 21. . Surrey.. Adams. E. T. 65. Enniskillen..C. Abel. A.A.

A. Brackley. Aberystwyth. Oxford.A. N. H. Cavendish Square. H.. Ontario. D.C. Ashmore.C. R. Ashwin. Y. G..A. 62.. 20. Ashworth. B. F. *Ashby. S. J.. Antrobus. Prof. B.W. Miss E. W. M. Union University. L. Parkmount. Claygate.A. K. Warkworth Street. *Anson. N. 18. Argles.Y. Yorks. A.. W.. Allwood. *Atkey. M. B.. Armstead. Hermit's Hill. Prof. Schenectady. Very Rev. Marine Terrace.. G.. 50. E. F.M. M.. High Wycombe. St. Christ Church.G. L. Rev.W. *Ashbee. Mrs. H..NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 195 Allen. British School. Yorks. Appleton... Magdalen College School. K. E.A. M. F. Wilts. Manchester. Ashforth. North Wales. Alverthorpe. Oxford. Cambridge. Surrey. Pall Mall. T. M. M. Royal Grammar School. * Arnold. (Warden) All Souls' College.A. Kingston. Holly Bank. C.A. Antrobus.. Albans. Sir W. Anderson. B.. Armitage.A. *Ashton. M. B.. Miss H. Cambridge. C.B. F.. M.. Hertslets. W. M..D.P. Sutton-on-Hull. Wakefield....C. Sheffield. E.C...L. Bryn Seiriol. The High School. 41. F. N. S. W. M.. Heycroft. Berks. Junr.A.. 19. Bombay. B. R. Arnison. B. G. Manchester. Hawthorne Terrace. Whalley Range. 3.. Anderson. Prof.. Wright. Trinity Hall....A. Miss E.. Carlton Road.. Asquith.. J.. Miss H. Queen's University. Rome.. 9. The College.. Marlborough College. LL. J.S. Archibald. M. M. Oxford. Miss M. G.. Prof.. Anderson. Sir R. Lady Margaret Hall.. Surrey.. A. Cranley Gardens. Litt. Neville. Brentwood. Anderson. . Rose Valley House. Elphinstone College. W... Mortimer. Essex. Rt.A. M. C.S.A. M. Clifton Hill.P. W. Kirkstall. V. C.. K. M.A. M.. Allison. Cranleigh School. Anderson. A. Pupil Teachers' Centre. Burghfield Common. C. U.A.A. Birmingham. Bangor.A. Vice-Principal.. Hon. I.A. Mrs. Bart. University House. G. Angus. Arnold. Edgbaston Park Road. *Anwyl.. Bucks.A. West Didsbury.

Atkinson. Windsor. S... John's Vicarage. M.C. Lloyd. Staffs...S. Bloomsbury Square W. M..Chantrey House.. Birkenhead. Hants.C. M. D. E. Norfolk. M. M. A.A. Rev. M. P. Yorks. E.A. Kent. Baillie.. 19. B. St. Balfour. D. St. M. Banks. S. Norland Square. Miss L. 01 ton.A. 17. Baker. E. 0.. S. Cheltenham. Oxford.A. Ross. Stafford. J. Baker-Penoyre. M. Canon P. P...D. 10. Southsea. Lanes. 42. Bakewell. Barker. M. Merchant Taylors' School. Miss E.A. Upper Canada College. *Bahnes. Purnea. Petersfield. W.D. 20. O. Toronto. Mrs. I. The Shanty. Grammar School. Austen -Leigh.A. Bagge. Ross. Cambridge. Alfred. S. B. St. Hardwicke Court. Principal. F.D. B. Banks. London...A. 7. W.A. M. Barlee. Auden. High School for Girls. Lensfield Road. Miss K. J. G.. Bolton.. B. L. W. J.. Birmingham. Swinford Old Manor. London... M. Bailey. 5.A.. G. I). E. M. Hon. Kent. W.A..A.. Mapperley Road.A.. Austin.. Kent. B. J.P. Secretariat. Balliol College. Nottingham.C. Stourport. Bromley. Miss D. S. M. Athenaeum Club. Miss E. .. Bernard's Road. Merton Road.A.. J. G.C. A. M.. White House. Tunbridge Wells. C. Lord. Ashford. Bengal.A. Barker. Montcalm. Byculla.. B. Miss E. Eton College. Park Avenue. K. Audley Square. Stradsett Hall. Oxford. Head Master.. T.A. Colwich.. Barker. M. M... Miss M. Astley Hall.A.A.S. Bampfylde. Ball. F.W. M. Baring. Badley. Hellenic Society. Rev. Ball. Graham. Bedales School. Rev.. M.. * Barlow. Bombay. Ilkley. M.S.A. 40. Dudley Road. B. Gloucester. Canada. Prof.. Baldwin. Prof. Clare College Lodge....W... ll. Baines. Chorley New Road. Cyril. Charing. Gerald. Cambridge. Downham Market. M. Balcarres. E. Stoke Lodge...196 APPENDIX Atkinson. W. Newcastle... H. Barke. Eccleston Street.. P. W. M.A.. Rt. Thornhurst. John's College. Barker.A. Stoke-on-Trent. Cleeve Hill.. M. Bailey.. M.. H. Egerton Gardens..A. Leonard.. E.A. ff.. Barnard..A. I. Balfour. W.W.A. B..

High Court. Edinburgh.A.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 197 Barnett.. II Ciliegio. Belcher. M. Eastwood.. T. York House. B..A.W.. 4. Swansea. Oxford. M. 4. Westminster. London. E. Beeching. Leamington. P. 7 . Benger. Board of Education. C. Rev. Bell. A.. Liverpool. S. M. *Beare. *Barran. Bell. H. M. Miss E. Florence. Bell. Rev.. Birmingham. Bramley Rectory...A.C..A. B. N.W. Rev. Whitehall.A.. near Stockport.W. A... Murray. M. Mr. High School. Beasley. S. A. Cambridge...A..A. S. Baynes. Beaumont. M. Sawley Hall. Bell. Behrens. Belcher. 1G. San Gervasio. Beaven.. C. Newcastle-on-T3 ne.. Alexandra Drive. V. I. F. Canon H. Brentwood School.. Portugal Street... Yacht Club. M..W. Trinity College. Barrows. Hayes.. Miss II. Bell. Prof.. Miss E.. Miss M. T.. Edgbaston.C. *Benecke. E. Hayes. Greyfriars. Sir J. Dublin. Park Road. M. Prince Alfred Road.. Essex. The Army School. Brighton. C.C. W. Beggs. Rev..A. Bombay. Miss.. A. B.C. S.. Miss J. N.. Bayliss. Camon G.. 25a. Mr. M. Middlesex. Rev.. Canon E. M. M. Beck.. W. Westminster. M.A. Wentworth Road. LL.. near Maidenhead. Birmingham. Battiscombe.A. Birmingham.'s High School for Girls. 16. Woodford Vicarage. B. Ripon. King Edward VI. Bedford.. Liverpool.A. Beasley.. S.O. Bombay. B.A. M. Queen's Gate.O. S. Hon.. Merchiston Castle School. J. Worple Road. Belcher.A.A. Beaman. M.. J. 19. N.. Edward. E. King's College.. Benn. M. W... High Court. Bate. M. Northwood.P.A.. M.. M.A.S. Bombay. Wimbledon. Bart. A. E. W. M. Weston-super-Mare. S. The Hon.A. Scroope Terrace.D. Hampton School. *Batchelor. 100. M. I. I. G. The College..C. J. M. City Road.. W. R. Basingstoke. Wavertree.. Harborne. M. W.L. B. Barrett.. Bean. Fitz Walters.A.A. S. E. 99. Ecclesbourne School. Magdalen College. A.A. P.W. E.S.A. Milverton. Justice.. *Beckwith. M. Bramhall. M. High School. Cowley Street. Jamaica.. Miss L. M. 44. Malvern P. Little Cloisters. Baugh. New Street.. Rev. Justice.. H. Sefton Park.

. Rev. Queensland. H.A. C. St. Blakeney.A.A. W. The Close. Edmund's School. M.Chancellor of the University. M.. C. Ahmednagar. 16.A. Rev... M. Rev.A. Alexandra Drive. Paul's Preparatory School.. Wrexham. The Knoll. Brisbane. M.A. B. Bombay.. E.. Windsor. Kew. Steyne School. C. 3. 21. Grove Park. Beckenham. T. C. M. M. E. Eaton Square. Godfrey R.A. H. H. B. Hon. 42.. Christ- . Newbury. Birmingham. B. Rt. B. Rev. Bensly. Blagden. Nottingham. W. 22. M. Sir Nathan. E. Birmingham. Rev. Colchester. Bonser. M. E. New Zealand. County School for Girls. C. Lord Bishop of. Canon E. Binney. Sefton Park. Rt. Blundell. The University. Bernard. St.. Miss C. Bewsher. Rev.. A... Bowen..A. Eton College. Bennett. M. Bennett.A. G... 54. Prof. Oxford. S. Bombay. Rev. Boyd. J. Salisbury... Miss E. Billson... A. B. B. von B. S.. Canterbury.A.. I. Eaton Place. B.. C.. Bidgood. C. Magdalene College...S. Cambridge.E. C. 3.. Powis Square.A. 53. Cambridge. Ely. church. Berridge... Bingham. *Bosanquet. Miss F. H.. S.. Oadby. Bousfield. Liverpool. Blackheath.APPENDIX 198 Vanburgh Park.. Cumballa Hill.W. 7. Bombay. Vice.. Grammar School. Hammersmith. Colet Court. M..A.C.. Bethune-Baker. J. Benson. Priory Road. Cranmer Road. Waldeck Road. 23. W. Litt. Edgbaston. J. The King's School. C. M. M. Bevan.. W. Rev.. E. Windsor. Bayswater. Prof. N.D. A. Aberystwyth. W. Bourne.. H... E.W. H.A. Rt. Sir J. the Lord Bishop of. Middleton Grange..A.. E.. Altamont Lodge. Frating Rectory. A.. Byculla Club. J. The Wayside.. Leicestershire. Old School House. The University. LOS.. B.. Eton College. G. F. 8. Bodington.A.. M..A. M. Worthing.. 108. Bishop's Croft. Nalder Hill House. Christ Church.D.A. Mrs. Berks. Liverpool.. R.A. W. EL G. J. West Kensington. the C. A. M. Bombay Presidency. Surrey.. Bolus. M. Staverton Road. Blakiston.A. Botting.A. Oxford. Bowlby.A. Leeds. *Bowen. Blunt. Miss M. H. B. M. F. Bensly. Benson. F. Perham Road.. M. Sherborne. Miss A. Bernays. Upper Riccarton. R.A.A.

N. Oxford. Stone Buildings. Bradford. The University.W. Whitworth Park.C. King's Road. M.. Miss H. Wellington.. Brown.... Very Rev. J. B. C. Browning. Rev. M. Michael's Hamlet. L. Bridge. Francis Xavier. Browne. 4. E.. Springfield. MA.A. C. Browne.. Andrew's School. Kensington.W. Magdalen College..A. R.A. B. University College. Victoria University College. Bramston. V. E. M.. Prof. M. 63. New College. Gloucester. Dublin.. K.. Aberystwyth.. S. Eaton Terrace. Browning... 199 W. C.C.. The Nunnery.. Astell House. James's Street. A. Bow. T. A. Windsor... M. C. Bruce.. Brayne.J. Rev.. Stonehouse. Acomb Street. Prof. Admiral Sir C.. Liverpool. T. Oxford. Wilts. Hon. K. 14. 33. Brinton. St. S. W. M. Ernst. Browne. W. Bright. Winchester. Culver's Close.A. S. A. F. University College. 9.A. I. Pewsey. T.. India.. 1. J.. St. The Nunnery. Oscar. Eastbourne. Liverpool.. E. Mrs. Cranley Gardens. F. Ahmedabad. Royal Societies Club. Salisbury Street. H. Rev.J. May Bank. Joseph. Miss L. Bexhill-on-Sea. Aigburth. Bramley. Richmond. St.. Bridge. Broadbent..L. Eton College. Brighouse... Rev. M. Miss. Charterhouse.. Prof H. Cheltenham. Bombay. John's Vicarage... Arundel House. Durham.. Brown. S. Brownjohn. Theodore. C. M. Wood Green. I.A. Bruce-Forrest. H. Apsley Crescent. W.. Rankine. Tuebrook. County School. Dorset Road. M.. Rev. N.. H.B. Branfoot.. Godalming. Lynton House.A.. S.A.A. Brown... W.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS Boyd. Brightman... Liverpool. 31. E. L. Michael's Hamlet.C. Bramwell.A.B. J.. Hayling Island. Lincoln's Inn.. MA. Nepean Sea Road. Liverpool..A. Judge W. Satara. Brockman.W. II.. Rev. E. 0. *Bryans. MA. Bryant. Bramley-Moore.A. Eton College. M. D. Brown.A. Rev. S. Salisbury Street. B. B. St.. 5. E. M. H.C. Rev. St.S. St.A.W. W.. Edwardes Square. . F.. B. Francis Xavier's. Enford Vicarage. Bradley. M. India..A. H. St. M. Brooks. Broadribb. J. Bristol. A. Manchester.. Liverpool.. Liverpool. Brooke.. Broadbent. Windsor.A.A. Hants. A. G. Braham. New Zealand.

APPENDIX

200
*Bryce

Rt. Hon. James, Litt.D., D.C.L.
Washington, U.S.A.), c/o Miss Bryce,
;

Square,

(British
15,

Embassy,

Campden

Hill

W.

Bubb, Rev. C. S., 24, Gerston Road, Paignton, Devon.
Bull, Rev. R. A., St. Andrew's, Southborough, Tunbridge
Wells.

Buller, Rev. F. G., Birch Rectory, Rusholme, Manchester.
Burge, Rev. H. M., D.D., The College, Winchester.
Burke, Miss M. E., B.A., Dudley Girls' High School, Dudley,
Worcestershire.

M.A, Westroad Corner, Cambridge.
Burne- Jones, Sir P., Bt., 41, Egerton Terrace, S.W.
Burnett, Prof. John, Ph.D. (Hon.) LL.D., 19, Queen's Terrace,
St. Andrews.
Burnley, Rt. Rev. the Lord Bishop of, Reedley Lodge, Burnley.
Burns, Mrs. Cecil, School of Art, Bombay.
Burnside, Rev. W. F., M.A., St. Edmund's School, Canterbury.
Burrell, A., M.A., The Borough Road Training College,
Burkitt, Prof. F. C,

Isleworth.

Burroughs, E. A., M.A., Hertford College, Oxford.
Burrows, Prof. Ronald M., M.A., The University, Manchester.
Burrows, Ven. Archdeacon W. 0., M.A., 4, Manor Road,
Edgbaston, Birmingham.
Burstall, Miss S. A., M.A., Manchester Higb School for Girls,
Manchester.

Burton, Miss A.

L.,

M.A.,

11,

Palace Square,

Upper Norwood,

S.E.

Burton, Rev. Edwin, St. Edmund's College, Ware.
Bury, Prof. J. B., LL.D., Litt.D., 1, Selwyn Gardens, Cambridge.
Bury, Rev. R. G, M.A., Vicarage, Trumpington, Cambridge.
Butcher, J. G., M.A., K.C., M.P., 32, Elvaston Place, S.W.
Butler, H. E., M.A., New College, Oxford.
Butler, Very Rev. H. Montagu, D.D., The Lodge, Trinity
College, Cambridge.
Butler, Mrs. Montagu, Trinity Lodge, Cambridge.
Byrne, Miss A. D., 59, Chesterton Road, Cambridge.
Cade, F. J., M.A., Masborough, The Park, Cheltenham.
Cadell, P. R., Byculla Club, Bombay.
Caldecott, W., M.A., School House, Wolverhampton.
Calthrop, Miss C. M., 50, Albion Road, South Hampstead, N. W.

NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS

201

Cameron, Rev. J., M.A., Senior Chaplain, Church of Scotland,
Bombay.
Campagnac, E. T., M.A., The University, Liverpool.
Campbell, Miss E. I., 84, Pitzjohn's Avenue, Hampstead, N.W.
Campbell, H. E., Box 374, Royal Exchange, Manchester.
Campbell, Mrs. L., 50b, Portsdown Road, W.
Campbell, S. G., M.A., Christ's College, Cambridge.
Campion, Rev. C. T., 100, Carter Street, Greenheys, Manchester.
Cappon, Prof. J., M.A., Queen's University, Kingston, Canada.
Carlisle, A. D., M.A., Oakhurst, Godalming.
Carmichael, Hon. Mr. G., Secretariat, Bombay.
Carnoy, Prof. A. J., Corbeck-Loo, Louvain, Belgium.
Carruthers, G., M.A., Belmont, Letchford, Warrington,
Manchester.
Carson, H. J., M.A., Belvedere School, Upper Drive, Hove,
Sussex.

Carter, Rev. T. N., M.A., The Grammar School, Manchester.
Cartwright, Miss M., M.A., 18, Ashfield Road, Abertillery.
Casartelli, The Rt. Rev. L. C, M.A. See Salford, Bishop of.
Case, Miss Esther, Chantry

Case, Miss J. E.,

5,

Mount

School, Bishop Stortford.

Windmill Hill, Hampstead, N.W.
M.A., University College, London.

*Caspari, M. 0. B.,
Caton, Richard, M.D., Holly Lee,

3,

Livingstone Drive, South

Liverpool.

Cattley, Rev. A., M.A., Repton, Burton-on-Trent.
Cattley, T. F., M.A., Eton College, Windsor.

Chamberlain, H. M., B.A., St. Edmund's School, Canterbury.
Chambers, C. D., M.A., The University, Birmingham.
Chambers, E. K., M.A., Board of Education, Whitehall, S.W,
Chandavarkar, Hon. Sir Narayanrao G., B.A., LL.B., High
Court, Bombay.
Chapman, J., 101, Leadenhall Street, E.C.
Chapman, Rev. Bom,, O.S.B., B.A., Erdington Abbey, Birmingham.
Chapman, P. M., M.D., F.R.C.P., 1, St. John Street, Hereford.
Chapman, R. W., M.A., 10, St. John's Street, Oxford.
Chappel, Rev. Canon W. H., M.A., King's School, Worcester.
Charles, Miss D. M., 83, Campden Hill Court, W.
Charlesworth, G. L., M.A., Masetti, Church Avenue,
Northampton.
Chase, The Rt. Rev. F. H., D.D. See Ely, Bishop
of.

26

APPENDIX

202
Chavasse,

A.

S.,

M.A., B.C.L., Elmthorpe, Temple Cowley,

Oxford.

Chawner, W., M.A.,The Lodge, Emmanuel
Chettle,
Chilton,

II.,

College, Cambridge.

M.A., Stationers' School, Hornsey, N.

Rev.

A.,

D.D., City of

London

School,

Victoria

Embankment, E.C.
Chitty, Rev. G.
Cholmeley, R.

J.,

B.A., Eton College, Windsor.
7, Gray's Inn Square, London,

W.C.
Church, Rev. A. J., 12, Denbigh Gardens, Richmond, Surrey.
Church, H. S., B.A., Ellerslie Preparatory School, Fremington,
N. Devon.
Churchill, E. L., B.A., Eton College, Windsor.
Clark, A. C, M.A., Queen's College, Oxford.
Clark, E. K., M.A., F.S.A., Meanwoodside, Leeds.
Clark, Rev. R. B., Erpingham Rectory, Norwich.
Clark, Rev. R. M., M.A., Denstone College, Staffs.
Clarke, Miss E. M., Broughton and Crumpsall High School,
F.,

M.A.,

Higher Broughton, Manchester.
Clarke, Rev. E. W., M.A., Trinity College, Glenalmond, Perth.
Claxton, J. A., B.A., Grammar School, Doncaster.
Clay, Miss A. M., Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford.
Clendon, A., M.A., The Grammar School, Handsworth, Staffs.
Cobbe, Miss A. M., B.A., 2, Donnington Square, Newbury.
*Cobham, C. D., C.M.G., M.A., H.M. Commissioner, Larnaca,
Cyprus.
Coghill, Mrs., 2, Sunnyside, Prince's Park, Liverpool.
Cohen, C. Waley, M.A., 11, Hyde Park Terrace, W.
Cohen, H., 3, Elm Court, Temple, E.C.

Cole, E. L. D., M.A., 9, Horton Crescent, Rugby.
Coleman, H. O., B.A. Haberdashers' School, Cricklewood,
Coleridge, E. P., M.A., Haileybury College, Herts.

N.W.

Coles, P. B., B.A., Aylesbury, Bucks.
Collie, Miss F. A., The University, Liverpool.
Collins, A. J. F., M.A., 14,

Warkworth

Street,

Collins, V. H., B. A., Oxford University Press,

Colson, F.

II.,

M.A.,

Colvile, Prof. K.

N,

Cambridge.

Amen Corner, E.C.

Grange Terrace, Cambridge.
B.A., 16, Harrington Gardens, London,

3,

S.W.
S., M.A., British Museum, W.C.
Compston, Rev. H. F. B., M.A. (King's College, London), 60,
Tierney Road, Streatham Hill, S.W.

Colvin,

NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS

203

Compton, Rev. W. 0., M.A., Sandhurst Rectory, Hawkhurst,
Kent.
Conder, Miss E. M., Milton Mount College, Gravesend.
Connal, Prof. B. M., M.A., The University, Leeds.
Connell, Rev. A., 22, Linnet Lane, Liverpool.
*Conway, Miss A. E., Clough Hall, Newnham College, Cambridge.

Conway, Rev. F., M.A., Merchant Taylors' School, E.C.
Conway, Mrs. Margaret M., M.A., Draethen, Didsbury,
Manchester.

Conway, Prof. R. S., Litt.D., The University, Manchester.
Cook, Prof. A. B., M.A., 19, Cranmer Road, Cambridge.
Cookson, C, M.A., Magdalen College, Oxford.
Cooper, Miss A. J., 22, St. John Street, Oxford.
Cooper, H. B., M.A., Keble College, Oxford.
Cordue, Lieut.-Colonel W. G. R., R.E., c/o Messrs. Cox &, Co.,
16, Charing Cross, W.C.
Corley, F. E., Torpels, Madras, S.W.
*Cornford, F. M., M.A., Trinity College, Cambridge.
Cornish, F. W., M.A., The Cloisters, Eton College, Windsor.
*Coupland, R., M.A., Trinity College, Oxford.
Courtauld, G., Junr., M.A., The Waver Farm, Wethersfield,
Braintree, Essex.

Couzens, Miss F. M., 13, Rutland Park, Sheffield.
Covernton, A. L., M.A., Dryclen, North Road, Berkhamsted.
Cowell, W. H. A., M.A., St. Edward's School, Oxford.
Cowl, Prof R. P., M.A., The University, Bristol.

Cowley, A., M.A., Magdalen College, Oxford.
F., B.A., Eton College, Windsor.
Cradock-Watson, H., M.A., Merchant Taylors' School, Crosby,
Crace, J.

Liverpool.

Cran,

Miss

L.,

Secondary Council

School,

The Greenway,

Uxbridge.

Crawford, G. R, M.A., Milesdown, Winchester.
Crerar,

J.,

Street,

M.A.,

I.C.S., c/o Messrs.

Grindlay

&

Co.,

Parliament

S.W.

Creswell, P. T., M.A., 39, Theresa Road, Sparkbrook, Birmingham.
Crofts, T. R, K, M.A., 3, Church Road, Highgate, N.
Cromer, The Rt. Hon. the Earl of G.C.B., O.M., G.C.M.G.,
K.C.S.I.,

CLE.,

36,

Wimpole

Street,

W.

APPENDIX

204

Cronin, Rev. H. S., M.A., B.D., Willowbrook, Chaucer Road,
Cambridge.
*Crosby, Miss A. D., 56 Digby Mansions, Hammersmith Bridge, W.
Cruickshank, Rev. A. H., M.A., The College, Durham.
Cruise, Sir F. R, M.D., K.S.G., 93, Merrion Square, Dublin.
Curtis, Miss K. M., B.A., 2, Anson Road, Tufnell Park, N.W.

Curzon

of

Kedleston, Right Hon.

D.C.L., F.R.S.,

1,

Lord,

G.C.S.I.,

G.C.I.E.,

Carlton House Terrace, S.W.

Cuvelier, Maurice, Consulat de Belgique, Bombay.

Dakers, H.

J.,

M.A.,

71,

Clyde Road, West Didsbury, Man-

chester.

Dakyns, H. G., M.A., Higher Coombe, Haslemere, Surrey.
Dale, Miss A. M., B.A., 27, Morella Road, Wandsworth
Common, S.W.
Dale, A. W. W., M.A., Vice-Chancellor of the University,
Liverpool.

Dale, F. A. B., M.A., Board of Education, Whitehall, S.W.
Dalton, Rev. H. A., M.A., D.D., Harrison College, Barbadoes.
Daniel, A. T., M.A., Grammar School, Uttoxeter, Staffs.
*Daniel, Miss C. I., Wycombe Abbey School, Bucks.
Danson, F. C, Rosewarne, Bidston Boad, Oxton, Cheshire.
*Darlington, W. S., B.A., The Hill, Lutterworth, Leicestershire.
Dauncey, G. H. J., 2, Walton New Road, Warrington,
Manchester.
David, Rev. A. A., M.A., The School, Rugby.
*Davidson, D. D., B.A., 1, Glendower Mansions, Glendower Place,

S.W.
Davidson, M. G., M.A., Christ Church, Oxford; 89, Westbourne
Terrace, Hyde Park, W.
Davies, Miss C. H, M.A., Brighton and Hove High School,
Montpelier Road, Brighton, Sussex.
Davies, E. J. Llewellyn, B.A., Elstow School, Bedford.
Davies, Prof. G. A., M.A., The University, Glasgow.
T., M.A., University College, Cardiff.
Davies, M. Llewellyn, M.A., 7, Ingestre Road, Oxton, Cheshire.
Davies, Robert, M.A., 117, Waterloo Bond, Wolverhampton.
Davis, Rev. H., B.A., Stony hurst College, Blackburn.

Davies, G. A.

Davis, Miss M., 92, Totteridge Road, High Wycombe.
Dawes, Miss E. A. S., M.A., D.Litt., Heathlands, Weybridge,
Surrey.

Consul -General for the Imperial Ottoman Empire.V. M...B.. Magdalene College. Oak Mount.R.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 205 Dawes. Clayesmore School.. Devine.. Salisbury. C.. Northfield.B. The University. D.. D. Miss M. Dowson. 6.. Captain E. Yorks. Bombay. R. Worcestershire. Manchester. The College. Duckworth.. F. Dingwall.. Chapelville. Dudley. Miss M.. C. S. W.. Canon R. 15.W... Miss M. Rev. Beaumaris. Boyd.A. Tewkesbury. de Gruchy. B. Manchester.W. Queen's College. F. Little Cloisters. Bristol. J. New York.. E. Day. Surrey. E. Holmwoocl. Duckworth. University College. Miss J. Manchester. Dill. Battersea Rise.. M. D. 5. Duff.. *Drewitt. Miss K. Trinity College.A. Windsor..D. S. Droop.Sc. A. W.A. P. A. Ambala. Grove Koad. E. C. Djelal Bey. B.W. Pan jab. Drummond. King's Lea. F. Kalbadivi Road.. W.. M. S... Sir E. Dublin.D. The Old Bell House. Morannedd. Cambridge.A. Wycombe Abbey School. *Donner.. Sedbergh. M. Denman. Donkin.. N.. Fallowfield House. Dawkins. New Square. 18. 14.. CLE. J.. Boyd. Rev. Belfast. Prof. The University. F. Dix. M.A.A. S. Bombay. Litt. Great Smith Street. LL. LL. Anglesey. J. Sir S. ... Fallowfield.. J. Prof.A. Bucks.. W. L. C. F. Miss E. S. Grove Road.. Derriman. Dobson. Stoke-on-Trent.H. Pangbourne... 11. Englefield Green. Oxford. J. B. S. Surbiton.A.. de Quadros. c/o Postmaster. Lincoln's Inn. B.. The Hostel. M.A..D.W.. Staffs. Dill. G. Rev.. LL. *Drysdale. Government House.. Fowler's Road.. Chapelville.W. Cambridge. B. Brighton.. R. Eton College.A. Colquhoun. S. Donaldson. Oakamoor. B. W. Prof. Prof.A. H... The Lodge. Surbiton. Rev. Boutflower Road.. T. Dawson. W. Hyde Park.A. Cleveland Gardens. L.O. Turkish Consulate. F. M. M. R. B.A. Westminster Abbey. Dove. F.. G. Carter Knowle Road.. (President). Drummond. K. D. Rev. Delany. J.. Fallowfield. Farley. C. Kemerton. Sheffield. *Dawes.J. Rowton. Chester.A. Major-General. 1.B. M.C. P.D.. Alex. S. J. Dawkins. W. C..D. Berks.S. Rev. Wadham College. Dodd. D.

B. Cliff Court. Bishop of. Rt. Du Pontet. K. Rev.S. E. M. H.A. Ely.. G.. M. Cheltenham.G. Southampton. Manchester. Durnford. Armstrong College..B.. R. Banister Court.. Miss A. H. M. Ipswich. M. The Ridge. . W. Ellis.A.. Edmonds. Miss M. D. Sheffield.A.. The Palace. Elmer. Dean Close School. Eckhard.. Westerfield Road. Elliott. LL.. Miss U. M. Prof..S. Reading School. *Dundas. Broome House. Hillmarton. W.A. Cheshire... Berkhamsted. See Wakefield. R. B.. Heath Grammar School. M. J. J.. the Lord Bishop of. Weetwood.A. Cambridge. M. High Wray. Edghill. D. Mrs.A.. Dunlop.A. Miss O. Oxford. W. Eliot.. Prof. High School for Girls. Ely. LL.A. Ithaca. *Dymond. Bengeo. M. C.A.... W. N. R. High Court. Edwards. C. LL. Englefield.. M. M. Didsbury.. Rutland Park. Bombay. Ellaby.C. W.. Newcastleupon-Tyne.A. G. Michael's Street. Ellam.. M. J. R. T. Rev. Carlton Manor. M.. G. A. Halifax. B. Harrow. M.D. Cambridge. J. Endcliffe Holt. Litt. St. Bristol. Halifax.. E.. H. Sidney Sussex College. Hertford. England.A. I. Hawthorns Abbey. Elliman. The Rt. J. Elliott.D.. Miss. E. Holmes Chapel. Peterhouse. M. C. Edwards.. Ealand.A..A. Elliott.D. A.C. M. Edmonds.. Bolton. Rishworth Grammar School.... Frenchay. B. Ellis. Eppstein. S. Leeds. Trinity College. St.A. R. C. Christ Church. Bedford.. Edwards. N.C. Bath. W. Cambridge. H. Bedfordshire.A. M.A. Sir C... Oxford. M. James's Park. K. Lady. 26.. Cornell University. M. Bromham Road. Wight. A. Elliston. J. *Eden. Cambridge. Oxford.. Danes Hill. B. C. Britwell.. 24.. Herts. R. 22. British Museum. A. Eckersley. King's College.D. Elliott. Great Gransden.. Esdaile.A. Robinson. Surrey. Ambleside. 57. Rishworth. E.. U. H. Escott.APPENDIX 206 *Duff.. Tadworth.A. Rev.. Endcliffe Crescent. Berks. Sandy.. Mrs. Yeadon.. M. C. Sheffield. Halifax Road.A.. W.. Mrs. Sheffield. Evans.. Heathside. Ecclesall... Prof.Y.M. Ermen. E. M.

Ewart. . Evans. M. Lord Justice.D.. The Sney House. H. Felkin.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 207 Evans.. Rockville.. Miss J. The Anchorage. near Oxford. Rev.A.. LL.A..S. R. The Right Ron.. K. W. D. Prof..A. Magdalen College. A.. N. W.. J. Forbes. Fletcher. S.. Yorks. M. Abingdon. L. 20. B. Fairbairn.. G. H. F. Ferguson. Oxford. Co. Waverley Road. 31..A. Surrey. E. L. Faulkner. M. St. 19. Hills Road.W. Christ's Hospital. Rev.A. D. Ferrall. M. Berkhamsted. Manchester. Miss A. F. Truro. B.. K. Miss M... Grammar School. M. Dundrum. B. Fletcher. Haileybury College. U. W. Falding. M. Miss A. Miss L. D. Marlborough College. L.M.. Frognal. Dublin. Radley College. M.A. Manchester. H. Enfield.. M.A. Doncaster. 17. M. Faithfull.D. Field.A.. D.. A.W Forbes. M. A. M.W. University College School. Phillimore Gardens. Wimbledon.. Croydon. Cheltenham. Bradford.A.Litt.A.. Southwell Gardens.. S. Hertford. Cheltenham. S. Liverpool. Withington. Litt. Miss M.A.. 89.. B.A. Exton.A. Fenning. Flood. Farnell. B.A. T.. M. Evans. Barnes...... Exon... M. S.W. Charlottesville. Fleming. Oxford. 90. Wilts.. Galway. Devon. M. Queen's College. F...A... Beech House Road. Ya.A.D. Yorks.A. The Grammar School. Miss M.. Prof.. Oxford. Merton Hall Road. The Academy. T. County School for Girls.R.A.. M.. Silverton.D. S. FitzGerald. T.. H. Cambridge. W. E.. Florian. Finlay. C. Glebe Cottage.A. C. 15. Miss C. R. M.A. H. Girls' Grammar School. The College. Worcestershire. S. Herts.. Thorpe Hall. Bombay.. B. Beverley Road. N.. R. E. Milham Ford School. W.. 135. M. Balholm.. Chatham Street. Robin Hood's Bay. Rev... R. L.A. H. Ferguson. M. Farwell. Sir R.A..A..A. Ladies' College. Miss E... Hagley. Farside. Ives. Ferard. Fairbairns. Flather. The Lodge. Edinburgh..C.. Hertford. M. B.. Exeter College.. J.. 0... Rippingham Road. University of Virginia. Yarnton..A. *Fitzhugh. S. Footner.

S. *Genner. Surrey. S.. Bayswater... Oxford. W. E.A.A.A.E. St.. Miss B. Thurlow Park Road. Shepherd's Down. Oxford. Lincoln. Cambridge. S. Clapham . Cairo. Fry. J. Manchester. Handsworth. Warde. W. P. T..A. Merton College. A. D. E. H. M. Gavin. E.. Ford. Island Road. M.. Miss S.A. Miss A.W. Furness. Merton College.. M. M... W. Lincoln College. 3. 23.. Tregarvon Road.. J. 35. B. E. W. Cambridge. H. c/o Agent-General N. B. Hamilton. H. M. M.. Ahmednagar. W. John Street.A. Blackheath High School.. Litt. Surrey. Gaselee. S.A.. 75. J. E. R. Garnsey. Epsom. M.L.C. London. *Geldart.A.A. *Gerrans. Frazer. S. Furness. High School for Girls. Sheffield. Garrod.C. M. Fotheringham. Fry. Bromsgrove. M. The School.W.. 12. M.. Harrow. 20.A.A. Furness. Prof.. *Genner. E. Oxford.A. Geden. M. L.APPENDIX 208 Ford. Darlington. E. Ghey..C.. Miss E. Fyfe. The University. Haslemere. K. The College.. Fleetwood..A.. H.A. All Souls' College. Miss F... Geikie. Bossall..D. Lionel G. Gaselee.A. 125. Gardner. Stephen. M. Rev.A.C. The University. Cambridge. D. M.S. Sir Archibald..L. Bir- mingham. The Grammar School. Dulwich. Magdalene College. Alwyne Mansions. J.. M. M. The Training College. M. Cannon Street. W. S.. Canterbury Boad.. (Head Master). Wimbledon.. Sheffield.. The Deanery.. C.. Liverpool. Major J.. Prince's Park..R. E. A.D... Gibbons. London.. St... Jesus College. N.E.. Gadesden. Gardiner.. F.. M. Khedivieh School. B. E.A. Miss E. Gardner. King's College. B.. Prof. Egypt... Edwardes Square Studios. Forster. Gallie. The Very Rev.. D. Fuller. Bombay Presidency. B. 2. W.. Gardner.A.. Miss G. Kensington. Newnham College. 70. Kidderminster Boad. Richmond.A. G. North Side.S. Martin. M.. Oxford.A. Oxford.A. E. R. B. T.. Furneaux. C. Rev. LL. M...A. Oxford.C. L. University College. Linden Gardens... W.W. M. Fowler. Frisch. S.. M. Common. Wesleyan College.. Miss F. M.A. Oxford. M.D. J. M. Keyne's. Elmsleigh. B.

39. T. Notts.S. A. Osborne. Hesketh. Rev. Prof. M... St. 323.C.... Oxford. M. Gough. M. N. Lincroft Street.D. Dean's Yard.. Salop. The King's School. Coodyear.. M.. Palace Hotel. Westminster. Liverpool. P. H. M.A. Bac. Goss.A. Moss Side. N. Leonard's School.A. Gladstone..W.. Ely. Grammar School. St. Allerton..S. See Birmingham. B.D. W. D. Gow.. Universitatsstrasse. Castlebrae.. Woolton Vale.. Emmanuel College. University College. Litt.. Godley. Birmingham. C. *Godfrey. M. A. Avenue Road. H.. 19..B. Newport. M. Liverpool. Gould. Gilson. W. P.. A.. Manchester. Rev.A. Windsor.C. St. Selwyn Gardens.A. W. D. Canterbury. Prof F. Gillino. M. The University.D. S. Liverpool College. D. Eton College..A.A.. C. M. Goodell. Kensington Crescent.. M.A.Wharf edale..A. 35.. Miss J.D.. Nottingham. C.D. Royal Naval College. J. Marston Green... D. T.. Innsbruck. London Road. Giles. Leeds. N. Rev. Glover. R..A... B. E. Cambridge.D. Litt. Broken Hill. Grange Road..D.. Miss M. A.. Warwickshire. Mrs. John's College. C. The Vicarage... F. Conn...W. LL. Prof.D. C.. Mus. New Haven.. M.. King Edward VI. Goodhart. Miss M. W. Tirol. M. London. Glazebrook.S. near Liverpool.. Gilson. M. M. 27 . J. Rev. Goodrich. A.A.. J.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 209 Gibson. The College. Cambridge. Canterbury House. M. R. Martin's..J. C. T. Graves. M. Edgehill Road. 4. Ahmedabad. British Museum. Miss U.. U.. M.. Gordon. Rev. Cambridge.A. Grant. G... A. Grafton. M. School House. M. H. D. Cambridge.. J. 5. School Lodge. Cambridge. Grant. Charles. Gibson. Goode. Andrews.A. M.W.A. Bishop of Gorse. Rt.A. Austria. 17. India. Gosse. W. 39. Abingdon. LL. W. Hanover Terrace. Miss Teresa. Rev. T. Iffley Road.A. Gordon. Tonbridge. The University. G. M. Crick Road.. Ph. B. C. S. G. E. Gough.A. Lowestoft. W. Prof. St.. Oxford. 's School. D. M.Sc. Mrs.A.. Gore. I. Gilson. Gillespie. (Head Master). M. Rev. Rev. Gibson-Smith.A. Burley-in. S. Canon M. Canon. H.. R. Retford. N. 8. M. Granger. R... Robert. Giles. Leeds. Goodwin. 99.

*Haigh. Miss E. H.. Paul's Road.. M. Albert Square. C. Bernard's Crescent. H.. Lenton Avenue. B. India. Hammersmith.. Buckland.. Miss M.. The Park. *Gray. Miss A. The High School. P. Guy. Cheshire. A..W. A. Brook Green. *Greene.. London. .. Station Road. E. B. Edinburgh. D.. R. S. 389. Cambridge. Stone Buildings... 69.. Oxford. Miss Sybella. M. Grundy. Ennismore Gardens. Rev. M. Forest School. Haig. J. H.A. D. J.A.. W. *Gwatkin.C. M. Parliament Street. Oxford.. Queen's College..A. All Souls. Greenwood. St. Remenham. W. Rev. Green. Rev. Gurney. Hants. B. Armstrong College. Oldham. Bombay.A.A. S. H.Litt. Guppy.. Mrs. Glossop Road. King's College.D. Ennismore Gardens. Birkenhead. B. Newcastle-on-Tyne. L. Alice. F. Miss A. M. Paul's Girls' School. B. W. Rev.W. Gubbay. 3. The Reetory. S.. W. Wilderness Road... M. Grindlay & Co.A. Beardoe. C. Hunt. chester. Hulme Grammar School. The Weirs Cottage. B. Gurney. B. Buckingham Palace Gardens. Gerda Road.. G. University of Wales. W.APPENDIX 210 Gray.A. Great Yarmouth.W. Malabar Hill. Rev. W. Oxford.. Guthkelch. Miss A.. Herts. T.W. G. MA... M. Warden of Bradfield College. Bernard P. M.. Aberystwyth. E. Griffin.. C. M.C. M.. School House. St. Queen's College. H. Litt. C. Queens' College. H. Mrs. M. Kent. Wilfred A. New Eltham.. H. Mrs. Green.A. G. Cambridge. M. P. Oxford.A. Gwatkin.. M..A. Bowdon. M. Rev.... Grenfell.. W.A. Green.A. Corpus Chi-isti. Hepworth Rectory.. Gregory. M. L.C. Deansgate..S.. S.. St. M.D. Bombay. P.D. 15. Berks. Sheffield.A. Brockenhurst. R.. *Hadow.. M. Green.A. Gray.. C. G. H. W. Gray.Litt. Greene.. 35.A. The School House. John Rylands Library.. Miss F. Emmanuel College. Grenfell. K.A. Gurney.. Walthamstow. 3. *Grundy. D. Nottingham. Berkhamsted.. Gwilliam. Diss. W. S... P. c/o Messrs. Cambridge.. Yacht Club.A.. Prof. Guilford. Ormeskirk. I. M. c/o Dr. 69. Greene. 10. ManGrigg. *Haigh. 54. Henley-on-Thames.. 4.

G. M. C. 19. Strand. Whitehall. Harrison. H. Andover. Prof.. Cambridge.. Grasmere. Hayes.. Liverpool. D. Hart. Chetwynd House. *Haynes. Prof W.A. LL. J.. Ennismore Gardens. 50b. Joseph.C.. W.W...D. Cambridge. Headlam. C. Sedbergh. *Halsbury. London. F. Milnthorpe. W. W. Yorks.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 211 Haig-Brown. J. Harper.A. Heversham School. J. Queen Anne Terrace. H. R...W.. M. Liverpool. J. C. c/o Messrs. Trinity College. 98. Acton.A. F. John's College. M. Greenbank School. W.. Herts.. Winshields. St. Sefton Park. Haydon. Great Crosby. R. Aberdeen. B.. T. P.D. Colaba..O. York House School. D. G. B.. Oxford. Mrs. Hampstead. London. Leigh ton Park School.. A. Grove House. Rt. The Greek Manse.. The University. M.. Bombay.D.. M..L. M.. W. W. M.. Hamilton.A. Harris. J. The Hulme Grammar School. Hon. Hammans. W. Edinburgh. South Lawn. Portsclown Road. . U. Hardie. Chicago. 38.A. Surrey. Selly Oak.A. B. the Earl of. B. York Street Chambers. E. King's College. M.. Harrower. Hawkins. King & Co... H.S. B. The Moor House.A.A. R. W.. G.. Harrow. Hall. Westmorland. Manchester... Bryanston Square. Board of Education. Cambridge.. D.. S.. Hardeman. G. Westmorland. A. Birch Grove. LL. B. A.A.. M.A... Prof.Litt.W. *Harrison. J.A. Eton College. Reading. Birmingham. Ortygia. M. Rev. Windsor.A.. S. Leicester. E. Harper... Miss B. Miss J.. Headlam. Rev.A.. W.Litt. Harris. John's Wood Park.. Prof. 4.. S. W. Oxford. Newnham College. Oxted. Sassoon Dock Road. Broadhurst Gardens.S. Sefton Park. J. Hales. St. H. *Harrison. L. Hall. Baldock.. V.. LL. B.D.C. E. N. *Hall. Linnet Lane..A. Miss M. Hartley. Headlam. C... M. E. H. King. James. The Brewery. H. Harper. Round Hill. N. Chalmers Crescent. Hale. Mecklenburg Street. 5.. J. Rev. W.A. Principal of King's College.A. M.A.. Miss E. Haverfield. Rendel. P.A.. M. Litt. Miss E. M. 4. M.. 27. E. 8. Hallam. Harrison. Hardcastle. Bombay. 41. Haslam.A..C.D.. D..W.

A. B. Bishop of.. Portland Road. R. W. The Palace. West Downs. W. Manchester. Green Lane. B. L. Htldesheimer. K. Manchester. E...A. Lanes.W. Terrace.A. W.A. W. Norfolk. Bromsgrove. Miss M. Henderson. Approach Road. York.A. E. J. Henry. B. Edgbaston. A. Hickey. Lansdowne Road. M. Winchester... W. Parmiter's School. Wellington Park.. G.. A. Hetherington. S. G. Miss A. Birkenhead School. L. Oxford. N. Kent. S. D. New Walk Hebblethwaite. M. 33.D. Hicks. M. Carlton Road. East Putney High School.A. 3. Hew art. Leeds. W. Victoria Park. Miss Mary L.E. J. M. D. Ph. H. M. 2. London. Henn. . Sussex. Hicks.. *Heberden. Rev. Cambridge)..D. Manchester. Board of Education. N. H. The University. School House.. B.. Chingford Lodge. Holy Family Church. W. J. Heath.. Henn. F. M. Mrs. Birmingham.. Palace Grove. Birkenhead.. M. N. A. Prof. Lansdowne Crescent. Hon. J. Rev.. Miss Caroline. Putney. Grammar School.... Heppel. Harcourt Buildings.A. Hampstead.. Great Cressingham. See Lincoln. Fossedene. B.. Brighton College. Henderson.. Edinburgh. Henry. M.. Heward.. G. M. R. Burnley. Heseltine. Helbert. New College.A. Miss R. C. Belfast. A. Heath. M.A. Kensington Park. Bromley. Rev. Hendy.A.. Higgs. N.A..A..APPENDIX 212 Heard. 93. 48.. 18. H. Brazenose College. Temple. S. Bank of England Chambers. 38. M. Mrs.A. Notting Hill.. Cheshire. Victoria Park. M.W. Brother Edmund.. Whitehall.. R. Heathcote. British Museum. Exeter College. Herford. Henson..A. D.. M.. B. Henry.C..W. Cambridge. Rev.A. Hicks.. Fettes College. Hill. E. M. E. Downside Crescent.. Haverfordwest. Rt. Reedley Lodge. Tib Lane.... (Trinity College... Hewetson.A. H. L. Hicks.C. Xaverian College. Bishoj-) of. Lionel. 16. Hett. Rev. Mount Pleasant. M. Oxford. Oxford. M. Lincoln.. 0. M. Rt. E. F.. See Burnley.A.

A. Hogarth. Cheltenham.A.. H.. Southsea. A. West Kirby.A. Chelsea Embankment. A. The Bed House. U. D. St. W. M. Hodgkin. Birmingham. H.. P. Northumberland. Hodge. M. Miss G. Miss M. Hopkins. M. Miss E. Alfred.. Staffs. M. 11. Beal. Miss G.A. A..A. Hirst. Holmes. *Horsfall. M.D. M. Hulme Hall. W. G. J. Cheshire. Hood. G.. Giles'.. A.Litt. Holding. Begent Street. M. The Wadleigh High School.A. W.C. Edmund's Boad.A.B. H. Carpenter Road. M. E. Wheelwright Grammar School. Heatherley. M.. Hopkinson. M.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS Hillard. Sax- mundham. Twickenham.C.A. B. Hooper. S. East Hayes. Hogg. Hodgson. Orley Farm School... Hodd. Brook Boad. S. M.L. Miss D. T. Rev. Hodgson. 45.M. S. F. Berkhamsted. Clopton.. M. F. Barton-under-Needwood. Paul's School. Archibald L.W.A. St. N.. D. St. . Darley Dale. 30. T. Ashley Lane.. Holland.A. B. Vice. T.....Chancellor of the Victoria University of Manchester.A. Oxford. Manchester. E. Saffron New Walden. New York City. S.A. Sidcup. Herts. Prof. H.D. Edgbaston.. Hodges. D... Westleton. Saint Elphins'. Barnard College. 213 West Kensington.S. LL... Holme. Columbia University. Oxford. U. Honnywill. Bice.. M. Douro Place. Prescote. E.A. LL.. Conduit Street. M. York. Abbotsford Villa. A. Fallowfield Manchester. Hurstleigh. Adelaide.. B..D. C. Suffolk.. J. B. M. M... M.S.W. Matlock. K. W. High Street. 144... A. M..A. Hogarth. Calday Grange School...... Miss K. 14. Dewsbury. A.. Tunbridge Wells. B.A. Stratford -on -Avon.A. Moston. L. Manchester. Litt. Canon W.D.. The School. Hollidge.... Innes. Miss M. Hobhouse. Miss M. North London Collegiate School. Rev.... E. Rev.A.A. The University. Hopkinson. Holder.. I. B. 5.. Miss M. Harrow.. W. 20. Horsfall. D. J. Rev.. Barmoor Castle. Rev. Kensington.. Hirst. V. Hodgson. Chislehurst Boad. 20. High School for Girls. Australia. Hopkins. H. Hollowell. C.

M. J.. Houston. Hussey. W. Wakefield. Torquay. Blackfriars Road. G. near Hull. How.A. Hose. Impey. Government House..A. MA. 21. W. B. M. Rev.D. M. H.E. A. M. How. V. E. Fleetwood. Nottingham. A. Sherborne. Trinity College. County Hall. Brixworth. King Street. W. 20. Kensington. Miss E. MA. Dulwich College.A. Houghton. Howarth. North Bailey. 44. W. S. Northampton.S...A. J. B. Dorset.A. 49. South Kensington.. M.A. Perth. Warden of Trinity College. H.. Fern Bank. Rev.. The Rt. M.D. Consul. D. M.D. J. E. V. F.. Huddersfield. Rossall School. Sunderland.. 21. Rev.. 12. Miss Howell. M. Hulbert.. M. I. Miss C. Perth. Drayton Gardens. Miss M. West Australia. Rev. Rev. Hyslop. A. Dudley. M. The College. Nelson Moss Side.A. von.A. L. 13.. Miss A.B. Miss S. *Hutton.. Switzerland. Hugel. Bombay. 2. High School for Girls.. Miss J. Mount Vernon Road.A..... Hughes.. Manchester. 10.A. Great Malvern. M.. Image. The University.. Guildford Grammar School. Rev.Litt. R. Cambridge. B. Oxford. F. E. Hunt. the Lord Bishoj) of. The School. Davos Platz. Oxford. W. Sussex. A.. F. Hutchison. Houghton. C. Howard. M.. Hutton. Oxford.. Auckland Road. 8. *Hotson. A. Miss C. B.A. .. Wingfield House. The Vicarage. Rectory Terrace.A.). Hughes. S. Sir A. Bt... Hubback.E. S. W.A.. M. Rev. M. Hessle.A.W. House. S.. A. M... Buxted.. Hoyle. Square.. Huggard. Windsor. Miss E. Eton College. Hull.. L. P. Glenalmond.. B.. W. Vicarage Gate. H. Baron F.. N. Municipal Training College.. S.. F. S.. Liverpool.. F. J. Kingstonon-Thames.B. Hubback:. Bold Street.C.. C. M. L.. H. Harrow. Hughes.APPENDIX 214 Hort.... H. R. H..A. FRCP... W.A.M. The Cottage. M. (Lond. Queen's College. Jesus College.. P. MA. H.. Durham. J. Belgrave Villas..

W. Jex-Blake. L. Catharine's College.. Robert.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 215 Impey.. Worcs. Fairlight. Jackson.A. Alvechurch. Frank. Chichester Street. James. Willaston School. Essex.A. *Jevons. Queenwood. B. ton. Wilkinson Street. Ballard's Shaw.. 29. Paul's School.C. Miss R. Principal F. Miss H.. St. Christ's College. H. 13. Folkestone. Chester.. Oxford.A. Jones. . L. Jones.W.. C...M. M. Johnston.A. B. G. S. Chaucer Road. Ennismore Gardens..D. D. J. Mr. Jenkins. Miss K. C. 1ST. BA.. Sheffield. Bradfield College. C. Jones. Litt. Wales. Berks. The Grange. Cambridge. Simla (summer).S. C. Oxford. 134. F.. Willoughby Road. W. Miss * James. M. Irvine. Keble Road. M. *Johnson. L. C. Norwich.. W. Oxford. Jones. Liverpool. Limassol. *Jackson.A. Lady Margaret Hall.. Miss E... M.C.A. H.A..A..A. L..A. Cambridge. A.. S. c/o the "Advocate of India. Joachim..A. 11. Judson. Jewson. H. *Jex-Blake. Prof. Calcutta (winter).. L. N. Woodleigh. S.A. *Jasonidy... Hampstead. Honey Lane. Miss A. Cheshire. B. Monmouth. C. I.. Girton College. West Kensing- W. 0. Eastbourne. Bushey.. The James. E. B. B. M. Waltham Abbey.. N. A. Jones. Ingle. College. Oxford Street. 0.. Rev.S. Miss D. M. United Service Club. The Very Rev.. R. Girton College. T.. Aston. Cambridge... M. Bishop Hatfield's Hall.. Walton Street.. Durham. M. New College.. Miss L. Rev. Miss E.P. O.. 30. H.. Hon. Grammar L. Johnson. J.. E. Cheltenham. R. Cyprus.A.A. Woodlands. Oxford. Jones.. Birmingham. Malvern. J.D.A. M..A. Nantwich. St. Cambridge. MA. Cambridge.A. D. Altrincham. 64. C. Jerram. M. Jukes. Bracondale. The School.Litt. King Edward's School. Limpsfield. Principal.I. W. Melville.. M. Jones. Calcutta. H. F... J. H.. D. J. Cambridge. Johns.A.. Jenkins. M.. Levitt.D. H. Johnson. Litt.S. H. Dean Close School. B. I. Tower House.. R.W. A. M. M. M.A. The Rectory. Joseph. Aldenham Road. Lloyd. Jelp. 9..." Bombay. *Johnson. G.. M.A.C.. *Jenkinson. Criccieth..A.... S. L.. B.. Trinity College. H.. Jex-Blake.

Rev. D. S. Margaret's Road. Godalming. Kensington. Alexandra College. A.C. HighfieldRoad. Herts. Olave's School. Bishop of.. St..C. Yorks. Oxford. Bradford. Kelaart. Miss E.. Kempthorne. Ely. C.. M.. King's Co. Shenstone. Bolton. Manchester. District Judge. Brighton. W. Keeling. M. 826... 9... Rev.A. Grammar School. Wilson.. Cathedral Library. . Miss J.. A. Haileybury College.. King. Eton College. E. B.. M. W. M. Kennedy.A. Miss E. Vicarage Gardens.A. M.. Kirtland..Litt.C. Stamford Hill. Hulme Grammar School. Rev. Rev. G.S.. T.APPENDIX 216 Keane. Birmingham. New Hampshire.A.. J. Liverpool. Hon. Dublin. F. Kingdom. Museum. Edgbaston. West Downs.. B. Bombay. F. Justice. M.C. W. S. J.. W. 5.A. Cambridge. Shenstone. Rt. L. C. Lord Kensington. Grammar School..D. Phillimore Gardens.A. 19. Cambridge. King..A. See Hull.A. King..A.. D. F. O. Kendall.. Manchester. Charterhouse. E. Tullamore.A. A. Kelsey. Ireland..J. M. G. Rev. Mrs. S. A. D. St. Rev.. B. Kincaid.. J. Michigan. Prof. 102. Kensington. Tottenham. H. B. W. Kirkpatrick. Rt. E. St.S.. S. M.. Keen. J. W... Ignatius. W.. Greenbank School.. W. R. A. Sherborne. F. The British C. *Kelsey. R. Keatinge.S. Presidency. U. C.) Kelly.S. Keeling. I. Liverpool. Crawford Avenue. W. Winchester. Stanislaus College.. Kidd. M. E. W. Miss M. Grammar School. M. G. Tappan Street. Bedford.D. C. Ker. LL. Canon J. Bombay Kennedy.A. The College. I. Prof. Kemball. Hyde Park. H. 40. Maidenhead. King. W. M. 23. Keen. Hitchin.A. Rev. Kennedy. Nasik. W. Kindersley. Calcraft. Abbeylands. 145. Haulgh. F. C. (No address.. Ann Arbor. The Deanery. Kennedy.A. Sefton Park..A... The Phillips Exeter Academy. Exeter. Tower Bridge. Gloucester Terrace... (University of Michigan). K'hchener.. R. M. Kennedy. Rev. Sefton Park. St.. King. U. Secretariat. Miss Kenyon. Brookdale Road. T. E. Kirby.... H. Cordwalles. Windsor.

Bishoj) of Kyrke-Penson.. H. D. See Manchester. Burton-in-Lonsdale. Bognor... M. M.. The Cliff.D.. Barnard College. Dublin. Leader. Bombay Presidency.. Shan Chief's School. U. M.S. Latter.A. N.Thana. B. Common. S. Larbolette.. Knox.. Vassar College. A. Oxford.. University Club. M. F. Miss C. Abby. X.. U. Knight. B. E.. Hon. M. J. R. Pall Mall..A. Rt. E. C. Ahmednagar. Ealing . N.. Litt. F. Miss E. High School for Girls.S. Bombay. Southcote.W.. Ledgard. Oxford and Cambridge Club..I. M. Grammar School. K. U. M. East Finchley. 28 Elm Grove Road. 3... 40. B.C. George E. Cheshire. Prof. M.W. Southern Shan States. St. Liverpool College.A. Mr. India. Rev. Bucks. Cambridge. W.. C.J. CLE. B. Layng.A. Lancelot.S. A. T..A. Sussex. Lee. La Touche. Layman.......D.C. Bombay. F. Miss A. Pembroke College. Rev. Bowdon.A.. Rev. Lang. New York City.A. Burgh Heath. Temple... D. S. Cheltenham. 90. N.D. Botanic Avenue.S. M. R. Lee. M. N. Merrion Square. J. W. Lawson. 5th Avenue and 54th Street. Kirkby Lonsdale. M.S. Surrey. M. 44. C. 5.. Queen's Square. M. Wycombe Abbey School. Croydon. Camberley. E.. Burma. Lamb. L.A. 52. Prof.. Cambridge. R. W. Miss E. Wrexham. Lattimer. Berks. H. B. M.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 217 Knapp. E. Poughkeepsie....A. M. Miss H. B. I. N.A. Miss E. Temple Gardens. Ph. Sussex Place. Bedford. Belfast.. Taunggyi. M. Malabar Hill. Leach. Mansel House. Xavier's High School. Rev. Trinity College. Laurie.. Grove Park.. Leckenby. Miss D. Lane-Poole. 50a.A..Y.. A. Langridge. Liverpool. Laird-Macgregor.. Abingdon. Steyning School. Goldington Avenue..A.A. I.. LEAcn. T. La Motte. Miss A.. Pinewood Grange. *Knight.W. *Leaf.. Knight. North Devon Lodge.. Surrey.. E. R. 6.. Copthill. L.A. Rev.S. B.. Albemarle Street. Digby. G..A.. Langdon-Davies. New York City.C. J. Lea... Bichard. Lang.A. Rev. Walter. C.A. Lamb. H. Drummond Street. Elmshurst. Lawson. London. M.A.

B. Batheaston.A. Miss J. Legg. A. Chesterton Road. Lewis. E.. P.. nr. 3.A. London. M. Rev. Oxford. Africa.A. R. Lewis. Miss E. Miss G. College Hall. 43 & 45. W. (Warden) Queen's College.A. E. Fitzjohn's Avenue. L. Lindsell. Leeds.. M. Lock. Esholt. . London. Prior's Field.. 58.. G.W.D. Hillside. Alex. G.A. Lilley.D. Lewis. L. M. Manchester. Shipley. W. Bolton.A. R. Lindsay. R. Hampstead. W. Warden of Keble College. B. H. Rev. Nottingham. E. LL. Jackson.A. Miss.. Herbert Road.. Manchester. Cairns Street. Dover Street. Perry Barr. Sidney. Gordon Square. Pendlebury High School. The Vicarage. Rev. Rev. Jfiss M.D. Limebeer. M. N. Oxford. W.A. R.. M. S..D. The Grammar School. Pendlebury... Miss C..W. Cambridge. Lee-Strathy. G. Leqard... W. Linnell. Llewellyn. Lewis. Le Page. Stanley C. Rawlinson Road.. Livingstone. H. Eccles Old Road.. Wandsworth Common. Lincoln. llendon. M...A. Leeds. Old Palace. G. D. M. Leman. Kensington. Miss D.. Liscard. M. Oxford. 2.W.. Oxford.. Lincoln. B. C. Yorks. Castlebrae. B. Bath.. High School. Cape Colony. Morella Road. Loewe.. Litt. Rev. Cambridge. M.A.. Lewis.. Clarendon Road.. W.. Lexham Gardens. Cambridge. Liberty.. S. M.. Miss A. Mrs.. Corpus Christi College.. J. Ambleside.. Rev.. N. Bank of England. W. Loane. 235. L.. Brow Hill. Secondary School. Birmingham. High School. 23...A. E.. Libbey.. Cheshire. M.. Fulneck School.. Linton-Smith. Blundellsands. the Lord Bishop of.. Lewis. Lipscomb. M. Warden of Trinity College.A. Linzell.. Godalming. Balliol College. French Hoek. Lewis. J.. Liverpool. D. M.C. LL..W. LL. F. 324. Catharine's College. The Gale... St. Birchfield Road.A. Linnell Close. 13. M. The Rt. Miss E. Melbourne University. O. Harborne. Miss M. Lewis.. King's College. Leighton. Pudsey.. Miss M. M. Liverpool. 84. (Junior). Knockaverry.A.D. S... G.A.APPENDIX 218 Lee. Lodge. Lidderdale.. Sherwood Rise. Wimbledon.M. Widnes. A.A. Leeper. W. l'J. M. Miss B. 108. Craigellachie.D. Harley Street. S. B. Wallasey.C. Putney. S. Richard.A. Manor Road.. D. Lewer. B. W. E. M. W. A.

S. A.. Uppingham School.W. Windsor. F. 27. M.A. A..Litt..B. J. Longworth. Godalming.. J. Miss G.Litt. Rt. N. H. W.. Rusholme. Ltd. H. Windsor. Liverpool. Master of University College. Princes' Avenue. Hon. 8. Lovegrove. Mackesy. Maconochie.A. Miss A.. Bombay Co. Nasik..... School House. Manchester. M.A.A. M. W.. M.A. Blackheath. and Hon.. Longman. Macurdy. S.. Lys.. Queen's Gate. Oxford.W. Queen's Gate Gardens. L. M. Oxford..C. Stamford... S. Lewisham. Lord. Charterhouse. Calcutta. J.A.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 219 Loly.. D. School House. Macnaughton. 6.C. Hon. Kent. G. D. Kensington. Eton College.C.. B. C. Miss A. D. Swindon.A. Lines. A... School. 198. Rev..S.D. Rev. A. MacVay. Boundhay.. . Colfe Grammar School. M. Oxford. W. Impington Park. Worcester College.. D... Lucas. E. Bedford College. H.. S.. Miss A... Macnaghten. T.A.I. K. Lord High Chancellor. Lord. Ph. M. LL... E. M. Springwood.E.. B. Miss E. B. Bromley. A.. W. Loreburn. Brighton and Hove High School. L. Paternoster Row..A. Luxmoore.C. C. Lowry. MacInnes. Sir A. Somerville College. . Rt. F..A.. Cambridge. *Macnaghten. 6.A. London. *Macan. Macmillan. Yorks. 18. Hereford.. *Mackenzie. P. Lyall. Luce. M. 96.E. W.. Sedbergh. J.. Brighton. B. Lunn.M. Leeds. London. Windsor. F.. J. Rev..A. London. Miss II. Girls' High School.. Dickenson Road. Hon. Lupton. Poughkeepsie.. Eton College. W. U. J 45. Lorimer.A. E. P.. Queen's Gate. LL.D. Pembroke Gardens. Manchester. J.A. Lyttelton. Loring.. F. Macfarlane-Grieve... Vassar College.A.L.. Rutland. New York City. Leamington. G. U. G. G. Bombay Presidency.. M. D. Rt. Rev.P.A.B. Allerton House. Queenmore School. M. High School.Y.. H. S. Wadleigh High MacGregor. Macalpine. W.S. A. I.. Miss S.. Macnaghten. E.A.C. The University. Montpelier Boad. C. *Mackail.. W. W. H.W. P.. Eaton Square.. Loveday..D. M.E. D. Stafford Street.. 39. M. R. Eton College.Litt.S..

MA. Rev.A. Trinity College. Rev. Mason. J. Martin.J. Marshall. M. St. R.A. 12. Rev.C. The Crescent. Newcastle. G.D. Mrs. M. Whiteaway Buildings. St. The Hall. D. Crossfield Road.. Cambridge. D. Sedbergh School.. Bedford. Brixton.) Martin. Director-General of Archaeology in India. The Lodge.. D.. O. S.. B. Laurie. O.. D. c/o Messrs. Rev..W. H. Parliament Street. Magrath. W. Marsh.. John's Wood Park. A.. Rev. Marshall.C. 11. Woore. London. D. Crossfield Road.. H. Grindlay Masham. W. H. Stockwell Secondary School. H. F. *Malim.. Bishop's Court.. Magnus. Hornby Road.. Prof. Miss Mason. Bombay. Muswell •Hill.. G. . A. G. (No address. Mann. Cuthbert's Grammar School. Newcastleon-Tyne. A. Miss A. Xavier's High School. Lincoln College.A.A.. J. Rev. Hampstead.. M. Aberystwyth. H. R. Bombay. J. New Street.. Westbourne Terrace.. Elphinstone College. Dublin. J.A. E. Rev. M. Manchester. University College of Wales. M.. N..A. 3.. Manley.. M.A... The Hall. N. The Perse School. Far Cross. Muswell Avenue. West Bromwich. Marillier.L. Marshall. T. Hampstead. Canon A.C... B. 7. MA. Liverpool. Gardens. S.D. Marrs. Wokingham. The Rt.. D.A. Manchester. M. Prof J. Luckley. Marshall. M. St. L. 37. MA. Matthew's Drive. Leonards-on-Sea. M. Hampstead.. Staffs. Marshall.A. Oxford. Pembroke College.W. LL. Cambridge. D...B. Oxford. W... M. 54.D. L. A. 20. St. K... Taylors' School. M.. Marchant. Martin.APPENDIX 220 Madan. & Co.. P.C. Miss D.A. Rev. S.. the Lord Bishop of. Pearee. Rev.W.A. E. Durand J.. W. Yorks. Bombay. E. Miss A. Mason. Merchant Mason.. Marshall.. Mahaffy. Mansfield. H. St. C. B. M. Provost of Queen's College. The University.

S. E.. G..W. Devon Place. Whitehall. G.N. 6.. J. *Matthaei. Prince's Park. Cambridge. Darlington.. 70. Mattingley. J.D. McCrea.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS Massey. Middlesex.A. McCutcheon. Milborne Grove. McCormick. Glamorganshire.. A. West Kensington. B. 1. Gool Mansions.W. Matthews. South Hampstead..A. B..A. W. Melhuish...A.C. N. Demesne Road. 40. The Boltons.. N. Milborne Grove.W. Miss K. F. A. M. M.. Oxford.Z. S. Mayor. M. Menzies.S.W. 221 Fallowfield. High School for Girls. Mrs. Board of Education. Cowbridge. T.W. S.. B. British Museum. Oxford.A. B. Merrick. Dr.. Hale. Rev..A. Kensington. 110.A. W. Meiklejohn. Rev. F. Wadham House.W.Sc. McDougall.A. S. Mavrogordato. G. Warrington.W..Mus.. Belgrave Road. Barnes. D. Holland Road.A. Surrey. R. R.I. Hawkes Bay.. O. Paul's School. *Mayor.. Miss L. 2.. Eversley Crescent.. Measures.. Matheson. Hampstead. M. McM.A.).D.. M..S. B. L. C. Newnham College. J. Ampleforth College. McKay. Miss G. Mead.. Bede's School. Lower Walton.. Lady Margaret Hall. Campden McAnally.... York. E.. M. .. J. Mrs.R. Gordon House.. K.. W.W.. B. D. Bromsgrove School. J. B.. H. F. W.A.B.. B. School. R.E.. Stafford. Rev. Prof. Mayo Road. W. P...Otane. Bombay.A. F. S. J. 3.. 27.. S. Prof. Miss E. Manchester. Letchworth. A.A.urtrie..A. LL.. McLean. B.... Rev. M. Oxford. Miss B. J. Norton Way N.. S.. Massingham.A.A. M.A. Belsize Park Gardens. Savile Road. Mayall. H. (Scot. Queensgate House. Rector of Lincoln College. May. Miss M. N. E. Miall. King Edward VI.. G. Oswaklkirk. J. W. M. Menzies. P. McClure. M. Lonmay House. Hill. 52. Paul's St.. Kingston Hill. L. Inverness Gardens. Mathews. Mayo. Beverley Road.W.. McElderry. 3. Queen's Gate Gardens... 105. Westfield College. The Boltons. St. M.. The School. 14. P. B. Merry.A. Vicarage.. Galway. M. Isleworth. Matthew. J. Birmingham.A. Eastbourne.. D. W. N. A. Manchester. M. D. Ch. Miss M. M.. Prof. H. H. Bromsgrove. W. H. E. A. St. S.. Mill Hill School.. Rev. P. E. W. West Terrace. G. Meyer. 14. Wilbraham Road.. K.A. S. Liverpool..Phil. Box 24.

West Horsham. G.. E. A. Oxford.. St.APPENDIX 222 Michael.E. Mrs. Sale. S. M. C. Rev. B. Milne. Cambridge. Morgan.W.. York.. J. *Moxon. W.. Greenbank Cottage.. Haileybury College.. M.C.. Brooks's Club..M. W. 46. Abingdon.. The University.A. British Museum.. W. Merton College. Fallowfield.C..A. G.. Victoria Embankment.C. E. Bankside. B.. Shrewsbury House.. Bombay Presidency. Milpord. Trinity College. M. North Kanara.. Morris.. M. Didsbury College. *Morshead. S. J. G. Peak Hill. M.C. E. (Head Master). J. Rev..A..E. LL. S.A. 29. Mills. 1.A. W. Milverton. Cheshire.. 14. V. Miss M. T. Rev.... Monteath. Mrs. Corpus Christi College.A. 1.A. India. A. G.S. A.. McL. Rajkot. M. II. T. W.. H. Askbam Rickard Vicarage. Clifton Hill.G. C. Manchester. H. Manchester. Moulton. H. Moore. Dunedin.A. Rugby. C. Kathiawar. Otago High School.. Fallowfield. Cambridge. Rrof.A. W.C. Miss B.W.A. Surbiton. Miss B.A. Clifton Hill. Highfield Park. Farnham...S. E. Miss M. S. N. Board of Education. M. I. Christ's Hospital.. Karwar. County High School.C. Morton. Derbyshire. I. Montague. D. Milleh. N. E.A..A. Moore. Compton Road... Miss A.Litt. M. 15. H.. G.A. Chelsea Embankment.. Whitehall. D. S. 14.A.. N.. Hon. C. M. M. M. St.A.D. Rev. K. Goldhill.. Trinity Square.C. Manchester. New Zealand. *Millard. 47.. Southwark..L.B. B.. James's Street. Rt. Sydenham.A. F. H. Miss E. J. M. Michell. Oak Drive. J. Rev. W... Winchester. Ladbroke Square.A.C. E... R.. L... Moore.W.. Miss E. Morison. Prebendary H. Miles. Winchester... G. M. Kendal. M.. S.A. Grammar School. Morris.L. Somerset. M... Liverpool... S. Minturn. 1. Miss E.A. Greville Road.. W. Moss. Appleton Rectory.W. Muirhead. A. Montague. . T. Kilburn Priory.. Rev. Moor. Moor. E. *Millington. W. George's Square. M. M.. Canoubury.. Monteath... Moule. Moor. M.. D. H. *Mitcheson. W. Alfreton Vicarage. M. B. Birmingham. Milner.A.A. Sion College. Milman. G. S. Oak Drive. V. near Oxford. Worcester. Miss M.. Miles. Hertford. L. Morrell. M. J. Viscount..A. Surrey.

Eon. Herts. Hampton Park.. The University. Rev. .D. Portsmouth. His Grace the Duke of E.W.M. Liverpool. J.C. 21. Ernest. V. 50. Park. W. Rev. *Myres. Nairn.. K. . W. Sallins. John. M. LL. D. S.. Leominster. Brackenside. Warden College. G. Nolan. Miss Adelaide..A. Prof. J. St..A. E. Welwyn. Australia. S.. J. LL. Hyde Park Street.A. K. Betteshanger.. A. M. J. Frederick Road. Rutland T. R.G. Newton. Nicklin. 1. Nicol. Prof. Fulwood. Nolan.. Sidney House. Northants. Rev. Murray.A... Canada.. A... T. Cheltenham. St. Nairne. M. Bristol.A.. C. Rt. Aston. Murray. MA. Nicholson.G... Fleetwood. S.. Banbury Road. Birmingham.D. E. LL. Rev. James's Square. Norfolk. Oxford. Prof J. W.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS Muir-Mackenzie. J. M. of 223 Winchester Munro..J... Preston.A.. Oxford. Miss J. Tewin.. *Mumm. Nixon. L. Norris. Newman. John.O. 57. M. Miss Newman.A. K. The Oratory. Albemarle Street. A. Cambridge. M.D. A. (King's College. Myers. Nicholson.... Miss. *Murray. W. M. The Vista. G...A. Muspratt. King Edward's School for Girls. Oxford. The Grammar School. Sheffield. C. B.. Muschamp. Christ Church. Northbourne. Miss M. Adelaide. A.. 26. E. The High School.. Park Field.. Birmingham. Chislehurst. G. West Kensington. Rossall. Redlands. Dalhousie University. E. L. MA. Pittville Lawn.W. Ivy Dene. S.. W. Monsignor E. S. M. Miss H. A. Lord. T. Witney. Litt.. Nimmo. Neild. Oxford Terrace. L. L. 101.D. Lincoln College. Darnley. Prof.A. Clongowes Wood College.. 4. Grammar School. Litt. Norfolk House. Halifax. 20.. Eastry. M. Westbury Road. Kildare. Oundle.A. Newcomb. *Newton.. Very Rev.A. Merchant Taylors' School. M.. King's College. Oxford. Seaforth Hall. Howard. Nightingale. W.. Prof. London). H. Queen Anne's Gate. Kent.. MA. M. Sir K. Helena Road. Miss M. Bristol. Hereford. Talgarth Road. Rev... Co..B. Lanes.. Naylor.D. K.A..

Keble College.. M. M. D. Dewhurst Road.. St....M. Alfred V.S. P.. W. Rev. King's School.. Oscott College.. A.. Thomas' College.A. Rt. I. W. Trinity College.. Nowers. Tatoi. E..A. C. Rev. S. M. M.. Highfield Lane.. E. L.W. M. K. Orange. Paton. Parry. Bishop of. Parkinson.A. Oxford.A. Godalming.. D.. G..A. J. Woodcote...A..A. Stoke Poges. .A. Kensington W. Minnesota.. Paget.. Southampton. G. Sef ton Park. Acrise. Bruton. A. Pallis. Prof. Oxford.D. E.. Paul. E.. T. Pretoria. C. Liverpool..A. B.C. Small Cause Court. B. St.O..A.. Old Bailey.S. M. Rev. The Pantin.A. Kensington. M.B. S. F. Haslemere. Papillon. P. Notting J ill High School. O'Malley. M. Bombay. J. E. Grammar School. Bucks. Manchester. E. Rev. N. Prof. Page. G. Transvaal University College. Christ Church. Parry. Kathiawar.APPENDIX 224 Norton. Miss C... C. Osborn.. 50. Canon T. S. Woodstock Road.. Miss H.. Westfield College. Norwood. Stoke House. 153. L.. Tudor. (University College). O'Brien. Rydal Mount School.A.A.A. 16. M. King's College.. Baldock Road. M. H. Fernley... J. W. P.D. E. Aigburth Drive. M. U. Cambridge. B. Whalley Range. Liverpool. Bristol. West Kirby.. R. Manchester. Godalming. Liverpool College. W... A.. Oldershaw. L. Bir- mingham. M.A.. LL.. T. Wellington Road.A. See Bombay. F. Oakhurst. Square. Bombay Presidency. P. B. Parker. St. Berks. Oxford.A. Norwood. Oakeley. Paterson. Palmer. Maidenhead. Norland I Square. LL. Owen. 17. Cardiff. S. M. Canon R.. Ninian Road. Hall Place Gardens. F. Peacock. Owen.A. Paul. H. B. Cheshire.A. 65. Peake.. R. Monsignor. Paton. M.D. *Oke. W.. Pavri. D.. Prof. Owen. Palitana. Rt... Colwyn Bay. G. Rev.. M. Letchworth. M. A. Miss B.. Miss A. St. Albans. Alexander. The Grammar School. N. M.A. W. D.

Footscray. 5.A. A. Pickard. Richmond. F. Miss S. M. Rev. Theological College.A. Principal W. Pickering. Briar's Hey.. G.. S. C. Cambridge. Miss C.. Hyde Park Place.. Miss I. Plunkett. Magdalene College.A. Miss Ida A. Miss M.. *Pearson.. Platt. Lichfield. Settle. L. Plater. Stonyhurst.A. Grendon. Brandenburgh Road. C. Chester Terrace. Rev. M. E. *Peterson. I. Sir W. Oxford.. A.. Somerville College.A. G. B. Oriel College. G.. St.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS Pearce. Cam House. West Garth. Rev. Pendlebury. Harley Street. 24. Warlingham.A. A. Cambridge.B.. Sir F. R. Pearse.. Arlington House. A. Huntingdon Road. Barrow Street.. LL. N.S. A.. 26. Miss K. Marine Lines. E.A.G. Abbey Park South. Yorks. St. University Registry. R. Count. 29 W.. Cheltenham. Phillips. Montreal. 13. Pembroke Dock. B.. Pearson. M. M.. B.A.L.. 60. Yorks. Pilkington.. Rev. Ladies' College. McGill University. M.. Walm Lane. Peskett. M. M. M.A. Bart. W..A.C. Canada.. Upper Fitzwilliam Street. Rainhill. Penny.. R. Lanes.. The Hermitage. Overdale School. Malton... Miss E.. M.. Pollard. Cathay's Park. M. Cambridge. M.M. M..S.. M.. A. M. *Pickard. Lanes.J. E. Phillips. M. Pollock..A.. M. Bradford..A. Marlborough. W. Miss E. Regent's Park. South Lodge.D. B.. W.. D.. Shrewsbury. Pigott.. P. Campden Hill. Bt. 39... Kent. *Pearson. J. D. Perman.. M. W. Nateby.A. Pickard-Cambridge. M. . Queens' College. The School.A. Pearman. Mrs. L.A.W. Miss E.A. County School. Plaistowe. Miss D. Balliol College..A. Surrey. Oxford. Queen's Gate. The Hon. E.A. A. Plaskitt.. Peskett. Market Street. Dublin. *Pearson...C. C.A.. Oxford. W.. F. *Phelps.. G.. 80.L.A.. Phillimore. T.. Bombay. Percival. *Penrose.A. T. Kensington. Bradford Commercial Institute. Telegraph Chambers. M.W. F. D. J. C.A.C. Lowestoft.A.. N. Cricklewood. W. W. Merton 225 Court Preparatory School. Pember. Prof. Cardiff. Bombay. P. Mary's Hall.. LL. Secretariat. 21.. West Bromwich.. Gunnersbury. W. E. P. Andrews.

A. Secondary School. Michael's Hostel. G.O. P. I.E. J..C. Quelch. H.... Shotover. L. M.C. H. Staffs. L.L.. Prof. Windsor. Pratt. Purser. St. C. Litt.APPENDIX 226 Pooler.L. MissM.. *Rackham. Purdie.A. G. K. A. U.D. Ladies' College.. Sefton Park. Sydenham Hill Road. S. East Grinstead..S. Newcastle. Banbury Road. Birmingham.. L.A. D. St. M. Rev. R.... G.. 0. Fleet.. Sussex. Yelverton R.. E. Paddington.A. M.A. Miss J. IL. Powell. Cheltenham. Orme Girls' School. Banbury Road. R.. M.O.. Mr.W. 43. Karachi.. P.. J. Pall Mall. Postoate. 0. Arundel Avenue.. Mary's College... Pye. A. Oxford. Broad Street. S. M. M. Canterbury.Sc. The University. Miss H. Headingley.O.. A. Purdie. County Grammar School. King's School. English Downpatrick. 82. Lee. 56a.. Miss K.S.C. M. Hill. Hon.Litt.C. W.D. B. The Grange. Mrs. M. Rev.A. W. Pooley.A.. H. *Powell.. M. C. I.A. Liverpool. 53. Sir E. Wood Lane.A.. Cambridge. Purton. Hants.R. R.. B. Galway. A.. Addison Road. J. Fonthill. Quin. 35. Pope. Oxford. 29. Prof. . Pope.D.. *Radford. M. M. Oxford. Hon. Price.W.. University College.. D. Litt. Bt. Devon.... Summer Lane.A. Women's Settlement.S. W.. Christ's College. Powell. F. *Radcliffe. C. M.. M. Buckland Monachorum... St.D.A. Liverpool. M.D. (The Grammar School). 60. B. W.. 70. J.. D. Poynter.C. Deronda Road..E.. O.. B. S. Rackham. Hampstead. Powell. Ph. H. M. Scotter.A. 60. Well Walk. Leeds.. J. Dublin... Miss M. Prof. Miss F. F. H.A. Oxford. Judicial Commissioner of Sind.A. India.. 318. Heme Radcliffe. Eton College. K. Poona. N. Prickard. Prichard. Bombay. Trinity College. Litt. M.S. A. Melton Mowbray. Miss. Preedy. Poynter.. Pratt. Miss E. John's College. Grove Park. Prideaux. Street. Uppaston. S.

. Essex. R. Felbrigge... West Kensing- Raleigh. Reilly. Whitehall. B. Litt. Rawnsley. Purley Oaks Road. Hammersmith. Richardson. near Ware. Prof.D. Cambridge.W. The College. Stanstead Abbots.. Richards.A. Hereford.. Oxford.D.. C. Hampstead. A. M. Oxford. B. Miss K. W. J.. M. Richardson. Richmond. Rendall. . West Road.A.. Mortimer Road. G. M. B. The Cathedral 227 School.. Box 86. K.A. Reid. F. Ramsay. K. Rhodes. Kelvedon. P. Cornwall Gardens. 41..B.. M. Rev. Richmond.. Gainsborough House. Miss C. G.... Rev.. B.. Godalming. N. Stamford. Richards.. Sanderstead. H. J. F.. W. M. Reeve. Glasgow.. S. Guildford. Bushey. Miss ton. Wadham College. C..A.. Richards. Eton College. Aldenham Road. Simla.O. S. B. F. Windsor.. Bath..B. J. Rendall. Gordon Road.. Miss S. Eton College. W.. Kingswood School. Westfield College. M. Richards. Prof. Uxbridge.P. S. M.A.. Richards. S. J. Newcastle-on-Tyne. Prof. E. 0. Rhoades. H. M.A.. M.. Oakhurst. near Birkenhead. 15. Sir W. c/o India Office. J.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS RAGG.. Ealing. Blairgowrie. W. M. Sutton Coldfield. M. Miss M. Winchester.A. The Rectory... S. Litt.A. N. Shamley Green. Cambridge. W.C. Richard... Park Road. 8.. Wellesley Mansions. W. M. R. W. Richardson. Rev. Gill & Co. Rendall. Rawlins. India. Charterhouse. V. *Ramsay. Borough Road. South Luffenham. Windsor. J.. M. Jesmond. 64.D..A. Jesus College. G..S.A. Miss J.... I. Victoria Square. G. A.C. M. Richmond. E. Murray. B. J.. c/o Messrs. Richards.A.W.W. Lichfield Road. * Rainy. Herts. M. L. Rapson. Kingsthorpe.A... Rennie. The University. B. 67.. 8.A. Miss F. G. H.i?ev.. M. Drumore. Bombay. M. Litt. Rhys.A.A. G. M. F... B. Burton Terrace... Oriel College. Miss E.. The Lodgings. Miss A.W..A.A.. Oxford.A.. Prenton. 9. M.A. Beavor Lodge. L.. Surrey. M. B. Fairlight.. Lieut. M.A. H.A..A. Reade..A. G..

A. Roberts. S.. Germany. Miss M. Sc. M. E. Litt. Headingley.. Rooke.. E. B. Robt... India. M. Robert.. Bocardo Press.. Aberystwyth.. Trinity College.D..A. F. Roby. Ltd. Miss M.. Bedford. Robertson. Sevenoaks. Stoke-on-Trent. Wells.. . Manchester. Kent.A.. M.D...A. Central Provinces.A. Roughton. Reading. Victoria College. J.. Finstock.. E. Khandwa.. 5. G. *Ridding. J. M. 14. Deanery. C. E. 31.. Toronto. W. Roscoe. 13. Broach. M. Halle-an-der-Saale.. Litt. Leeds. LL.B. K. M. Ritchie. E. D. T. A. B. Otto. D. M. I. W. Riley. Prof.G... F. Rev. Aigburth. Windsor Court... F. Dr. Rudd. *Rouse.. The Lodge. Miss C. G. Banbury. Victoria Terminus. E. A. Rhys. B. Robinson. Charterhouse. N. N. W. Bedford Park. M. Gordon. S. I.. Roberts. Rudd. Ilsley Cottage. W.. The High School..A. Cambridge. Beechview. Bayswater.. Holmfield. Falkner Square. J. Queen Anne's Gardens. Beverley.D... J. Oxon. Robertson. Bombay. D.A. Miss A.A. M. Rossiter..A.. T.A. Prof J. H. West Hampstead.A... C. M. Miss G. S. 39. Bradford. Rogers.APPENDIX 228 Rickards.D. M. Cambridge. Girls' Grammar School..A. Rev. Robinson. Streatley. 7. St.. 9.W.. Oxford.. OS. M.C.. J..A. Coldhurst Terrace. Cambridge Rubie.. Andrew's Crescent. Liverpool. L. D. H. Sheppard Street. B. Romanis. c/o Alden k Co. Gonville and Caius College. P. 11. A. Rev.. E. Canada.. W. Rothfeld. Perse School. Robinson. M. Roberts. Miss M. Very Rev. Principal T.A... Robinson. Charlbury. Michael's Crescent. G.A. Prof. Westmorland. F. W. A. Yorks. M. Robertson. G. Souldern Rectory.. F. Eltham College. Miss M. Cardiff. Oxford. Prof. Bombay Presidency. 199. B. M. Fen Ditton.A. St.. Roberts.S. Rev. Llancrigg. W. Armitage. Liverpool. Litt.A. Robertson.D. Rev. H. M..D. Grasmere. Cambridge.. University College. Rogers. E. Stoneygate School. 30. St. Miss. Didsbury.A.. Robertson. Museum Road. Ridgeway. High Bank. London. Leicester. Andrew's Road.. Karlsstrasse.

E. Oxford. J.. Hartley Road. R. Victoria University. Sanderson. S. *Ryle. J. F.A. M. Parktown.. M. Christ Church. Woodstock Road. Mary's. Blackburn. J. M. D. Russell. Liscard. Sargeaunt.D.. B. St. M. Surrey. J.. High School for Girls.A. Miss E. Saunders. Rev. The Knott. Miss I.. Selwyn. Schomberg.. W. W. The School. S. Lady Margaret Road. G. *Sadler. Rev. Manchester. C. M.A. Manchester. W. I.. M. M. D. c/o Messrs... Stonyhurst.. Tunbridge Wells. E. E.. Russell. Scott. L. Anderson. S. M. M. C. Bombay.... Sands...L. Forest Hill. D.. Reigate. Wallasey High School. C. 2. M. Ladies' College. W. D..A. Oriel College. Oxford. E. Cambridge. W. *Salmon. Exmouth. The College.A. E. G. Merton House.. Westminster School. M.A. J.. Mary's Hall.. B. R. Seebohm.Lodge.A. German Place. Walter. T.A.A. Shadwell. Prof. Bedford Park. Sale.A. Leicester.A.. ... South Shore. M. G. Sandford. Ponders End. Cambridge. M.A. Olave's Grammar School. M. St. 15. W. 16. Miss B. V. H. Sanday. Scott. West View.D. Blackpool. H. Litt..A. M.. Bede's College. Rev. Sarson. Bailey. Notts. C. the Bishop of. B. Cheltenham. Sanders. 328.. 32. Malvern. Rt.. Tower Bridge. S. S. N. Carrington.E.. Malabar Hill. near Hitchin. Cheshire. 5. E. Miss M. Oxford. Brighton. Salford. Clarendon Villas.. Apollo Street. Rev. C.A. Oxford. Hindhead. Sandys. Sale. P. Hull. M. Oxford. Sanderson. G. Yacht Club.. Woolstone Road. Rev.. The High School...A. Miss E. Hymer's College.. Woodburn. Ridge Road.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 299 Rundall. S. L. Mansfield Road. Semple.A. Reigate... Lathbury Road. 80.W.. G.. College House. M.. E. Saunders. 6. Miss A. C.. Eastbourne. Esmond Road. H..D. P. Bombay..A. Saunders. Arnold. Russell. C. Rushbrooke. M. St. Fern Lodge. Seaton.. Prof. Bombay. C. Phipson & Co.. F. Knighton. Milnthorpe Road.C. Oundle.E. Scoles. Scott.

The Close. Cambridge.. M. •Smith. N. Grassendale.. King's College School. Cambridge.A. W. Smedley.. M.. M.. M. Mrs. B. Liverpool. The India Office.. J. A. Sing.. Sydney Street. J. Gloucester House. 14. C.. Shawyer. J. Leeds. Darlington. Canon A. Stoke-on-Trent. Battersea. Joyce..D. Fife... W. Sloane.A. St. S. Welford Road. A.A... St. G. Linnet Lane. Slater. S. I. M. Salisbury Villas... Smith. *Skeat. E. *Sharpley. Manchester.. Lawnhurst. c/o The Times of India. Sheffield. Christopher's. D. D.A. T.. M. E. Sloman.. N. School House. Girton College. Havelock Street.A. Prof. 15... Hereford. W.APPENDIX 230 Shannon.. Miss C. Seehof. J. B. Southlands College. Woodstock Road.A. Crick Road. A... Prof. Felix School.. J.D.L.. Rev.. Liverpool. W.. Elgin Avenue.. Smiley. Miss M. St. Bedford Park... A. Skeel. shire Hill. Cardiff. Leicester. Miss E. Simmons. G. Prof. Victoria University.. Southwold. J.. S.. A.W Smith.S....A. 15. Andrews. Liverpool. A. A. Hornby Road.. Litt. Girls' High School. T. Hunts. 2. *Silcox. M. 64. Cambridge. Smith. B. Sinclair. Rossington Road. MA.St. Smith. Spalding. Miss J... M. M..W.. Douglas.Litt. Miss A. The Avenue.A. Smith. India. J.. University College. Basford Park. Slater.A.. Oxford. Bombay. J. Godmanchester. Grammar School. E..E.C. Prof. Canada. Tower Bridge. M. H. Sidgwick. Ingham. J. M.. M. Sheppard. E.. The Vicarage. D. Prof.A. 33...W. M.P. Rev. Mossley Hill. S. Harley Court. LL. Down- Hampstead. Rev. King's College. Magdalen College. Miss L.A. Sleeman. Miss W. Miss R. A. Miss E. Smith. Oxford. C. M. 13. Miss N. S.. Simpson. Grammar School. Didsbury. Manchester.. Cambridge. Bijapur. L.01ave's Sing. M. H. Sharp.A. H. Sharwood-Smith.. D.A. Hampstead. 13a. Newnham College. M. Sheppard. St.A. John's College.M. Toronto.C. Shillington. F. S. J. Oxford. 9. Fernley.. Sikes. Wimbledon.W. Sir W..A. Miss E. . Simon.A. Whitehall. Shepherd. 114. Cambridge. 45. Sharpley.. W. Shewan. Newbury. Miss E. Maresfield Gardens. O. Nunclose. Miss B. Llanishen.

Rev. Oxford. M. Steen. Steele. J. Bandra. 31. Apsley Terrace.. Cambridge. Oxford. N. Norfolk. Stobart. Stanton. Stevenson.D. Prof. George's Training College and High School for Girls.... Felsted. 66. Rev. M. J. Whitburgh. M.A.. Snow. V.. R. E. H. St. D. Windsor. Tonbridge. Miss A.W. The School. Square. J. *Stone. J.A. Oxford. M.. C. R. J. Bombay. Cambridge. Hope.. T. F. Melville Street. M. Thetford... The University. A.A.. Smyth. Stanton..A. Kittsbury Road. Northants. Solomon. M. Stevenson. W.. Italy. Stevenson.D. W. Edinburgh. Oundle School. J. Birmingham. Gloucestershire.. J. H. A. A. B. Stone. Stephanos.D. Fairholme Road. A. A... B. L. West Kensington. H..A. Horn Lane.Litt. Prof.. M. Berkhamsted. 35.. Trinity College. G. Smith. . H. Trinity College. LL.. Prof... D.. F. A.. L. G.. Frognal. Borough Road Training College. H.. Rev. W. B. W. Bombay.A. Herts. Stock. Essex. W. W. M. Stewart.. St. 9. Steele. M. *Spilsbury. Rochdale. Bradford. Rev.... J. W. George. Abingdon.. Yacht Club. Eton College... Middlesex. E.E.. M. Spooner. E.D.. H.. Dr. M.A. Sonnenschein. P. Radley College. Rev.A..A. M.A.. M..A. M. S. Northwood. Sowels.D. Park House. Miss W. N. Aske's Haberdashers' School. Preston. Stephenson. The Grammar School. Cambridge. stead.A.. Stokoe. D. Pali Hill. Viale Milton. D. Miss E. Stewart.. M. C. Sowels. Hamp- M... Linnet Lane. M. Oxford. Sonnenschein. Sherborne. Stewart.A. M. Sowerby.A. Stoneman. Mrs. University College.. N. Norland *Squire. St. K. Stocks..A.... Miss S. The University. Spenser. W. P. C. The University..A. Florence.. C. C. Isle worth. Oxford. 166. D. Drake Street. E. The Rookery.. John's College.A. 5. Spalding.A. M. Warden of New College.A. E. The Malting House. 41. University College School.. 5. Christopher's. Kent. M.A. The School House.. Liverpool.. M. M. Stenhouse.. Christ Church. St. Acton. M. Miss G. Notting Hill High School. Miss F. Liverpool. Birmingham..NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 231 *Smith. Miss A.. Queen Anne Terrace. F. John's College. Cambridge. Westbourne Park Villas. The Park School. St. F. Fidd Place. Stroud..A. *Stawell.

M. C. W. Sullivan... The Manse.W. L.. Bedford College.D. Oxford. 15. C. *Tanner. LL. Redington Road. Taylor. *Strachan-Davidson. B. c/o Messrs.. A. M.. Rev. 40. M.A. Mecklenburg Square... Conna ught House. T. Tatham. High School... M. 4.. W. B.A.A.A.A. M. Tonbridge School. F. M. Charing Cross. Strong. Chesterfield. A. J. The Manor House.A. T.A. Bombay Presidency.. The Very Rev. Queen's Road. S. Mrs. Strong. George Road. 7.. Sutcliffe. K. 2. Little borough. Westmorland. Tabor. A. Sutton. M. B. Taylor. Cambridge. N. Kent. Hamam Street. W. G.. S. F. C.. Falkner Square. Dean of Christ Church. I. Board of Education.B. Brough. F. C. L.... Bedford College. C. H. Tib Lane.. W. J. C.. London. West Kensington. Shore Mills.. Miss L. M. Bank of England Chambers. D. Rev.B. C. Nottingham. Prof. B.General J. 133. Capt. S. C..A. Tarachand.L. Weston-super-Mare.A. 4. A. C. W.. near Liverpool.C. Edith Road.C. Arthur. L. Endcliffe Rise Road. Tonbridge.A. Northcourt. Swifte.. E. J. Strangeways. Streane. Corpus Christi College. Swann. C.D.A. A. *Sykes. G..C.. G. Crosby. Edgbaston.. Balliol College.. Sheffield. A.. Tatton.. Surrey. D. W. Miss D. 16. 13. Rev.D.Litt. Hampstead. Beckenham. H. R..APPENDIX 232 Storr. Bombay. Sykes. Oxford. S.D. Symes. Strong. Miss E. Bombay..D. D. Strudwick. S. M. Manchester..W. West Deyne. South Kensington.. 2. R. Miss A. Prof.A. L. E... .. Talbot. D... Poona. Chatsworth. B. Ballater. W. Cambridge.. Tarrant.. Summers. W. Stuart. B. M. Swallow. M. Trinity College. Stanhope Gardens. Somers Place. A. Cheam. Syson. Miss J. M.A. Coronation Road. Miss M. Rev. Miss M... E. Dunmarklyn.. B. Rev.A.. C..A. A. Tayler. Canon R. *Stuart. Brackley Road. Abingdon. 12.A. Chigwell School. Uppingham.W. D.. Stuttaford. M. N. G. R....S. K.A. Major. Birmingham. Swann.. Queen's Gate. Essex.. Liverpool.W. Tancock. J. near Kirkby Stephen. 18. Cox & Co.

A. Service consulaire de l'empire russe.. Silcoates School. 30.. Liverpool. A. Joseph. Terry. Bramshott Rectory. D. L. O. Englefield... Miss E. Middlesex. Thompson. Stanford. 16. Mutley. Everton. Northwood. Royal Holloway College. Thring. 2. B.A. Thomson. R. 18..A.E...A.C.. Tottenham.. Albert Court. Taylor.A. Taylor. Thomson. M. B. J. Bradford. Thomas.C. Liverpool. Thompson. Korea. Royal Avenue. College House.. Godalming. G.A...W. M. M. Harcourt Street. M.L. 30 . M. S. 51. London. Ealing. Little Trinity. Primrose Hill Road. E. Miss B. Liverpool.. M. F. Tildesley.A. B. John.. St... Cheshire. St.A. A. Thornton.A. Thackeray. Timmons.. J. D. Titherington. Hove. British Museum.. T. L. Sussex. Brighton. H.. Crescent House School. F. E.B. Thompson... Taylor. H. Cambridge. M. Thomas. Wallasey Grange School. Durham.. 8. Nunclose. A. Kensington. M. Heaton. Edward's College. Hants. Miss M... A. S. Miss C. Miss L. Taylor.C. J. N. M.W.. 53. Grassendale. Michael's Place.A. 3Iiss E. Carleton. Prior's Field. G. St.A. Serge. India Office.A.A.W. S. M. Baring Road. Kewferry Road.. Dublin. Miss E. F.W. 169. M. L. M.A.. Manchester. J. Miss A. M.A. Green. Rue Washington. Rev. H.A. W.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 233 Taylor. Fleetwood. F. M. W.. The Boltons. Avenue Louise Brussels. M. Thomas. Grove Park. 38. W. Dial Cottage. H. 11. M. Thompson. 19. E. S. Cheltenham. Belgium.A. H. Maunde.. John. Tombs.. MissM. Grange Road. Mayfield.. Thompson. Woodlands. J. Lanes. Tchirkine. The Wick. Taylor. Seymer. Surrey. M... *Tennant. Rusholme. Whitehall.A.. 40.W.. Plymouth. 21. E. A. Thorneby. M. Tiffen. H. Lisson Grove. Rev. Cambridge.. The College.. Taylor. Rossall School. Ashwell Road. S. Eaton Rise. Tilley. M.. Verulam Street.... Wakefield. S. Old Elvet. Sir E.Litt. Cambridge. M.. Thompson. Miss M. M.... Chelsea. Liphook. Selwyn Gardens. G.

Dovercourt. Sunnydene. B. E. S... Hyderabad. Vaughan.A. India. Turner. William.C..A. Tunnicliffe. Birmingham. Bombay. C. E. Birmingham. *Varley.... Berks. Tyler. Stanley Gardens. L. B.APPENDIX 234 *Tower.A. W. Vakil. 29. S.. F.A...A. P. H. 10. de G. Miss H. S... Vernon.A.A.A. Sussex.. B. 16. Haileybury College.A. Ure. King's Gardens. Cambridge. E.. Upper Lattimore Road.. M.C. Turner.A. W. J.A. W.A. A. Bradfield College..A. Dewsbury.L... de G. 5. Vernon-Jones.A. R. 3.. 20-21... S. The Vicarage.. M.W. I. M. Albans..C.. Trenerry. H. Towers... M. R. B. Vaughan. Verrall. Chester. The Lodge. Wimbledon. *Vaughan. Lincoln's Inn. A. W. A.. Rev. Rev. 5.A. Upcott.S. Islington Row. M. Upcott. H. Vaeth. M. East Teignmouth. F. Miss E. M. Miss E. St. Christ's Hospital.. A. W. B. 3. Sandbrook.. A. North Road. M..A. Tyttenhanger Lodge. Surrey. Hertford.. E.. A.A. L. Magdalene College. Kingston Road. M.. M. M. Lyndhurst. Edgbaston. West Horsham. The Gables. B. A. B.W. Lyttelton Road. Hove. Albans. Windsor.. Stone Buildings. J. *Trollope. Cambridge.. Leeds. Hertford. St.. M.A. Vincent. Wellington College... V. Alexander.A. Wellington College. Verrall. S.A.. Vince. B.A. C. Unwin.A...A. Herts. B. 11. Staple Inn. L.. 5. V.. Eton College. B.. Mrs.A. * Verrall. H. W. 8. B. M. Cheltenham. Esplanade Road. Vaisey. Valentine. N.. Clapham Park. Xavier's College.. Veysey. W.B..J. M... M. Devon. Cambridge.A..A. H.. M.. E... Cambridge. St. Berks. Berks. Selwyn Gardens.. H. M. M. C. Turner. Haileybury College. Bombay. Kensington Park. Selwyn Gardens. The University.. Essex. Vaughan. Holborn. Edgbaston.. Miss E. B. Dee Fords Avenue. M. S.. Sherbourne Lodge. Litt. Selwyn Gardens. B.A. C. Trayes. . W..A. Leamington. Cranleigh School. J. Earlsheaton.. Cannon Street. A. Miss A. M. Laurence Pountney Lane. M.. R. Vincent.C. B. A... Sind. *Vince.D. The College.

Ipswich. B. Watson. M. Prof. MA.. B.. Walker. B. Crich Common. A. Huddersfield. Cheetham Hill. Oxford.. M.A..A. Wadia. St. Rev. M. Prof. Oxford. M. School House. .A.. B. Manchester.. Altamont Road. W. D.. M. A. G. Matlock Bath. Manchester. Rye. Hillyfields. H. M. Herts.... Waters. H. President of Magdalen College. M. D. Rev.. LL. Langton Rectory.... C. Horncastle.... K.. Miss E. British Museum.A.. C. Clare College. D. M. F. Ward.. Waters. M. Mass. Wakefield. J.A. Rev.. W. R.. Noel Street. Walker. Hallivvell Lane. Warm an. W. Prof. 9. Wardale.. atkins. 14.. M. Comballa Hill.C. Technical College. S... North Bailey. Derby- W shire. Monsignor.. W.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 235 Virgo. Waterfield.. W. Wallace. Oxford. G. Watson. West Kensington. T. Wilderness Road.A.C.. Queen Anne Terrace. Wadia. Litt. Harrow. Walters. 28.C. Old Hall. Queen's College. British Museum.. S. A. W. M.A. Surrey.. Stanwick Road. Ward. Cheltenham College (Principal). Cambridge. Rev. T. Warren.. Bombay. M.A. J. Bishops Garth. H.. Newton ville. Cambridge. King's College. Hertford. A. Crafts Street.A. W. King's College. near Falmouth. W.E. Ward. Rev. H.A.D.A. 43. Rev. F.. W. M. Waterlow. Berkhamsted. M. J. Mies I. B..A. B.D.. Master of Peterhouse. R. C. E.. Braeside. B. A. The Grammar School. Durham. Roxborough Park.B.A.Litt.. D.... Oliver Grove. Haileybury College. B. Nottingham. Wace. South Norwood.A. S. M.. M. Sussex. M. J. Walter. Flamstead.. A. Malabar Hill. Miss C.C. P. G. Albans.A. Miss L. Edmund's College. R. Wakefield.A. N. C.. M. A. Ware. E. Bombay. Sydney. Cambridge. the Lord Bishop of.A. Rev.A. Warburton. Walde. Rt. Bosloe.. Rev.A.B... Christ Church. M.. Caterham-on-the-Hill.A. Miss E. Watkins. 141. Waldstein. Rt.. St.A. Warner.S.A. Cambridge.L. Walker. U. W. Ward. W.. M. Leslie Lodge.. The Dene. 10. MA.. Walker.. M. Warner. Falcon Villas.. Conway.. Broomfield.D... Walters. Litt.

G. E. R. Cambridge...S. G. Miss E.. East Madison Street. Wells. Wild.. Watford. Mus. A. I. N.. M.. Boston.. Oxford.A. Wenley. Wells. B. W. I. M. Miss T. J. India.A. BA. B... E. M. W. F. A. MA. Wiles.. Eton College....A. Mass. L... Whtshaw.. Glamorgan.. Whitestone..A. Prof. B.. Rt. Oldham. 7a.. T..A. The Wyggeston School.. India. I. 70. N. Blackheath.. White. 31. S. Vincent Square. M. Upper Cheyne Row..Litt. C.E.S. Harvard University. Stanwell Road.. Wadham College..A.. C.. Oxford. M. G. N. Cambridge.S. Liverpool. * Whitehead.. Bishop. Pemberley Crescent. F. White. Oxford.. Miss E. Cambridge. Webster. 7. MA. Ahmedabad. M. M. Michigan.. Bedford. Whibley.. Belgaum. H. The Deanery. Grammar School.A. 20. W....C. W.W.. W.A. Ealing. Whibley. Cheltenham. C. Windsor. Watson. Went..A. 1. Fordhook Avenue. S. Webb. M.. Weech. .) White.. Newnham College. Miss J. 82. S.S. Whitwell. Woburn Sands R. Watson.. A. B.. BA. Manchester. B. W. J. Rev. J.B. Bombay Presidency.. Wedderspoon. Magdalen College. 509. W. Watts.A. Wigglesworth. Wavendon Manor. Williams. B.W... Fairlie.C. Corran. Rev. J. H.. Merchant Taylors' School. Westaway. Mrs.. White-Thomson.. U.APPENDIX 236 Watson. Prof.. The College. London. Southsea.A. Welldon. R. C.C. M. Whitehall. S. Pembroke College. Wadham College. Miss J. Rev. L. A. M. Lines. M.... W.. B. 102. The Grammar Whitefield.A. Greengate Street. Hans Place. M. Miss E. U. Banbury Road. King's College.A.A.D.S.. Ann Arbor.. Lancaster. * Wells. India. Isle of Man.. R.. Whyte. Beds. R. Tirhoot.. Oxford. University of Michigan. J. (No address. Penarth. Whitty. Albany Road. Education Office. MA. A. c/o India Office.. Wedd. G.W.A.O.A. *White. Cambridge. Mozufferpore.A.. Leicester. Rangoon. W. 94.C.A.A.. H. Mrs. Quentin Road. C. S. Abercromby Square.W. G. Castletown Grammar School. J. H.S. D. 39.. Miss E.A. B. M. School. Heidelberg. Wedd. L. Wicksey. R.

Olave's School. MA. Winter. Sligo. Grammar School. A. H. Christ's Hospital. Dovedale. Edgbaston.. Prof. Tasmania.. Alderley Edge. A. Oxford.A. Luke's. The University. Thornhill School. Moorside. Bangor. St. S. Cook.A..A. Melrose Hall.. M. W.. Rev.. A. Rev.. de. McKinnon.. Victoria.. G. Williams. Oxford. Wood. S. Wood.. Friars' School. 107. Eastbourne. Balliol College. The College.A. Bedales School. Mrs. Plas Tirion. Oakley Street. Wilson...A. Wilson.. Northallerton.A.. A. 12. Witton. Williams. Grammar School.A.C. Moray. B. Williams. F. St. Williams.. West Hill... A. Residence House.A.A. R. Rev. Pendleton. East Cowton Vicarage.. C. Willis. Merton Hall.. Sittingbourne. Repton. 99.. M. E..A.A. S. Bombay. M. B.. M. Fyfield Road. Leeds. M.A. R. Cambridge.. Park Road.. Cambridge.A. Eastbourne.. N. Williams. Carlisle.A. Hertford College. 21. H.A. Williamson. Yorks. Winbolt. Ridgefield Terrace.. W. Glossop. The School. Manor Road. H. J.. R. Herbert. M.A.. 7.. Wood. Williams.. H. Miss S. Williams. Selwyn College. Oxford. M.A. Williams.P. Oxford.. Bangor.W.A. Gifford.A. Malabar Hill. West Horsham. W. Magdalen College. Winton.A. M. Prof. R. Australia.. 46. Williams. B. R. 6. Wood.. Williams. near Bath. T.. Savile Club. Miss M. Birmingham. I. Nottingham.B. Miss M. Spenser. Wood. Cheshire. B.. A. Training College. M. G.. S. H. H. Monkton Combe School. M. Wilson. High School. W.. Piccadilly. Gore Court. Failsworth. B. Hudson. H. Wales. Williams..E. Petersfield. M. Rev.A. London. Orchard Boad. H. L. M... H. B.. Wilson.. R. M. Wishart. Wood. A. B. F. Prof. M. South Yarra. Hants. J. M. Glyn. K. N. Williams.A.A. The Ryleys. H. Manchester. L. Chelsea.. Putney. F. Miss J. W.A.A. Manchester. Marloes Road. . M. T. Rev. Williams. M. J. Willis.A. Hobart. Willis. B... LL.. S.. Williams. M.. W.. Stanley. Wood. Basil.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 237 Wilkinson. J. Cheltenham. Kensington..

Rev. H.A.D. B. M. Shipston-on-Stour. 10. Tarradale. Miss L. Wye.. Wyse. Stourbridge. S.. British Museum. Zimmern.A. State Normal School. Banbury Road.. M. Prescott Road. 279.. Sale. Columbia University.S.A. F. D. U. R.. Miss E. George.C. Miss T. Miss M. Janet.. Oxford. M. Wroth. 119. Worley. Woodward. Wordsworth..A. India..A. H. 6. R. Wright. Worters. C. Surbiton. Ph. Farnham.A.D. Grammar School. Miss E. Wren. Litt. M. M.. Lady Margaret Hall. M.. Prof..L. Yate.. The College. W.APPENDIX 238 Woodward. A. Mrs. Redcliffe Gardens.L.. Yeater. *Wright. Ross-shire.. Oxford. Louth. M. Brighton Terrace... E. P. Manchester... S. S. W. J. A. Miss D. Cheshire. Shifnal. M. M.. F.. Haileybury College.. J.S. Crimsworth. B.. Hertford.A. Yule.. Surbiton.. Miss K. H.. Zimmern. 7. S. B.. Cambridge.S.. T.. Worrall.A. W. Halford.. B. High School for Girls. J. Oxford. Lieut-Col.. LL. Crooksbury Hurst.E. H. New York City.. 0. King's College School.. L. Miss M. C. Notting- ham.C. Liverpool. Miss A. Second District. Old Swinford. Young. Prof... Lynwood Grove.A. *Wright.. Aske's School for Girls.A.S. Poona. New Cross.A. Miss.D.A. Bishop Stortford. LL. M. Wimbledon. A.W. Worrall.A. Wordsworth. U. Herts..D.. Surrey. D.A. Rydal House..C. M. Rev. Miss Avery. Beckbury Hall. W. Lincolnshire. 31. Woolrych. Wotherspoon.. Young. Zachary. B. Thackley.. Miss E. Oakhill Drive.. Whalley Range. Surbiton. Warrensburg. Oakhill Drive. C.A. A. Wynne-Edwards. F.. Aldis. . The Lodge. A.A.. Teachers' College. W. S. M. M. Mecklenburg Road. Trinity College. Leeds. Woodward.A.

Berkeley.upon -Tyne. W. University of California.S. Newcastle.A. The Mitchell Library. be glad Members : to receive the present . U. NOTICE The Hon. H. Austin. Texas. U. U. Public Library. Lake Forest. A. Washington. Mount Holyoke College. St. Massachusetts. Massachusetts.S A.S. New Princeton University. California.A. A.S. Princeton. White. U. University of Texas. Illinois. U. Washington University. Lake Forest College. H. U. T. Library of Congress.S. York.A. Dartmouth Street.A.A. Missouri. Boston.S. Louis. South liadley.A. U.S.— LIBRARY ADDRESSES 239 LIBRARIES Public Library. Martin. Treasurer will addresses of the following Kelaart. Glasgow.

Rev. C. Eton College — . T. TOPOGRAPHICAL LIST OF MEMBERS For full titles the alphabetical list (This is an index intended for reference only. M. Prof. Beckwith. Vince. C. M. Berkshire Headlam. Miss H. W. H. Wokingham Radcliffe. S. Eyrke. Abingdon Ingle. F. 8. Cobbe. Churchill. Devine. . . A. Keeliug. H. Rev. Tatham. E. Cambridgeshire Cambridge Vanghan. M. E. Crace. Gibson. Rev.College Upcott. W. T. Allbutt. Brinton. Rawlins. G. B. Roscoe. Sharwood-Smith. E. H. H. C. H. Macnaghten. Layng. H. Coll. G. W. Whibley.. B. Davies. W. T. H. E. C. Goodhart. F. F. Bowlby. B. F. Reid. H. Duckworth. H. L. Llewel- . Mansfield. W. T Moore. Chittv. Bradfield Maidenhead . G. Rev. Rev. Edghill. Edmonds. Rev. Sir T. J.Benson. 8. Austen. place or district. Brof. F. lyn. M. Ridgeway. Miss A. Christ's College. Westaway. Gray. J. C. B. Wells. W. .') Buckinghamshire —continued ENGLAND Bedfordshire Bedford . E. E. Miss M. A. Rev. J. E. P. D. I. H. B. 240 . H. Irvine. E. A. W. W. C. W. R. Vaughan. 8tone. Belcher. . G. S. . Miss. M. H. Sands — Kindersley. F. E. King. Names marked * denote the Local Correspondent for the should he consulted. * Ramsay. C. B. S. E. E. . Barry. L. Brof. Newbury Lyttelton. Sandy Wobum . Eppstein. H. Miss C. J. Miss E. M. Blakiston. E. A. Stoke Poges . Daniel. G. Miss E. A. E. Miss J. Alex. Field. Anderson. — . Hon. W. J. R. Wycombe Abbey W. Broadbent.H. Bingham. K. Rev. VV. Dove. W. W. . Luxmoore. Tlarris. T. J. Wellington Coll Aylesbury L. G. Rev. R. C. * Roberts. Rev.Leigh. T. N. Pangbourne Badley College Beading . Impey. D. F. G. E. Cornish. W. E. Davis. Coles.' Cattley. Lang. H. Robinson. M. Mortimer . : Caim. Miss U. L. Stone. Rev. „ High Arnison. Buckinghamshire— . F. Uldershaw. R. and Rev. Marsh.). E. Campbell.

. E. C. Rev. Miss A. J. Mrs. H. Gwatkin. W. F. Verrall. R. Rev. Leigbton. W. Prof. R. E. A. *Rackham. Newnham Coll. Ward. G. C. Angus. Catharine's . Corpus Christ i College Image. deG. Frazer. P. E. W. H. Rev. Prof. S. de G. Prof. G. J. Kennedy. W. S. Robertson. C. St. *Edwards. Rev. M. Mrs. A. Waldstein. S. . Prof. Canon E. H. T. St. H. J. E. Edwards. H. . B. Beck. W. Thompson. Collins. Duff. Rev. Adam. Miss A. Christ's College Skeat. G. T. Prof. J. Cronin. Rapson. D. Wedd. Peskett. H. D. Hicks. E. H. E. (continued) Montagu. G. Giles. Lewis. Jesus College Burv. Morris. Sikes. Miss J. Stuart. V. Very Rev. Matthaei. Harrison. * Harrison. J. Rev. A. Rev. Prof. P. A. Stobart. H. V. . Colson. Conway. Barnes. Byrne. Sharpley. E. H. Burkitt. D. C. Rev. Rouse. Sussex . Verrall. H. E. Mrs. G. Rev. J. J. Loewe. King's College Dur'nford. M. Mason. T. Lamb. Verrall. Jones. Training *Wedd. . . B. W. R. St. Prof. Rev. . A. Gaselee. C.*Jones. B. . G. Moule. E. W. S. Vernon-Jones. H. J. Edmunds. Clare College Atkinson. Butler. Gibson. F. Rev. F. J. Shillington. J. A. Rev. Magdalene Benson. J.Abbott. H. C. A. M. S. M. H. Jackson. R. J. L. Miss P. F. Lawson. P.*Jex-Blake. W. Sandys. W. Mrs. Miss E. A. A. W. A. Cornford. Stewart. E. Prof. Bury. Prof. W. C. M. . F. *Wardale. Jenkinson. A. J. Butler. Chawner. Mason. Plaistowe. J. Canon R. Graves. Kennedy. W. E. Miss J. R. J. Emmanuel 241 *Giles. H. . Pembroke Coll. M. W. J. B. Coll. Cambridge . Miss M. Rev. H. E. P. *Sheppard. E. Miss L. Sehvyn College *Williams. Cook. Miss E. Greenwood. G. Glover.TOPOGRAPHICAL LIST OF MEMBERS Cambridgeshire Cambridge — continued Cambridgeshire— continued — — continued ( 'ambridge continued Trinity College. Rev. G. H. E. Streane. L.*Wood. M. Girtort College . Miss A. John's Coll. E. W. R. J. Coll. C. F. Mrs. S. H. D. Peterhouse . J. Peskett. C. Stanton. Taylor. Whibley. F. Scott. S. J. C. College 31 . H. Gardner. M. W. A. D. Gray. J. . A. Miss M. Parry. E. Trinity Hall Tillev. Coll. Wright. Appleton. J. Nixon. M. J. - Grieve. Miss H. E. Miss A. N. G. Mrs. . H. Rev. L. J. N. R. Queens' College . Hayes. M. A. Miss K. Prof. N. Donaldson. A. Macfarlane W. Bethune-Baker. W. Dr. . Rev. S. C. W. Steen. A. Flather. Sidney Coll. Aldis.

J. W. W. W. Rev. . . Blakenev. Devonshire . Walker. Silverton Teign mouth . H. Cornwall — . Gloucestershire Bristol Cumberland — Carlisle . Rev. Durham — Barlington Fuller. Rev. T. . W. Derbyshire— Alfreton Chatsmorth . Hood. Hughes. Miss E. Miss. A. . Hoyle. Matlock Bath Repton . C. Morgan. E. Holmes Chapel Aantwich Oxton Burham . Danson. Q. Miss D. A. Miss L. Rev. Mrs. Sunderland Trayes. W. J. Gray. W. Bover court . B. A. G. H. Ashbee. Torquay . J. How. Colchester Bourne. H. Smith. E. L. W. S.. Strong. Ridgeway. F. Semple. . Miss K. Rev.rmonth Fremington Paignton Ply month . H. Chase. . Miss E. Brentwood . . G. S. Baines. F. Hollowell. bailer. Banks. Cruickshank. Johnson. . H. J. J. Miss K. Miss R. . H. B. Ermen. T. V. Fen Litton . Kirkpatrick. H. Muschamp. G. Mrs. Mrs. W. Stephenson. Braintree . Rev.N. Rev. L. Falmouth Truro . Sherborne A.D. P. » 0. H. E. V. Courtauld. R. Williams. — Brooks. Rev. . Zachary. Williams. F. C. Bowdon Smith.O. Paton. F. H. S. C. G. [orsfall. Rev. . Moxon. . Rev. Flood. aid en Hirst. H. Trof. L. Miss H. Wilson. F. F. West Kirby . Miss M. M. D. J. Bubb. Miss B. Walker. E. A. Wood. Newman. W. Beggs. . D. Ward. Bishop of Ely. L. . Cade. Church. Norwood. S. . W. . C. . L. Day. O. . B. Richards. Ellaui. . F. Bean. R. . Miss I. Miss M. — F. Br am hall Chester . ] Sandford. H. Cheltenham . . Rev.S. Saffron Walt ham Abbey Johnson. A. Veysey. Thompson. Miss M. Principal F. N. Elliot. Prof. Sale. Miss E. Tottenham. . Bramwell. Jenkins. Limebeer. . . Rev. Junr. Rev. Miss M. A. Jevons. . T. — Bensly. Glazebrnok. F. J. Rev. . Wallasey . S. W. L. Yelverton B. R. Dobson. Rev. B. Barley Bale Glossop . Kelvedon Rhoades. E. . — . Miss E. Canon M. Rev. Faithfull. Boyd. Hebblethwaite. Miss. E. . C. Valentine. Miss K. . Cattley. F. W. A. D. R. W. J. . F. Jones. A. W . •Tad son. Essex Davies. G. Miss M. Miss B. Miss F. Felsted . Lang. K. Newcomb. . Rev. Rt. H. Cheshire — Alderley Edge Altrincham Birkenhead . Prof. Massingham. H. B. J. W. Miss E. Chigieell School Swallow. Tombs. W. Watkins.. Howard. G. J. Kxron. Miss S. . M is L.. F. C. N. H. Stanley. M. H. G. Miss B. T. M. Rev. Pearman. A. A. Prof. Miss L.. W. . Miss L. J. . Griffin. Walthamstow Guy. Cowl.APPENDIX 242 C ambbidg eshire Cambridge —continued Devonshire— continued — continued My Evans. King. J. Dorset Radford. A. Bev. D. H..

Rev. E. A. . Petersjicld . Canon P. . Prof. P. Miss Esther. H. H. C. H. W. C. J. Miss E. Drysdale. Burge. A. Moor. Hayes Hertford . Gwatkin. Portsmouth Southampton Southsea . Berridge. . J. G. H. W. Mrs. . Letchworth f. Jelf. Lord. H. King. . Gravesend . Myers. Titherington. M. H. Bramston. Young. A. HertpordshireBaldoch Berkhamsted Canon Unwin. . . Winchester Badley. Turner. Fleet R. L. T. Ashworth. Kent — Ashford Austin. . . Luce. J. . B. Osborne Liphook St. W. Ernest. M. Waterfield. Ferguson. P. B. Stanton. R. Purton. E.TOPOGRAPHICAL LIST OF MEMBERS Gloucestershire —ctmtmued Hertforushire. Eltham „ . Canon . C. G. A. Oke.. Williams. E. C. A. Folkestone . Miss S. S. Baker. B.. . Newton. Mi . A. R. C. Brooke nhvrst Prickard. E. Rev. C. Harry. Miss J. T. Ragg. R. . Kendall. C. . A. R. Miss E. R. Herefordshire. Wishart. F. Belcher. Saunders. T. Rev. . Dunlop. Miss L. A. Towers. L. Ricliardson. W. A. Chislehurst Hall. H. Helbert. . P. J. . . Kennedy. E. C. Miss E. Beckenham . Conder. . H. Stonehouse Stroud . Weech. S. Loly. Haileyhnry Fenning. L. Watford . Edwin. Sharpley. . Miss H. Hayling Island Bryans. . Mrs. See London. L. . C. . Walde. H. . S. C. Burnside. T. A. W. Albans Godfrey. Barker. J. Holder.-continued !•. Rubie.•Purdie. M. F. Waters. K. Bromley . Miss L. J. Miss M. M. W. A. M. J. Miss M. H. Hereford S. Wright. W. M. G. J. H. Miss M. . Neild. . Gloucester . L. W. . Blachheath . M. Eev. H. . . . Miss Mary L. F. Korthbourne. Pearce. Footscray . M. Miss E. Hammans. Burton.. P. R. Charing . White. Canterbury . Bramley. Rev. Rev. . . J. Greene. N. of Wight. Nowers. L. Miss (i. Nicol. Covernton. A. . Rev. Rev. Miss M. R. Wace. F. (Ladies' College). N. Vaughan. Thornton. Miss H. H. Alfred. Footner. Coll. H. L. Basingstoke . Coleridge. Isle D. Moor. . Rev. Miall. (continued) Cheltenham Kemerton Sowels. Chamberlain. Berkhamstcd . Rev. S. . Crawford. M. . C. New .. Miss M. Kirby. C. Goss. Bowen. Evans. Canon B. . C. J. H. . R. T. S. P.O. Barker. . E. M. R. W. Ware Ellaby. Miss E. L. Hopkins. G. M. James. . . . Milford. J. Heppel. Banks. H. W. Rev. E. Papillon. . . Miss Sybella. L. . Ross. Huntingdonshire— Oodmanchester Sloman. Lady. 0. Trollope. Ilitchin . . Rev. Miss E. Rev. Leominster Chapman. Tanner. Gurney. Ward. Miss J.. Rev. C. Whishaw. Hampshire — Andover 243 Eastry .S. (continued) Bishop * Stort- ford Bushey Case. A.

Canon. Rev. Winton. E. Bevan. F. Browne. A. Miss Hooper. J. Prof. H. A. Cradock-Watson. Harrison. Mrs. See Stonyhurst. P. Miss. de. T. M. Mrs. A. . Robertson. Sevenoaks . Rev. Ewart. Miss Dawkins. C. E. . W. W. J. Brockman. J. Dymond. E. S. R. Tonbridge Stokoe. B. Watts. Hon. A. Bakers. T. Very Rev. Symes. A. E. Rev. Keen. Rev. Bridge. Miss F. . J. Miss M. Campion. Rev. H. Liverpool (continued) . H. Dauncey. R. Mersey Blackburn Blackpool Bolton Hubback. . Barlow. H. Rev. Compton. Miss E. M. W. R. J. H. K. A. Prof. Strong. Sutcliffe. J. Miss S. H. . D. W. J. G. Clarke. . F. . N. Eckhard. Muspratt. Archer. Lancashire— Pallis. M. Gorse. Miss B. Prof. J. . Henn. Stewart. Miss F. Carruthers. Alexander. Boyd. Ormerod. C. H. Mason. Sing. Dawkins. E. Bull. R. F. Mrs. Beaumont. Lancelot. Miss E. Miss D. Mrs. . J. Buller. W. J. . H. A. . Rev. R. Rev. Campbell. Brown. C. Rev. S. Miss. II. Miss B. T. J. Robert. Henn. Le Page. . W. Tiffen. D. . Moore. Miss L. Rev. Smith. T. Frisch. Sittingbonrne Gordon. Prof. C. J. Joseph. Florian. W. A. F. Kidd. Burley-inWliarfedalc Burnley Castleton . Miss E. A. (Bishop of Burnley). P. . Ashton-o7i. . Caton. Tunbridge Wells Barnard. Agar. Guppy. Boyd. Honnywill. M. Lipscomb. H. Brown. C. Prof. Miss E. A. A. Sanders. G. Forbes. Connell. Jones. F. Miss E. A. Goodyear. Bosanquet. Richard. G. Mancltester C. Allen. Collie. Linton-Smith. J. Sing. E. C. Bramley-Moore. Joseph. S. R. Macnaughton. Dale. Miss W. M. B. L. Mrs.APPENDIX 244 Kent — continued Lancashire Hawkhwrxt . Sarson. F. Mrs. Dr. Rev. Prof. G. Lancaster Littleborovgh Liverpool . W. Rev.Rev. E. W. Conwav. Sidcup continued Hartley. W. J. Rt. Tborneby. Burrows. J. A. Goodrich. Campagnac. M. Theodore. Beasley. C. Smith. Miss. H. Miss E. E. R. Postgate. Hardeman. Miss A. Coghill. Gibson-Smith. H. R. . E. Rev. Donner. Rev. Watson. Miss A. E. A. Carter. M. C. T. T. Hall. E. Miss E. Prideaux. Conway. Fry. A Kitchener. E. Rev. C. Kenneth. McCormick. M. Sir E. Burstall. Robinson. Miss E. Rev. G. W. Rev. Miss 0. Tancock. Arnold. Gladstone. H. Prof. B. O'Malley. Ritchie. K. Brooke. Ashton. H. Woodward. .

Welldon. . A. O. Hogg. (Bishop of Lincoln). Miss A. Miss M. Rev. Sadler. Hampstead Spilsbury. Hawkins. Salford Nicklin. D. D. Rev. J. Alfred. J. Pilkington. E. Taylor. Sch. Miss E Green. J. Kelly. Horsfall. K. — . T. . Rev. Trof. E. . . E. Casartelli. School . M. Hicks. flerford. C. Tarrant. (Bishop of Man- Sinclair. Wood. Miss C. E. Nicholson. Rev. Simon. H. Richard. Russell. H. . Sch. Plater. J. A. East Putney H. J. Prof. Hicks. L. . Miss A. L. Mav. . W. Rudd. A. A. Miss E. E. Lancashire — continued Stonyhurst Henry. School Hewetson. Hose. Stonyhurst W. J. Fry. Knox. Macalpine. Miss A. . Williamson. Paton. MacGregor. . Miss G. H. . Gregory. .. Walter. Mrs. R. Taylor. J. J. Morton. Lincoln Moulton. Rev. Rev. G. Marshall. H. Mrs.. High Blackhealh School Gadesden. Miss M. Hopkinsou. Trenerry. Oadby Miss M. Preston . Lovegrove. L. Houghton. Lewis. E. H. A. M. N. H. Hampstead The Hall — . C. J. Bainhill . B. Went.. P. . way. C. Rochdale . E. Montague. Bulwieh H. Mrs. Rev. Montague. Sir Louth Stamford . E. Rev. LlNCOLNHHIRE- Maclnnes. Miss R. J. Rev. W. H. W. . C. . L. Lilley. Melton Mowbray Preedy. Mrs. Furneaux. G. Colet Court Bewsher. G. A. Warburtoii. Colfe Gr. S. Mrs. Mrs. Miss S. . Con- . W. Miss E. T. E. Janet. . D. J. E. Prof. H. M. . Ormeshirk Billson. . S. J. 245 Davis. Rev. . J. Llewellyn. Sharp. . Furness. L. Spalding M. . . Ashe's School. M. Brother E. Dean. City of London School Chilton. Worrall. chester). M. E. Stenhouse. H. P. P. Lutterworth Darlington. Hewart. C. Miss J. Rt. Wiggles worth. H. Strudwick. Miss S. TOPOGRAPHICAL LIST OF MEMBERS Lancashire — continued Manchester . I. Haberdashers' School Coleman. B. . Leicestershire Kelsey. C. Roby. D. A. Rev. Miss F. and . . Canon J. Miss D. C. York House Sch. . . Howarth. Sloane. . . Bossall School Worrall. F. Widnes Leicester . Mead. H. Horsfall. J. S. M. Lucas. Rev. White. Peake. V. London — Sutton. StODeman. Ashe's School for Girls Young. Rev.. Miss F. . Rev. . Rt. . Newton Heath Oldham Scoles. G. Harper. (Bishop of Salford). C. Rev. C. . J. Boston Horncastle . Miss E. C. G. W. A. Coll. . T. . Clapham . Mrs. F. B. Bedford Rt. L. Dulioich Coll. J. . . Warman. Miss M. Prof. (continued') . Massey. J. . . S. S. . Rev. E. B. W. High *Ghey. W. Hopkinson. . . Rt.

Alford. A. Nairn. Martin. E. E. Miss E. A. Rev. Bailey. Piatt. P. Simpson. B. . 8. S. College . D. Miss C. C. J. B. S. Mason. Guthkelch. J. 0. W. Miss H. School Rushbrooke. Gerald. Lord. Smith. County School Bruce-Forrest. S. Miss H. Headlam. E. Miss W. Prof. E. H. Oakeley. E. Skeel. Gow. Smiley. Bate. Hales. Bennett.Rt. L. Stationers' Seh. University Coll. E. Training . Richardson. Miss A. MelLuish. Canon H. . Purdie. Melville. Powell. H. .* Powell. F.H. Paul's Seh. Milman. F. Miss M. Miss F. Rev. Holding. Gould. D. F. Legg. T. Miss A. Rev. Barker. . Miss F. . S. E. . High . J. H. Rev. C. Antrobus. Rev. . Mary's Coll. G. . Prof. Dr. Bonser. Wimbledon : Ecchsbourne School Beasley. ff. Miss G. Miss M. London Owen's School. C. C. Sum .. Olavc's Gr. Miss C. Godfrey R. . McDovtgal. Bradley. Baillie. Rev. W. J. Wood Green. Sir R. Caspari.C. Witton. W. F. Bell. Lewis ham High School Adams.F. Spenser. Wotherspoon. Wells. A. Kingdom. Balcarres. Masham. J. Loane. Sir J. Behrens. B. P. L. K. . Seh. Parker. R. *Conway. C. . London Collegiate Seh. M. T. J. Nairne. W. J. Seh. Sit.. Bampfylde. J. Coll. II. Westminster School . Miss A. Wim b ledon Hig h School . Miss H. Canon G. A. Rt. Seh. Miss L. Reeve.H. . M Mary Hatch elor . E. St. Westfield Coll. Barnett. Prof. W. Miss B. Prof. H. Jones. Spalding. J. Coll. C. Lewis. D. A. Armstead. Botting. Felkin. *Pant in. Mill Hill Seh. G. E. A. Southlands Coll. Baker-Penoyre. J.Hon. . Wood. Univ. Mrs. J'. F. G. Miss M. G. School . Armstead. Bell. P. Anderson. Compston. A. H. G. Miss R. J. Miss H. School A. J. Smutlley. APPENDIX 246 London — continvsd London —continued King's College . W. Hill School . Gray. Rev. Prof. Dr. Miss E. Miss E. G. E. J. Slater. Miss Merchant Notting . La Motte. . B. . Chettle. H. Rev. McClure. Abrahams. Hon. R. Ross. M. Edward. Miss M. F. Rev. King's Coll. G. Streatham High Sydenham S. Miss A. . Douglas. Miss E. St. Miss A. B. . H. Miss M. . M. A. J. Steel. Fotheringham. W. D. Rogers. F. L. Seh. Gavin. Islington Queen's College . A. H. Miss E. W. F. Turner. A. Solomon. Right Hon. K. E. . Dr. Rev. . G. Cholmeley. W. J. Balfour. G. Benson. Rev. N. Y. Taylors' Seh. M. Beeching. A. A. Mathews. Gardner. W. Girls' . St. Harper. Pauls . Walters. Paul. Tollington H. and School JV. L. Blundell. Hillard. . T. Miss C. F. Sargeaunt. Stockwell S. J. Asquith. . Lewer.

P. P. G. Crerar. Hicks. Hon. Butcher. O. P. Hon. Miss C. Loreburn. W. Bridge. Marillier. Miss E. N. Miss L. Hildesheimer. J. W. L. Milner. Miss A. C. Sir R. F. W. M. Lord. Leaf. Greene. Lord. J. Marshall. Burne-Jones. G. Finlay. M. . Dale. N. Judge W. A. Minturn. Lord. T. Dr. Gurney. Hay don. John. Sidney. W. B. C. M. Kennedy. F. R. W. G. Miss M. Mrs. Miss M. and Mrs. C. W. Ernst. D. J. London . E. (continued) . W. Miss K. Campbell. A. Loring. M. Earl of Crofts. Knight. H. Johnson. B. B. Rt. Hon. M. S. R. I. Langridge. Lee. Menzies. G. Matthews. S. Kenyon. F. Brodribb. Kemball. H. W. Burton. Miss C. de Gruchy. Heath. (^Junior). B. Browning. Ford. E. Miss E. Rev. Haynes. J. Prof. Mitcheson. J. Collins. Miss A. Miss E. Miss F. H. H. Headlam. Duckworth. L. F. 0. Sir R. Fitzgerald. Miss C. H. Colville. Canon R. Charles. Mackail. A. A. Cohen. Michael. Miss M. D. N. Ker. Dingwall. M. Bruce. MissB. Chambers. Miss M. Mavrogordato. Miss A. Rice Howell. Baron F. Chapman. J. Rt. S. Grigg. C. Rt. D. W. J. Miss A. Lattirner. Miss A. Hon. Halsbury. *Crosby. McAnally. McL. Droop. Macmillan. Walter.Rt. J. Mr. R. Leader. T. von. Farwell. J. W. Jex-Blake. N. Hon. P. Hill. E. G. Cromer. H. G. Lindsell. Magnus. N. Miss M. Miss A. Holmes. . Sir P. R. J. J. (continued) . Hon. M. Miss D. C. A. K. A. G. Lyall. Hiigel. Sir A. Harper. H. R. K. VV. W. Hon. Davidson. M. K. Garnsey. T. Meiklejohn. Colvin. Haigh. Longman. E. Forbes. Earl of. A. Colquhoun. Lee. Hetherington. H. K. Gurney. Rt. J. Lodge. Dill. Liberty. Mattingley.TOPOGRAPHICAL LIST OF MEMBERS London — continued London — continued London . H. W. G. Hutton. W. T. H. Gaselee. Mavor. Hodgson. Linnell. Miss A. R. Kensington. Admiral Sir C. W. Prof. Miss E. Higgs. Gosse. A. Cohen. E. Rev. V. A. Rev. L. Lord Justice. L. J. MacNaghten. Viscount. Campbell. Dale. K. J. L. Mrs. Hodd. S. P. Miller. Rev. H. Curzon. Curtis. Esdaile. S. W. F. G. T. . Merrick. 247 Heward. V. R. Miss E. R. C. G. Gilson. J. Calthrop. Miss T. B. W. Davidson. J. Millington. Miss M. S. Miss E. W.

. Sands. (continued) W. M.. M. Miss E. Lieut. Raleigh. Woolrvch. C>.Mackenzie. B. Stevenson. M. Sullivan. Pember. Whitty. Ridding. *Hort. . Paget. H. Miss B. G. J. Sir E. . G. Richmond. Miss L. J. Burrell. A. Walters. Jewson. J. . J. Miss L. L. Norfolk. Cran. R. Thetford . Pendlebury. McMurtrie. Watson. L. Taylor. L. . 0. A. London— continued Morison. G. E. Du School Hulbert. Miss J. E. Simmons. R. E. B. H. Miss K. Squire. St. Miss N. Murray. A. Pollock. Poynter. F. 1° W. B. Richmond. N. H. F. G. White-Thomson. G. Seebohm. Pollard. F. B. E. . II. Phillimore. Winter. Great Oressvng- ham . Varley. C. W. Sovvels. Mgr. W. Mumm. G. L. A. Rooke. Hopkins. Reilly. M. Harrow . Waters. Fairbairns. .. !>. Rev. Stuttaford. E. Thompson. Poynter. Nicholson. North wood Sonnenschein. Sir A. G. . B. Stawell. N. Nolan. Hodgson. Whitehead. H. E. Terry. H. Sale. John. Miss K. H. . G. A. . . H. Vaughan. M. J. Richard. SirK. . . Miss T. Pinner Ponders End Twickenham . P. R. A. M. Thomson. F. O. C. Yarmouth Norwich Gt. Thomson. Miss A. Sir F. Rev. . . . William. J. R. C. F. P. Romanis. Miss J. Green. Muir. Warner. Spenser. L. C. Stuart. A. Williams. . R. H. T. Whyte. Norfolk — Diss . Thackerav. C. W. Heseltine. A. Rendall. Bagge. Shepherd. Sir W. Miss . H. Basil. R. Wilkinson. J. Virgo. Clark. A. F. A. W. Baynes. Middlesex — Pooley. Thomas. Miss C. R. V. Willis. Thomas. Richmond. F. Sykes. Pontet. R. T. Miss L. L. Miss M. A. H. L. Miss E. D. Talbot.. H. Miss E. Miss D. Miss M. . W. Hallam. Sykes. B. Prof. Capt. F. Rackham. F. C. S. J. J. E. Ford. F. G. M. Rev. (continued*) . Miss J. Adshead. Vincent. . A. E. Duke of. L. M. R. Miss M. Rev. Vaisev. Night ingale. L.. . Northampton (hmdle . E. Wroth. Haig. Sanderson. F.lgkin. S B. C. APPENDIX 248 London — continued London . . Whitestone. A. R. Plaskitt. Jlo. Enfield Harrow . B. E. Uxhridge . W. J. F. Morshead. Tennant. Charlesworth. . . Miss F. Innes. Dovmham Market . S. Miss J. . W. Miss C. Northumberland— Peal . W. Northamptonshire— Brianoorth . Sir W. F. Storr. A. Watson. S. Ldeworth . C. London . W. A. M. G.

W. Strong. A. Miss A. Richards. H. W. Hertford Coll. Prof. Miles. *Dundas. J. W. Fowler. Greene. C. H. How. L. J. E. . F. . W. Joseph. Jex-Blake. Granger. Grundy. R. H. Rev. . Rev. Wordsworth. A. Rev. Rev. *Cookson. Wood. . A. G. E. Shad well. Webb. G. L. D. Miss (Principal). Miss K. Prof. Banday. P. Heberden. S. B. Smith. A. . W. E. H. Brown. Cyril. Stewart. M. C. Retford 249 Allen. B. L. Warde. Prof. W. Keatinge. Blunt. Godley. . Duff. A. Wight. Wright. C. Jesus College Hughes. Cook. Prof. W. J. Coll. H. Argles. Spooner. M. . A. H. McCutcheon. Corpus Christi . . Clay. Ox FORDSH IRE Northumberland— continued Newcastlt'-on- Tyne . W. G. Queen's College . Hunt. Balliol College . T. S. B. . Sidgwick. A. Munro. J. E. W. Rev. *Clark. W. . E. Charlbtiry . J. B. C. R. McEinnon. Ashwin. Merry. C. B. A. Lincoln College. L. . C. W. C. Rev. Warren. M. G.*Bailey. M. V. . R. Brackley Oxford Hall . R. Miss S. Woodward. . E. Merton Collrge Allen. Rudd. Rev. Pickard-Cambridge. Murray. C. T. G. Wood. H. D. P. Rev. . A.Davidson. Williams. Miss E. Gough. C. J. Magdalen Coll. Hadow. H. Scott. Nottingham . R. Blagden. W. Wilson. Scott. E. Phelps. J. Prof. C. A. Sir W. Lady Margaret Leman. . H. T. W.— TOPOGRAPHICAL LIST OF MEMBERS continued Exeter College . Farnell. Grenfell. Prof. . R. B. Cowley. F. W. P. S. Marchant. Rev. F. Wilson. G.*Binney. A. Bell. Oxfordshire — Banbury . L. E. Owen. W. Russell. R. H. W. G. W. H. J. 8. P. R. Walker.*Burroughs. Dr. F. R. W. S. Miss C. G. Livingston. H. . C. Oriel College . *Butler. F. L. Rev. Rev. Davidson. E. H. H. B. H. A. All Souls . Whitwell. Guilford. P. Warner. E. . R. S. . Keble College Lock. Strachan . Anson. L. M. Prof. Robertson. H. . J. Rev. Garrod. A. Rev. Miss E. 8. E. Brightman. R. *Fyfe. Gardner. Mann. A. H. C. Anderson. Rev. *Owen. M. Houston. Miss E. Benecke. W. P. Fletcher. B. T. J. Rev. Strangeways. . Henderson. Walter. J. W. 32 H. Matheson. Prof. E. H. L. A. J. B. R. Cooper.*Genner. . New College . M. H. Nottinghamshire— Barker. Joachim. S. The Very Rev. . Miss A. G. Rev. J. W. A. Lindsay. M. C. A. W. Haverfield. Prof. Geldart. J. H. W. Henderson. A. Richards. Brasenose Christ Church . M. : College W. K.

Stoke-on-Trent Riley. J. . J. E. G. Shropshire . R. . Shawyer. Rev.. R. C. H. Battiscombe. Davies. Pope. Hogarth. . Graham. M. G. Cowell. M. Rev. . . Ellis. G. S. Miss I. B. M. . W. . . E. . H. Rev. Miss D. M. . Miss A. T.s A. M. Hodge. M. Webster. L. R. U. L. Lt. W. Watkins. W. Rhys. E. J. Moss. A. Trinity College *Coupland. Peacock. Stocks. Rev. H. * Coll. Syson. Clark. A. Ball.M. . — . J. M. Richards. Miss M. J.1. Miss H. L. G. Newton. H. Burgh Heath Newport . Mrs. . A. H. A. — Ipswich Elliston. Penrose. Wells Weston - super Mare . Mills. R. . Rev. Shrewsbury Somersetshire Bath Snow. Robinson. . W. W. F. Dr. A. <i Hl'KRUY I. Goodwin. . Miss E. . R. Suffolk . . W. I. Miss E. Gwilliam. Miss A. Smith. Richards. University Coll. Powell. W. Drewitt. J. Richards. *Lorimer. . Robinson. H. . . Uttoxeter West Brovuvich Man ley. L. Pickering. Miss M. Prichard. . Mrs. Bakewell. A. Miss E. E. Miss M. S. Knight. R. Miss M. . Yate. J. Oxford — continued . J. A. T. R. . Rev. Miss E. Prof. Fleming. A. Worley. R. Phillips. Soutlnrold Wegtleton Rutlandshire's'. Needwood Colwich Denstone Coll. Elliott. A. Wadham Coll. Wolverhampton Ager.APPENDIX 250 Oxfobdshihe — continued Queen's College (continued) St.M. C. Dean. P.Rich- mond. J. F. Chapman. . J. . Evans. Miss M. Pope. Lowestoft W. Daniel.-Col. Cooper. R. Mis. F. Worcester Shijnal ('(ttcrham . Hogarth. . McCrea. W. .Exmouth Milverton . F. C. Myres. M. *Rogers. E. Miss A. G. R Norton. H. Miss L. Rev. W. A. R. C. G. — Camhcrleg Gough. J. Rev. Balfour. StappordshireBarton -under Holland. T. Denman. HandxLCorth Lichfield . E. Alin^ton.'. Gerrans. H. Miss M. R. Sutton Coldfield Richardson. W. R. Langdon-Davies. H. . Sandford. Farley. H. Macan. John's Coll. Williams. G. J. T. Legard. Ealand. H. . F. Prof. L. Somerville Coll. T. Rev. A. Miss G. Chavasse.J. A. J. R. Grenfell. Canon H. Jerrarn. H. Rev. Miss D. A. C. Stevenson. D. Lvffenham Uppingham . V. Shropshire Magrath. G. Pearse. Lys. Mrs. Miss N. M. Miss D. S. T. Miss A.. Caldecott. G. Newcastle . L. Rev. Wells. J. B. L. D. Taylor. *Hall. Stafford Barke. C. Miss M. Armitage. . A. C. . A. Rev. . Schomberg. Remeriham Witney Yarnton . A. P. Lewis. Walker. Watson.. Marshall. H. N. Miss B. Genner. Powell. Rev. Miss G. Miss Ingham. SilcOX. S. Lane-Poole. Phillips. Bruton . Clendon. Mackenzie. A. .

TOPOGRAPHICAL LIST OF MEMBERS Sureey — continued 251 .

252 .

. Brighouse. A. Miss. E. A. Dr. R. (Lord Beaumaris . Rev. . G. E. S. Rev. . Count. J. Whitefield. Bev. Sligo . . Davies. Carleton. Principal. Prof. T. Robertson. . J. Ramsay. -Doimpatrick Pooler. E. R. M. R. K. McElderry. G. Houghton. Prof. . Exon. H. E. Prof. Benger. Prof. Rev. W. A. Rev. *Marshall.). C. E. Rev. La Touche. . Prof. Heathcote. Grundy. 253 . D. Ashforth. Newman. Miss E. Pye. . T. Delany. Miss E. Miss J. Pembrokeshire — Abel. Hyslop. Prof. G. (University). G. G. * Summers. W. Dervock . Stevenson. Bensly. Miss M. J. Prof. S. M. J. Prof. (Trinity Coll. A. W. Cruise. . ISLE OF Castletown . R. A. (continued) Monmouthshire Forster. Geo. Prof. N. Rev. M. Prof. S. Pearson. G. W. . Rev. W. Prof. G. J. Norwood. . Eckerslev. T G. R. Havcrfordicest . T. Rennie. Ferard. Willis. Cartwright. Rev. W. . Ferrall. C. A. Perman. K. Llovd. Miss M. G. Miss E. A. V. Glasgow J. Jones. J. Williams. C. W. Rev. John. TOPOGRAPHICAL LIST OF MEMBERS Yorkshire— continued Sheffield . . L. Green. . IRELAND WALES Anglesey — Henson. Burnett. Prof. G. I. I. A. M. J. . Rt. Green. Prof. Dublin . Prof. J. James. G. G LAMORGANSHIRE— Cardiff Da vies. H. Dr. M. F. Miss Belfast MAN Wicksey. Osborn. F. Eden. Prof. Rev. . . Abernethy. Prof. Plunkett. H. Wakefield A bcrtillery Monmouth of Wakefield). Prof. L * Slater. Dundrum Anwy]. Yeado ib York . Tullamore Carnarvon- Bany or Arnold. Rev. Johnson. Heard. H. Mrs. Bay . Leckenby. Grant. Miss M. Laurie. Bidgood. Prof. Miss M. . W. Prof. Enniskillen Gal-way : . Miss C. T. . W. . Prof. Cowbridge Penarth Swansea . J. *Dill. . Andrews . . C. R. . Thompson. Keene. Roberts. C. Sir F. E. M. Miss L. . Buckland. C. R. Gibbons. A. V. Mahaffy. von B. C. L. Pembroke . Keen. L. .*Beare. Rev. J. Bell. Allen. E. R. E. . Ballater Blairgowrie . Sir S. C. Thompson. Henry. C Bishop . Prof. E. Criccieth Denbigh Colwyn . . Purser. W. Clarke. Hardie. Hudson. W. Harrower. Miss A. Prof. W. * Browne. W. Miles. W. E. Bell. A. Robert. . . W. Taylor. Cardigan — A berystwyth J. . Edinburgh — Wrexham SCOTLAND A berdeen Mayo. T. . D." John. E. . Sleeman. Allen.. A. Dodd. Glenalmond St. . Clongowcs Wood Nolan. E. Prof. *Williams.

EUROPE Austria — Innsbruch . Shewan. A. Huggard. P. P. M. .. Rev. F.APPENDIX 254 Scotland — continued Andrews St. W. Taylor. Miss A. . Prof. C. A. — Florence F>enn. Robert. Pearson. . Miss E. . W. T. Cobham.an -derSaale Italy . . W. R. Carnoy. — . . . Dr. Miss A. . . J. Ashby. . Louvain . . . . .. Grafton. 0.. Yule. . Russia— St. J. NORTH AMERICA Canada— R. D. C. A. J. Germany— Halle . . Tcbirkine. {continued) Tarradale . . Jasonidy. S. Steele. Mediterranean — Borne Cyprus . Prof. Petersburg Switzerland Davos Platz . Belgium — Brussels .

Elliott. Willis. F. E. F. C. M.TOPOGRAPHICAL LIST OF MEMBERS Asia — continued Asia— continued India — continued India — continu ed Bombay . . S. Quin. C. Vakil. Burma Calcutta Jenkins. W. J. Broach Rothfleld. Hon. Karachi . Vaeth. E. N. Pratt. M. N. C. Pigott. G. F. E. Meyer. Rt. 0. W. Gubbay. Hon. P. Percival. Wadia. E. Lamb. A. T. Haigb. P. C. Mr. Khandwa Owen. A. Rev. . E. H. G. T. Corley. Mrs. C. V. B. E. W. Karwar . Rev. Madras . M. F. R. S. R. 255 . Monteatb. N. Hotson. B. . M. Macnaghten. B. C. Mr. Belgaum Wiles. Rickards. Swann. C. P. B. F. Dr. Lee. 0. R. J. Shepherd. II. Hon. C. Jukes. W. Mrs. R. Faulkner. Sanderson. K. Hyderabad Kathiuivar Vernon. Wadia. Larbolette. R. D. Talnier. A. P. J. Madan. R. Pavri. A. (continued) Nasik A. Bijapur Shannon. C. Reade. Martin. G. A. J. Rev. J. Sowerby. Sale. Johnston. E. D. D. R. Roughton. X. P. E. E. E. A. Tarachand. Mr. Stephanos. Marrs. H. Hart. Rev. Haig-Brown. L. D. F. A. C. Monteath. Russell. Major-General J. Father A. E. Sheppard. Kincaid.

A. . M. Hon. (Scot... B. E. . Esq. . Miss A. Conway. M. B. M. . B.. Allen.A. Litt.) Miss R. .. Dobson. Archdeacon of Manchester Professor R. Miss M. MacInnes. The Ven. .A.. J. D. . Dakers. J.S. Sadler. .:: :: THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION MANCHESTER AND DISTRICT BRANCH President The Rev. Lang.A. Esq. B.. D. Hon. Esq. H. Shillington. the Bishop of Salford Miss S. M. J. work began with the Annual Business Meeting. Secretaries Lilley. C. D. L. S.R. Dean of Manchester The Vice-Chancellor of the Victoria University H. S.. Esq. year's Warman. ... Bart. 256 Professor . S.A. Miss G.A. . Rees. . Esq. M. M. . E. Paton.. Esq.A. A. M. E. Kelsey. Esq. Hogg. Esq. J.A. Esq. Esq. H.A. Hon.A. L. F. Llewellyn.A. (Chairman) The Rev. . A.A. V. Hopkinson. B. Professor M. Williamson.Litt.A. Agar. Esq. P..D. H. M. . Hon. C. M.A. Secretary of the Excavation Committee: J.A.A. Miss E. The . The Right Rev. Guppy. .A. .S. Professor W. B. Mead. Sir E. W.. . J. B. M. B. Committee Professor R. Hopkinson. M. F. Esq..A.A.A. Donner. Boyd Dawkins.A. M. J. . held on January 28th. . . M.. Moulton. F. Burrows.. . M. .A. Treasurer H. The Rev. H. Bishop Welldon. M.. M. Barrow. LL. Schmidt.. T. .A.A. Miss H. the Bishop of Manchester The Right Rev.Sc.D.A.A. Esq. Thomas May. Vice-Presidents The Right Rev. .. Canon Hicks.D. Professor H. H. .A. Willoughby C. M. in the John Rylands Library. ..D. M. D. Burstall. J. B. Montague. P. . Esq. .

Acton and were entertained by him with the utmost kindness. an inscription by the Emperor Severus and subsequently modified by discovering. Bart. the make him a presentation of books. and of continuing and completing the excavation at the fort." was followed by a social meeting of the Branch. Sir Edward Donner. after the excavation. at which Professor Murray was present. a Vice-President. As mentioned in the Appendix to the Proceedings for 1903. with the double object of erecting a museum on the spot.. erected Caracalla. G. by Mr. problems unsolved. During 1910 there were nearly 70 regular members and about number of associate members. for the interchange of lectures in schools has continued to operate through the year. M.. Hicks as President. and to The meeting opened with a lecture by Mr. one part of which. On October 24th a public lecture at the University. Trusteeship of the Museum The Branch's scheme to be erected on the other part. and Canon J. The ecclesiastical authorities have consented to sell the necessary portion of glebe-land.MANCHESTER AND DISTRICT BRANCH 257 Flamstead Walters gave a lecture on some important questions connected with Greek Tragedy. on recent excavations on Roman sites. The party was fortunate enough to inspect the site and the under the personal conduct of Mr.A. A. F. Arthur Acton. Simpson was elected their retiring President. which at present stage leaves several interesting its Through the efforts of the local Committee considerable progress has been made. among other objects of importance. near Wrexham. on " Greek Tragedy. the Excavation Committee had in 1908 conducted ing excavations on the site of the Roman some interest- Fort at Ribchester. Bruton. the same 33 • . Since then it has been in prolonged consultation with the locrJ Committee. The Officers and Committee were elected. in which the objects found may be permanently preserved. On June 25th the Branch visited the excavations which are being conducted at Holt. by Professor Gilbert Murray. for a tion is to be used as the site new Parish Room and the National Trust for the Preservaof Ancient Monuments has consented to undertake the . was elected to succeed Dr. On October 17th the Branch met to take a formal farewell of collections of pottery Lord Bishop of Lincoln.

M.. .. E. R. H. Edgbaston. . M. A. : . Sleeman. C.Litt. APPENDIX 258 BIRMINGHAM AND MIDLANDS BRANCH The of officers for 1910-11 is as follows list : President The Right Rev.. F.A. W. Waterfield. . Treasurer H. . The Rev. .A. New Street. M. M. A. T.A. Bishop M." . The The Right Rev. Sonnenschein.A. Esq. J. Esq. Hon. Archdeacon Burrows. .. Hendy. Professor The Rev. Hon. 100.A. . M. Barrett.. R. the Lord Bishop of Birmingham. Rev. G.A. .A. Ilsley.P.A.. . . M. . Miss Baugh Miss Alder The Rev.— " The Relation of Platonism By Mr. G. A.D. Measures. M. R. Hon. D... M. Chappel.. Hon. City Road. Vice-Presidents The Ven. D. . Miss Loveday Professor Miss Nimmo A. . J. W.A. King Edward's School.. Registrar Miss Inez Watson. M. W.. Esq. Edgbaston. Sonnenschein. Norris The Rev. Esq.A. City Road. Clendon. M. H. Esq. Esq. Middlemore. S. M.:: : : . George St.. M. M. M. Beaven.. Esq. Esq. .A. A. Esq. . Cary Gilson. Canon Ford. Esq.. Cary Gilson. Burnside.A. Arnold Hatfield. Edgbaston. The Rev. Secretary of the Reading Circle Miss H.A. M. The Rev. Committee The Rev. Heath. J. : Reynolds. M. M.A. M. M. R.A. .A.A.A. M.. Secretary R. City Road. D. J. Canon Hobhouse. .Litt. J. F. . Esq. Stock. . M. Hookham.. . : 49. James. P. The Rev.A. Vince. C. . B. 107. The following public lectures were delivered February 24th.A.A. Cattley. : to Christianity.A. . Esq. Esq. .A. H. M. . Balfour. R.

" The Reading Circle continues to meet. T. Esq. S. Caton. A.D. Professor E. Vipan.J. H. Connell H. Pallis. fairly satis- of the Association." November \0th. Hon. Esq.. . . . . . G.P. Branch have maintained a There are 48 besides 41 associate members. LIVERPOOL AND DISTRICT BRANCH President Professor Postgate. : H. Esq. Strong. Hugh Stewart. Bosanquet The Rev. Legge. . Canon Kempthorne The Rev. F. and has done excellentwork. . Professor P. . Vice-Presidents : The Right Rev. Emeritius Professor H. Robert Gladstone. Griffin.. a discussion on " The Place of Latin in the School Curriculum. H. The numbers factory level. . P.. . Litt. Treasurer .Watson. J. M. A. . Secretaries Kenneth Forbes. Esq. Esq. L. Butcher. had to be cancelled..D. . Benson. and in its place an address was given by Father Phillips on " The Rosetta Stone. Myres A. Cradock. S. Esq. V. Hebblethwaite The Rev.A. .. H. E. Weisse." promised by Mr. Esq. The Rev. C. B. BIRMINGHAM AND MIDLANDS BRANCH 259 — Paper by Mr. the Lord Bishop of Liverpool . Professor J. Esq. M. full members Esq. Lancelot J. J. Campagnac R. Joseph Browne. A. M. . Esq. followed by October 20th. . LL. . . Montgomery.: : .D. A lecture on " Greek Study in Relation to — some Literary Influences of To-day. C. . owing to the illness of the lecturer. The Vice- chancellor of Liverpool University Miss Baines Professor R. Hon. of the Esq.

" by Mr.D. Paton. A general discussion took place on the recently published book.— " The Influence of Greek Philosophy on Roman Life." by M.D. " The Temples and Worship of Asklepios. M. " Recent Exploration at Rhitsona in Boeotia. March 14tA.. — " A Latin Novelist. Bosanquet. Wace. October 2bth. C." by Mr. May 9th. LL. Snow." by Professor R. Burrows. Fellow of Pembroke College. Manchester University. LL. affairs who has given to our financial an amount of care and attention which we cannot too gratefully acknowledge. Cambridge. T. December 6th. " The Liverpool Committee's Excavations in Wales." by Professor R. J. Caspari. A. — " Early Civilisation in North Greece (Recent Excavations in Thessaly and Exploration in Macedonia). M. ." by Richard Caton. treasurer. We have also to record with great regret the resignation of our hon. 0.A. Strong. — — — — We have suffered severe loss in the departure of Professor Myres to Oxford. and to his resourceful enthusiasm we owe our very existence as a Branch of the Classical Association. 1910: February 22nd. B. A. B. M. A. November \bth. Mr. C." by Professor H. " How to Save Greek.APPENDIX •260 The following meetings the year 1909 : of the Branch have been held during : October \f>th. V.D. He was our founder.

Committee : Mr. . Mr. . E. . E. S. Granger. Rev. . F. Houston Mr. Guilford . H. of S. E. PrinMr. Dr. P. . . S. J. P." and a discussion followed. urer. Principal Symes in the chair. The first meeting of the year was held on February 18th. W. Granger read a paper entitled " The Influence of Greece upon Lord Byron. cipal Symes . G. . S. Mr. P. R. F. G. Rev. F. Rev. Houston Miss C. On March 19th a performance of the " Frogs " of Aristophanes was given by the University College Students' Dramatic Society under the auspices of the Association. Principal Symes in the chair. Adam Rt. Turpin Miss C. E. Barker read a paper on the life and work of Martial. C. The play was produced under the direction of Mr." The third meeting was held on November 18th. Clarke Mr. Rev. Barker. Bowser read a paper entitled *' The Language of the New Testament and the Common Speech of the Age. Newton. . . Barker. S. Brady Mr. Committee : Granger. Strangeways Rev. L. . L. Francis Miss E. R." after which the reports of the Secretary and Treasurer were read and passed. Jones Dr. Secretary : Mr. Strangeways in the chair. Chairman Dr. H. W. The second meeting was held on June 3rd. with the advice of Mr.: NOTTINGHAM AND DISTRICT BRANCH 261 NOTTINGHAM AND DISTRICT BRANCH President : Lord Savile. entitled " A Stooping Muse. . . Treasurer Dr. W. Vice-Presidents : Mr. P. The number of members was 50. L. J. P. Strangeways the Secretary and the Treas- Miss E. Leman Mr. L. E. Bishop Baynes Rev. M. A. R. Walker. C. E. and officers for the year were elected. .

J.. S.. Esq. C. M. . Esq. M. Justice Beaman.I. : S. President The Hon. Pavri.C. . MajorGeneral J. T. Jenkins. Hon. Vice-Presidents I.. CLE.A.A. The excavation yielded evidence of pre-Roman occupation in some polished stone weapons there were also suggestive finds of pottery and small objects. . SirN.A. Committee G. B.C. T. A. I. R.C. .. Esq. Esq. (Retd. Father Ailinger. LL.S.C. J..S. G.B.).S. Swann. G. Hotson. Secretary The Rev. P. Xavier's College. M. .C. P.A.S. . Lord Bishop of Bombay Mrs. E. C. Esq.. G.S..B. R.. who undertook an excavation on the site of the Roman station of Magidunum.. Haigh.E.B.I. APPENDIX 262 The increased was shown local interest in classical studies during the year by the enterprise of a private committee. I. Haigh The Hon. Mr. Mr. I. LL.E. The Hon. on the Fosse Way. Sheppard.C. B.A.G.S. BOMBAY BRANCH Patron : His Excellency Brevet-Colonel the Hon.M. C. . Mr.C. Anderson. . B.S. B.I.J.. I. Bombay. M. The Right Rev. Palmer. . The Hon.. when a portion of the vallum was unearthed. . Esq. Rickards. Sir George Sydenham Clarke. Justice Batchelor. A. E. St. Mr. .S..A. Chandavarkar. C.A. Treasurer : J.:: .C.. N. R. M. I. Lamb. but no trace of buildings was discovered till the very close of a season.. near Bingham. Governor of Bombay.. Hon. L.. E. F. : The Hon.

to which were added 23 others at the Since that time the membership has constituent meeting. " On Translating the Classics into English. H. Father Ailinger. It has also H. read the second Classical Pronunciation of Latin. G.—Mr. five meetings been held before large audiences — 14th...P. A.I. R. John Cameron. J.. Butcher. C. Rickards.. M. J. C. and greater number of more now within a few of a hundred. F. Secretary of the 263 Branch has great pleasure in re- porting that the Branch. C. C. Bolus. Director-General of Archaeology in India. F. Whitty.J. Anderson read a paper by Mr. C. and a few in different parts of India. Father Ailinger. — The Rev.E. the Central Association.. gave a lecture on " Alex- ander's Eastern Campaign. 1911. read the paper on " The Classical Pronunciation of Latin. E.C." June of a July 18th. scattered over the whole of the Presidency. Kincaid." ." January Walter 10th. Johnston. but is there are many. first half read a paper on " The Indian Origin of Greek Music. on " The S. T. members.B. have : I. J.BOMBAY BRANCH The Hon.. Marshall." — General Swann. has prospered beyond the utmost expectations It began with a nucleus of 18 members of of its founders. D. The Branch regrets to record the loss sustained in the death of Mr." August 25th. S. The the members are resident in Bombay. Papers have already been promised by the following members : Messrs. whose advice was of the greatest help at the time of its formation. which was formally constituted in January 1910. Shepherd.— Mr. one of its earliest lost a valued friend in Dr. A. Since the Constituent Meeting on January 20th.S. Otto Rothfield. also. 1910 (reported in the previous volume of the Proceedings). S. L. Prospects of the future of the Branch are even more favourable. than doubled. The Rev. and the Rev. half of his paper November 28th. Wild.

. upon the Motion of Professor W. Esq. . Bbennan. S. H.A. W. B. M.. Cullen.. Nicholas. D. Garnsey and Dr. Radford.D. D.. The Rev. C.. The Right Hon. G.A. M. R. A. M. convened by Mr.A..A.A. Vice-Presidents : Edmund Barton. . Allen. Holme. Piddington. Miss Badham Miss Louisa Macdonald. R. B.D. Hon.. P. . L. F. . .M. Esq.A. M. T. B.D. J. : Woodhouse. Prescott.C.. . J. Esq.. Alexander Mackie. M. Todd. LL.D. Todd. B.C. Mutton.A. Esq. R. Council AssistC. J. APPENDIX 264 REPORT FROM THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION OF NEW SOUTH WALES 1909—1910 President The Hon. and held in Sydney on May 31st. 1909. M. .A.:: . Lee Pulling. J.A. . H.A.. B. Esq.. Secretary : F. . Clement Br. A.. Professor Thomas Butler. " That a Society. . L. to be called . E. B. . S.D. J.. The Hodges.A. Wing.A. Mrs. M.. The Right Rev. M. . E. B.A. A.. . Sir . it was resolved. Esq. . C. A. Esq. M. Andrew Harper.A. . H..A. R. C. Esq.A. . Miss Eleanor Watson. . Honour Judge Backhouse. Monsignor O'Brien The Rev... Esq.A. H.G. The Rev. Woodhouse. Garnsey. Weigall. A. Little. Ph. Millard.L. M. B..A. Chief Justice of New South Wales. E. Rev. Hon. Ph. Stiles A.A. B. . J. M. C. Treasurer Professor W. Garvin Mrs. His D. seconded by Mr.J. LL.. P.. Esq. Rev.D.C. H. I. M. . M. Professor ant Esq. .A. Esq. M.A. At an Inaugural Meeting. M.A. The . Kaeppel. M. .

. Rules modelled upon those of the parent Association were adopted. . T. M. . in response to an invitation. Odes I. Radford. . " The Influence of (5) Aeschylus. and.D. B. 20.: NEW SOUTH WALES The Classical Association of that application be made New South 265 Wales. Patron : Thk Right Hon. . The Rules provide that not less than three Ordinary Meetings be held each year. great interest. M. R.A. though unable to attend the meetings.). The Council had special pleasure in admitting a number of members from the country districts of New South Wales and from Queensland. Allen." by Professor Woodhouse (2) by the Rev.A. H.. L. J.A. A. The first General Meeting was held on August 6th. In due course the Association was affiliated to the Classical Association of England. it appointed Mr. 34 (Cantab. Ph. and to the Classical Association of England to extend the provisions of its rules to the said Society. Wing. Vergil on Mediaeval and Modern Thought." by Mr. be formed. C. Sir Samuel James Way (Bart. (3) " The Pronunciation " The Persae of (4) of Latin. B.D.D. At the three meetings of 1909-1910 the papers read were (1) " The Scenic Arrangements of the Philoc" The Oxyrhynchus Papyri." by Mr. LL." by Miss Louisa Macdonald.. still wished to help along the good cause.). 1909. Garnsey as its representative upon the Council of that body. H. M. If the present membership can be maintained. E. President Professor Henry Darnley Naylor.A." An Organising Committee was elected to enrol members and draw up rules. M. D. to be submitted for approval to a General Meeting. (6) " The Interpretation of Horace. its THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA. M. who. and Officers and Council were elected. the Association hopes to be able to publish an abstract of Proceedings." tetes.A. The membership of the Association at the end of the first year stood at 78. The papers were heard with shall : . and provoked lively discussion. L. Brennan." by Mr.A.

).. Secretary. (Edin. F.A. E. Executive : (Cantab. The Hon. Ward.Sc. A. Walton <b Viney. D.A. M. M. M. Miss E. M. LL. The Hon. (Cantab. Treasurer : D. Professor William Jethro Brown. Hon. Coghill. : The President. Secretary G. K.. M. J. Treasurer.). (Oxon. Printed by llazell.A.A. Cowperthwaite. M.A.).D.APPENDIX 266 Vice-Presidents : Professor William Mitchell. . Professor George Cockburn Henderson.A. D.A. Holltdge.). McMillan. Ld.. H.. M. London and Ayletbury. Hon. B.

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