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. . . 1911 18th. . TO 120 APPENDIX Officers and Council 125 Rules 127 Names and Addresses of Members . DECEMBER DECEMBER 18th. . . Januaby 8th.: 1/si CONTENTS PAGE PROCEEDINGS OF THE NINTH GENERAL MEETING : Monday. . 1910. . 1912 48 INDEX TO THE PROCEEDINGS 112 DECLARATION OP TRUST 114 STATEMENT OF ACCOUNTS.130 Topographical List of Members 177 Manchester and District Branch .193 Birmingham and Midlands Branch . January 9th. . 201 203 . . . . 1912 1 Tuesday. .198 Bombay Branch Classical Association of 199 New South Wales Classical Association op South Australia . . .195 Liverpool and District Branch Nottingham and District Branch 196 . .

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in Homer and in Archaic Miss LoRiMER. January 8th The first was held session of the Association of King's College. Hellenic Oriental. of which the best illustrations are furnished by monimients from the Mesopotamian area. This may prove to be the case but we are not These theories have one point in all or . F. from Cretan and Mycenaean monuments. 1909. no reason And if known The co-existence the assumption. Ares is is more than in that of religion and all that pertains never promoted to a corslet the King of Gods likely to persist . common they assume that Homer can be brought under one heading. On the whole. entitled to start with the poems of different types of armour a priori. of course. LONDON. More recently Pinza^ has put forward the theory that Homeric dress type Oriental in origin and common is of a to the eastern half of the Mediterranean world. at 3. it would to us not be extraordinary to find in the dress reminiscences of the same period.NINTH GENERAL MEETING. has held the field. has been Studniczka's view. why is admitted : there in is. Strand. which equates the women's dress to the later Dorian type. 1 Hermes. no domain in which the antique to it.m. L. G. 1912 Monday. studied little — " The in recent a paper on " Some Notes on Dress Greek Art. the older sort of armour is of the South Aegean type.30 p." Homer subject of dress in years. the men's to the Ionic. the same should not be true of dress. LoRiMER read Miss H. dress in . Kenyon occupied the chair. . There is. in the Theatre Dr.

and fastened it over her breast with clasps And she girdled it with a girdle arrayed with a hundred of gold. and therein set many things beautifully made. refers to the Doric peplos. Translation of the Iliad. 2 Lang. The passage from the Trachiniae ^ on which Studniczka relies to prove his interpretation of o-r^^os bears this out. 178-80. To apply the expression to the shoulder clasps of the Doric peplos Granting that is a measure of desperation. and thus expose one side : : . Xpvaelrjs S^iveryai /card ctttjOoq wepovuTO.' ' : d/jLcpl 8'dp' tifi§p6aL0i> eavbv ?<ra^' .— THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 2 has never advanced so far as to have a shield. nothing of the tragedians know we for it is loosely used by the been seen which Deianeira had just fifth-century stage dress in must which the description have been by the audience. But granting that the Doric dress is intended. she removes one and arm doubted whether the description pin only. 1 viz. it is worth noting that the one monument which Studniczka adduces in favour of this point. . and to finally implied that dress it is distinctly the applicable and covered her arm. way of indicating that fibulae —or pins— occur one on each shoulder. Hera preparing for her meeting with Zeus ^ anointed herself clad her in her fragrant robe that with ambrosia. If there are any traces of pre-Achaean costume in Homer. The crucial words in Greek are tassels. . . it would surely stand in the plural. and then Athene wrought delicately for her. it will be best to and fortunately for our seek them in connection with deities . Further. Leaf and Myers. clearly. 3 Trachiniae. Probably no one has ever been really satisfied by Studniczka's explanation of Kara o-ttj^os. the Frangois S. then /xacTTwv in conjunction with the singular -n-fpovU can only be regarded as a syncopated in pairs. 924-5. It may perhaps be n^irXos The word tells us nothing. the word o-t^^os could without any further qualification be used to indicate the front of the shoulder. which is not characteristic of the Doric peplos. for Deianeira is there said to loose her peplos where the Trfpovts TrpoKctTo fj-aarwy. purpose the most detailed women's dress description of is contained in the account of the toilet of a goddess.

ii. being hardly prior to 550 B. for the best reproduction of the vase.C.. 2 d/a<^i of K. would hardly occur to any one to say that they were placed normal position about the so it Kara Read without (tttJ^os.fx^iiwvjjiL is applicable to either €vBvvw . the passage in the Iliad can only be taken in the way in which Helbig originally took it (a view which he afterwards abandoned in favour of modern The Scholiast implies this when was marked with the 8t7ry\^ " on Kara to Studniczka's) as describing a dress which fastens. Alexandrian scholars. co-aro afj. Altgriechische Tracht. action. 1). in question is on the left-hand member of the chose for his illustration. 642. : whether it is really The great pins which secure of course associated with that dress. .' HOMERIC DRESS Vase. pi. in this way could hold.' line (TTrjdos iirepovwvTO kol ov)( ws r][Jie7s Kara rrjv KaraKXetSa tov w/xov. nor of TrcptySaXAo^ai on the other. however ignorant of Homeric archaeology. 3.^ is 3 and in The dress worn by the Moirai. prejudice.(f)l has the precision neither of on the one hand. has not only adopted the error but aggravated We may it. is which Studniczka dress presents problems which not time on this occasion to discuss is Dorian or not it group The open to question. this matter of dress fastenings apparently unique.. Trept/JoAXo/iat of flinging on the loose cloak a. and it is unfortunate that Pinza. note further that the word for the putting on of Hera's dress is neutral . down ' he says that the the front. eVSww is used of putting on the closed cylindrical chiton. 28. See Furtwangler-Reiohi. wishing to apply the phrase to a dress clasped not merely on the shoulder but down the length of a short sleeve. It is due to ulterior considerations that a mistranslation has won such wide acceptance. in parlance. hold. and can be best examined relatively late. on the shoulders are but here they have rather the air of having been copied by an artist who No pin inserted much lower than their did not perfectly understand his model. have a right to be heard on the interpretation of a Greek phrase. there (Fig. fig. This is evident from the passage in the Odyssey where the hero says * 5^ avTTi d' fie Kirke : xl^aiv&v re x''''w)'<i re eifxara 'iaaev dpydcpeov (papos fi^ya evvvro vv/xcpT]. and they are set But even level of the collar-bone. Studniczka.

THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 4 Those ulterior considerations which have weighed with the first. 2) who laments the departure of the warriors has no parallel in the art of this period. as is well known. and. pi. the older monuments. a method foreign to Oriental dress. We possess two monuments from the lower town of My- cenae which have always been recognised as illustrating many features of Homeric armour the Warrior Vase. Their intrusion marks the of a new thorex and equipment with chiton bodyThe great Aegean area. like that of the Lycaonian secured how they were cannot have been a relief. The lower town of Mycenae. they extended their range beyond that of the dress to which they properly belong. is and should have had ornamental. a large cloak of some thick material like probably It felt. is without cheek pieces. the from the Doric dress. but. so ingenious. of the armour element into the poems and of of the alike characteristic shield with telamon. the presence of pre-Hellenic armour pre-Hellenic out of the belief that pins or fibulae are inseparable As regards the first in the poems has to be admitted. though undoubtedly of northern origin. relief ^ published many years ago by Sir all a Lycaonian William Ramsay the cloak of a male figure wearing dress of Assyrian type is a fibula. at the same time capable of a wide diffusion. xiii. ately rendered in a 1 ' Archaeologiache Zeitung. The large numbers found together with abundance of straight fibulae are among the pins early material of the temple at Ephesus cannot On have been dedicated by Dorian visitors. Homeric poems. and with the absent shaped socket. yielded several fastened with specimens of simple types. so practical. As to the second.^ and a stele — same type. The lady (Fig. 1885. is so we cannot large that it tell shoulder clasp. being only natural that this invention. fig. Schuchhardt. which are all it small. secondly. . iSchliemann's Excavations. and her dress is unfortunmore summary manner than that of the men. the desire to keep everything followers of Studniczka are. point. the : crest rising does in Homer. survives as shields. but worn one at least . 284. men seem from a cup- Except for the to be a fairly accurate presentment of the typical Homeric warrior. with paintings of warriors of precisely the but the old type of helmet.

-. 3). 4] 5). Fig. 1 (p. 2 (p. Fig. 4). 4 (p. 5). Fio.. .. 3 (p.i- Fig. .


4) and therefore of a date anterior to 575 B. This opening. however. later date The than the Warrior Vase. stops short fitting as far as of the shoulder. to determine the garment fastened. pi. quite unlike the Dorian. and even then The example which Studniczka though on a monument of much are often left to be understood. forms a bell-shaped skirt into the front of which It is impossible to say of light-coloured stuff. the edges of which are held together by what seem to be strips of stuff. The criticism is perhaps less weighty than it seems at first sight. I think. and. sleeves Snake Goddess (though these never. down Certain features recall the shaped dresses of certain the front. long tight sleeves. desired. They have an open slit. and the bell panels.C. that he had failed to produce any monument on which a woman's dress could be actually seen to fasten down the front. fastens Kara aTrjOos. found at Daphnae. and skirt are how exactly made in a panel is let whether bodice one piece. consequently. figure in question (Fig.r it. What is It gives the dress of the Warrior Vase a peculiar value association with male equipment of the its Homeric type. of . occur on the votive robes in (Fig. the elbow. for the pattern is uniform all o^^.HOMERIC DRESS But The dress. fits 5 closely over the bust. does not meet Studniczka's criticism of Helbig's original interpretation of Kara arrjOos. and would naturally continue do to so in any further evolution of the dress. The sleeves are close- below it. does exist. which has and below the waist certain features are quite distinct. uiade this time in one piece. ^ is one of a row of women on a black-figured Ionian (Clazomeniw ii) vase. for actual fastenings are never shown in Greek art before the fifth almost century. however. Part II. and that it cannot have been clasped on the shoulders and in an un. but hang a little and has nothing to do with the fastening ^ Tanis. of faience The Cretan found in the Temple bodice. but plain that it is it is a shaped and sewed dress. below the elbow). in Cretan monuments such as the tight some sort. too. 3) the come Crete shape of the skirt. embroidered of a different shape. though arch. resembling a crocketed Repositories of Knossos. moreover. xxix. sophisticated age such a dress will fasten. Again we have a dress fitting closely to the figure.

Presumably the dress fastened. Benha ^ (Fig.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 6 the dress This itself. and in this in a difierent This would represent an earlier stage in the evolution material. twelve (unmistakably TrepoVat described as for fibulae) could not be accommodated on the Doric peplos Studniczka's for monumental. down the front. 54. notably on one found on another Egyptian site. The peplos which Antinoos offers to Penelope may fairly be taken as falling into the same dresses of the Daphnae of the lady of the figure. and again reminds us of the dress. the costume white cross confined to the skirt. It consists of a long. la. . 5. pi. see pi. o-tiJ^os girdle. horizontal in direction. xli. ii. them vitok oAttw.) The subject again a row of women. where they lines running Kara line. literary or suggestion that its open side was closed by means of fibulae. who picks up three goblets and conceals here . 469. fairly loose robe. the skirt regularly forms a Cretan monuments. it will be remembered. plain case the bodice is their figures. in that passage. This type of dress is found on other vases of the same fabric. by a couple of incised meet another presumably indicating a narrow plainly indicated is to the waist. there is no support. where of separate The shaped garment. For a similar instance from 16. It is worn by the Harpies of the Phineus Vase at Wiirzburg. the word used was iTrepovaro. separated though they are by a period and it is in this series that the or so. 55.) vases which would meet the requirements of the case equally well. Furtwangler and Reichhold. which would reach to the 1 Antike Denkmdler. If there is any woman in the Homeric poems to whom dress of the Dorian type can be attributed on positive grounds. it is the Phoenician nursery maid. seem to be of one type garment of Hera finds its place.^ and can be best observed on the undamaged figure to the left. . 6. pi. and the upper part meant to This seems is and indicate that separate from the skirt. Warrior and centuries of six Vase. Clazomenae. like Hera's. . 2 3 o. is Daphnae agrees closely with that of the pattern however is black.^ there is a type of Not that we can be certain of it even costume common on Ionian (Fig. The category.

above which articles are carried. just as the Achaean some extent the armour chiefs used to of the South Aegean area. A facilitate like that of the distinguished by the it is broad band of embroidery or woven ornament reaches from the neck to the hem. her maids the Doric peplos.. opening like a dressing-gown belted round the waist. for decoration tends to follow structural lines. much type. 542-3. is nothing impossible. ^Spos. in which it It is not of course necessary to suppose that the Harpy's dress opened all the way to the foot : this would only mean unnecessary labour in providing fastenings. as has been said. and forms a pouch. which is described XcTTTov Koi x"-P^^^i epithets inapplicable to K. We may note one or two instances in which the dress of a divine being is clearly indicated to be of linen. The Doric peplos is woollen. from which. nor indeed improbable. however. woollen . The Phoenician maid could well have concealed goblets in the kolpos of such a dress but the action would of course be no less easy if she is regarded as wearing the Doric peplos. such as seams and openings fastenings. the kind worn over an under garment by Arab down present day. bears no indication of having women at the the front. been evolved from a separate bodice and looser It is rather of skirt. This dress.. A slit to the waist would be sufficient. 230-1. are practically never and actual represented than the Greek archaic in tight-fitting Daphnae art.pyv(f>iov. It is along this line that the opening of the dress must be sought. e. HOMERIC DRESS ankles if it 7 were not pulled up through the girdle to rapid motion. on Attic vases toilet scenes is produced with a So in the representation of of the later fifth century. the mistress regularly wears the pleated Ionic chiton. in the supposition that. short tight sleeves. a circumstance which points to the South and East rather than to the North. Kalypso and Kirke ^ both wear the as u. while their attendants retained the dresses of the simple blanket minimum type of of labour and garment which of skill. It forms in this way a kolpos Dorian garment. whose kolpos would be readily accessible from the open There side. so their ladies adopted the magnificent shaped and sewed same region.

much farther east. however. The manner in which . puts his on seated on his in the same attitude. disguised as a prepares to wrestle. Hera was dress of Athene made it. dress. The chiton. which. in the case of party on the Siege Vase of Mycenae one of the attacking normal Aegean . presumably by the same route as that system of armour which we have found in connection with it on the Warrior Vase which Herodotus knew as Carian.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 8 and very appropriate to stuff. which are restricted to the putting on or off of this garment. It is possible indeed that the connection armour was very of the chiton with the close. jersey-like chitons represented on black-figured vases. for it is men going beggar. attire It is useless to seek for for this garment. —Eumaios when he a pig. It is of linen. trickling down his thighs is visible. and Odysseus when. employed linen women's for in regular use for the chief article of men's —the chiton. for was it find it. but whose range we are now able to trace alike in . It is and then she embroidered not surprising to dresses. before the on Aegean monuments. a phrase which describes the final smoothing process applied to linen. war and peace. reached Greece from the East. except an Aegean prototype is not found Warrior Vase. shining. as is indicated by the words ivSvvia and ckSuvw. for Agamemnon bed. The Homeric chiton was closed and cylindrical. and Telemachus takes his off It In fact it seems to correspond very closely to the tight. fitted it was also very short. like the skin of a dried onion. Ti6'ei. the blood . gird themselves for vigorous action to kill : the heroes assume Twice. In ordinary these only civil life no belt was worn when going out to battle. to originally protect the skin against chafing. a comparison which suggests that very closely to the person. consisted of the loin-cloth. he His chiton must have reached to the only when he has girt himself that the suitors is remark how stout a thigh he shows from out his rags. and he has to move these aside when he shows the scar to Eumaios and Philoitios whereas when Menelaos is wounded. knee. and that it was adopted in Aegean lands along with the thorex. as Odysseus describes the garment in which he left his home. apparently of the same material. 8' ei/t 8ai8aXa iroWd. name and thing alike. l^vo-' do-K^o-ao-a. The linen.

that the lower classes wear a more voluminous garment. Here ^wjaa is The conclusion evidence is Iwfxa in the passage of the tells of his to be that there is Odyssey. he wore by taking knee and If he could shorten it the two ends which hung at about the level of his tying them tion. says the Scholiast. as but (wa-Tpd. such as we have perhaps already had in the case of the Are these examples of girding an indica- in a knot. Phoenician maid. is down one side. and must date from later the period when that was the only article of male attire it might be extended so as to include the tight chiton. the bed-clothes. which on archaic vases is so often worn in combination with it. might explain the use of where the hero ambush. such as chitons. as a tradition of the original it use may well survival in the Olympic be at least partly Games undoubtedly is. ^wa-Tpa. something of the Doric blanket type So far there ? no trace of a pre-Achaean element is in the But the zoma which Menelaos wears under his zoster.. HOMERIC DRESS Odysseus girds himself a loose chiton open 9 suggestive-— with his rags. which you But can gird on. supposed experiences in the night apparently used as the equivalent of drawn on the whole from the Homeric distinct evidence of a female dress § 482. which is frequently worn man's dress. who TrcTrXoi the Scholiast saw. re koI TreVAovs koI p-qy^a cnyaXoevTa. ought to be the men's garments. twenty-third book of the Iliad its earlier. combination with the tight chitons of in The passage vases. as its But there In the boxing-match of the prince. The clothes which Nausicaa takes to is the wash are described as The p^yftt are of what form ? are the women's dresses Anything. This as part of the civil dress of the heroes. and which covers the same region as the mitre. the secure their dress in this way : in the poems the girdle is it is the women never mentioned Originally the word must surely have meant the loin-cloth. one other passage which seems to be an echo of its use in every-day life. due to the is attempt to superpose the later type of armour on the and the costume loin-cloth survives in of the Aegean ritual. the black-figured one of admitted confusion. can hardly be anything but the loin-cloth. . which .



cannot possibly be Dorian, and for which monumental evidence
that male costume is, in the
suggests a South Aegean origin ^

main, derived from the East, but shows traces of a South Aegean

and that the only passages which can be colourably
as implying costume resembling the later Doric
are neither numerous nor explicit, and refer to persons in humble








an old magnificent dress lingers


Just as the tradition

persists in archaic art, especially in connection

with certain divine types.
particularly well exemplified in

It is

on a

series of ivory fibulae of

the figure of Artemis

very early date from Sparta

in certain terra-cottas representing a goddess of






from Boeotia and Attica.

illustration (Fig. 7),


of a terra-cotta


from Rhit-

sona, in Boeotia,^ presents the typical features of this dress.
consists of a plain bodice, generally represented, as here,




hatching, and a skirt with an elaborately embroidered panel in



The absence from

also a regular characteristic.

the bodice of the patterns of the skirt indicates that
separate garment.


of the

The panel

on the dress

recalls that




of the

Warrior Vase, and, more remotely, those of the

faience votive robes of



while the skirt separate from

and prototype in Crete.
The Spartan ivories present more variety of detail than
the terra-cottas, but are of the $ame general type. Sometimes

the bodice also finds

its parallel

the skirt has a panel, sometimes a uniform pattern over the

whole surface.


a type very similar

stray example (Fig. 8) found at Syracuse,* of

not actually belonging to this

a broad girdle with concave outline


this gives us

of contact with Crete, for a similar girdle
of the





another point

worn by the votary

Snake Goddess, and regularly by men.
possible reminiscence

the genuine


Cretan dress with


open jacket exposing the bust is to be found in P. 396-7, where Helen,
recognising Aphrodite through her disguise, makes the irepiKaWia


(jrrjdea 6'i/xep6evTa


of the goddess.

series of lead figurines

from the same

esting material.

B.S.A., xiv.


Not. Scav., 1895, p. 119,

pi. vii.


site also affords inter-


Fig. 5



Fig. 7 (p. 10).

Fig. 6



Fig. 8






has recently been shown by Mr. Thompson




that this

not an importation from Ionia or the East, but a

native product of mainland art, whose origin doubtless

a past far beyond the age of Homer.

and not the Doric

for the fact that this dress,
acteristic of


in fact, hardly appears in archaic art at all




the earliest art of Hellenic Sparta.

even of a Dorian centre

lies in

Thus we can account

in the vase-painting


like Corinth, the dress is

normally of

the Ionic type, with which imported models had familiarised


So apt



art in its early stages,

deals mainly with the divine

and the



heroic, to continue to

reproduce a type rather than to represent accurately contem-

porary fashions."

The Chairman.




not sure that the male members of

the Association are well qualified to discuss this paper.
I will


ask one of them to say a few words."

Professor Myres.




sure this


a very interesting

paper that Miss Lorimer has given us. It is difl&cult, in discussing Homeric Archaeology, to avoid slipping off into a general

Homeric Question, just as it is very
Homeric discussion, to avoid slipping
archaeological details. But I congratulate

discussion of the perennial
difficult, in

any form

into the discussion of


Miss Lorimer on having isolated one particular set of archaeological

and on giving us so

of their meaning.

main points emerge, both
first is

that the case

Homeric times
its original

of a

and uncontroversial an account


understand her argument rightly, two

If I

you see, for the survival in
costume which, however fallen from


which are new to most of

strong, as


type of


is still

essentially of the skirt-and-coat

type with which the excavations at
at Crete have


us familiar.


Knossos and elsewhere


like to

add a

small point of archaeological evidence to what Miss Lorimer

has brought together on that head.
figures in the

There are two terra-cotta

Cyprus Collection of the

which the female

figure has quite

New York Museum,

distinctly a


costume with

an upper and a lower half, of skirt-and-coat construction
but instead of the upper part being arranged as a continuous,

JM.S., 1909.

facilitated by a slit. It familiar Doric this. be called a ' zouave. The other point which Miss Lorimer brings out entirely new.' — I am not sure that the word is up-to-date. that to modern word .— " It gives this vote of thanks to my me great pleasure to old friend Miss Lorimer. sometimes only half as far. Before she began Miss Lorimer told me that her paper was going to be very dull. What Miss Lorimer has said about the details of men's costumes is more important women. and disappear under the arms. and tail away like an Eton jacket. in women the some which have occurred which the costume of of suggests close parallels to the same type. yet another type (which she describes as is cylindrical. is that there existed alongside of the is much figures. the same type of costume survived after the Minoan age as seems to have survived in those parts of the Aegean area itself in which Miss Lorimer has traced it. running sometimes as far as the girdle. This suggests that. like the simplest once again. I am sure you will agree that in this one point she has been entirely mistaken. since the meeting. it is an open-fronted jacket of the kind which used to self-coloured vestment." Miss Jex-Blake. which can be so easily mistaken for the over-fold of a Greek chiton. is and Ionic chitons. listened with great interest to the lecture 1 I am transit gloria ' bolero Mauri. though shorter. of the early Iron age civilisation afford a long series of parallels in which this opening is clearly perceptible. second I . which begin at the shoulder. which part of the and to which access way down the front. very The Cypriote modern night-gown. I am sure moving a hearty vote also of great interest in connection with her and clearer points in regard to the dress of that in any case you will support me in I have only one criticism. of thanks to Miss Lorimer. not so and the Minoan skirt-and-coat survivals. In all probability the two figures belong to the eighth or the seventh century. in outlying parts of the old region of Minoan civilization. ' Oriental').* — It has front edges. It would be interesting to go over the evidence afforded by the little figures of lead.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 12 such as Miss Lorimer has described. ' and I have can only say most of my audience the would have conveyed my meaning better : sic told. that is. in great numbers at Sparta.

I do not know whether . alas dress is so often fastened would seem that those little tight bodices. its investigations tions are in the interest of the are now placed its recommendaand of both bodies. some time ago. . All the it has been in the members of this Society also. and not by this Association . I believe. member of both as a Societies. was opportune. The Times last Tuesday. in view of the fact that the Classical Association had arranged. and I feel it is more Commembers of the mittee appointed by the Hellenic Society are. and standing . is cast in days when. probably while our lot behind. have migrated further East for this is the garb that the lower-caste women of India are wearing to this day.m. . at the disposal of both alike.30 p. to discuss the same subject to-day.— THE STUDY OF GREEK that from one point of view we must agree that Homeric times were better than our own. of course. when a motion was introduced by Professor E. 13 ! very tight over the shoulder in order to give support. for appears their dress fastened it in front. minds of all of us for some time. Gaedner : " That it is desirable that Greek should be made an alter- native study with Latin in institutions where one classical language only can be studied.. or less of an accident that the Committee was appointed by the Hellenic Society. Copies the memorandum are at the disposal of any who would care they of and common aims to have them. The statement that the above report would be discussed at this meeting of the Classical Association of is may have led to some misunderwhat should have been said was that the publication unfortunately expressed. The question is one which interests both Societies. I have raised the question in both places on this occasion. though the more practical side of it concerns rather this Association and. in the hope that may lead to an active co-operation between the two. though. whereas in Hellenic times it It was fastened on the shoulders. A. the subject has been considered from that point of view." — " Let me begin with a few words of explanation as to the report of a Committee appointed by the Hellenic Society which appeared in the Educational Supplement Professor Gardner." After an adjournment for tea the Association met again at 4.

and the age of free competition is taking its place and Greek is more particularly the object of attack. those who attack think it because they think it really less useful than Latin. I trust. be taken by those first is to who defend Those who do this are often reduced to intrench themselves in Latin as an inner citadel. especially if the curriculum be not easier task restricted to the Attic authors. . if it be placed under no such disability. The age of privilege is passing away. not a feat to be recommended to any That Greek can long survive as a compulsory but a pessimist. . subject for entrance even at Oxford and Cambridge can hardly believed even by those who desire it to be so preserved and in no other university in the United Kingdom does it retain that privileged position. defend. and of Greek in particular. It is certainly far easier to find books suitable for schoolboys and schoolgirls tu read in Greek literature than in Latin. it is entitled. The alternative policy is one of active propaganda in favour of the classical languages. the privileged position of the classics. And moreover. But. must be associated with a resolute opposition to any regulations or legislation that may place Greek at a disadvantage with other apparently more useful studies. but extended to include Homer and the relation to modern life and thought and Herodotus is far more obvious in the Greek classics than in the Latin ones. believe that the advocates of the study of I Greek have really an than those of Latin. have actually said that they have saved Latin by giving up Greek a result which most of us.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 14 The present time is a critical one for the study of the classics. but be more it will difficult to There are two alternative lines that may The believe in the educational value of Greek. Many . and for that of Greek in particular. Here we come to a controversial part of the subject. not because . I do not believe that such a policy of passive resistance will save Latin long after ' Dying in the last ditch ' is Greek has gone. Some is swept away by the enemy. on their merits. in the confident belief that those merits have only to be recognised for Greek to retain its place But these propaganda as an invaluable factor in education. and relegate it to the position for such regulations may prevent Greek of a luxury or an extra from taking in our education that position to which on its merits now be . would not look on with any while the outwork of Greek — complacency.

easily intelligible only to those is it . and the vehicle of all literary and scientific Though this is no longer the case. branches of study. when Latin was the common tongue of the educated world.THE STUDY OF GREEK people— probably 15 members of this Association— admit tbe But tbey say— as it was put by one correspondent that it is simply a question of how many hours there are in the working day and that the curriculum is so full that there is no room for Greek. . implied assumption that all the subjects already taught are of Greek— an assumption which greater educational value than am by no means prepared to admit. — . many Greek —law. voice of prejudice For mean But we have here the and conservatism rather than that of reason. in above of physical science. Latin is still instruction. it is educational value. however. all. is more important than Latin. does know this many that any other view will say and if inadequate for both Latin is that Latin only must be taken it is I the time available ? I mipractical and Utopian to take yet I venture to think that . But the notion that a knowledge . Under this statement lies the all educational value of Greek. But. beyond dispute to allow part. classical scholars it is doubtless desirable to learn both Latin though here we may remember that none of the and Greek Greek classical writers knew Latin and that all classical Latin so that a knowledge of both languages is writers knew Greek indispensable to the Latin scholar in a sense which does not apply equally to the Greek scholar. and are It thing. is Here the claims the only question is whether the essential of it is Greek are practicable to take the place of Latin either altogether or in Some authorities maintain that Latin tial for training in clearness of that therefore it grammar is thought and expression should be taught first essen. who know Greek. or mediaeval history or so far as practical utility goes. is who — or indeed any eduan anachronism surviving from mediaeval or renaissance times. of Latin but to the necessary basis not only to the classical scholar. since most of the technical terms used are Greek in origin. and Greek. and. romance philology. practical utility that not. for classics is strictly limited. and even to those who sub- sequently drop Latin and devote their attention to the reading . all cation at all — receive a classical education is really indispensable to students in certain branches of knowledge for instance.

we must insist on two things. and shall encourage the reading of those Greek authors if this has who are the most interesting and stimulating to Then. in the second place.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 16 of Greek authors. but to that in all children. not classical teaching in general. and at what age they are But if we wish Greek to be the main classical subject. But there is a grave danger that this would no longer be the case if honours were allowed in one classical language only. no immediate efiect. of the highest importance. it will have an effect in future. that the examination in Greek shall not be a mere test in grammar. but shall test the power of reading and translating intelligently. Certainly it ought to be insisted on that at least a pass standard in the other classical language should in all cases be required. That is to say. to the discretion of those responsible for school curricula in what order the two are taken. moreover. It is not necessary here to discuss such And. If these two conditions be fulfilled —that the choice of Greek instead of Latin implies no subsequent disability. schools where classics are taught the teacher especially responsible for them should be competent as Latin. it is clearly a matter to be left matters of detail. this result would be assured in most cases under present conditions. as done in two or three universities and as This danger is is is already proposed elsewhere. and that the possibility of learning Greek is brought within reach of all who . as it has already at Manchester and Cardifi. The first of these is that Greek and Latin should begun. in the case of those who are able to take both Greek and Latin. For then the assured to all to teach Greek as well possibility of learning Greek the boys and girls in such schools. particularly to be guarded against. if both are not taken. will If it be were customary or compulsory for the teachers of classics to be graduates of some university in classical honours. since at first sight a proposal to allow honours in one language only seems consistent with the principle of our resolution. in the entrance Even examinations to various professions. so far as practicable. we must first see that no disabilities or adverse conditions are imposed on those who take it up. and. be alternative subjects. it is merely to the study of Greek. And. in all university entrance examinations or their equivalents. at least for a certain number of schoolboys and schoolgirls.

substratum of truth in that. . this. without distinction of class or sex. will not only retain much present position. poets. and possibly joining need to despair if we do our within the reach not only of but of all. who are likely to a delight and an inspiration. and and especially of its suitability for girls' schools. very much the pull. as among the permanent Our Virgil and Horace are things that have possessions of life. But I should like most strongly to say that even in poetry. upon whom the question will then depend. It is we were if to run one language against the other : I am at all tempted sure Professor sometimes said that Latin is and that Greek is far and away superior for Well. and I am very Professor Gilbert with the policy opportunity of seconding him. once allowed to stand on 17 of the ground it has further necessary to this end is lost. but should also help in persuading the schoolmaster and the parent.— THE STUDY OF GREEK are capable of profiting — we by its it its confidently hope that merits. am not in any way actuated by any feeling against I would strongly protest at such a moment as and that when both languages are in peril. Gardner is with me in this. and which make the whole of life rather different. where Greek is supposed to have excellent for drill. 3 But we are in rather a peculiar position at present. I Latin. in advocating this policy of admitting Greek as a possible option. in a deputation to that body. of the value of Greek in education. got into our bones. for my own part I regard certain parts and large parts. there may be some literature or philosophy and the rest. There are other methods in which the two societies might combine notably in making representations to the Board of Education. " I am in the warmest agreement sketched by Professor Gardner. that this Association should not only work in concert with the Hellenic Society towards the establishment of these favourable conditions. alternative to Latin. but regain and even capture some that is may it Greek." — Murray. for such boys' schools as are fairly free to choose their curriculum. find in it There is no best to keep or to bring Greek all likely to turn out classical scholars. And the same with Lucretius and Catullus. What has hardly yet touched. glad indeed to have the I should like to say at the beginning that. and other of Latin poetry.

new up on universities springing wave rising all sides. seem to show that more ever before. a very great deal of prejudice The them both when they personally happened to have a scientific bias or a bias for modern languages or the like. Greek I —we. in general. but an enormous decrease in the people What learning Greek. I believe there is an actual increase Now what of interest in Greek. we are. the Classics. seems to be on a falling wave. on a rising that is Education education. The numbers of people coming throughout the country. Latinists as well as Grecians do not believe there contrary. will How that is ? be enough to float Latin fairly satisfactorily unless some great mistake As far as we can make out. the figures now than people are learning Latin is made. as far as one can generally rising. and secondly too uniform. we is consider so very valuable. is We into education are certainly increasing vastly. or at any rate prevent them from learning Greek. study of the two ancient literatures as a kind of basis from which we can pass on Now to study the the curious thing wave in respect to modern world and other subjects. that this part of education which We wave. and partly from other causes. — no doubt. that all of in the is. there are is any lack more people of interest in Greek. I believe this rising have the are on a strong and the curious thing of education as a whole. That is a just criticism. in the United States. ? the who Partly as a result of the great discoveries made. that in itself will be a good thing of violent feeling against both classical languages. have got to feel that Greek and Latin are actually bad subjects in themselves and that if you can prevent people from learning these wretched languages. and the like against the old classical education is that it was firstly too narrow. . on the whole. there is actually an increase in the numbers learning Latin. modern languages. But apart from that are we to do real grievance — grievance there and is. ? Why are we in danger ? The on the part of those other subjects scientific subjects. On interested in Greek things. examine it. are we to do about this decrease in as classical scholars. where the modernizing I find that movement has gone further than here. is better getting The standard.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 18 I take it we are us interested in classics. people who were made to learn . care about Greek art and poetry.

THE STUDY OF GREEK 19 achieved. find that by the curriculum they are bound to take up one ancient language. Well now. wishing to take up some modern subject. after rebellion against the old classical system. classes. But if the form is such that they must take Latin. is a fair choice. But I believe we must be prepared to leave a much larger number of options. about uniformity . means that a certain are not able to take to number it. yet we is actually are in danger of having Greek practically cut out from the national curriculum. prevent the people in these new classes who are pressing forward to higher education from having a We must remember this. It is quite remarkable in bodies like the Workers' Educational Association to find the interest there And in Greek. we have much larger numbers of women taking higher education and we have also the working We have got a new lot of classes . the great objection to which was that boys with a scientific bias or a modern . for some mere reason of mechanical convenience and mechanical uniformity. It prefer Greek not giving Greek a the meeting is who would Greek does not remain optional What under those circumstances. for the consideration of are running up against it is I want is. What we want in this motion is to make quite sure that we do not. so that make Latin compulsory. that if you make Latin compulsory. it offers tion becomes simpler fair chance seriously to suggest that the real danger that of establishing a new uniformity in education. It if would be completely unsatisfactory if. You cannot read the ordinary correspondence in newspapers without seeing that there are a great many people who feel that. coming into higher education. that because ex hypothesi they have not time to take the two. we of people I know still as gravely there are great temptations mechanical convenience. a little wider than the old. chance of learning Greek. as Professor Gardner shows. A great many people who come to the new universities or other universities. but objectionable as the old. to a great extent you make Greek impossible. if the form is such that they may take Latin or Greek. As Professor Gardner said. Organisa- everybody has got to do a certain limited number of subjects. I believe that is where the danger comes in. and if there are not too many options. that practically means they cannot take Greek.

we were to introduce another kind of uniformity. I think. If ^reek. from which Greek and certain other vehicles of the old culture were cut out. all of whom have had the same education. there are. I think we . if there is only one ancient language is to be learnt. in which everyone had to learn a new. . and besides. you If will classical Preserving the liberty matter of quite enormous import- you do not preserve the liberty of 5 per cent. of students. even may amount to a very considerable number in the Latinist who is against this proposal. of students is a ance. I am leaving out of account the if. Then there is a second point. you cannot help having your eyes more or less opened to some sort of interest in the subjects people round you have learnt. I think the only argument that is likely to be used with a little . When we wish people to be able to learn 5 per cent. they do not open one another's mind nearly so much as if. say. If you take ten people. Cardiff and Manchester. . is fraught with real danger. but it diversity. there are only two universities. and two who know Greek. is a positive advantage that You can hardly help learning from having someone at your side who knows other subjects and even if you refuse to learn. eight who know Latin. or even less. as of people going in for education increases. rigid curriculum. any strength against this proposal is that it will not practically amount to much that. That is. they do not refresh and vivify and stimulate one another. be falling into exactly the same mistake that the old education the number is always charged with .THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 20 language bias were compelled to learn the two ancient languages. Of course. of students. where there has been at and that present any great push for Greek in place of Latin we shall be here legislating for the sake of a possible 5 per cent. Now that is just an argument which. any pure end. in the ten. who know both people there should be some . him that that last argument ought to soften any would say to I opposition he feels. of 5 per cent. there were one or two that had had a different training. I think the interest of classics as a whole is much better served out of our imaginary ten people knowing one classical language and only one. It is very much better for any given set of people that they should not all have exactly the same educational experience behind them. as a matter of fact.

in for freedom. That is a real difficulty and so long as this country imagines that education is as cheap as cabbages. at the same time that others were choosing Latin. partly definitely educational. by dint of repeating the same thing one hundred times. Professor Gardner said he thought the proper time had come for a strong propaganda. : . Rouse. I think that in time we might convince a great part of this nation that what . say 5 per cent. you would not have. that is to say. if I may venture again to bring in King Charles' head. —" I have. and.THE STUDY OF GREEK always from reasons partly realise. that Greek cannot be a real rival of Latin in ordinary popularity. in a school of moderate size. and made myself a nuisance by asking for so often. and someone to teach it. what I have had. and I do not see in the least why any supporter of Classics should be downhearted and. There is plenty of room for advance. for instance. That would be impossible. and each bring forward. because Latin and Greek would have to go on side by side that is to say. have occurred to either openers of this motion that it would. both to the future of classical education. and a reasonable and human method of instruction. but even to retain what we have. 21 practical. the due proportion of studies. and we must have a class for them. I am afraid. it has got into the heads of a few people. so long as people believe that. a succession of languages in which each has its place. we shall never have enough money. Why should we take it I agree. because some might be choosing Greek. I we plead only . lying down ? Let us propose the merits of Greek in season and out of season.. I do not say to add to our staff. and to the future education of the country as a whole. miserable thing we turned out if It would be a a nation in which everybody had some knowledge of Latin grammar. It : has time allotted to it in proportion to its place. but Greek had become an almost unknown tongue. could we concentrate attention upon what is really the crux of the whole question. only a small number we plead for It is the case of that small number. mean the probable addition of two persons to the staff. But for privilege. and that by dealing in the cheapest market you may yet get the best goods. naturally." Dr. not think that that small remnant may be of great value. until. a practical diflficulty to would not.

and exclaiming : . Adam. stand alone there is Herodotus of Cyrus story the as youthful Latin would you get anything so translation but . it : . They knew Alcinous the meat-tray. mistakes and they afforded them even more joy than their success. : paint seeing for the first time his grandfather." Mrs. I thrown into the bargain. which according to present fashion would be German. whereas Greek is always youthful. and especially on the ground that it has always seemed to me that Greek is a far better subject It so for the young mind to be nurtured upon than Latin.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 22 we ask that is not excessive. and to children a little anecdote of a small class of three little girls. and jewellery. after a few months of some easy age was IL over made a dash stories they room the so did they would not . success. Homer is always young and where in others and also. Greek. especially their furious hunt over the meaning of as ' 'AXklvoc Kpdov. for themselves Their . ever3rthing for down with in Liddell Homer have me and Scott considerable they turned . and partly on account of a curious tendency on the part of the daughters of distinguished scientific men at Cambridge to wish to learn Greek at an exceedingly early age. The Greeks were accused by the Egyptian priest many years ago of being always children. to say. is I would go for the whole curriculum. English.' //. in its gravity and the weight of both the language and the literature. the most grown-up thing in the world with which I am acquainted. happens that I have rather an unusual experience of Greek as what you might call a nursery subject.ot koXos ws 6 w iirrnp. me out of they wished to track . partly as a parent. with Greek and Latin time-table. Children they were. whose average These children were in a wild state of delight beginning Greek. I should like to relate their literature appeals. and Latin has always seemed to me. do not see why any utilitarian should be annoyed at having an education in what he thinks useful.' it which came out was not the right gave them satisfaction in the right one when but Homer does not they heard it. French. and another modern language. Latin. —" I should like to say a word in support of this motion on two or three grounds. dressed up in ' TrairTros. and ask for them a moderate amount of time for each in the If we can do that without neglecting other things.

And I may mention that his director of studies in science is a man who came up to the university with a classical scholarship. I wish to plead for Greek for one class especially. one ancient language. friend said ' : I do not want to admit that it is because he had a classical education. and I understand there movement if much in that direction. Where a taste is found Greek comes off very well but if Greek were set before the infant mind. derive I it so often in the case of girls enormous benefit at present from being allowed to study Classics. At present Latin is put before you at school. both Latin and Greek. before he is considerable much concerned students is . whether you wish it or not. Such people in the future will. more particularly the age of beginning one or both classical languages raised. and if anything in should be glad to I is there Latin know as attractive of it.THE STUDY OF GREEK If you can produce that to the young. but I think that has had a great deal to do with it. much concerned with is 23 as appears It the welfare of to be only one language. I should like to endorse the claim of Greek as a language for which a taste should be implanted in early years. this particular youth would have reached the highest form in his school on his Classics alone. is it likely that he is a will . allowed in the ante-university years of education. but if an is for the sake of intelligent youth. — do not know that happens — such boys. up to the age of sixteen or seventeen. I think the people for whom I am most sorry in the future are the able boys and girls who have no idea I . and Greek is allowed to take its chance afterwards. that Latin would come off very well too. that this Association the young . and Latin allowed to take its chance later. It so why some happens that a them of scientific man was who my is speaking to me the other day about an undergraduate showing considerable promise in scientific work and . I do not see should not study Greek alone. I am professional not nearly so classical not a literary enthusiast. at any rate. But if there is not time for both. of being professional classics. nor even of reading Classics at Such boys the university.' Well. it seems to me. where the taste was found. In fact should like to reverse. the present position. run very serious danger of losing a classical education altogether. in some cases. I hope. not allowed to start on his Greek fourteen or fifteen.

they resent having to spend. a little while ago. in this connection it interested me very much. to my mind. . His classical training will be omitted an endeavour to postpone the study of Latin as well as Greek and that. and to know something of Latin with Latin. Gardner's remark. THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION ^4 then begin at he is He all ? interested. in a certain inevitable amount of learning by rote. I agree very heartily with Professor that it is of Greek And not merely Greek that is is being attacked : the abolition only a stepping-stone towards the abolition of Latin. there be great difficulty in making practical arrangements in schools. the time which they wish to give to something more worthy of their riper minds.. will be a grave misfortune for the to . There If Greek is may is also a certain difficulty The about text-books. it is very hard to ferret out the meaning of a Greek book. because that sort of occupation amuses the young . for the use of simplified those not already acquainted with the usual terms of Latin Grammar. Greek syntax and ideas take you quickly out if you are a very young student. is . But I believe this could often be overcome. sometimes to be an alternative to Latin. and he will want for there push on. future of the nation. Greek beginner. another reason for an early beginning. It Grammar might be written is of your depths quite possible that a hereafter. dictum of mine that the future of It has long been a favourite Greek is to be an elegant . But it is and if you proceed far with very little Latin that is needed Latin you very soon get into deeper waters. it seems to me. time will is have found the subject in which beginning to press. unless you can trace with some ease the vicissitudes of irregular verbs and that is. I am well aware that there is a growing opposition to the study of grammar altogether but. existing ones cannot easily be used without a small preliminary acquaintance Greek words have a much more bewildering variety of forms than Latin. and need a more mature mind to avoid drowning in them. but when you come to people of sixteen or seventeen. to read in the Journal of Education a communication from a correspondent saying that Latin was rapidly becoming exclusively a girls' subject in America. Latin rather than accidence smooths the way for the . when all is said and done. with more developed faculties.

of this . at least in the larger side with boys differentiated them." Mr. Mrs. and I believe it is due to their recommendations that girls do such an unreasonable amount of mathematics to-day. add a word on behalf of a class which has not been mentioned. Adam prevented this point from dropping. though it is true that one offered In the light of this ledge. since a few years ago I wrote. Could we not. not The Bryce Commission been noticed. I now humbly offer the hearty and. and it looks as if Latin would But if we could get Greek in some way to own. I was anxious to learn how much Greek was taught in girls' schools. it think I it might lead to a great increase of interest in classical study generally. and accordingly looked through. about the first eighty pages of a list published by a well-known agency. But the case of the average boy in the ordinary old-fashioned public school is even harder for he is being worked side by But I would like to .THE STUDY OF GREEK 25 accomplishment for young ladies. Both Professor Gardner and Professor Murray were thinking and speaking primarily of the undergraduates in the newer universities. the amateur. thing. . and had accepted by a monthly review.' fact. Adam's hope that Greek for young I ' all branches of know- cannot help fearing that may become an accomplishment ladies is rather optimistic. Arundell Esdaile. and of the pupils in the newer secondary schools who will become those undergraduates. I think. but is thrown into the same mill with as he may. an article advocating very nearly this exact resolution . on the occasion I have mentioned. of 1873 laid great stress on the low standard of mathematics in the schools then examined. sometimes to boys before Latin. I am especially glad sympathy of the amateur that Professor Gardner should have laid stress upon the question of Greek in the education of girls. but the monthly review succumbed very soon after on the strength and so deprived me of the honour of being the heresiarch movement. and if we could try the experiment of presenting soon follow hold its suit. However. I found that not a single school offered specifically to teach Greek. I my up as that despised voice in this discussion. Incidentally. to fare 4 who will . to lift —" venture. he is not become classical scholars from them. For. and that Mrs. of it. one of the causes contributing to this neglect of Greek has. further. I believe.

both of the mover and the seconder. that in some way Greek and I believe to be a fallacy the motion. if one looks at them closely. THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 26 schools. in the Association. to put a side and on which I think emphasis is necessary. more severely than they themselves their know from the and I stunting effect of an ill-adapted education. — runs ' : That it is desirable ' —in certain conditions — ' that Greek should be made an alternative subject of study with Latin. and run the risk of actually injuring the cause which we have all alike at heart the common cause of the Classics. That not. before the debate proceeds however imperfectly." " So far the course of this debate has Professor Mackail. necessarily implied in is But the speeches. who have suffered. which should include Greek. they leave school. that one can be studied apart from . and in themselves. unless we are to go gravely astray. such as mediaeval history. school-contemporaries and others. I can see. not enough fitted to the mind of ordinary capacity ? I feel this with some passion for I have many friends. of the case that has not yet been put. men who cannot think if . Latin could be taken up thoroughly by those who are to be classical and more slightly by those who need it as an instrument for some other specialization. of course. did. for they grow from the boys who do not into the scholars. as they do. have myself suffered from being forced into linguistic. especially Homer and Herodotus. him Could we not divide the ? about in the middle. After this test had been passed. capable of being regarded as alternatives. my when taste was rather for literary scholarship. at the age of test as the School Leaving Examination Up ? Oxford and Cambridge to that point a fairly wide general curriculum could be given to all. These boys at present are the despair of schoolmaster and don in turn. with minds as nearly as possible untrained. is it not because their education is not literary enough. I think it is desirable that. taught primarily for the purpose of reading. there is at least a very strong body of opinion in favour of the motion before us. involve what namely.. : Latin are thus alternative . I should attempt. — seemed to indicate that. The motion further.' This appears to involve the doctrine that Latin and Greek are essentially. I think. adapt the course for period of public-school life by some such sixteen or so.

from Greek we . And you do not relieve an overloaded curriculum by plumping down before people a mass of undigested alternatives. to be studied fully in order to be dismissed. Murray spoke about seems to me. ' as Must Greek be the one to if Latin were to go. giving Greek a fair chance. namely. But it — namely.THE STUDY OF GREEK the other and . both and as an element in English That I believe to be profoundly true. of course. but proposed seriously to argue that the world can get on. Professor Murray spoke of as mechanical uniformity in education : . ? be.' let us be very clear.' by an eminent scholar ? could be more fatal to Greek itself than to try and quote words written to reference to this motion he wrote. no Greek who have learnt no Latin does seem strange stantially of : — more common at present among that there are girls and women than among boys and men of Greek without some who have begun and carried on the study But that is such an exceptional thing a knowledge of Latin. I any large it was think. which has only. The converse the world did without Greek still it did get on. doubt. in moving. ' ' break the historical relation in which as a subject of study in general. it is a fact I believe it is — that I should hesitate very strongly myself before propounding it as a process which could be adopted as the basis of practice. spoke of deprecating the notion that we could save Latin by sacrificing Greek. in particular — this is my point 2T —that the one does not stand in fixed historical relation to the other. when a mere historical fact. That there should be students yet. Greek the case of course : it for a thousand years was a great loss . Mr. it is go ? they assume. that is . I think. the supporters of this motion say. is it ' it we do not descend Rome I : do not Now. I think. you have it the notion implicit. Mr. Therefore education. that could remain. Gardner. before putting and Greek are alternative — let it to the world that Latin us be clear that they are sub- and vitally alternatives. It is very right to deprecate what. it stands to Latin. without Latin in the same sense That cannot May I me a day or two ago with Nothing. Now. can do. that you can approach either To think you Latin or Greek indifferently as a separate study. can do so has one great disadvantage about We ignores history. descend from Rome interpret Greece through say this as a doctrine .

remains true that. Perhaps I may be pardoned if I recall that more than seven years ago. It still. I am afraid. will not only practically necessary. without Latin. while Greek represents the dissolving influence and the creative force of pure intelligence. I believe.: THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 28 but the word mecliamcal was used slightly ad invidiam. would be in future. I laid stress. The taste for Greek comes later. therefore. on the fact that the Latin achievement represents all life the constructive and conservative forces which make modern what it is. and the stress I laid was. "We can only say that as regards Greek in a very different sense. You may say there are disadvantages about the mechanical uniformity on your coat and it is to take it done but that is not a thing that one would the reverse order recommend seriously as an alternative to be adopted where of putting possible — on your it shirt before putting : — has been done. and. from one point of view at least. something intensely stimulating. That seems a nearer analogy than to speak of inwhich you have to choose between shirt and coat that choice had to be made. our civilization. I doubt whether we shall not be doing injury to Greek. at the first General Meeting of this Association. and a foundation of mental discipline has been laid and Greek without Latin. stitutions in yet if my opinion alone for. I am afraid it would be so. and I have seen . when the intellect has been developed. . I think I shall not be giving possible. we must consider what subjects are really necessary. but theoretically right. through conIf. as it has been in the past. necting its we adopt this study with a mistaken theory of education . education is essentially and necessarily imperfect and incomplete. of analysis : motion without guarding ourselves very carefully against historical and educational misconceptions which. as if I say that the choice should be for Latin a matter of fact. accepted by the Association as justified. It is on the constructive side that school education must be based. our whole life : derives from the Latin civilization and Greek is. Now if we are to have something like a fixed basis for education. but also utterly foreign. and always remain to us something no doubt priceless. in speaking of the place of the Classics of Latin and Greek in human life. I think. something of the nature of a superstructure without foundation. as does seem directly . it labours under.

what is so strongly before my mind is this the defence of Latin is like the defence of our last line. Thus the impression created would be this. — people. I will not say as a compulsory subject. We have no business to give that line up at all. at any rate. that the great think nearly work trying to advocate classical education And studies. and — especially of classical education." Rev. Professor Henry Browne. and. and that of the two languages we think it would be better that Latin should be abandoned than Greek. the Classical Association have put before us the principle that Latin may be treated as an alternative subject . and arguments and the general position taken up by the proposer and seconder of the motion. at least present would is the defence of Greek sympathise with what Professor Gilbert if considered as an abstract proposition. modern My own view is that although and perhaps in certain schools of a rather exceptional type. that it is not very vital without : . I think the natural result of the whole thing would be. I fectly before the Association . by mechanical systems of compulsion. therefore it is a thing that . we generally than shall be doing realise. because I am sympathy with the spirit that I believe underlies it. we may also perhaps prefer to take some other subject instead. . it might be a good thing to try if we pass the resolution it would an experiment of this kind appear as if the Association were tied as an association to this general position that we look upon Greek as the rival of Latin. make our and not to keep it educational hide-bound by hard-and-fast rules. or to do anything that would seem to tend to weaken our defence of Latin. I agree with him. but as an important and vital and fundamental part of education.THE STUDY OF GREEK if we ttis is the case. and so on. in the mind of a great many in the case of universities. — " It is with the utmost regret that I find I cannot agree with the motion. apparently we can do and though we are offered Greek as the alternative. more injury 29 to the Classics put these considerations imperbut I hope they will afford a suggestion for some one else to take up. well. But at the same time. Professor in especially with the Gardner made it very and clear. that we ought to do everything we can to system as all at present before those elastic as possible. to say : Well. of thoughtless people. Murray also I said.

but was an international one. in speaking in favour of the bearings. tend to weaken. it will motion. not only grammatically. as far as the Association can efiect anything." Professor Lehmann-Haupt. really the case attire. Is ? not Roman culture Hellenism in and ought we not to go back to the Roman real sources instead of contenting ourselves with the study of a secondary develop- ment ? Furthermore. in our mind. but upon the close connexion between the two languages and Rome literatures and cultures of and. I all its be found in the end to be the wisest and best course for the Association to have adopted. on the higher importance of of general.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 30 Latin not. but the possibility of choosing between two classical languages is in itself to be considered as an important It has been said impetus to the study of either of them. of course. conse- quently. and thus the position of the Classics in What I believe we ought to aim at rather is to insist more and more. but not as a Greece and substitute for proposal However it. not. powerful conditions for the promotion of genuine study and scholarship. and. our whole culture being based on Latin. attractive to Hellenists this particular cannot believe that. and having it taught thoroughly. but in Lastly. that to study Greek without Latin would mean abandoning But is this history. we should do all we can to defend and protect the teaching of Greek in addition to that of Latin. everything ought to be done to preserve the possibility Not only is liberty one of the most of its being studied. "Greek being a most important element of our European culture. Professor . but also the position Greek indirectly. pointed out that the Greek question did not apply to England alone. and was not one of the chief features of the Renaissance the revival of Greece ? not say that the change from mediaeval to modern times has been in a very essential way helped on and extended May we by Greek culture ? Gardner and Professor Murray. spoke about the necessity of reading Greek well. Latin as compared with Greek. each in u different way. the influence of the Association would. perhaps. not only the position of Latin. has not the Renaissance come in. considered in be. of vital importance is . may .

if the proposal is only to be applied to institutions in which only one ancient language is taught. according to some speakers. if to study. " It does not seem clear what the Association is asked to vote upon. what apparently not is really meant. it hardly worth while to deal with the matter. Does Association. Professor — " To ? the universities in so far as they dictate the curriculum of the public schools. but place will not be taken Notwithstanding this. A boy who has not learned required. not only of Classics. is less ambitious secondary schools.THE STUDY OF GREEK relation to the subject and contents perience in England. a sheer impossibility. Though a newcomer. the history of Mediaeval and Modern he desires . Heading a Greek historian without some knowledge of Greek history ought to be." Mr. notwithstanding some practical difficulties. but that very this unfortunately seems not always to be considered as. and ought to be done." Mr. — ' it ' " apply to the universities or only to schools Gardner. the motion would apply only to a very small number of pupils if . I feel certain that both the classical languages. would gain if Professor Gardner's motion was carried. I have been asked to speak to this and have agreed to do so. Latin will go. be. it applies neither to the universities nor the public and only to the however. for instance. this is so. schools. there let it is Quite apart from the point this great danger. short though me 31 My of the authors. Eouse. the Association to pass this resolution in this sense thing to do. Latin in his early years will find afterwards that. because. it is possible to defend the main- tenance of Latin as a compulsory subject. that probably is Others appar- if made by you adopt go out that the Classical Association is is a serious Dr. this resolution and prepared to recognise that Latin should be an optional subject. The word institutions is vague. ently would wish to a large way make it a number general principle applicable in to a great of boys and Surely for girls. Headlam. and especially Greek. because Latin is by those boys who are going on to the study but by others as well. Headlam. This. has already it ex- convinced much could be done. its by Greek. toward end in schools and universities. — " Strictly speaking. Then.

• I school. . The enemy will only interpret the proposed resolution as a slur upon the study of Latin. the origin German. implying that we do not regard Latin as an integral part of English education. realise the themselves come to desire it. would not be understood by him knew Latin. Greek. and.. We have first had to persuade those concerned to send the children to the secondary school earlier and then to persuade them to keep the children at school longer and meanwhile all through we are trying to get a more : humane curriculum. he of French. always because and I have never found one who was really interested in Latin who was not eager to The Greek-less British parent. Anderson. As chief officer of a Local Education Authority. of if its persuaded — 'It many scores of students to begin they were at first interested in Latin . fifteen or sixteen. It is my business to watch the slow growth of the secondary Mr. My committee is a well-known name." unless he Conway on the would be a serious blow to the the study of Greek. of the records are written in We unknown tongue. He does not. what can say th^t he must learn Latin. THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 32 many Europe. I see the schools from a rather different point of view from that of many people. on the whole. E. The chief difficulty in regard to subject another. D. begin Greek.' —" would like to support Mr. Mansfield . thanks to him and others. we have by slow degrees got Latin more widely introduced. in England just natural approach through Latin were denied. if. in my opinion. Sleeman read a letter from Professor the Motion: subject of growth now. and will advantage of learning Greek except his children not. an were to study Modern Languages. an enormous part for instance. to him. Mr. committee happen to have warm sympathy with classical The Chairman of my Higher Education Subeducation. much of the is. realises the advantage of learning Latin. I have Mr. Headlam. because of the structure of vocabuhiry of English. girl is making Greek an alternative be alternative at one age and not at that it may What might be offered as alternatives to a boy or at the age of eleven are not the same alternatives you would offer to a boy at fourteen.

On the other hand. and this means that even a second modern language." if it you encourage Latin as inevitably brings Greek Professor Burrows. with it. Latin . Is it how are not going ' conservative not possible to conservative and constructive ' elements in education that should be put before people ? At the Renaissance. is crowded in the out. Greek is seldom a practicable alternative. the point is not irrelevant. Is it necessary for us to refrain because others against us may Surely. may one point out that it is not a mere handful of people that are learning Greek before Latin . for the Professor Murray made Some Latin. or medicine. Is it not possible that our young democracy will . it might surprise some to learn. or any and constructive contend that it is professions of ' not only the ' who of the great life. ? from giving our opinion misunderstand us and use our arguments if there is any strength in the arguments No against the Classics. they will be used anyhow. the renewed study of Greek has meant new progress and new 5 life. like German. In passing. THE STUDY OF GREEK 88 At present French is started first and this is followed by and the alternative to Greek. The motion was not meant to be a challenge to the whole country to substitute Greek for Latin it is meant to be a help to headmasters them from before this unconventional point of view. Headlam. Mr. modern girls' school the alternatives are usually Domestic Science and other subjects which attract girls. . Mackail and Professor Conway are those of the ostrich.. for many classical mistresses are weaker in Greek than Latin or German.—" The arguments put forward by Mr. especially in girls' schools. there are four or five millions of modern Greeks and . it clear that we were not arguing and against of us were sorry that Mr. I believe that a general basis for humane studies. Besides. Mackail brought in the philosophical argument as to the comparative merits of Latin and Greek. one voting motion would under-rate the merits of Latin. and at other great epochs since the Latin domination. That is a very common alternative in modern times. nor realised wonderfully popular Greek to take and headmistresses and who have never had the matter put governing bodies is with those up law. is generally supposed to be German.

the was adjourned." Professor Sonnenschein. so to speak. there are so many questions arising out of this motion that I think we should all be grateful to the mover and seconder if they would not press us to vote upon it this afternoon. forward on the postIt is But may Gardner and Professor Murray a possible modification of the terms of their resolution it move the next General Meeting. that the movers of the resolution would wish that Greek should be treated as on an equal footing with Latin at the Intermediate Examination. ponement of the debate hardly necessary for me I suggest to Professor —" till I should like to to adduce reasons for that. I do not propose to amend it now but think it would be better not included in the resolution. when we should like to present the motion the in a revised form. to postpone the subject to another General Meeting of Association. that Greek should out just because of the assumption that can only succeed on the shoulders of Latin. as it already Examination of the University of Birmingham is . left out of the resolution for if you read it carefully you will see that it refers to institutions in which only one classical language University of Birmingham and I take it is being studied. we study both At the classical languages . " I think that is a most sensible proposal. The resolution is not worded so happily as it might be the word institutions. would be better avoided. they are not so stupid as to need us may fall from passing result emphasizing.." The Meeting having agreed to the postponement." Professor Gardner. session . and education. — : ' . this resolution. when reported afraid that in the another argument to our If the argument to give it is newspapers we I think let us be be giving shall sound. especially for not be allowed to not friends to overthrow us. THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 84 prefer the study of Greek it These are questions which ? important for the Association to consider.' for instance. scientific Let us consider the matter on them. at the Final but that is However. a future occasion ? I when they bring that when I confess scrutinised the motion closely I began to feel it a little hard that I personally was. great deal of good it Do girls' A its merits.

They have laid great stress on the part of Tragedy that comes directly from the heroic saga. or sacer Indus. ally Professor from the epic tales of the great deeds of heroes. a large gathering enjoyed the courteous Cheapside. Perhaps the best comfort I can offer them is to suggest that they should listen merely as observers of human nature. where by the Warden and Members hospitality provided of the Mercers' Company. especiRidgeway. and not likely to be very interesting to a large part of the audience I see before me. : in which tragedy obviously lam cular riddle which has been puzzling all say that that all it is my answer is is connected with going to try and answer that parti- some of us. and I began to at the present this idea first flashed all the locks with such extraordinary . As we all know. Murray In the course of the evening Professor Gilbert delivered an Address on " The Ritual of Dionysus and the Forms of Greek Tragedy. really quite such a serviceable key for the opening of doors. a point in which a number of us Greek much scholars are interested just now is concerned with the Greek Tragedy. and from the worship of heroes at their graves. we know. was the performance.' and the Priest of Dionysus ' had the seat of honour we read our extant in the centre of the front row. I may put it more precisely thus. it me did open moment. But I must upon me. Tragedy. of the god Dionysus. There is always a sort of amusement which the philoso- pher can derive from observing the curious things other people are interested in." " I fear the subject of my paper is a highly technical one. I am going to suggest to-night a way Dionysus that is to say. some recent writers. as confess that it seems to when apply the key. really as conclusive Now I do not at and satisfactory. It was acted on the Feast of origin or ritual beginnings of Dionysus. Well. the actors were technically known as the craftsmen of Dionysus. Well. have been almost inclined to deny that Dionysus had anything to do with it. in the theatre of Dionysus. tragedies it is very Yet when where difficult to see Dionysus comes in.— THE RITUAL OF DIONYSUS On and the evening of January their friends 8tli Members the 35 of the Association met at a Conversazione in the Mercers' Hall.

the is Dionysus He is quite of Orphism and the Zagreus mystery is not ancient. Dionysus case particular a take To early. what should we expect that It is pretty generally admitted that Dionysus in ritual to be ? If Tragedy is one of his aspects. the Messenger's Speech. and I think one can put a it little earlier. nomenclature. It all . letting that pass. He was clad in black. but the Dionysus who like Osiris. and the particular forms. if it is connected in some way with the Eitual of Dionysus. All I shall be able to do to-night is to indicate the general line of argument that I would take in following this question up. the sacer Indus of Dionysus. And the result of this analysis brought me to the result I am going to suggest to you. conception being .— THE CLASSICAL 36 ASSOCIATIOxN ease that a dreadful thouglit occurred to me. perhaps. one of the most important of them. I approached it in quite a disinterested way. say that in I can now but point argue that I will not late. I was trying to analyse the dramatic condid not originally reach struction of Greek tragedy. belongs to the class that Professor Frazer has called by the name of Vegetation Spirit. in his Ritual. Frazer's to me— Ah. say belongs to the great group which we using again Dr. Now I ought to say first that the views I have to express will appear more at length as a note in Miss Harrison's forthcoming book Themis. yes ' . and the like. I thought to myI reaching just that stage of development and that self —Am men age at which learned their bonnets It ? are apt to get a real fixed bee in obviously not for is me to answer that question.Adonis-Osiris. if you grant me that Dionysus belongs to the group of Vegetation Spirits. the Chorus. You will. that tend regularly to recur things like : the Prologue. the Theophany. I should like perhaps to say also in introduction that I my theory with a view to finding an answer to this particular problem. However. or connected with the under-world. and the ritual involved a contest and a death. the particular form of Dionysus which is most definitely connected with Tragedy. The evidence is at any rate as old as Pindar.' points to the way. was certainly Chthonian. ritual of those Spirits ? what do we know of the normal comes out pretty clearly in Dr. : Eleuthereus. other the points evidence the my judgment. As Vegetation Spirit he may call Attis. the par- ticular kinds of scene.

Isis and her followers searching for him. Theseus. it men- not enacted but announced by a messenger. look for them ? Well. or Feeling of Change a by accompanied Discovery is The last stage is the re-appearance or Epiphany of the god. but in nearly every case tioned in Frazer's book you will find that the Pathos is the great dead ' : A message comes that Pan and when the Messenger has come you set up your lamentation or Threnos.THE RITUAL OF DIONYSUS You Frazer's book. is left Where not. Discovery of the slain or mutilated daimon. very characteristic of these rites : it is rate the Sparagmos Thirdly. is is a ritual form of death. what the Greeks called a Pathos. and put them together. or This Osiris. risen they recognize them as in glory from the dead. The most obvious case is that of Osiris scattered over the world. almost . not in every single case. curious point to notice lamentation . norisis. there is : . This Osiris. Pentheus. a pure bee in to find these traces most my bonnet. Aigeus. Now I suggest that a Ritual of that description has marked traces on the form of Greek Tragedy. if the whole theory once suggested. First what the Greeks called an Agon or Contest between the that is between the Old Year and the New spirit and his enemy Year that will come and kill the old or between Summer and Winter. some disaster or suffering that overtakes the spirit always it is And death. further the death is The Pharmakos definitely ritual or sacrificial kind. Frazer's book or any other account of That is these Vegetation Spirits. nearly always of a is stoned. and the lamentation the new for that. and of They collect the pieces. secondly. in a : ' And about this there many cases it is not very great comes with a clash of emotion. There is. where the death of the old King. the result that will come. I think. as very shall my we fears one ought to be able clearly of all in the Play that is most . Sparagmos or tearing asunder is perhaps connected with the At any sowing and scattering of corn. is mixed up with the rejoicings for After this lamentation comes an Anag- King. Peripeteia. The is a pure clearest case is in Plutarch's description of an Attic agricultural festival called the Oschophoria. from examining the Rituals described in Dr. Zagreus and others are torn in pieces. 37 will find that the Ritual or the Story con- nected with these spirits falls into this sort of division.

after all. or a lamentation with a it is You may remember in the Play that the Messenger comes in wild with grief announcing the death. which con- the Sparagmos or Tearing Asunder of Pentheus. we have Spirit. The Dionysiac ritual was. Next comes the Pathos. Frazer's book. sort in the BaccTiae Is there you take the If ? beginning about line 780. If we look up Pentheus in Koscher's great lexicon of mythology. feeling. first for anything of that last half of the Bacchae. what has happened ? The Bacchae is drama and moving drama. of the fragments of Pentheus' body. the collection of the fragments that comes is — in the gap in our manuscript.. THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 38 confessedly Dionysiac in character. every stage occurring exactly marked and in the proper ritual order. . The year is doubled into both the into himself and his enemy. That doubling changes the whole myth from Dionysus who dies and a long strife. The Agon begins by Pentheus being strong. the search for the body of Pentheus. old year and the new year that kills it. only ritual What has been done ? This is a rather it was not drama. and is received by the Bacchanals with shouts of derisive joy. about 200 lines you get a long Agon or contest between Dionysus and his enemy Pentheus. and Dionysus weak . The Daimon has been doubled. or any other. Well now. When Comes the Threnos. sists in this is it ends by his being obviously in Dionysus' then goes out. torn to pieces . perfectly well is. It exactly the clash of grief and joy we had in the Osckophoria. of in the Bacchae all the Kitual of the Vegetation the sort described in Dr. but attested —the of course. as it were. it is It is not simply Dionysus who. there a clear interval during which Pentheus begins to wither is and go down. lamentation. tears his is ritual into drama. Paralit were of Dionysus. we shall find that he is what is called a Doppelgdnger of Dionysus. That is. after enemy to pieces and then appears in majesty. a particular form as The phenomenon is not uncommon. and you will observe clash of emotion. recognition is accompanied by a Peripeteia or great change of Lastly comes the epiphany of Dionysus in glory. collection The and the Anagnorisis or recognition of him by Agave. exactly in its proper place. Next comes. interesting technical point. and He power. just in its right place. lels will occur to you. announced.

: The hero then comes the Pathos. There is first an Agon between Peleus and Menelaus. less like a ritual service. Next moved I will put before you a third stage. or Discovery of the truth. Messenger. as god. a curious thing ! If one thinks of Hippolytus one of the chief things we know about him is in legend. is torn to pieces by his horses comes. in the midst of the lamentation. The play I will take is the Andromache. The moulds are all there in order. . the Year-Daimon. or apotheosis of the hero himself. Epiphany are all there but what in the ritual was the continuous history of one single person. further multiplication of persons.— THE RITUAL OF DIONYSUS 89 Let us take another Play in which exactly the same process is In the latter part of the Hippolytus. and the characters become more definitely human beings. after all. I cannot help suspecting that in an earlier form of the Hippolytus dromenon there was a resurrection to . — . in place of the threnos. This Play ends with Artemis as an avowed goddess. in which drama has a step or two further from mere ritual. and Hippolytus as man dying on the ground. and lived as Virbius in South Italy. me inclined to think that that note of aort of reminiscence of the clash of emotion I spoke of. about 900 to 1110. comes the epiphany : After the messenger there Then it the and producing a Peripeteia are just one step further from the who was Hippolytus ? If we look any ordinary authority we shall find he was another the same kind of Daimon who is torn to pieces and comes original ritual . There is now a The Forms of the ritual Agon. We or change of feeling. from some of Artemis. triumph is I am there. bringing with Anagnorisis. that is narrated by a messenger. As drama gains upon ritual things become less purely theological. that he was brought life again by Asclepius. carried a step further. having her epiphany up in the air. But notice what has happened drama has gained upon ritual. together with his protectress Artemis. a curious hymn to Aphrodite rather in a note of triumph. a point which always puzzled greatly in the Play. for. at Roscher or form of to life Now again. is a perfectly clear Agon between Theseus and Hippolytus after that a short chorus rather like a Threnos . but a different subject is poured into each mould. Lamentation. Pathos. is now the complex interaction of many presons.

do more to-night than suggest a trend of thought. The content of the play is. as far as Form Well. cession. Aeschylus did The evidence points to his having treated the trilogy as one whole. and kept his Epiphanies of the gods. It was used by Aeschylus just about as much. the Death is that of Neoptolemus. Let us take the extant plays first. that it ended with a great scene in which . as we : . exist. It is narrated by a Messenger. of course. But the Agon was between Peleus and Menelaus. you see. the heroic saga. certainly not less . Then the Threnos. found an institution and go out in proThe SuppUces belongs to a trilogy Supplices. Now that is the kind of process by which I think the ritual was turned into drama and my conclusion is this The Dionysiac element in Greek drama is the form. last of the three. and the monotony of which will surprise you if you come to analyse carefully drama by drama. as far as I can make out. can be done. A thing which comes out quite clearly if one goes through the evidence is that the Theophany was not an invention of Euripides. on which I will not now dwell. then it has a great mass of them they reconcile a feud. which is a ritual death. a kind of stoning at the temple at Delphi. all know. then the Theophany. and the Epiphany is that of Thetis. for the end of the third play. the it at the end of the trilogy. this recurring form which reminds one so much of the ritual of the Vegetation Spirits. A different person. You will notice that I my have taken examples from three some problems arise in connexion with that. But I cannot. and. in all existing fragments. The Oresteia has no gods in it till the end of the Eumenides. I have tried to trace these Forms in all the Greek Plays that Plays of Euripides.: THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 40 Then comes an interrupting scene about Orestes. Now most curious and characteristic is the Theophany. Aegyptii. I will not deal with any side issues. only. Then comes the Pathos. or appearance of the god at the end. is the centre of each different scene. We know most of the Plays of Euripides end with the appearance of a god a god that appeared up in the air from a special machine which Euripides or someone of his time invented. : . Danaides and we happen to know about the Danaides. I think the that perhaps is . often on a very large scale. and which provided a more effective entrance for this divine being.

There are two I can get no evidence. which seems to have ended with a pure threnos. the present the Prometheia. The third play was Glaucus. it would seem. Amymone the heroine was attacked by Satyrs. is . but Dionysus clearly. It is a full-dress epiphany. In the second play. Here are the first two cases on my list. There are some forty-two in which the evidence. was not the Glaucus Pontius. You may ask what kind of evidence I mean. You can see that (f.THE RITUAL OF DIONYSUS 41 Apkrodite appeared and ordained the institution of Marriage by Consent. not a As Theophany* fragmentary plays. for the my rough manner the results of I will state in a very There are some study of them. which probably ended with a Lamentation. quite in the style of Euri- What about pides. Was it the Glaucus Pontius ? If sOj there was an epiphany. : it We have fortunately and you can see from them that the play followed very closely the same lines as Euripides' Bacchae. he In In the Aeschylus the Persae trilogy he has an epiphany. as h© does in the Bacchae. in half-human form. is each play. or as called several times in the play. indicates that they ended with the Epiphany of a God. I regret to say. Phineus. not an epiphany. We know that Aeschylus showed and rises from his holy — the sea-god Glaucus rising. evidence fails us. where called I leave aside for my case is easy. 61) it showed the disguised Dionysus on the stage it had him imprisoned and liberated by an earthquake (58) under those circumstances I think one must assume that at some point the god threw o£E his disguise and appeared in . a good many fragments Bassarai the satyrs away. 6 ? Sophocles. but I get I could them more . the hero. it first play. I regret to say. in our extant Persae. the Persae I said that as a rule ? keeps his epiphany for the end of the trilogy an exception. then. out of the sea. almost the only thing we know is that the denouement showed the Harpies being hunted away through the air by the Sons of the North-Wind a great epiphany of divine and winged shapes. his might. has been His theophanies are not as clear as I get traces of the ritual in him. sometimes quite twenty-one about which sometimes with great uncertainty.' of the Edoni. What about a Sophocles little disobliging.' Darius evoked is Tomb. wish. Edoni and Neaniskoi. but the other play If it Glaucus. ' : appearing (eVK^avcis) drove goes with the trilogy. . and the Theban Trilogy. ' the God.

I think. this I characteristic of his art altogether. And you will The find that they all are built up according to the same formula. . may well have taken these plays as a normal or legitimate model. want some — ritual which was either obligatory in strongly at the back of the poet's mind. That left two plays over which were comparatively speaking free from the ritual form and were moving in the direction of free Sophocles. this blurring of outlines would make two remarks. There is a sort of deliberate artistic way the same blurs the ends of his middle of the he allows speakers to stop in the . ritual is that these dramatists started from a time ritual gradually faded in course of If that was so.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 42 is First. A word about the Theophanies in Euripides. in my view. both by his friends and his enemies. and that and drama prevailed. The like free than those of the other two tragedians though of course not at all comparable in this respect with a modern play. Euripides certainly went back to the stiffer form. gradualness about Sophocles' method of writing. They are not sharply as in Euripides. The extremely clear-cut and articulate character of Euripides' art will be admitted. . and blurs his scenes in one melts into another. utters prophecies worship. . In the second place I would venture this conjecture. God (1) appears in glory. Aeschylus as a rule wrote in trilogies and brought in his epiphany fiction. always moving towards a less stiff form of fiction. How does this come about ? Well. people. blurred. drama. for instance. less clear-cut. They occur in eleven of the extant plays. counting the Rhesus. On and Euripides. than in Aeschylus . can forms in the act of fading out . He one line to the next. plays of Sophocles are they are more less stiffly ritual. we find any of these can we catch. artistic . but I all to suggest that such extraordinary uniformity— one might almost say such bewildering monotony cannot be the product It can only be understood in the light of of free composition. lines He he has elisions from marked off. I will (2) reconciles feuds or comforts certain and (3) not read them founds some religious ritual or through to prove this. line. and his clearest ritual forms only in the final play of each trilogy. when we realize that the poet some way or It is else was only intelligible was working under the spell of a traditional form. My general theory then fixed ritual.

ordinary speech of a god. comforts little take the end of Heracles He settles everything . more fluent. 43 — that everything exactly as ends with it should be. a process first away from Ritual and then back that question as an extreme continually becoming human. full ritual is just Another is turned into something a more faded case. and worshipped as such. if you I do not wish to prejudice like. that god acts in the ordinary That I should call a fairly clear case of faded or atrophied Theophany. . on the top of the tower. more Our description of the last phase depended largely on whether we liked or disliked Euripides. : to Ritual.. That is what I call a faded Heracles worship of Theophany. especially when we remember that Medea was really a goddess. that our ordinary account development of Tragedy has been over-simplified. Theseus who appears. Pathos. But what I think comes out clearly from our present inquiry is that it was not one continuous process.' and she presently only there . But before finishing I would mention one result of this investigation on our view of the development of Greek drama. is —there it a hero and and he appears at the end making a speech exactly . I could run through other examples showing how you get other ritual forms melting away into something like what we should call ordinary drama. ' rides off in a tower ? She appears . The Theophany. had worship like the : He is not a god. a process up and then down. it was a process down and then up or. she acts the part that the and blessings and she founds the . It is a result which I think I was getting on purely literary grounds viz. We have been generally taught at school to think that Greek tragedy at : of the began by being over-grand with a large element of the divine in and then went on through Sophocles as a mean and Euripides it . distributes curses. prevailingly curses of her children is What dragon chariot. by the people of Corinth. But how does Medea appear ? The Scholiast tell us that she appears up in the air. to say. is no God at the end there is only Medea herself. more fluid. he and Amphitryon. ritual worship Quite evidently. but he more human.THE RITUAL OF DIONYSUS Theoptany a fading Yes ? Agon. Messenger. take the Medea : etc. does she do when on the prophecies. and then founds the Heracles and himself.

Dionysus all frankly Troades. . Death and Hecuba. as I : If falls think the Pro-logos. I think. without it). Now natural cast. spoken by one solitary character and further. Andromache. more no Prologue is . the kind of atmosphere unmistakable. What about Euripides ? Well. clinging to an altar. religious. altogether. We know that on such occasions the hierophant came forward and explained what the of ritual was With that to be. stage one In Sophocles these stages. The second stage simply a Prologue of one speaker like the Agamemnon the third gives what we would call a complete exposition-scene in which the situation of the play is laid out by play . Dicterich in his famous article on the Origin — — Tragedy showed at least he convinced me that the Prologue was probably derived from the Prorresis of the hierophant before a mystery or religious ritual. . we find even in Sophocles the influence of a fourth stage. has Aeschylus disappears Sophocles starts always and so practically does two. In every case the speaker is sacred. conditions of It life. or Fore-speech. or ghosts. it play began : . his building up of a vivid and almost natural technique. . Heracles. Hermes : . all moving away from mere formality. was not part of the likely. band of suppliants Iphigenia Taurica. ordinary person in ordinary . Ghost of Polydorus Apollo Hiffolytus. and consider it for a few minutes you notice the development of the Prologue you find it First of all there into stages. all begin with a in instant fear of death. mystical. in two plays where for special reasons an exposition- scene is omitted. all . Supplices.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 44 Take the Prologue. in front of the exposition-scene or he has a perfectly definite formal prologue. or. . and this fourth stage is with an exposition-scene it is : a part of his In front of the exposi- the characteristic opening of Euripides. in our mind let us consider the sort of people speaking the Euripidean Prologues Alcestis. Aphrodite Bacchae. Helena. Next gods. . Poseidon Ion. what is for our purpose most important. the half -divine priestess of a strange blood-stained temple just awakened from a dream of death. supernatural. tion-scene (or. a character almost always of a religious or superwithout it. is never an is. was an explanatory speech made by the poet before the at any rate the first stage is a play without a Prologue. Heracleidae. Now conversation between two or more speakers.

on the modern That is a wonderful thing to do and we know. " We all wish to thank Professor Gilbert Murray for the subtle and imaginative criticism and tradition. it will . stage. which we are going to follow in order. so to speak. or equally symmetrical The Chorus Stichomythiae." The Bishop of Lincoln. as we have all in his latest plays. : . formal . and for having communicated to us some of his dreams. other books of his very well. be repugnant. has that the re-asserted becoming a mere dramatic exposition- scene between ordinary people. like the old hierophant reappears at the beginning. at first till it dwindles to a thing of bears upon Something something seen. some of his hypctbcEcs and suggestions. alive to English people . . returns again to be a solemn address to the audience. that the very soul of Greek tragedy. to get again in clear-cut outline the whole ritual contest. itself. the old ritual old sacer The Prologue. It is just the same story with other elements of the drama. and then returns to a kind of formal antiphony of symmetrical speeches. An outer shape and conventional to the last degree an inner life. We very gladly. constituted the original Dionysus mystery. after ? seems to It 45 me performance. tearing-asunder. spoken by a sacred or mystical figure. like the old re-risen we seem — God And at the end. almost natural in Sophocles. little account. . and most of it is in sequence its itself. fiery with sincerity and spiritual freedom that is the sort of paradox which from beginning to end is presented by Greek drama and I think probably presented by the greatest art of many ages beside.THE RITUAL OF DIONYSUS What the explanation of that is Indus. resurrection . lamentation. some of us. But I will not speak more about the aesthetic side of the subject. and then grows again shoulders the main weight of the whole drama. and then return to The Dialogue becomes irregular and formality in Euripides. —which It is a curious result recognition. at first sight I dare say Greek Drama. and we shall not forget what he has of us know him some best as the imaginative and poetical of our great He has made Greek Drama Greek dramatic masterpieces. The language and metre get freer in Sophocles. ' bee Many translator of ' Drama which he has given to us. But we thai^k him for having admitted us. into his study to-night. — analysis of the Greek share his said. if possible. this ritual formation of the dominated by tough and undying . plays of Euripides.

I was going to try to disabuse your minds. and to find out how it came We thank him with all our hearts. for I think a good many have restored to us our faith in our old friend Dionysus. C. But we must not leave out of account of St. that City Companies and City Halls meant nothing but banquets. another guccessful school under our care. and we must not forget to thank the Master of the Mercers' Company and all his colleagues for the beautiful and graceful hospitality to be what it was. he Greek Epic . . R. which had been shaken by the subversive theories of Professor Ridgeway." The vote of thanks was carried by acclamation. Seaton.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 46 to trace the history of Greek Drama. has made some compensation to-night. Paul's School. but I think the Bishop has done so. — "As regards Professor Murray. and classical education owes it a great debt. Paul's School. St. for many eminent it is classics in this Hall. in seconding the double vote of thanks. Paul's. One of our greatest prides is to be the Governors It is not so. said all know him and admire him. we not only for his translations. in acknowledging the vote of thanks. the Bishop of Lincoln must be glad to has taken out of my lips what I was going to say. because I was for many years a teacher at the institution : — named St. As regards the Mercers' Company. said—" I think it is we who should thank you so for coming here to-night. and labours. for the Mercers are the enlightened and magnificent patrons of one of our great public We thank them for the welcome they have schools. but also for his book The Rise of the and if in that book he sometimes alarmed us. This ancient and famous Company is closely associated with classical learning . we shall not forget their hospitality when we go to our several homes and engage once again in our ordinary given to-night. The Master of the Mercers' Company. they have shown the Classical Association to-night." Mr. a great privilege to see It is a privilege to hear such a magnificent lecture as we have had. But there a peculiar propriety in an Association like this being entertained by a Company which has been so honourably con- is to me and I may say I nected for 400 years with higher education have personally particular pleasure in seconding the vote of thanks. the Mercers' School.

" Classical . and contains some 250 or 300 boys.THE RITUAL OF DIONYSUS It is also situated in in a rather 47 London. Kenyon of permitting the use of this Hall for a Conversazione for the Association. Paul's. more humble Being thus interested in education it gave us great pleasure to fall in with the idea put forward by Dr. position perhaps than those of St.

. in the Theatre at King's College. The number of its members has remained stationary at about 1. The numbers of Local Correspondents have been largely At Oxford they have risen from nine to eighteen. Caspari read the Report of Council for 1911 In presenting more able its : report for the past year the Council is once announce that the prospects of the Association continue hopeful. Director Rome. particularly in large educational centres.m.500.— Tuesday. January 9th The Association met at 10 Dr Kenyon in the chair. Arrangements have been made for inserting an advertisement numbers of The Classical Quarterly and The Classical Review. who will in future receive copies without having make special application for them. to the Association. The Council desires to make more widely known the reduction which it now offers to 48 . and at Cambridge from eight to fifteen. The Classical Association of South Africa has been affederated increased. Ashby. This check in the increase of membership is no doubt due to the fact that no new Branches have to been formed. a. though the Council hears with pleasure that there a prospect of a Branch being founded at Bristol. With the kind co-operation of Dr. and the Council desires to urge upon members the importance of promoting the formation is of additional Branches. Mr. The vigorous and successful work of the existing Branches is one of the chief sources of the Association's influence. some specimen publications British School at of the of the Association were placed on view in the Archaeological Section of the International Exhibition held at Rome during last spring. The Council is glad to report that the finances of the Association now permit of The Year's Work being sent post free to all of the Association in all future members.

A Deed of Trust to regulate the functions of the Trustees in dealing with the moneys and property of the Association has been prepared and approved by the Council under legal advice. A proposal for an alteration of Rule 13 of the Rules of the Association has likewise obtained the Council's approval. The Council regrets to record the death of Sir Nathaniel Bodington. and will be brought before the Meeting. and on the spelling and printing of Latin texts. Vice-Chancellor of the University of Leeds. To this end it has been agreed that delegates from the Scottish and Irish tions of Scotland of more intimate Associations should be regularly invited to attend the General Meetings of the Association in England. Professor Sonnenschein has been appointed to represent the Association on the Standing Committee on Grammatical Ter- minology. and it has been decided to issue in a single volume the most important of these Reports. declaring the need of altering the Minutes of the General Meeting in 1910. It also calls attention to the fact that the subscriptions of all members who join the Association after October in any year will count for the following year. Negotiations have been conducted with the Classical Associa- and Ireland with a view to the establishment relations with these bodies. which has been formed during the past year by the eight associations concerned. A memorandum of the Council. The Classical Association of Scotland has recently passed a resolution expressing willing- ness to co-operate to the utmost in all common interests. and also the Reports on the Pronunciation of Latin and Greek. and will be submitted to the General Meeting.REPORT OF COUNCIL to members 49 of the Association in the rate of yearly subscription to the Classical Quarterly and Classical Review. The question of reprinting the Reports of the Curricula Committee has been taken into consideration. with regard to the Interim Report of the Joint Committee on Grammatical Ter- minology. was printed on page 45 of the last volume of Proceedings. who was 7 . and the Council of the Classical Association of Ireland has cordially agreed to certain arrangements for keeping the two bodies acquainted with each other's work.

: than fulfilled. As a result. to Dec. sheet for 1911 will appear in the ensuing number of Proceedings. The Balance-sheet for the period Dec. viii.— THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 50 one of the founders of the Association. in between the and has Societies. 1909. Associations to be present at their Meetings. and a member of its original Council. and also might invite representatives of other them. * See Proceedings. —" I would like to Report from the Chair. and the first year of the Association's ownership of The Classical Review and The Classical Quarterly resulted in a small balance on the right side. past. p. and the Council of the Association have fallen in with . 13. it was agreed that the three Associations should keep one another informed as to what they were doing. Kenyon. and will now be submitted for approval. and I am glad .. and to move the adoption call attention to of the one or two points One that deserves attention is the relation between this it." Dr. of this Association will agree that the three Associations should and suggestions keep in friendly touch as much as possible whereby this can be achieved have been made during the past year. 184-5 of the last volume of ProThe Balanceceedings. but I think the members own ways . For 1911 a considerably and the Board hai larger balance is confidently expected . Association and the corresponding Societies in Scotland and There is no suggestion. 17th. seen way its to repaying the remainder of the private loans to the purchase fund. especially in view of the labour and anxiety of the time of transition now happily . The Classical Journals Board makes the following report " The hopes which the Board held out a year ago ^ were more 1910. of course. The Board is glad to say that the five editors of these journals and The Year's Worlc have accepted ofiice again for 1912 and it is sure that the Council and the Association will join in thanking these scholars warmly for their services. vol. was published on pp. success is a Still marked more gratifying than this financial number increase in the of subscribers to both journals. in order that each might judge whether the actions of the others would affect it. because to treat them in its each country has its own problems. 21st. in the way of union Ireland.

e. Perhaps I take this opportunity of saying that I shall be glad of any help or advice which any member of the Association can give There are no details in the Report that call for special reference beyond those mentioned by the Chairman. F. there are have been heard with will that the Board should have surmounted the through the both of Classical Association That. trouble or inconvenience. will be satisfactory to members to a capacity in their individual is the notification that them it will not pay postage for The Year's Work for the Association is now rich enough to meet that expense.— REPORT OF COUNCIL to say that at this Meeting representatives and the Classical Association of Scotland of Ireland are present. C. very satisfactory difl&culties of period of transition. You will see that the receipts from entrance and subscriptions were £483." me. and sums fees . and moved its adoption in the following terms " You have before you the Receipts and Expenditure for I now ask you to 1910. members in this The first is in For the regard to the journals. i. members will get their Year's Work and Proceedings without further in future be necessary for to . I should like to second I am institute a may its adoption. Dobson. — " As I have been referred to by implication in this Report. Mr. This expectation has been realized by one year's work. in fact. announcement which. less by £35. The Report was adopted by the Meeting. Seaton read his statement of accounts for 1910. Both receipts and expenditure were. Provided they pay their subscription. and from investments £23. It is year without financial loss. leaving a balance to the good of £93. making altogether £506. Keport which 51 the way but should now made their have embarked on the period of progress which was expected from the change of management. grants to Branches. R. which justifies us in looking forward And the other still more prosperous career in the future. satisfaction. I think." Professor J. glad to hear that the Council approves of the project to Branch of the Association in Bristol. I think. and should not only have first the two items rest. approve that statement which was put before you at the last : General Meeting. The expenses were £411. published in the Proceedings of 1911. will be satisfactory to of the Association.

the Proceedings have increased in bulk and. but the expenses are growing too. balance of £105 on the year's working. I am hopeful that we shall keep up. does not affect the balance. as thank them. it . Adding that to £105 we get £239. and more than keep up. our present income.R. As to the future. scription. which could not be The investments now expected to go on at the same rate. consequently. receipts to be £446. Turning now to the accounts for the past year we find the and the expenses £341. in cost of publication. will be sent to all members who have paid their subscriptions for 1911. be members who have paid The Yearns Worlc mean the The Year's Work. Of this sum £150 has been invested by the Council in G. and there will be will legal expenses in we must not glad to connexion with the Trust Deed. like the Proceedings. will i. leaving a satisfactory The amount carried forward from 1910 was £134 8s.W. I understand. yrill Therefore new members. of course. all I abolition for copies to the publishers. which produces about £28 per annum. which. not always preserve the printed slip for application. Besides the expense connected with The Year's Work. without any application on their part. but that. be out very shortly. The entrance fees were not so many as in the previous year (94 as against 147). will. much less clerical work for the publishers. and we carry forward to 1912 the sum of £89 8s. say that several through their bankers. I am more members have begun to pay relax our efforts to secure I follow the example. just alluded to. lid. 8d. of the payment by members and the consequent application Henceforward The Year's Work sent post free to for the year. Debenture Stock. The others will get it on payment of such sub- who do and make This will save inconvenience to members. The chief alteration in the financial arrangements has been already alluded to in the Keport of Council. but that is chiefly owing to the phenomenal growth at starting of the Bombay Branch. and hope that others saves a good deal of correspondence. of postage of their subscription for 1911.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 52 overpaid and returned. Co. But of course it add considerably to the expenses of the Association.e. amount to the sum of nearly £850.

by not pestering him with letters on subjects which the treasurer cannot be expected to answer. of some personal place. but I doubt have not been too scrupulous on this point. Mackail. that they had done so and paying me. — — Those for 1911 have not yet been of the accounts for 1910. audited year as . Of course always prepared to return any overpaid subscription at whether I am I once upon application. with great satisfaction the Report which the Council has presented to it. I have twice over. " I will now ask simply for your confirmation subscriptions ." The accounts were confijmed by the Meeting. In the first as treasurer second and I think the matter. for this was cordial vote of thanks that my work wish to I acceptance by you of accounts for last year." Hon. having won its place as one of the societies which do an active — . by the further use of the bankers' orders." The Chairman. I do not doubt. it with the meeting coming so early in the following now does that is The formal confirmation. therefore. W. like to could they want that the accounts for 1910 be approved and adopted.. Many kinds of questions came before me. I must thank you was passed . Mr. as showing that the Association is prospering. J. as further experience has shown me. but I really the trouble to ask for their money move to Flamstead Walters. " The Meeting will have heard. and also by the due and early payment of and another. must stand over till next year inevitable. in the second place. and can be considered as being now upon an established footing. owing to then forgetting in each case returned the overpaid subscription. and I could not recommend one. of these accounts and meanwhile you will have the opportunity of scrutinizing them. I should invoke your sympathy for the present treasurer. practically correct that they were all bad. I interest in balance-sheet. Professor statement in proposing the —" it back. REPORT OF TREASURER During the past year I received a 53 good many subscriptions members paying through their bankers. in my I my beg the the have last for the absence last year and. and these reached a climax when I was asked to recommend a Latin dictionary the answer which I think I gave at the time was. Treasurer for think members might take if This be shown in a practical way.

was Sir Richard Master of the Rolls. also. Butcher. and in so many fields of life. giving his Address to-day. now devolves upon me to propose the President for next year. of science. after Geikie.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 54 and recognized work towards the national back years In looking interest. It is obvious on large field they extend over. distinguished. by men who have the distinguished consented. Butler. over the past history of the Association for the last eight we must recognize. and how much the Association may pride itself upon being able to point to such a list of Presidents. Cambridge. that distinguished man of letters. Then came Lord Curzon. who. as indicating the interest felt in our work and its objects by so many distinguished men. and to be an important feature of that life. to accept the Presidency of the Association. and civic life. It known to all of you that it would be quite superfluous to say He is recognised. science. afterwards Lord Collins. and our consequence with the public in no small degree enlarged. of theology. may say. then that very distinguished man of Earl then the I might add. year after year. then Lord Chancellor. and would . will vacate considering these names what a ofl&ce. It is not irrelevant to President. Butler's name is so well of Trinity College. all have had of public It is a gratifying fact that the study of the Classics has been thus seen to af?ect all sides of national life. to eulogize Dr. loss we of Cromer. could be proposed to the Association. and distinguished in many as Presidents representatives of political administration. education in our schools and universities. I think I anything about him. Sir Archibald still . run over the names. and and now the Bishop of Lincoln. I will therefore not attempt what would be quite futile. Succeeding him was the Earl of Halsbury. as and no more disthe doyen of classical scholars in England tinguished name in scholarship. when the Our first Association was set going. The Council have unanimously resolved to recommend to the Association that we elect as President for 1912 the Master Dr. now Earl Curzon then Mr. whose Collins. They have been We ways. I think. with satisfaction and with gratitude that our work has been materially helped. lament so deeply then the present Prime Minister. or to add anything further in recommendation of the Council's suggestion. and in the conduct of higher . .

When I unwillingly. their of to purposes for which the Classical Association has been formed. — — . " I am exceedingly gratified to have the opportunity of proposing this motion That the VicePresidents be re-elected. and that to their number be added Lord Loreburn. many acceptance me All are dis- . in which the scholarly distinction of every sentence has inspired the boys and made them admire. and remind you of the brilliant successes of Dr. Butler is a great and a great name and we feel this in our schools. who only vacated the position of Vice-President in order to assume Harrovian conferring ! — : the higher one of President. however the high ideals set before them. him. but daresay schoolmasters have a particular facility for seeing the effect of such great personalities in our education. as we all know. As to the new members proposed names are so familiar that it is hardly ideals. Purser. And then if I may speak for a moment from my own corner at Eton we have been privileged to hear Dr.ELECTION OF PRESIDENT 55 simply beg to move. Butler's sons at Harrow and Cambridge. I . Ramsay. A." Mr. Mr. —" Mackail has said. Probably there is no family in the land that has done classical education so much credit. great benefactor of classical learning in the country is who have not one of those of half praise which is is a and he . that the Master of Trinity be elected our President for this year. It is not necessary for read through the names of the Vice-Presidents. even although we do not have text-books published by him for our use. say that such an eminent is admired and respected by all Eton boys. L. tinguished in classical learning. and a great in the Classics. are experts office is an They have sympathy. I think their exceedingly good argument for the to with its you to-day. I am upon him a very rare testimonial " The motion was carried unanimously. on behalf of the Council. B. and the Bishop of Lincoln. I need not add anything to what Dr. furthered the Classics by a kind only too fashionable in these times has brought them along by his unstinted enthusiasm. Dr. plainly. Dr. Perhaps I might allude for one moment to the fact that Mrs. Lord Morley. Butler was at the head of the classical list in the tripos of her year. C. Butler preach and lecture we have heard sermons and lectures from personality . Butler.

much by to assume . too much a An is Association concerned with taught by many tend to become too much owes a great deal of England its interest : people and of a professional professional union of teachers. both from the same school and University. and the new Vice-Presidents proposed are Lord Morley and Lord Loreburn. but an Association and importance and . wherein his services have been so signal. Lord Morley.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 56 As to Lord Lorebiirn. and especially in the sphere of classical learning. and won the highest honours in that branch of study. As to the Bishop of Lincoln. he has succeeded in gaining that measured wisdom which is his special characteristic. perhaps." its that this proposal hardly requires The proposal happily includes the Bishop of Lincoln. but we may congratulate ourselves that their adherence to this Association they indicate that they attach some value to their classical studies and we may hope . We it to the Association. By our own day. a high honour. that in future British statesmen will continue. cupies the highest position in the legal not a special expert in the Classics now. to the Association that he should consent to be a Vice-President. It is I may be think. should still and be willing to lend his exertions Professor Hardie. We may our special gratitude that he should continue amongst us still then express notwithstanding the arduous duties he has to perform. It is a great honour to the Classical Association that he should become one of its Vice-Presidents. he ocThough profession. on whom he has written such interesting monographs. when at the University he was an expert. at least upon owe something. here might be tempted to attribute their success That would be too in public life to their classical training. Cheltenham and any further words to commend Oxford. little danger of that in like this many their classical training as a thing There is. his long experience with public men of affairs of and a great many of former days. of them. in politics and in letters. to look back to which they the teaching of a subject that in many places may body. —" I feel on behalf. I need hardly say what a pleasure it is for us to think of the gracious influence he has exerted in every sphere of activity in which he has been engaged. both considered our Nestor. necessary to introduce them. and maintain an interest in the Classical Association.

Headmistress of the High well. The names and Mr. whose elegant and graceful scholarship has earned the admiration of I many of us during recent years. Dr. Professor Myres. three. — " On of such 57 men as behalf of the Council I beg move the names of five persons to take the places of the retiring members of the Council whose time of service has elapsed to (Professor Arnold. Robertson. I give them in selected after careful consideration. D. of lady representatives on the Hitherto we have been content with two lady of the Council in future. Sanders." The motion was carried unanimously. Miss Sanders has rendered School. Harrison. if we reckon Miss Sanders amongst the new members. Tunbridge Wells. I think. one of the brilliant of upholding the banner of Latin scholarship Miss A. a general feeling on the part of the Council that the contingent of lady members might with advantage be increased I beg to move the adoption of these names. will be to increase the Council by one.ELECTION OF MEMBERS OF COUNCIL among its members we are electing Vice-Presidents to-day. to this Association for a Curricula who know Committee. I am sure it will be generally agreed that Mr. F. of great things are expected in the future by those him who has of years. Macan. of University College." The motion was carried unanimously. number to which member of years as a she contributed service of the important Professor Slater. Hogarth. Robertson will be an members : — acquisition to the Council. There is. 8 . by the Council. Mr. information. because it three to-day. Cardiff. Rushbrooke). scholars of the present day. viz. Mr. Master most eminent of Oxford S. are the following. after all. " I would second this proposal. there will be three. they are elected. number to if be made. and shall ." to this number. number for a great Leeds. is make the number I am also glad to hear about the shows that we are trusted a little a holy and good number. E. Miss Jane Harrison. of University College. Cambridge. Oxford. Dr. order alphabetical : done yeoman service in the North — Professor in Connal. one of the whom younger Fellows of Trinity College. I hope we three ladies. influence to the inclusion Professor Sonnenschein. think there is only one general remark that the effect of the election of these persons.

and Professor Myres the re-appointment H. Sleeman and Mr. The desirability of such obvious. was desirable to make express and also of the fact that the three weeks' notice by the present Rule is found to be insufficient. what is a piece of businesslike arrangement. E. that all members of the Association shall. P. Both these resolutions were adopted.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 58 Mr. Seaton as Treasurer. but more generally. as it has stood since the Rules were first drawn up. shall make all the necessary arrangements — conduct of the General Meeting. and no Motion shall be made or paper read at such Meeting unless of Mr. J. business which a provision is it considers urgent. Pantin proposed the re-election of Mr. and to this addition it may Then there any way. Caspari as Secretaries. that the Council shall not only prepare the list of agenda. I have mentioned. Mr. W. be fully . Then it adds what had been very naturally not thought of when the original rule for the was drawn bring —a provision that the Council shall have power to before the General Meeting. R. runs " The list of Agenda at the General Meeting shall be prepared by the Council. J. so far as possible. Mackail moved the amendment of Rule 13 in the following terms Rule 13. : — : — notice thereof has been given to one of the Secretaries at least three weeks before the date of such Meeting. without previous notice. chiefly for this reason. that notice of resolutions sent in shall be circulated to members. and I think the Association the Council not to abuse it in proposed alteration of instead of three is ." amendment has been framed found by experience that certain points which for there it The proposed it was view of the fact that in were certain casus omissi. in the first place. C. B. required weeks necessary for all the preliminary arrangements which are indispensable for organizing business and circulating members. namely. that more often than not the General Meetings of the Association are in January. six weeks' trust is the notice proposed to add a further clause. The amended Rule now notices to our proposed provides. and the intervention of the Christmas holidays makes a longer period than three provision . M. together with the names of the respective This clause is meant to give definite sanction to proposers. W. 0.

too strict in of the respective proposers." S. and in particular : shall prepare the list of agenda and determine what papers have power to bring before the General Meeting. or to read a paper at the General Meeting." . " I think that is an imaginary difficulty rather than a practical one. they shall Association of the conduct of our business as it has hitherto gone on to set forth the rules for our business more but rather . " It shall also Any Member who may desire to propose a resolution. The present motion gives absolute discretion to the Council to preclude any subject coming forward here which they do not approve. in its possible crushing of initiative on the part of private members. and modify or supplement them where they have been found insufficient. A. Canon Sloman. and that. I think that is all there is to say. So much business may be sent in that it would be impossible to deal with it in the time available at the General Meeting someone. in seconding the proposed alteration. The efiect Amendment is not to make any violent change in the of the Council. clearly. all business which it considers urgent. without previous notice. its Geden. in the case of motions not being proposed on behalf have the name of the member of the who brings any one of these forward. shall be read." The Chairman. together with the names The Rev. I do not see how harm could be done by permitting a private member to bring forward at a public meeting a motion by way of amendment which he may think desirable. read the rule as it was desired to amend it " The Council shall make all necessary arrangements for the conduct of the General Meeting.— AMENDMENT OF RULE 13 59 informed beforehand of the actual business to come before them." The Rev. this Notice of resolutions sent in under Rule shall be circulated to members. simply meant to make the working of the business of the Association in future a little easier and more effective. —" I think that this motion is rather exclusion. cretion in arranging the agenda beforehand. There is nothing contentious in the change it is . therefore. must have dis- — . shall give notice accordingly to one of the Secretaries at least six weeks before the date of the Meeting.

— — THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 60 A short discussion ensued. It is which takes. not affect in any way the government of the Association. Esq. of the present proposal is to establish it does a Trust which will hold the Funds of the Association . though the Council have reduced by two pages It is the original document in which this was expressed. authorized be make the to declarations of trust therein contained. and no questions having been raised. W. N. C. of capital to invest. T.' The object of the Trust Deed is merely position of the Association with regard to its to regularize funds.. H. F. When the the when we had small balances. F. and to join in the said Deed and execute the same. and so we get small sums standing in different names. from time to time. Professor Hardie. R. and legal way. Kenyon. as Trustees. and that the persons named therein be authorized to make the declarations of trust therein contained. G. legal language. E. W. Baynes. — Resolution : That the Trust Deed. The resolution was then put to the Meeting and carried. and for the purposes of identification signed by the Secretaries. and Mr. the following motion was put " That the Trust Deed be approved and adopted. The object. Anderson. you merely putting will all that into not be surprised to hear. Page. Conway. now is the time. Mackail." The Chairman having read the Trust Deed. and to join in the said Deed and execute the same. Esq. in which the following took part members — Mr. the Finance Committee for the time being to invest the money. a draft of which is produced at this Meeting. S. and we could act without The Council authorized three members of Association was young. ' and J. W. and that Professor R. make a proposal If hold the funds of the Association in a formal any member wishes to ask a question or to in the matter. " We have now to consider the following W. seven pages. J. then.. Mackail. The Trustees will deal with this money under the authority of the Council of the Association. Mr. But we have changed the Treasurer and Finance Committee. proposed then that those whose names I have read to you shall. and very little in great the way formality." : . Mr. The Chairman. be approved and adopted by the Association.

as admirers The thoughts and Greek and Latin writers have woven we themselves into the fabric of our mental being of classical learning. I move that the invitation of the Council of the University of Sheffield be gratefully accepted. but if left to is January 6th and 7th. the Right Rev. It its The date suggested would be convenient. . HELLENISM AS A FORCE IN HISTORY We meet as and promoters lovers of classical literature.— PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 61 This was carried unanimously. the time were not settled definitely at this Meeting.30 a. I had in earlier years done my share of spade work. including art and archaeology with history and letters —as essential in some shape to the higher education. the Lord Bishop of Lincoln delivered his Presidential Address in the large Hall of King's College : " Let me begin by saying how highly I esteem the honour you did me by making me your President for the last twelve months. I accepted the honour with diffidence. both as a college tutor and as an editor of original and further. for I bethought me of the brilliant names that had in recent years been associated with this Yet there were some considerations which chair. served to lend colour to my acceptance of your invitation." The motion was carried unanimously.m. At 11. — veneration for classical studies in the wider sense. Sleeman made a statement with regard to the date place of the next General Meeting. —" I and have great pleasure in reporting that the Council of the University of Shefl&eld has extended an invitation to the Classical Association to hold next meeting at the University of Sheffield. I yield to none in my . provisionally however. however little claim I might documents have to speak with authority. Mr. fancies of the old . the discretion of the University.

Aeschylus and Euripides. : read and reflect upon European history. It is an act of temerity for me to attempt it at all. We may not be all of us inclined to make of are what we are. it may be worth while to reflect upon some obvious but sometimes forgotten facts of history. broad outline. First. But we do. the conviction grows stronger. Greek civilization it lives in nearly all that is most alive is not dead in our own land and day. to retain amid the around rises the maintenance of the classics in our educational system. must I attempt to argue this thesis. owed Very their origin directly or indirectly to Hellenism. We cannot understand modern Europe aright unless we are familiar with ancient Greece. assign importance to we cannot help finding the influence Greek studies of Greek culture everywhere in our Western civiliza: — in our architecture. controversial din which more than ever me secondly. in the highest sense.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 62 very largely. our science. . so life And permit any hold upon them at all. our literature. in our terms of art. I am not sure whether it will strike you as a paradox. But it is the duty laid upon each man who receives the high honour which I lay down to-day to deliver an Address briefly. and only in upon some subject connected with Classical and what better subject than mine ? And chosen it for two reasons. Thucydides and Aristotle and the rest. — — Greek a compulsory subject in school or in college. our tion religious life. if not all. or as a commonplace. because of Homer and Herodotus. I have favourite studies. it falls in with far as the distractions of my own a busy Studies. our social. the upheavals of thought and of religion. that some. of the great movements that have made that marvellous As I story. in our political.

Persian dominion to Hellas. not in the vague traditions handed down by postAlexandrian writers but in the surviving monuments in the . Relentless. what Hellenism is Hellenism ? began with Alexander the Great. was not content. But enduring literary monuments of the highest in- remarkable influences of Hellenism upon the life and belief of the Jews. the art. the Jews of the post-captivity period had thriven in numbers and in vigour. they had re-edited their ancient books. to drive back the Persian. — Now his vision. The Syrian Kings were bent upon Hellenizing the very varied races which terest reveal to us the came beneath their sway and whose exceeding variety made their Empire from the first highly precarious. came true more truly and more widely than he had dreamed. West. He annexed the whole and made one Empire of the East and West. with a national pride belonged just as much to religion as to which patriotism. the ideas of Greece. all the world from the Euphrates in the East to the Rhone . Among these. How far Hellenism reached the Indus I forbear to enquire the answer must be found. began more or less to mould and modify. The world did not remain under a single sway but the language of Greece. at the least to colour.PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 63 But. wherever they were scattered. . exclusive. and found in their Temple and their Law a bond which united all the members of their Church and Nation. — of India itself. That was his dream the dream of an idealist who had spent studious days with Aristotle and who slept with his Iliad under his pillow. like He a Themistocles or a Pausanias. to begin with. and is being found. in effect. highly organized. — No one can look at the portrait of Alexander without seeing in his features the visionary as well as the con- queror.

. But it was otherwise in Jerusalem.C. terms of equality and the middle wall of partition did not exist. was quite honestly trying to civilize and to him the unprogressive and humanity centred in Jerusalem but his good intentions provoked the Maccabean rising we know what romantic and important results ensued from that conflict. Antiochus Epiphanes. outcome of this in the earlier Wisdom Literature of the Old Testament. when kindly treated. and where the native in- habitants hugged closely to their hearts all the peculiar customs and fashions of their race. We have of Proverbs reveal this yet more. To the Jew of the Pharisaic type ters . And yet. had incorporated large numbers of Jews into the comso that Jew and Gentile lived on munity of citizens dispersion. like Alexander in the city to which he gave his name. had adopted much of Antiochus at Tarsus. There are parts of the book of Job Hellenize what seemed painfully oriental type of . v/ho appeared to pious Hebrew minds as a grotesque monster. as a horrible embodiment of satanic wickedness. both immediate and ultimate.64 THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION the Jews of Palestine offered a most difficult subject Of course the Jew of the for Hellenistic influence. though coercion failed. Few things tury B. Gentile custom and habits . the pervasive influence of Hellenism had begun to make its way. and We have the profoundly modified Jewish thought. of which the former belonged to the early part of the second cenAnd then we come to Philo. unmistakable proof of this contact in the apocryphal books of Ecclesiasticus and of Wisdom. : that can hardly be other than the reflections of powerful Jewish a some mind imbued already with Some of the earlier chap- tinge of Hellenic thinking. where Hellenizing Jews were few. are more interesting than this strange and beautiful development of Jewish Religion under stimulus of Greek philosophy.

and the businesslike genius of Rome was glad to adopt whatever Greece had letters to offer in aid of the practical arts of husbandry. and under the long centuries of the later Republic and the Empire. of land measuring. The Senatus consultum de Bacanalibus is one of the most old take life place precious of old Latin relics . we speak of the dominant culture as Graeco-Roman.' In time Greek became a well-known tongue in Italy. Hellenism triumphed. The homely and unimaginative religion of old Rome could offer no resistance to the invasion of the Greek cults. Greek and culture reached the Tiber. et artes intulit agresti Latio. But with this we are not now concerned. or chiefly in Roman with the new wine of Hellenism did not without some remarkable results. and then later from the Attalid Kingdom. It Christian Church obtained a Latin Bible. . the early Christianity of Rome was notoriously Greek in was only by degrees that the and this first North Africa. ' Graecia capta ferum victor em cepit. or of seafaring. though with far other results. it may help us also to understand how unable was the ruder Italian nation to adopt the gaieties and the enthusiasms of Greek religion without carrying its perilous licence to a pitch of abominable grossness.PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 65 this Hellenization was detestable. first from the Greek Colonies in Sicily and Magna Graecia. But the first contact of speech. Deity after deity of Greece was identified with the Italian gods of the home or the farm. Nevertheless. What Alexander had dreamed of the Roman Empire more 9 than fulfilled. and later. A similar story. and recognize the prevailing genius of the whole to be that of Hellenism. and the history and tragedy of later Judaism are to be read in the frantic endeavour to preserve the national life from alien contaminations. meets us in the contact of Hellenism with Rome.

presume. Many thousands more were equally familiar with Greek. of faith in Christ as the lates. It was in Alexandria. Saviour. and with whose forefathers had the Tarsian freedom from the Hebrew and from the LXX. that the Old Testament books were gradually rendered into Greek. has left us precious records of his own religious thinking. St. in the third and second centuries. There is no question of the strong impress of Hellenic thought and expression of the early Christian teachings Hellenistic Greek was the medium by which the Gospel was made known. the editing. in many thousands of Jews must have made Greek the language of religion as well as of trade. And St. It is with something of a shock of surprise that we find the beautiful formulae of the Johannine letters to be the .THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 66 But already we have reached an epoch in the history Hellenism was called to take a which place more exalted and commanding than before. The Four Gospels witness to this fact. moving further and further away from Pharisaic Judaism. to say in your name with what patriotic pride we note the brilliant part which our British scholars have played in the recovery. If Judaism had been thus Hellenized by degrees. and what Hellenistic Greek was we have at length discovered in the Greek of the papyri. quotes with equal does the rest of the New Testament. From that time of the world. the master spirit of the Church of the first century. Christianity was first presented and preached to the world in Hellenic guise. franchise. We him everywhere the Hellenist. and philososee in phising. Paul. and the consequences and implications of the doctrine of the Cross. and so Hebrew. and the explanation of papyri ? But I wish . as only a Hellenist could. Christianity was Hellenized from the first. commonplaces May I of the epistolary phrasing of the time. concerning the postu- the pre-suppositions. in passing. Paul.

It certainly saved all that was rescued of the beautiful things in this tottering civilization the fifth century. destroying two Christianity has been taunted with civilizations. hundred ways to the Hellenic medium through which it passed on its way to the modern world. the love of beauty. passed into the worship of the Church. Our very word for Creed (symbolum) is a word of Greek Indeed. of the oriental mj^stery-cults. Latinized. Christian teaching It adopted Greek assumed more than ever a philosophical method. essentially Greek and wholly in harmony with the spirit of Christ. of philosophy. but a little study of mediaeval history to make us aware of the chief movements that occupied the five centuries preceding the Renaissance. the sense of rhythm and When Greek Christianity became Roman genius for law and government fitness. marked the concrete institutions of the Church as it came to us . the developed the sense of order and spirit was enchained. over much. Three qualities in particular. The rhetoric of the schools found a noble and useful development in the preaching the Christian worship did not scruple of the Church to enrich itself by adopting the procession and the art and elegancies of Greek pagan ceremonial. Something. regained its We fitness. The inroads of the barbarians I think. from the north and the consequent collapse of the Empire gave opportunity and impulse to the Church to take over some of the beautiful elements of the Graecoearliest Christianity. our Christianity bears testimony in a origin. until shall see how it the Greek afterwards freedom. : the instinct of liberty. During It requires . of which historians have made. too. as transformed under Greek influences. because centuries the Church Roman culture.PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS to upon the lay stress 67 Hellenistic character of the in the fourth and fifth and the Gospel received a further impress from Hellenism.

and dates from 1200. THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 68 that period the language of Greece. was Western Europe. Grosseteste. was in all ways conspicuous. That is the first Renaissance. Western life and thought dwindled and decayed for lack of the unknown in Hellenic spirit.. Stranger persistently East. neglecting by monastic the Christianity of the popular education and routine. came however forgotten. or thereabouts. was an age also of much religious doubt and unbelief Christian complacency had been rudely shaken by It for . and although he spent too time upon such unauthentic books as the Testaments of the XII Patriarchs or Dionysius the Areopagite. and became an easy prey to the austere ferocity of Moslem of Hellenism invaders. It was an age prolific lation of great scholars. and repeatedly quotes him in his much of his letters. lost the peculiar virtues — freedom and speculative curiosity. would hardly be an exaggeration if we divided the mediaeval age into periods marked by the revivals of Greek influence. until the time to the West. The divorce between East and West was disastrous for both. still when they were rudely ransacked and by degrees were were there made known . if she had fallen asleep But over if these priceless treasures. He actually knew Greek. France and England. yet he had read the ethics of Aristotle in the original. as the learning and the speculations of the Moors invaded the Universities of Italy. among whom my great predecessor at Lincoln. the degenerate and monasticized Church of the East had profited little by her possession of the monuments of old Greek learning. yet those treasures. though still a living tongue in the Court and Empire of Constantinople. sterilized still. The first landmark was the recovery It of the philosophy of Aristotle through the Arabic trans- and Commentaries.

to John Claymond. dated about 1520 from London. which had done more than bring in a knowledge of Greek they had involved a sharp collision . It was.PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 69 the Crusades. the and had them always these renovating influences lost their power how the Church and religion of the West became more and more intensely Latin how Hellenism died and Scholasticism triumphed. who had gained their knowledge and Galen through has been noted as something of Aristotle. encouraged Dominican and Franciscan about him. It highly significant and strangely modern. How largely this movement depended on a study of Greek and what were the enlightened aims of its leaders we best apprehend from reading their actual lives and' words. first President of Corpus Christi College. and then adds He is learned in medicine but withal a good ' : Christian. the zephyr-breath of Greek learning came abroad and a new intellectual life was quickened which : : we call the Renaissance. again. We know how Friars. the physician. of medical writers and physicians. I copied it forty years ago. as well as simple Christian living. enthusiasm and high culture of Islam.' Hellenism in the thirteenth century was felt to be a dangerous and revolutionary as well as progressive influence. that the same great scholar. Then. with the fierce transmitted to the West by means of scientific enquirers. as a means of reviving simple Christian belief. when Giraldus Cambrensis writes to the Bishop of Hereford to recommend his friend Grosseteste to his notice. There is an autograph letter from Linacre. Hippocrates the Arabic revival. But especially was Greek Science found to be a solvent For Greek learning was usually of popular Christianity. Bishop Linacre had been coaching one of Claymond's undergraduates in Greek. perhaps. Grosseteste. Oxford. of which .

but observe a good deal as he goes forward. Towards the attainment of this our great aim their omission involves great loss of time. and by these enlightened studies whose nurseling you are I charge you. whereby he may dispel the mists which blinded him before. and " well begun and can acquire what remains to be learned without much pains. no one can be ranked as a scholar. not much more learned for my teaching. distinguished friend (praestantissine And now my ' Johannes). I followed this plan deliberately as the quickest in the end. will you waste any opportunity seeing that you. confident that this you will do. But even if it were the painfullest of tasks. . or are already nor direction.— — THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 70 the President as yet knew but pupil back to Corpus with little. to fulfil your purpose of making your College nothing less than a home since I cannot of Greek learning. (as I would rather believe) that you might search for is half done. nor your Students come over — leave College to be here you surely will best achieve by devoting yourself assiduously to Greek letters. whereas even a little acquaintance with them is sure to prove a great saving. this letter and he sends the : Linacre to the most worthy President. In fact I doing am . For I have given him a light to guide ' him. Which purpose to help you. but (I hope) more apt to learn and go on learning. and may now never lose his way. I exhort you again and again." . indeed most easily. you would be the last to demur for to what end have you spent your life in study ? Was it to become a scholar ? But without this knowOr was it ledge. greeting. in the teaching and drilling of others. since you have it is made a no very difficult in this feat for beginning. For these arts [of Grammar and Rhetoric] prepare the way for the reading of the Ancients and for more solid instruction. I send you back our joint pupil. in the shape of Grammar and Rhetoric.

'Tis true you have not. nor can have. nor the writer's simple joy in the newly discovered wonders. but you can adopt as sons the bright intellects you are to train in Greek letters. which was thus : ' Eurydice the alien reared this stone.' I have ventured to translate this quaint letter. Thus.— : PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS true learning everywhere ? But that. of whom us that she began her studies. Neither despair of it because you are advancing in years. Marcus Cato. If it was the discovery of Greek that created the Renaissance. She took her grammar-book. children of your own. I must confess. Plutarch Eurydice of Illyria. contained in these authentic originals. however. and bravely learned. as all 71 men know. that the old Scholar's grip of Greek prosody is inadequate. but venture to promise you that the task will be most is and can be achieved by very moderate go no further) you will spend a little time every day upon the clever nonsense [non ineptis ineptiis] of Lucian. She who with love of knowledge nobly burned To teach her sons. But I will not alarm you by the thought of slow progress. I am well aware ' — . when her sons were stalwart youths. studied Greek in pleasant stages. Like Plutarch I will close my discourse by quoting her epigram. tho' the having of children is held a benediction. well-nigh to manhood grown. Luther would never have been what he was but for the study of the New Testament in the original. as you know. if (to ' his old age. with courage and there tells is and with good effect. for you have famous examples to encourage you. although my poor English cannot convey to your ears the ultra-Ciceronianism of its style. it was to the same source that we must trace the springs of the Reformation Movement. Farewell.

religion. revolt against ecclesiastical tyranny or religious formalism will assert itself. as of the freedom of the against tradition and authority ultimately coalesced.— THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 72 that the Renaissance is one thing and the Reformation that humanism was not the Gospel. with the obedience of the law We is nothing. In other words Paulinism was awake and stirring again. conscience against the degenerate forms of religion presented by the Church. Paul. but the assertion of from the Magnificat onwards . and traditions of the Church on the other. and the Renaissance was an appeal to knowledge. yet these two tremendous forces. reached a crisis in the eighteenth century. But another Reformation was primarily a revolt of the the though . or it spontaneous. must be and may be confident that as long as St. to reason and to beauty. Paul the Hellenist was a champion of liberty. . moral freedom reaches its highest in the Epistles of St. Indeed the New Testament is a highly revolutionary book. wherever he is understood. they were both instant in their appeal to Scripture as against Erastianism on the one hand. St. Paul. Paul is read spirit as against . which closed abroad with the French Revolution and in England with a Religious and Political Revival. St. Can we trace either or both of these great movements in France and Certainly the Evangelical in England to Hellenism ? movement and the Methodist Revival were both grounded on an appeal to the experience of the human The later sixteenth soul as against the claims of ecclesiasticism . But the French Revolution was the train of that vast explosion fired in the last I think the answer must resort by the torch of Greece ? . and in union were irresistible. like two mighty rivers. and Both developments in England of rank Erastianism. and seventeenth centuries were a period of religious and political reaction abroad.

and the chief purveyors of these ideas were Rousseau and Voltaire. we are told.PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 73 That Revolution was the outcome of a long ferment of ideas. in his theories education. : ' It has all Plato's audacity of social speculation. that he novels. greatly on Locke. his con- tempt for existing institutions and habits of thought. and in particular it exhibits to the full Plato's essentially Greek conception of the Law-giver as almost omnipotent to mould and fashion the character and customs of a people.' which had such an immense influence upon European thought. Rousseau must have known some of Plato's dialogues. even in their ancient and palmy days. who had been bred up in Greek metaphysics. my first : the germ of those tremendous ideas which led to the French Revolution is to be sought in the writing of an Oxford Scholar. Locke and the Greeks ? One of Spence's anecdotes declares that young Locke soon came to detest the scholastic Aristotelianism which he found dominant at Oxford. and thus indirectly to the classical education which had nourished our English thinkers. and more than metaphysics. so that for a time he became a slack student of spending a great part of his earlier terms in reading It was from Descartes. But Rousseau. Both Rousseau and Voltaire owed very much to English influence. leans whose influence on French thought in the eighteenth century And what of can hardly be exaggerated. and had revolted from the sterile methods 10 . received later his impulse towards psychology and it suffices for I am content with this purpose to discover that the germ. be affirmative. It is said of Rousseau that he expressed in earlier life a severe contempt for the Greeks he even began to doubt whether such a nation of chatterers could have produced any solid But virtue. although only in translation. that it teems with Greek ideas. Lord Morley does not hesitate to say of the famous Discourse.

common to — —as the tionary period and others ' Classical ' with daring zeal. our great poets of the RevoluByron. Let It is me venture. and a powerful translator of Plato and of the Hymn to Hermes ? What of Keats. or more himself. of is broad human sympathy. There has been a sensible decline in the power of religion unbelief. Wordsworth. which defies the enquirer to ask how far any one group of ideas. fundamentally in its love of beauty and freedom. eyes to see. which marked the reaction against the so-called of the classical school Hellenic in its English poetry. upon the him. though less dogmatic traditional : . claim Who all loved Greece better than Byron. such as Pope and those that followed do not demur to this classification but all classification depends upon one's point of view. with their overwhelming and multitudinous complexity of literary and social influences. has a paramount claim to be regarded Yet assuredly. its hatred of affectation. ' I : principiiim divisionis. one step further. I perceive Hellenism a persuasive influence in the English society of the hour. than in Laodamia ? That very love of nature and of man as he is. for I hesitate to enter upon the last hundred years.^ And for our purpose it would be equally right to those Revolutionary poets and Romancists as being saturated with the essential qualities of Hellenism. who was entranced by Chapman's Homer and dreamed lovely dreams over an Attic vase ? Where is even Wordsworth more at his best. its pre- But I must stop. in contrast with the poets. ference for the open air.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 74 which obscured and degraded the great masters of thought. if I have any as the formative element. any one impulse. class Romancists. Was for her liberation ? who gave his life not Shelley an eager student Greek classics. Shelley. Coleridge.

ways the Nor can we life and fail art to perceive that in a hundred and thought ancient Hellas of have been brought nearer to English eyes and hearts than ever before. or steer safely at sight through a passage even of Lucian or Xenophon possibly fewer boys are adepts in Homer or Euripides but the excavation of ancient sites. it is only because they are typical of a great and growing influence that marks the English literature and art of our time. — What could be more Hellenic tics of ? I see also in the xlesthe- the hour a wonderful resemblance to ancient Greece. have combined to make us feel far more than before what the Greek meant by beauty of line and form. very sensible to the appeal of fitness and good taste. had those old Greek virtues of beauty and art. there was an equally Hellenic love of political freedom. the newly created science .PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS and more polite 75 than formerly. unconsciously. Hellenism has been infused anew into educated England. self-controlled. Perhaps fewer of our schoolboys can write good Iambics. music and in and poetry. Hellenic influences. the vastly increased opportunities of travel. If I name Walter Pater and John Addington Symonds as obvious repre: sentatives of this Hellenization. and what was the life of the old Greek peoples. and a sensible effect upon our national I could wish sometimes that our is having life. . : of archaeology. has a deep and wide minds and many of the best influence over the best Their ethics resemble the best side of old Epicureanism pleasant. and those untranslatable qualities rb fiirpiov and at8(6<i. 1 could wish also that where there is an Hellenic love of liberty of thought. and above all. characters. the fresh interest in Hellenic art. in architecture as well as in painting more care for rhythm. We do not rave about it like Benjamin Hay don when the Elgin Sculptures were a fresh wonder we breathe. highly sceptical.

your presence comes every two years. It is so with the Bible already. spirit We am I afraid.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 76 could wish further that in our popular religion the I vigorous and passionate mind —so rational — Paul of St. not a question of compulsory Greek. which glad to be able to give you a which do not. and affection of speak in the presence of some remarkable I ? human is a question of the world's progress Men will never outgrow enlightenment. ever be a force in human Hellenism will history. and we always hope of the classical spirit into the It has also been London. a recurring pleasure to thanks the disof to a vote propose be asked to Secretaries. in the case of most people. however. Classical Association to King's College. they desire (as they always will) and understand the feelings of the greatest and best that have lived before them. the need of help from the Greek thinkers. life And of the University of it is with particular pleasure that I do so to-day. But did this diminish the hold which it has hitherto of the had upon the conscience and dom and translators But of Christen- interpreters of Hellenic masterpieces. Perhaps one day. to you address get to that administrator scholar or tinguished modern you. of the classical very convenient. The Principal of King's College. . are glad to welcome you amongst us will infuse more . and practical itself Of one thing. or of it is It translation. of your courtesy the owing to me. the poets and thinkers of Greece will be known chiefly through translation. men am convinced I : and that wherever wherever to learn the thoughts are beginning seriously to think feel. We are us in our buildings. — "Ladies and Gentlemen: it is to one of my recurring welcome the pleasures. I think. home amongst but are. and withal so mystical could assert once again and work a splendid reformation. so long will the study Greeks and their literature be an essential part of the education of the world. show any great traces in their composition.

we may continue to use the term. The Greek Play Bishop. because he has given his life ungrudgingly to the work and we he has undertaken both at Manchester and afterwards feel that the classical studies in which he has engaged make him following his leading. work out from these inscriptions some conception of the life of a Hellenic city. a sort of third spirit which we may perhaps call the Roman commercial imperialism. Hicks will say that however great a scholar he may be. was exposed to a certain amount of criticism. sightly. he is more a scholar than a bishop. which asks always for the useful in every form and which sometimes appears before us as un- spirit. it which have built up modern And life — Hebraism these two combined together have very strong force in the world. I look back with intense pleasure to the time when. and we can point to the a bishop of unique characteristics transforming influence of Hellenism on the episcopal mind. stands English civilization . I tried to . because he was more of a scholar than a bishop. a and as useful as great ironworks. But we welcome him too because he combines the double function of scholar and ecclesiastic. if .VOTE OF THANKS 77 Perhaps most of us have at some time or another turned to of inscriptions which Dr. But I think. Against that double form of the Latin spirit I think we have to appeal to the combination of Hebraism and Hellenism. as distressing as some modern developments of imperial bureaucracy. that the Greek Play Bishop. or some of modern civilization. as powerful. I should only like to say one thing which and that not only a is. Now no one who knows Dr. help thinking that there for a very real fact in stands for the union of two great forces is And at the present time I cannot a tendency to throw together against one which is and Hellenism. Hicks has those great collections edited. but strongly. We do not want at the present moment to go into controversies in which we have indulged over the interest of compulsory Greek. of those other typical representatives or over the question of the respective merits of Latin and of Greek . because he is at the present time the best modern example of what in old days used to be called a Greek Play Bishop. humane that I believe we owe I feel very to the Greek spirit religion but also a living science. are making a made and them into alliance asserting itself with tremendous power. ladies and gentlemen. I think . as he was sometimes called.

I have been all therefore propose a vote of thanks to the Bishop of Lincoln for his Address to us to-day. Association. and a science which is dogmatic instead of free and it is as much in the cause of the freedom of the real scientific spirit which came into Europe with the Renaissance and Greek learning. of building up a religion which is not humane. of course. the Bishop of Lincoln. I do not question there have been a great number of detractors who speak continually and with very unpleasant voices. have then to ask you to-day to support the vote of thanks to your We President. under the influence of is spirit. and I am under a sure we are very glad to incur to-day another debt of gratitude to this eminent scholar. Yet only last week Lord Rosebery was speaking on Education. as well as by what he has told us of the power of Hellenic influence on modern life and civilization. charmed at the gracefulness of his diction and the poetic beauty of his style. And seems that we have fallen on bad days and that the cause of Hellenism is in rather a serious — way I believe we look back upon a considerable period of time. But on the other hand there is also championship of the cause. Heard. I confess the very delightful. we shall find that never was Hellenism a more vital power than it is at the present time. so far as I could. The whole classical world. will prevent have rather a remarkable instance of it from ever dying out. but in a large body of sympathisers. that I would always be the champion. I believe. for his brilliant Address. this. —" great honour that I have been asked I feel it a to second this vote of thanks to your President I owe it to the fact that I am here not merely as a and I think member of this ." Dr. many of whom we see here to-day there is a belief in the cause of Helif — lenism which. of the Hellenic spirit in English I life. and it was a great delight to me when I saw that he threw back a wistful eye upon the days of porridge . Some We years ago Lord Rosebery delivered an address at Glasgow. the Latin . not only in the persons of the productive scholars we have in the country. is great obligation to the Bishop of Lincoln . because I believe —though powers it title of his subj ect was to me extremely in history never finally expire.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 78 there great danger at the present time. as in the cause of humane religion. but as representative of the Classical Association of the North. which I cannot say was quite Hellenic.

the hearing of the Presidential Address. the fact that distinguished men I would say is due largely to are willing to be your Presidents. proposed. I shall sit at his feet and enjoy what I did not enjoy to-day. You Address I gave you. I attended Mercers' Hall last night I thought the this Association showed considerable signs of life But when members of when they thronged the supper table and enjoyed that extremely generous hospitality. I —" I are thank you for your great kind- much too kind over the simple assure you the pleasure is really mine am really once again a reader. I to feel I hear you have secured a very distinguished teacher and representative of the classics to be your President for the coming year . I my peace.VOTE OF THANKS 79 and classics. The Bishop op Lincoln. all last year. I have to propose a motion which happily needs for having been talking at educational meetings have taken a vow that this year I am going to hold is a motion to thank the Principal and Authori- This ties of this College for their fectly generous hospitality. I thought it was a remarkable . —" no advocacy ." The vote of thanks was carried by acclamation. ness and indulgence. and teacher of the classics of which we have been speaking the last day or two. really is partly in consequence of this Classical Association and other such influences which are really a power in the country. There you have a His willingness to reconsider matters convert. which he suspected provided a much sturdier race than we were getting under the present regime. please God. if I am we would per- believe the enterprising conductors of some modern journals." Mr. and to give what little leisure they have to making their learning and to giving the support of their distinguished position and eminence to a cause which undoubtedly does need support. Page. We were told this morning that the Classical Association had now become a national force and that . I have great pleasure in seconding the vote of thanks available to you. student. and if we would pay attention to those people who are always describing themselves as the average parent of the average boy. But apart from that. and I shall look forward to that day when next year. aware that the Classical Association. that the only hospitality which this Association would properly receive is that of being decently interred once and finally.

and I believe some of my friends thought it would be a good thing if a superannuated classical master could be kept there permanently as a specimen. Gardner — "Perhaps I may be allowed to add a word in regard to the Address to which I should feeling in find rather difficult not it to some way. and that the work we have to do is one of advantage to this nation. Kenyon. pressure of clerical duties compelled him to withdraw. And I think our meeting to-day here mid teeming London's central roar is a witness that we need and that we mean to keep alive. Hicks undertook to examine and report upon papers on Greek Inscriptions offered to it and it was a sad day for me as editor when he wrote that the increasing with him. we hope he will perhaps . I spent last night. There is one point I would like to mention. I do agree with him in his remark that he is very adequately remunerated for that hospitality by the admirable speeches which he has the opportunity of hearing. when I look at this audience I am certain the public schoolmisof existence Company gave I feel the . and that is." Professor P. a study of which we are not ashamed. because the Bishop has pressed the ideals which whole of our lives. much as we owe to the Principal of King's College for his ever kindly hospitality. and was the editor. because in old time I had the honour of working When The Hellenic Journal was first founded. I hardly dare to say in the greater leisure of a Bishop's palace.' THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 80 sign that a great City Company should a body like this was a thing strictly and object feel that the entertaining germane to their real purpose and was excessively valuable. but at all events in a more lofty position. testimony the Mercers' to us ' . try to express my so admirably ex- many of us have been urging the I may speak of this Address more Perhaps properly. For indeed the Address to which we have just listened is one for which anybody would be glad to propose a vote of thanks and it is one which ought to encourage us all to make the study of the classics a thing which shall become a real part of national life. Dr. we have listened. I . by the generosity of Dr. in the British Museum. and which we must push forward as far as we can. Now. But even if the classical schoolmaster is going to become extinct. tress is going to set the schoolmaster a great example in keeping alive the study of classics.

Even in more ideas. even more important. poetry. we the authorities of this College for giving all thank you and us this convenient opportunity for our gathering. At the Reformation religion went back from Rome to the Greek Testament. Mackail said would have been almost completely true. Roman represent I civilization far was so much upset and torical notions upside on their head. : progress is. but still it ally the head. 11 — . poetry and elsewhere. because although the spirit of conservatism is of immense importance to us." Headlam. what we find in America. think that in the fourteeth century what Mr. — " Principal. and that we should not have. and for enabling us to meet in London under such pleasant and helpful auspices. in religion. do spring from fresh imbibing of the spirit of Greece and therefore it is extremely important that the two languages should be kept together. At the Renaissance learning. does continue in a very interesting way. alike in art. Page that I am amply re- the centre of Dr. as he pointed out. and progress Greece and almost all our great movements. there was a great admixture of Teutonic and other culture was Rome which was spiritually and intellectuBut I think all that was changed. Mackail laid emphasis on the fact that we in England Greek. to see how they would look standing was unable to speak. Greek comparatively rarely taught. I . I beg to second the motion. Mackail. And now of course I cannot speak in the way of controversy but the Bishop has supplemented in a most admirable way what was said by Mr. that in those days had come to the Western nations mainly through Eome. Of course." The Bishop of Lincoln. That has all been set forth so admirably by the Bishop that I need not say a word more about it.VOTE OF THANKS resume his useful work who were as those in that field. 81 The Address of the Bishop. I think. Greek is of the utmost value. that principles of whereas Rome repre- continuity and conservatism. present yesterday know. philosophy. recent times sents the it is true. except that I agree entirely with Mr. " I do not think it is necessary to say anything. and confirms what came out in the important discussion which we had in regard to the teaching of Mr. At the time fully occupied in turning all my his- down. art went back to Greece. that I more than Greek. yet the spirit of life and of represents the principles of life .

and aim at producing not always successful. laying the foundation for a of careful pronunciation." Miss Mason. the teachers in the schools. G. The subject needs ventilation. My view is a correct a very real one to the pupil that the difficulty is it ' quanti- — but we with varying. there is in this respect a confusing divergence of theory and practice in the schools." brought forward a resolution : " That the marking of hidden quantities in grammars for use in schools is not desirable. And to begin. where. was it laid down that ' in texts of Latin authors for the use of beginners the quantity of long vowels should be marked. caused by the as a whole. I should like to remind the Association of pronouncement on this question in January 1906. in the Eeport of the Committee on the Spelling and Printing of its Latin Texts. some degree of uniformity has been attained.— THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 82 paid in having the opportunity of listening to such admirable papers On . and strong opinions are being formed attention as to the desirability or undesirability of marking these hidden quantities. it me you seems to January 9th the Association met the afternoon of Lecture Theatre of give us gold for our brass. that. it is absolutely in Latin pronunciation. least is being increasing tendency among upon us a recognition of the results of research in nice philological writers of school books to force points. results. the question from the standpoint one which of the treatment of hidden quantities is For while necessary should be faced. when Miss L. so I feel that we should not unduly hesitate to lay before the Classical Association some statement of the added difficulty. —" I in the King's College. As it is. then. in fact. and so great already that we . and the confusion that is already being caused by the introduction of this practice. It is arousing considerable among teachers. or at aimed at. except in Certainly tative ' the syllables where they would also belong by position J' difficulty pronunciation is of acquiring admit its necessity. Mason am moving texts and this resolution because I feel of the practical teacher. that the responsible task correct and upon falls us.

just as in my opinion the I repeat. Hence. this period.HIDDEN QUANTITIES should take no steps to add to it in schools. my own to speak briefly of presume it. purely for the sake of the there begins a distinct tendency for correct pro- nunciation to lag behind the understanding of words. such results are aimed at as will justify carious existence. learn the word form is — — ' ' . where naturally the work where new words oral. time can now be given to the assimilation of new words Less —reading becomes more rapid. He has too at his disposal. and I will not differ greatly from that of many other teachers and only one of especially perhaps in those schools where Latin many minimum other subjects. the meaning even of the word of unfamiliar remembered far more easily by the child than is its quantity. the pupil of the first year should not go far astray in his quantities. I In the this question is first pre- it is especially to one of importance. during their first year of more or less artificial Latin. are carefully chiefly is considered. becomes after the first year the difficulty greater. is I wish. fairly correct. dramatically or otherwise. origin. 83 experience in this matter. the child can show considerable ingenuity in procuring variety for itself. and probably Even during are. to him an arbitrary and tiresome convention. public-schoolboy should never go far astray in much time But his. and assimilated. for reasoning whole process of ' intelligent guessing ' becomes a real factor in the work. since we cannot afiord to stop and hammer home these easily apprehended words quantities. its particularly wish to call your attention to this class of school because I think that them that of time and where. on the whole. the quantities of the thousand or so of words thus acquired should be. however. For instance to take a very simple example I suppose most pupils. and I think we are bound to admit that the two things are grasped with an unequal degree of certainty. if I may be allowed. it. the meaning of new words is grasped more from analogy comes into play. where the (between two and three hours a week) is given to nevertheless. repeated. while there has already to begin the eternal warfare against the ' mensa longa ' nominative of most mysterious But. year of Latin. and the readily. Moreover.

and on her Last term one of pupils. and was prepared to say it. it is quite possible for simplified Livy. I think it must be agreed. in this own. The false quantities were truly appalling. And— apart from Coronation why we should find it necessary there is no particular reason once meeting the word again. good and worthy little person who had learnt Latin for two years. fluent and vigorous. the teacher in the constant and that few can boast that at the end of our four or five years' course our pupils are as accurate in this respect as We hear. while I a child forget the ! resurrected it as regina. The recitation was good. year — But.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 84 Then regina. several books them to read a book of and some Ovid without of Caesar. except in the case of the words with which she was thoroughly familiar. During that period her class had learnt a chapter of Livy from a book with unmarked quantities. alas who have have never known any time. I regina at meaning of have known many. the Universities. But the practice of marking the lengths of these hidden . when the pupil is come must comes as it concentrating his energies upon reading a piece of Latin intelligently or upon framing a Latin sentence the trouble becomes still more marked. was away from school for three weeks. that made upon are correction of mistakes. and pupil and teacher have to make a very When the time — — resolute stand against the my common foe. then. for all that. a return she told me. for the texts with quantities unmarked sooner or later. but it renders the difficulty none the less refer offer real. with the first syllable short. to use the word. troubled sea of quantitative doubt and un- certainty the hidden quantity has hitherto been a welcome island of refuge to the child. even in our attempts at conversation. are by no means satisfied with our efforts in this They know best whether they are satisfied with the direction. To this mistake to the influence of the English accent may an explanation. that wish. She told me afterwards that she had forgotten all about quantities. shyly proud. results of their Now. that considerable demands are made upon the great demands pupils in acquiring correct quantities. we could too. that she had learnt it too. and especially the newer ones.

or Dr. and still others where apparently only those words are marked which the author has found to be universally mispronounced. of which thirteen were marked. and missum Infelix . All he has to assist him is his imperfect recollections of what he said almost mechanically on former occasions. infelix and mitto . proportion to the benefits gained. and even in find a divergence of practice that and make darken counsel confusion worse confounded. Now not this does mean merely that the lengths of the vowels in these twenty-six and thirteen words have to be known and remembered. all In one of the longer chapters of Caesar. adulescens. .' others in which. It text. proficlscor . found 113 words in which occurred syllables containing hidden Of these twenty-six were marked long. then fessor Postgate's Latin Primer. and posco trdxi and trdxi posco . in which hidden quantities are marked concerning whose length there is obviously all a difference of opinion. quantities. But there yet another difficulty. again. and mitto with missum dignus and dignus. we ' ' have marked as long vowels in whatever position whose length is certainly known. Rouse's edition War in Blackie's Latin texts. . In another chapter there were forty-seven. or — whether it be ProLimen. too. say the authors. except where they are also long by position. when prompted thereto by his elementary marked pronounced. that the pupil who presently reads from the unmarked text will consult his dictionary for guidance in vain. or one of the editions which the hidden quantity is not marked the pupil has to choose between ignosco and ignosco and Ignosco proficiscor and of the Gallic — in .HIDDEN QUANTITIES quantities which and is out of I is 85 becoming prevalent is changing all this an additional burden upon the pupils placing. According to the book he is using. In my own school I have actually in use books in which vowels long by nature are marked.' others. taken at random. I believe. but doubt and uncertainty have been introduced into the whole range of this class of words before unhesitatingly must be remembered. adulescens or adulescens. is of opinion as to these elementary books cannot fail to There what hidden quantities we great diversity is are long.

Supposing. of the left to Scientiam mihi reservavi girl no normal child 'tis true. then. with an incomplete knowledge exact possibilities of pronunciation — as he will leave school with an incomplete knowledge of most other things. and to pronounce as long the vowels which should indeed be short. try the long. what practical advice has been offered to the teacher on the subject ? I have mentioned the resolution of the Classical Association in the Eeport of 1906. the pronunciation of I the long vowel in hidden quantities I have found a marked tendency for the pupil to go to extremes. and there I would be content to leave him. Let me point out too. and that the teacher should not be compelled against his better judgment to impose this extra burden upon his pupils. I believe ingenious the child will strive to protect himself in his usual way by some such unformulated mind rule in his as. we could agree to do away with this marking of hidden quantities. ' Where in doubt. Other than the statements in the prefaces of these grammars and texts (all with acknowledgments to Professors Hale and Buck). we find that he sums up his Pronounce to As these hidden quantities Quantities thus Hidden on remarks ' : . published in 1909. But he will probably have learnt through questions that have arisen by the way. unwillingly. that the omission of the marking of these quantities does not prevent a teacher with strong views — on the subject from teaching them if he so desire however much we may regret his decision whereas if they are marked the teacher is no longer a free agent.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 86 Where have allowed. that his knowledge is limited in this respect. It is from this kindly — tyranny we wish to be freed. have had occasion to protest more than once against the use of consul as an English word. Turning to the valuable little book of Professor Postgate.^ not a mere slip of I the tongue. How Latin. to allow the pupil to continue to use the — and method of pronunciation pronounce them any other way if ' short ' with Cicero : The boy or ' ' himself — and — what then will to say ? leaving school after a few years of studying Latin will leave school. In bringing forward this motion I am advocating that the pupil should not be troubled with this nicety of pronunciation.

And I contend that on his trying to pronounce these vowels with their of the pupil it is insisting proper length. 707. repeat in conclusion that. A we 87 can afford to And been further determined. The basis on which a general agreement was sought at present the and for a time obtained was the ignoring of what the Board of Education's Circular (No. in two senses. in this respect. and ' hidden ' — the ' hidden quantities they are. A new kind of chaos in the pronunciation of Latin has arisen in connexion with the question of hidden quantities." Professor Sonnenschein. we that. we have to think. as his reason for so doing. is that afforded us by Dr. we shall create even more inexactitude in pronunciation than involved is is now the case— that the error in pronunciation a less evil than the state of indecision and confusion and so likely to ensue. I — indefinitely. it am I afraid that perhaps I have been almost too moderate my in stating case. while I I will quite realize that the task of determining the lengths of the hidden quantities must and that the matter yet by is fall upon the scholar and the expert. ' (1) as they because . so that as matters stand Classical Association can no longer claim to have introduced a uniform system of pronunciation into our schools. in our anxiety to reach perfection shall be in from our goal. that imposed too great a burden upon the pupil. Bruhn of the Goethe Gymnasium at Frankfurt. danger of getting still farther — " I second this motion because seems to me that the facts to which Miss Mason has called our attention show that some action on the part of the Classical it Association is necessary in view of the state of things which has arisen since the adoption of the report of the Committee on the Spelling and Printing of Latin Texts in 1906. and based upon practical experience. striking piece of evidence testifying against this practice.' are content to do this. teachers wait until they have urge.HIDDEN QUANTITIES do not affect the scansion of syllables. one of academic interest to the teacher. March 1909) calls ' certain un- important or debatable points which hardly affect ordinary usage. declaring. In his later editions of his Latin Grammar he has given up the marking of hidden quantities.' and of these the chief is the quantity of vowels in syllables which are long by position are called .

the great mass avidity. Mr. It has been a curse to.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 88 they are thrown into the shade by the consonants which follow them. every real scholar knows that there are extremely few things which we really knotv about hidden quantities. in my opinion. Butcher when he moved the adoption of the Report of the Pronunciation Committee at Manchester in October 1906. infirmity. (2) because in some cases we have no evidence as to their length or shortness. of great importance. Professor Housman. so that authorities differ as to whether they were long or short. of I what the books tell being theory. and in some cases the evidence is conflicting. in their opinion. and his warning He says there is a party is. and There as are. touching questions controversial knows. sympathy with their main contention. Dr. essentials. That these hidden quantities were deliberately excluded shown not only by the Report of the Spelling Committee. The Committee have gone as science : ' far as they thought possible in reconciling the claims of science and of practice. RoiJse and Mr. demands sometimes made by learned are too rigorous for human demands which Though he has no scholars. Of course. fitted for school teaching. referred to by Miss Mason. year a letter from a distinguished classical professor at Harvard. everybody These they have set aside. Winbolt. In their scheme." he says. but also by the speech of Mr." I. Butcher said niceties and subtleties of pronunciation are not. Professor Conway. America who in insist that it was a mistake to give up the It is a reaction against the excessive English pronunciation. which was signed by Professor Postgate as Chairman. so that they do not afiect the rhythm of verse or prose. In practice we must be content with what is approximately right. but I spare you. "to be very slow in adopting in schools the teaching of hidden quantity. " I adjure you. therefore. too. from view in 1906 is After drawing a distinction between the question of philological The and the question of practice. Latin I received this many difficult pronunciation. they distinguish between points which they consider to be primary and those they would lay stress on the which they regard as secondary . and constantly shifting. could enlarge on this. will spare the . It is just the sort of thing that half-educated teachers seize upon with and it adds a serious burden to a boy's work. us in this country.

Some writers of school books. I am in favour of adhering to the concordat of Personally 1906. however. having added my word 89 Had of warning. accustomed to ignore a large Some action. that the pupil. in which hidden quantities are contained (the four principal parts of a verb being counted as only one word. then. which (2) arise : And (1) I the from the attempt to teach the theoretical or scientific difficulties which stand in the way of any final agreement at the present time as to the quantity of some of these vowels .HIDDEN QUANTITIES Association. but have plunged in much different varieties of practice being represented We may now be said to be divided into three camps (1) those who ignore hidden quantities (2) those who mark hidden quantities in texts (disagreeing among themselves as to the length or shortness of some of these vowels) who mark and reproduce them in pronunciation (3) those hidden quantities in texts. . There are over 4. defendere. and that thus the really important distinction between He who mater and pater is thrown into the rubbish heap. is tempted to ignore all of them. not including compounds.g. on the part of the Classical Association is called for in order to restore uniformity of practice. I am inclined to think from what some school : . 46. dejensum). have not been content to abide deeper. that the marking of hidden quantities in as the case of one large group of words leads to a definitely false it pronunciation. wish to bring forward three reasons for that course difficulties of practice hidden quantities . (3) the fact. October 1906. it is common it practice . Proceedings. involves the evil number of the long marks which he sees in his texts. defendo. ^ 12 e. neither Mr. defendi. inspectors have told but surely me that this is a very For not a justifiable one. (1) Hidden quantities are no small order. by the concordat many among them. of 1906. Butcher nor myself would have assented to the adoption of the Report. for which there is no justification in scientific philology. p. marks everything marks nothing. . but calmly ignore them in actual pronunciation.'^ it not been for a general understanding on that occasion that hidden quantities should not be insisted upon. seems to me.000 words.

Vohale in . rego. 8). from the Perfect It e.g. the principal parts of verbs that seem to me seriously to increase the is especially hidden quanthe difficulty of for as to the quantity of the vowels of the Perfects beginner each case has in X and the Supines in ct there is no uniformity In some verbs to be judged by itself (Hale-Buck. short in the Present. Perfect and Supine e. e. : fingo finxi fictum traho traxi tractum In others the vowel. differ as to the e. rexi. p. e. for the pupil would be a help to learning. lateinischen 1901). Weidmann. rex. Butcher's correspondent) and in at least one school in Germany (to which Miss Mason I admit. .g. though short in the Present tense. is — : quantity in the Perfect inspicio inspexi c) authorities : inspectum (Hale-Buck) inspexi (Marx) 1 Hulfsbuchlein fiir die Ausuprache der poaitionalangen Silben (Berlin. Perfect and Supine e..^ No doubt this list includes many rare words.g. difficulty.g. and Supine that the Present had a long tities In a few words. both coctum coxi but short in the Supine e. short in the Present.g. is long in the Perfect. the vowel. . long in the Present. long in both : In others the vowel.— —— — • THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 90 These figures are taken from the third edition of Anton Marx. referred). Lut it also includes many am I of the commonest words in the Latin language. so that not surprised to hear that the study of hidden quantities has been found a practical difficulty both in America (as indicated by Mr. but short in the Supine : dico dixi dictum duco duxi ductum In others (with stems ending in a voiceless guttural.g. coquo is also short in is long in the Perfect. the hidden quantity regem.g. but may in others it creates a rectum. rego rexi rectum tego texi tectum cingo cinxi cinctum In others the vowel. new naturally infer connexion with in e. § 18.

^ 3rd edition all points. mdgnus. of the anomalies. esset (from the verb meaning "to eat") has recently been shown to rest on no adequate evidence by VoUmer {Glotta. Marx himself made many changes nor are scholars in his agreed at the present day on For example. I (2) must the treat theoretical or the question very slightly. 113-16). signum. in some cases) of inscriptions. clear. : if the pupil asks for the reason he can only be referred to the evidence (scanty and conflicting. that of the findings of scholars at the present day will be upset in a few years. dignus. as based on a misinterpretation of the evidence of the plays of Plautus and other Old Latin writers it is abundantly book. Marx says that a vowel preceding e. for recent date. and quotes always long. on the other hand.g. pp.— HIDDEN QUANTITIES adlectum adlexi (Hale-Buck) adlicio 91 adlexi (Marx) flecto There are similar but facio To teach (Marx) flexum other classes of verbs egi actum feci factum pungo pupugi scribo scripsi scriptum cessi cessum but cedo the (Hale-Buck) difficulties in ago e. apart from that. flexi flexi this tangled first difficulties of pilnctum mass of facts to pupils struggling with Perfects and Supines would only distract Analogy breaks attention from the really important matters. then. which will involve the unlearning of pronuncia- tions now accepted.g. some of the results If difficulties of scientific time permitted I should attack which have been arrived at by Marx. the long vowel which was assumed in est. gn is . It is certain. down all And along the line. as Biicheler said in his preface to sifted. and the evidence has not been completely collected or some . and of the shape which the words have assumed in modern French. I. treats these vowels as short. . Italian and Spanish. that we but. Marx's are not yet able to determine with confidence the quantity of the vowel in the whole question is of all syllables long by position . saying that the inherited forms of the Romance ^ For instance. Priscian in support : Hale-Buck.

the consul. a compensatory lengthening due to the dropping of the consoin other words the vowel was not lengthened till the n was dropped. Finf and five (O. I —a maximum time. etc. translated by Strong and Stewart. just as happened in the English word five. 85). is no evidence that the pronunciation with the long vowel was considered preferable. the marking of a long vowel before ns and nj is The Romans did not pronounce Injdns positively misleading. is to teach an incorrect pronunciation which was never for the lengthening heard at any period of Roman speech and nasalising of the vowel in such words was of the nature of long vowel). pp. mdximus or mdximus. censor. confess it seems to me that at in Latin as finf a time like the present. . ' existed. which were heard at different stages in the history of the language.E. pronunciation is indicated by inscriptions. cesor.. infdns just as On is all wrong these grounds. if shall decide our aim is ? to reproduce the pronunciation of Romans. but finf which never existed. with what is. cosul. This is clearly the n was dropped. and there Quintilian that ." . too. To teach pupils to say infdns. and is explicitly recognized by modern authorities on pronunciation (Hale-Buck. 254-6 Niedermann. flf) nantal n . but Ijds. would be in English. Sommer. then..THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 93 languages prove shortness in the case of some of these words. which comes from a Germanic word with an n and a short vowel (something like the German word funf). Similarly infdns Roman pronunciations.g. p. dropped the n (which he omits to mention). § 18 Formenlehre. probably in different strata of society but there . . to say with one stratum mdgnus or with another mdgmis. a effort has to be minimum number made to of hours teachers and pupils are struggling new pronunciation throw a new stumbling-block in the path — it is unwise to of the learner. 30 and p. Laut-und Latin Grammar. consul. signum or signum (3) Who ? Finally. (with a nasalised shown very by the statement of is even some evidence that Cicero himself. etc. Handbuch der lat. Their inference is that e. to is a pronunciation both real but Ifds are periods different . are both real pronunciations. who tells us that the vowel was The real long. then. both pronunciations signum.' Are we. teach the belonging and when every of Latin in the when many to them. etc.

Professor Sonnenschein. although he knows the quoted without condemnaby position this old formula. It is a matter of great difficulty for the students. there was one thing that struck . gently. tion the old formula ' long facts. they have something to go upon and they have at any rate i . me in Miss Mason's complaint as a most serious matter. that can be attended to without excessive pressure the correct pronunciation can be pointed out on the student and without severe correction. of course. a small matter which. I think. and that was. forming It is a matter. potebat. . due to an old bad habit which ought to be got rid of. In fact. too. some authority. I But that is a have done so already as far as I have gone in rewriting a small Latin dictionary having now reached {apex). of all ages will say regebat. any more drudgery (though perhaps right habits than there is : and largely a matter of forming I do not think there less pleasure) in in forming wrong habits. and the habit can be gradually formed. ' . should be touched upon here. that although elementary books are marked with these quantities. boys and girls. the dictionaries are not. — " As 93 perpetrator-in-part of an elementary school-book where quantities called hidden are marked as far as they have been ascertained and fairly generally ' agreed upon. before them the possibility of surely correctness in quantities forming a right habit is a right habit against a wrong habit is and . There is. however. I leave for some one to deal with where myself than capable but with regard to the difficulties more mentioned by Miss Mason. and so there are no means of a later reference to matter that can be remedied. to master even such an elementary fact as of that c or a or Imperfect of the is long and I find people and I also presume that when they write their Imperfect of possum they would also pronounce it The difficulties (raised by Professor Sonnenschein). should himself. I ' think that have been brought against the marking of these quantities would be equally applicable to the marking of long quantities any kind. I should like to point out that if the teacher or pupil have before them these quantities marked.— HIDDEN QUANTITIES Professor Flamstead Walters. disagreement comes in. I feel it is me to say a few words many of the complaints necessary for in justification of our action. However. .

due to their ignoring them in they had begun with Greek. no good telling you have first ex- it is long. Now. absolute pain to me to hear anybody who professes to (It is know it is absolutely fatuous. they would have learnt Knossos and kept to it. regis ? And then for the difEerentiation of words. and also where there is a positive advantage. . is him anything about the quantity of the vowel itself. Greek .) .THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 94 be avoided long . he says portduisse if he sees portasse. Perfect Infinitive. then you can tell speak about the syllable intelligibly him the syllable in the verse plained that there itself is is but . Then again. according as it is short or long. as in such words as rex. — the learner comes on to Greek. scholars. Now. If you have quantity of the vowel itself left unmarked or marked as long. The who will talk of the discoveries at ignoring of such quantities Latin . and quantities telling I am helps us of opinion that this marking of the avoid to But it is no good when you don't it. if he has pronounced the word correctly. there are a few practical matters to which should I — draw the attention of teachers Why should you speak of the two participles of adnitor as adnixus and adnisus ? Why go from the one quantity to the other. and in the Greek yiyvwaKw he also recognizes his old friend nosco of Latin. he says portdsse. and not allow the fact that the % is long in both words to be put before the students. It reminds me of manv of my friends among the Greek archaeologists. as many people yesterday advised us to do. and then. of course. if is Gnossos or Knossos. Greek as well as Latin talk of nosco and yet you hear it over and over again. to compare Latin and Greek when like to : . thinks it is a difierent word altogether. or wonders what queer change has passed over the a. unless not any change in quantity of the vowel to attempt to do so would probably end in a confusion : of the true statement with the old false statement that the vowel was long by position. is it not an advantage to have esse and esse distinguished by the marking of the vowel ? It avoids a good deal of trouble when the learner comes into contact with esse and est he sees by the quantity at once that here is some difierence from his old friends esse and est. he recognizes his old friend mensis in /A^v. to take the contracted but coming to portdsse. your pupil that the syllable long.

If you pronounce the Latin uilla correctly. Canon Sloman. i. and gave up the business of quantities. and that the French sound still continues the Latin . when I first to tlieir began to read the 95 Greek New Testament — Testament. after all.I . Motion would add to the difficulties . tnsHs but if they have the quantity marked for them. Italian villa if you say villa. leave Latin and Greek and of your pupils come to Latin and have done their French before — they begin Latin but it does not affect my argument. but when they come to Latin they will call it. . they pronounce the Latin word properly. . So with the French ville. you think of suburban London. life many of these people. for instance. which are easily recognized if pronunciation Now me let Most French. coming word k^vctos. and thus see the real connexion between the words.— " of the pupil. They come across the characteristic French word triste. you see the difference and the likeness between the Latin and the modern languages and you can contrast sound. And similarly one might mention a number of words transliterated from Latin across the it was. but if I into Greek or from Greek into Latin. belle. HIDDEN QUANTITIES When the come students remember. if unaided. I will it dealing with 'hidden knew from habit." speak from the point of view When you are teaching boys or girls a new language there are plenty of difficulties But ' seems to me this you do not want to add to them. when they see and could point out a tall I. and perhaps proud. Perhaps they ' got tired. they Rev. uilla. as case if all the texts and all the would be the grammars that they used had . would be exceedingly interested. and I had not the slightest idea what had been told to pronounce the Latin word as census I should have had no difficulty. in a Roman inscription if they realized that the their old acquaintance the long Finally. is properly attended to. in the long run instead of diminishing them. but why they did not go further and do it for all vowels I cannot say. even those who have not advanced very far in Latin and Greek. I think. it tall / represented will hardly be called a vain imagination to suppose that the Greeks themselves had begun this system of marking what we call hidden quantities they actually took the trouble to invent two new letters to mark the e and o when they were long. ville with In after bella.' which.

but in are. comes when they are not marked. which even a boy could learn in a few minutes. The enormous majority of them follow certain well-known definite rules. it is and it is not necessary to bring absolutely beside the it before us this afternoon Romans left out the n we should teach boys and girls the o short. a limited number of exceptional words. that by far the of removing the difficulty is to encourage the I way universal marking of these syllables. There absolutely The only are. fascens. future difficulty. of course. and so I speak with some and in order to remove difficulty of that kind. therefore. not pdscens. course. and objected to having the o marked long because Roman pronunciation n was left out. but there would be little difficulty in if learning the pronunciation of these correctly they were always before the boys' eyes from the beginning.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 96 The got these quantities marked. there is no boy one pronunciation than the before his eyes. let him teach pupils to leave out the n. And the number of such cases is small. What does that come to ? He wants us to introduce two mistakes instead of one. of proportion to the whole number they are exceedingly few. simplest .g. If greater difficulty in teaching a when other. A great deal has been said this afternoon with regard to the supposed difficulty of determining There which are hidden quantities and which are not. it is they were marked. tlie difficulties put forward by reader and the seconder of the paper arise from the fact that they are not marked. question to argue that because the to pronounce venture to think. it is in teaching him to say And you remove marked. One argument brought forward by the reader of . a few doubtful words. He took the word confidence in so saying . supposing e. alone. And Professor Sonnenschein's argument seems strained. all that you have got to do is exactly the reverse of what the motion asks us now to sanction. The old pronunciation of the o was long and therefore what possible objection can there be to the o being marked long ? If he wishes to be very correct. and not the leaving of them out. and about which there no difficulty difficulty is supposing that long vowels are marked. occupied in drawing up a list of have been lately I them. But that is a question that concerns him consul in ancient . because then he has got nothing to unlearn or relearn when he grows older.

Even when quantities are marked they are not always observed. and text correctly marked. So them were marked.HIDDEN QUANTITIES 97 the paper was that she examined a certain "passage of Caesar and found a very considerable number of vowels that were long according to the rules of hidden quantities." 13 should hope that ultimately further . especially girls. Seeing that the determination of certain hidden and considering the immense importance attaching just now to getting the most value we can out of the short time at the disposal of the children. Postgate. But that you want is simply to have the would seem the arguments brought all it forward for the carrying of this resolution should be precisely those that would influence us to vote against it. I hope this Association will not take so retrograde a step as to reintroduce when it is not removing a difficulty To remove the difficulty we want uniformity and correctly marked texts. I think the existing conditions lay a pretty heavy burden upon the young student and upon the teacher. !i It is an unpalatable task to advocate anything but the best." Miss Janet Case. I found it was a question of hidden quantities. I had been rather severe with her. Two or three years ago a teacher from one of me our secondary assumed she was making the transition from the old to the new. I regretted his sense of relative and on that occasion I took refuge behind Professor values. quantities is still in a rather fluid condition. But on the score of practical utility I feel inclined to support the motion before us. although I progress would be made. on which point the inspector schools asked for lessons in pronunciation. I cannot help feeling that the Classical Association would be well advised not to urge this further step in accuracy at this point. At this time when people are making a transition from the old pronvmciation to the new I find it is difiicult to get both teachers and pupils to realize the absolute necessity for accurate pronunciation within the limits advocated by the Classical Association : and considering this. And the greater the number demanding individual attention the incorrect pronunciation but only continuing it. I should deprecate adding this additional burden at the moment. — greater is the strain to secure the required accuracy. but only an inconsiderable is proportion of the fault of the text.

— " The point most in the minds of those present hardly accords with the motion before us.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 98 Professor Arnold. let them have their way. Having to take a class at the Summer School at Bangor. because the been laid on the hardship of forcing pupils to learn stress has which the hidden quantities are carefully fact that hidden quantities are marked pronunciation in attended But the to. because there are temporary difficulties Are you going to let naturally you hope of a correct pronunciation. or that they form part of examination questions. A motion to the effect that in examinations questions should not be asked about hidden quantities.' — and your book be quoted as an authority it be will deftly —whilst may it it contains a qualification which. You put it is different. " Professor Arnold has taken most of my words out of my mouth. one makes some if concession to the difficulties inherent in a transition period. If some people want it right. you something of my own experience in the last few months.' and having Nevertheless." Mr. in certain cases like to add — ' omitted. The resolution is of the nature of an argumentum ad hominem. They won't hurt you and I do not think it is in your power to hurt them. Frank Jones. that examiners should overlook irregularities of among pronunciation in this matter. me reasonable But that writers asked to refrain from doing a thing right seems to me going too comparatively unimportant In teaching far. I thought I would put my house I may perhaps be allowed to tell . But at the beginning marked by a horizontal stroke. for the details of one's in writing a textbook — ' Long vowels said that the stroke is way in the are you do not work are forgotten in a year or two. but at the same time do not let us lay it down that we prefer a thing to be done wrong than to be done right. — allow your personal feeling too much to influence your verdict. I would beseech you not to . irresistibly suggests to the reader that he should mispronounce certain words seems to me ? The whole matter of comparatively small importance . however be worded. in certain elementary textbooks by no means implies that they are forced upon pupils as a burden. would seem to and sufficient to meet the present be of textbooks should which is in itself a class is it difficulties. and that irregularities teachers should be held excusable.

experience do not I let us have often condemn the observance difficulties but when in doubt tells me with regard of to difficulties. hidden quantities. and he Another point is that it is quite unnecessary at once. who has a strong literary spirit himself. But my objection is one derived from experience I find the ablest teachers are those most . The present state of things is that. " I hope I may not seem too Philistine if I recommend the Association to adopt the resolution. I think this teaching of quantities by mathematical signs is by no means desirable it is like saying you must not take a walk unless Dr. will proceed naturally to the proper pronunciation of the genitive expect.— HIDDEN QUANTITIES 99 bring my pronunciation up toward what But when I got to Bangor I found I had overdone it and was considered. stops to ask. a purist. there are signposts on both sides of the way. He Why simply sees the sign. I small boys anything about the difficulty. so that the intelligent argument from analogy will lead to a mistake. by one or two of my colleagues. and who imparts that literary spirit. in the period of transition. But of the sort. . and always so pronounced o of 'pons . impatient of such restrictions. genitive of pons is but pontis ." Professor Dobson. in practice many of us do nothing And it is perfectly natural that we who have been brought up on the old pronunciation should have difficulties with the new which our young people do not experience. The boy may be fifteen or sixteen before it strikes him there fontem is any divergence between the vowel quantity in the two words. " It seems to me that the last speaker has given away the situation. hidden quantities. as the reasonable child would regis. But I now learn that the not pontis. It was argued just now that is — a child who has learnt the proper pronunciation of rex. is the majj ." — Heard. ask a boy of twelve or thirteen. because we. our pupils to observe niceties of pronunciation (such as the sounding of double consonants). not regis. that the teacher who really does put a love of the classics into his pupils. and reads it is A child never this long or short accordingly : it ? leaves no impression on the mind. with the long vowel. the o of always printed as short and always so pronounced. under this system. The to tell is always printed as long. I pretended I tried to it to be. although we exhort and in order.

audissem). would be a disastrous thing. insisting result and imagines that he has lengthened it. some less —some quite important. by position. Secondly. I believe we should weaken our cause it would be very unfortunate at present to add further difficulties so shortly after the time that we have if. we were to : asked schools to accept the new pronunciation. It is difficult enough to get the learner to make ordinary long vowels really long. and our cause at proposal all. and inexpedient to enforce the unimportant by upon all.. has been discarded by one of and so. my in the public would be carried out left alone. i'm-memor)y Mr. THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 100 who most impatient is of these things experience. We selves.' on the insist on his making sure of quantity ' simple principle separating of the consonants (con-stare. is First. I doubt whether any satisfactory would be achieved." Hardie. Accustomed to pronounce English. Dingwall said that he was decidedly in favour of the was allowed. which we have done our best to get introduced. I do not think — attention you and. Professor do not think seems to me I it believe it would help Miss Mason's that the only feasible one at present. portant or very doubtful. especially as it there was in favour of Professor Sonnenschein's statement that the o of consul He was pronounced long only when the n was omitted. even by its two strongest was considerable doubt as to the opponents. for two reasons. then. find schools impatient of the new pronunciation add another requirement. judging from : will find —that is. that vowels in a good many words pronunciation of Koman consonants. we have got division amongst our- schools an in efficient to hidden quantities way the thing would be : . there are important — " It I many kinds of hidden quantities {nosse. thought that there could be no cause for wonder if Latin . He will tend to this It is more important to still more with hidden quantities. It must be remembered that this new pronunciation. some unim- It is not easy to draw a line of demarcation. He thought that the comtwo followed by when pensatory lengthening of the a in 7ran-cri when it became Tracri motion. at a time when it is most important the largest schools that we should be united. he makes a change of quality in the sound.

therefore rex ought to ought to be pronounced pons. wherever this was known. implesse. From the first he had Professor to trouble held the opinion that right rendering of a quantity of the Latin vowels. New Latin Primer which saw the hght fifteen years before the Classical Association was founded. as in that of the vowel before gn but the amount of this disagreement has been greatly overrated by the opponents of the marking. and that this was quite inconsistent with the theory advanced by the opponents of the motion that. . culty in teaching the correct quantity in syllables it was as easy for the beginner to say actus as actus.HIDDEN QUANTITIES verse became neglected hearing that." provided this see any when diffi- wag was done from the beginning. but that many of its apparent anomalies were the direct results of simple laws. when assimilated to a breathed one. because regem was pronounced regem. Nor could he said to be "hidden. He would ples such cases as larua. such as g.'' Postgate said that he should not have ventured them with any observations at so late an hour if the references to himself in the course of the debate had not made some personal explanation inevitable. such as t. after 101 although pons was quite right to pronounce pontem as pontem. And was to be taught. pro- duced a compensatory breathing of the preceding vowel. the difference of quantity between coctus and tectus was explicable at once from the law of Latin phonetics by which a voiced consonant. It if it . The aid which the recognition of "hidden quantities" afforded the teacher in the removal of anomalies had already been pointed out by others. be pronounced it rex. then it ought also to be marked. It was quite true that there was disagreement about the markings of some of these quantities. word had been abbreviated of the hidden quantity to two like to add to their where an originally syllables made the regis. For example. impleuisse. and in some of the cases either pronunciation would have passed in Roman times. and in fact was admitted in such cases as rex. was an indispensable part of This opinion was expressed in the Latin pronunciation. mlluus. An accurate examination of the whole of the material would reveal the fact that *' hidden quantity " was not the chaos which it was alleged to be. exam- trisyllabic and where the weight pristine one unintelligible.

in fact. took up a definite line in regard to the marking of hidden quantities when it adopted the Report of the Committee on the and spelling of Latin texts (which. to admit that it was time that the preparation of a be done. such motion as the an incorrect pronunciation upon those teachers who knew and wished to employ the correct one. but I and no doubt a settlement has been brought nearer feel that it would be better to refrain from pronouncing an : opinion this afternoon. Rev. — " Would mover and seconder the be ready to accept. consider this question as one of the highest im- This view was embodied portance in the teaching of Latin. if —" think the proposer and I right to have their resolution they wish." — " Nothing which leads me to change has been said on the opposite side my opinion. with a practical difficulty. and he thought for this to little manual which the ascertained in facts were presented was a work which the Association might very fitly that Miss promote. will printing be reprinted and issued as one of the Association's pamphlets . but accept a proposal that the Council should be asked to nominate a small committee to deal with the question. he was against coercing those who did proposed contemplated. put to the meeting Miss Mason. I cannot but think that we should be wise as an Association to avoid taking a definite position either on one side or the other. did not. by and by. the motion have the (Dr. it The has been well ventilated. that teachers could afford to wait until in the sentence that to But he was prepared these quantities were finally determined. he Mason would not expressed the earnest hope press her resolution." Professor Sonnenschein. matter has been brought forward. opinion on the matter we — " It seems we are face to face and we if any The Association decline to pronounce stultify ourselves. How had been quoted from his pamphlet on Pronounce Latin. Finally.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 102 But while he strongly deprecated any attempt. Canon Sloman. My motion is based on the practical difficulties of the situation. the substitution of the previous question ? Following the views of the last speaker. for instance. to force He not wish to regard these quantities in their instruction." oflGicial The Chairman seconder of Kenyon).

" give an The Bishop of Lincoln occupied the chair. ship." The previous question was After the adjournment the Lecture address on " carried by 30 to 24. what he has to say. either to adhere to our former opinion of 1906. 103 We ought. —" should consider I it alter more wise to pass the previous question. on the other hand. and I have come with the greatest this subject. in introducing the Lecturer said work of Professor Haverfield is an example to us of the way in which classical life and learning may be made of real : " The help in teaching.— — ROMAN LONDON month in the course of the next or so). Canon Sloman. and The Greek." The Rev. then. I * non est me to lecture. when its life is nearly over and most of its members have departed. The Bishop of Lincoln. after I have been a little puzzled at the case now before busy days devoted to Greek and to Grammar." Haverfield prefaced his Address by explaining pleasure and curiosity to hear Professor the importance of archaeological matter to teachers. This Annual Meeting of the Classical Association. Roman. and the methods " It is of studying it : always hard to deal suitably with a death-bed repent- ance. for tea a large gathering assembled in Theatre to hear Professor Haveefield Roman London. to turn and remember ancient history and the Empire and English national confess. in which I personally have seen no reason to desire any change or. If it is thought that the appointment of a Committee would . It is not a question of scholar- but of expediency. has at last found time. to say so. that would light the position. and me. has once more ousted the : must the professions of interest in these fulfilled here on false pretences Roman It has not. but not on I have heard Professor Haverfield before. because I do not think the present moment is one that the question could with any great advantage be referred back to a Committee. I feel that I Romano cuiquam am locus hie' . throw any essentially new on the matter. if we have changed our mind on the subject. wholly subjects which it it antiquities. made when it asked seems.

The teachers in our uniand schools have clung to the linguistic system of classical education. it it as negligible. meaning for him. this point venture a few any rate show what I take to be the on Roman London. but necessary. Yet the study serious thing. to put it he must know the general who did what when baldly. The learner must reahze. a linguistic method. — its a direct value for historical teaching. but which practically have no concrete is indispensable. I believe. but every similar topic. the names of the chief actors.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 104 No doubt have and I both Greek and Grammar are important. . Teachers have tried to cure this linguistic taint in historical . after studies history as long ago I studied chemistry at school. but the improvement is as yet sporadic and un- has always treated versities systematic. adornment or philosophical interpretation as may suit the capacity of himself or his instructors. even where it is astray. The ordinary teaching of history must always centre round an abstract narrative. and have habitually ignored not only Roman London. it is I believe. it is Few things have so powerfuly helped the recent revolts against Greek and against Grammar revolts equally serious though quite distinct — — as the tendency to over-emphasize these subjects. sequence of events. too. possible to hold the balance between them. think The Certainly he a small subject. value to the teacher of history — I is a which every English will has It On any also. man or our national antiquities of It gives us facts or ideas of woman should know. young man or woman learns about things which may sound intelligible in the abstract. that not only possible. my in time taught both Greek and beUeve Grammar and But I History. with a parrot-knowledge of the names of minerals and gases. My own theme this evening by some history illustrated student classical may a corner of is Roman provincial of our national antiquities. This branch of teaching history The all. the positions he may add to this narrative so much literary of the chief scenes remarks which will at practical use of a lecture ' ' . It is an essential part of properly organized historical research in England. Some of them here and there have lately shown themselves better than their creed. but no real conception of iron or oxygen or any other important substance. But it He is.

— — . or we do any of twelve dozen similar things. J. Vieles The learner must get at the thing. 14 Evidence must be sought which. is perhaps possible in its good and well worth doing.' as another minor poet show how we show our pupils sets of mediaeval armour to explain what helm and hauberk and the rest of it were. Here he goes seriously wrong. confine ourselves to the illustration of comparatively simple objects ' things which We we can touch and see. realized that in education explain words we can only explain rhymer. has been done in real direction of late years. At present we I wish to carry the matter further. and which therefore need especial explanation by archaeology. we cannot words by things. I should like to mention a volume lately put forth by Dr. and the inner forces which cannot themselves be seen must be followed in the manifestations of their outward and visible signs. when it refers . But when the teacher comes to more complex ideas. It is just these abstract terms which are especially hard to grasp in full. Morris on Local this History and Antiquities. is this quite achieves what I own range of But not even want. of course. ROMAN LONDON 105 teaching by the use of archaeological illustrations. quote a German to combine quite good sense with : Erst das Beispiel fiihrt zum Licht Reden thut es nicht. The complex political administration or of social life activities of have to be studied by an inquiry into the groups of actual things which constitute them. but also certain parts of political philosophy demand archaeological treatment. to those abstract terms which sum up whole groups of human activities. he drops his archaeological illustration and falls back on the old attempt to explain words by words. E. a Roman order a model from Mainz and set it up to legionary looked in full accoutrements. says. Much. or not history only. before he can attach any meaning to the word. To put it briefly. which carries out such illustration as far and as ingeniously as This subjects. In particular. who seems If I to me extraordinarily bad poetry may They have by words . Both the nature and the interrelation of their component details must be made real to the learner by seeing the details actually at work.

the Universities of Edinburgh and Glasgow are close to the other. I was still in the primeval stage of being taught linguistically. The common man has recognized that readily enough. and from the linguistic racial problems. that a what frontier ' ' marked on the map by a red line some peculiar combination of dots and dashes. I had no I real idea knew. Let me instances. and beyond tactical close to a real frontier. and when and . The University of Durham. I was not in the least interested. of course. sites for forts.' I teaching of history I was like to learn nothing. which make up the complex institution would have assumed form and shape before me and have gained some not altogether unreal notion of at ' The frontier I ' should least one Such lessons might be dangerous on existing modern frontiers. the conveniences or otherwise of food-supplies. of the differences of frontiers. I should have ended with real different items and definite ideas. — one reaching from Tyne and the other from Forth to Clyde. Avith its Filiale in Newcastle-on-Tyne. of everything that gives printed letters ' frontier. with its two lines of defence. this evidence it refers to the past must be taken. not in single pieces. to it. and finally the history of the whole defence.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 106 we to the present. we call call archaeological economic. I Englishmen because he built a frontier wall from Tyne to Solway. I remember a history was long ago asked to learn about the emperor was told that Hadrian had a special interest for take a couple of lesson which I Hadrian. the it. the wall was or what was a it did. is close to the one. the to Solway — . of its military and economic division of territory or a green line or Of all and that a ' ' between various kinds meaning and life to the eight knew nothing. Each summer numerous stray enthusiasts wander out over the ruins nearest to their homes and admire the scenery and along Britain. I did not understand even why I should be interested. it and pointed out to and me the nature of the peoples the strategic points which advantages of various specific the strength of the garrisons. But there is at least one ancient frontier which could be used by those who dwell near it the Roman frontier in North frontier. but in groups of connected items. frontier involves. But suppose suppose my I had been a learner teacher had taken me the geographical line chosen for living on my side of it needed defence.

and what. Perhaps if . under- stand what a town really it is To most young men and women. be made selves. by one instance. the troubles of houses. becomes alive. a more or less smoky. and an abstract term. pared and tested. the scenery is well 107 worth all admiration— and. Histories talk of Few towns. That is very pleasant. He has now a standard by which all frontier problems. comment vaguely on the greatness of the Romans. its street-planning. between whiffs of tobacco in moments of rest. what a great frontier system can mean for an empire. noisy. Sense has been given to a dead word. Only it is not business. will have learnt. Take another example. the masses of its unhappy poor often paper themes. could usually be done in a modern That. lively conglomeration and persons. details. finally. which the whole frontier defence rendered to the empire behind The man who has gone through this. That he can get best and surest by looking at actual remains of ancient towns and realizing through them the items life which in the past have gone to make up a let city. of contemporary It is really to be able to some gain examine — to the student — us say our town-system with some previous and unbiassed idea of what a town is.ROMAN LONDON Hadrian's Wall at least. can be com- He is ready not only for a school examination. its common churches and hospitals. what disasters and recoveries and rebuildings mark their history. age — its of its food-supply. but for the duties of a citizen. The problems of town life in any community of life and action and government. is. But problems often appear in a more intelligible form if studied apart from the complications and prejudices and selfinterest of the present day. what in themselves and what ' forts ' really were what the precise. The real student must not merely tramp open-mouthed along the wall he must study it— learning by seeing (not by hearing at second-hand) why it was laid out thus and : thus. and grasped the dominant it. actual dangers which they confronted. real — are too They can only by seeing and studying the things themdoubt. why forts stand here and not there. was the service their garrisons. no town without recourse to Greek or Latin or mediaeval antiquities. not even all learners at a University. words that signify nothing real. shops. enjoyable.' ' learners at school. which is otherwise so puzzling and yet so important. even the most modern.



Londoners were to study periods of London history, illustrated
by a careful understanding of its monuments, they would gain
a truer sense of the character of town-life in various ages of
English history, of the effects (as I hope to show) of English

geography on the development of a
of the causes

site like

London, perhaps even

which make London to-day a doomed and declining


It may be thought that this kind of work requires much time
and a favoured locality. I do not think it need take very much
time. The lessons may cost the teacher some labour to prepare,
but they themselves will not be so very long, and part of them
The rewill be field work, suited to so-called half-holidays.
But all
sources of the locality are a more serious problem.
over England, within reach of every University and school,
remains of one sort or another form the outward and visible
signs of institutions or tendencies or organizations which have
meant much and which still mean much to mankind. If one



not to be had, another

illustrations of


will be.

frontiers will


do not contend that

be everywhere as handy

as they are to the students of Edinburgh, Glasgow,

and New-

But other human
and other remains besides Roman. The great
need is to show, by the evidence not of words but of things, that
these abstract terms answer to and denote real and living human
If a pupil has learnt that by outward demonstration
in even one case, he will realize it more easily in others where
institutions will serve the


purpose as

well as frontiers,

such archaeological lessons

The following
The Lecturer



Roman London,



may be

an abstract



of the rest of the




pointed out that the evidence for a pre-


rate north of the


Thames, was quite

London was probably created by

merchants settling in a position of extraordinary geoadvantages, which united a first-rate harbour, an


important river-crossing, access to the continent, and access
The place grew large very early in the
to all southern Britain.
1 Arrangements
are being made to supply the members of the
Association at a later date with an illustrated text of the remaining
part of Professor Haverfield'a lecture, as printed in the Journal of

the Society for the







Roman period. The theory recently suggested in the "Victoria
History " of London and elsewhere, that the original Roman roads
crossed the


In any case, the


and missed London, as being
him unproven and improbroads must have been taken

at Westminster

quite unimportant, seemed to



through London (and not through Westminster) within a dozen
years of the



invasion of a.d. 43.



settlement Professor Haverfield took to be a small, unfortified
trading town occupying the eastern half of our " City," Cannon

Bank and the line of Walbrook
town spread westwards over
now vanished Fleet watercourse,

Street marking the southern, the

the western limit.


this the

Walbrook to Newgate and the
and became very large nearly half as large again as any
other Romano-British town, and larger than York and Colchester
rolled into one.
It was full of well-built houses and good mosaics,
while the works of art, marbles, bronzes, etc., found in it surpassed those of any other British site. The inhabitants were
apparently both Romanized and civiUzed. Of the native Celtic
language and culture there was no trace
even the bricklayer
used and wrote in Latin, as an inscribed tile showed. Though


the municipal status of the town was not recorded,

was obvious.



was a centre of the financial administration,
the seat of an imperial mint and the diocesan city of a Christian
and it also bore in later Roman times the honourable



" Augusta."




At an uncertain date probably late in its
by substantial walls, still a terror to
In the fifth century it was destroyed by the Saxons.



In that troubled age, indeed,
ceased for a while to matter.


splendid geographical position

There was, therefore, no continuity

Roman Londinium and English London. The Lecturer
added the observation that in the present day the geographical

advantages of London were once more ceasing to count, and he

wondered whether presently the

site of the English capital might
not be shifted to the north, and the English Government follow
the London newspapers, which were already beginning to set up
offices in Manchester.

The Bishop of Lincoln.

— " It


President of the Association should

becoming that the expiring

propose a hearty vote of
thanks to Professor Haverfield for his fascinating lecture, which



more than an hour. He has helped us to
was said Sir Roger de Coverley did that he
made a beautiful end. We have made a beautiful close to our
Meeting this year, and shall not soon forget the brilliancy of
the lecture we have heard. Professor Haverfield has redeemed
London from the reputation of being inferior to other Roman
centres of civilization. He has done more
he has redeemed
classical students from all reproach of being rather dull and dryas-dust people, for he has not only shown us a most scientific
method of investigation, he has been not only a lucid exhas charmed us
do what I think




ponent of

effective researches,

tion of brilliant

but also there has been a

humour from end


to end of his Address




one wish that there had been time to write down all the
delightful sayings which he brought forth on the spur of the




a hearty vote of thanks for the pleasure and

he has given to us."

Mr. Philip Norman.


— "Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen,

proud to be asked on

second the vote of

this occasion to

thanks to the distinguished lecturer who has addressed us. He
who has such a profound knowledge of Roman Britain has come,
nevertheless, with

Roman London


of a fresh


to the study of

from a detached point of
view and he has told us many highly stimulating and suggestive
When London is compared with Trier we must bear in
mind that London too has been an important city from very early
he has looked at






has been destroyed and rebuilt again and again, the


old buildings being used as a quarry



early remains

been largely obliterated.
extremely suggestive


taken up.






indeed the traces of

What he

but that


said about interments


considerable difficulty in dealing with a



the nucleus.

early date

get at the truth, not to ride a

reasons on which



a study I have not specially


wall, I confess I rather belong to the party

to get

of London
As to the Roman

swampy ground immediately south

on an area of which Southwark
assign to

it is diflficult

Roman London have






base the idea of




inclined to

only wish

to death.

being early




of the

the fact

which could easily be quarried in the
neighbourhood of Maidstone, taken down the Medway and brought




of stone

up the Thames






and that you never see traces of re-used material.
same style
and whereas in a

built precisely in the

many Roman


walls of which one finds remains there are

you never find this feature in the Roman
At the same time there is great difficulty in
regard to the question of interments
and as Professor Haverfield says, I think we shall need to have further light thrown
upon this point, for it is a very important question indeed. Once
pieces of re-used stone,

Wall of London.


again I repeat that I

The vote


of thanks

highly pleased to second this resolution."

was carried by acclamation.

The thanks of the Association are due to Dr.
permission to use the rooms of King's College for





and to Professor Flamstead Walters and Mr. Walter Smith,
Secretary of the College, for their assistance in organizing the

General Meeting.

. . The President's Address Address by Professor Haverfield ..—ACTA Alteration of Rule Balance Sheet Approved 58-60 .. 61 60-61 Report of Council 48-51 Treasurer's Report 51-53 Votes of Thanks To To To To To To : .— COMMUNICATIONS AND DISCUSSIONS PAGE Discussions : On Greek as an Alternative Subject to Latin On the Marking of Hidden Quantities . . the President Professor Haverfield 76-79 109-111 Miss Lorimer 11-13 Professor Gilbert Murray 45-46 the Mercers' Company 46-47 the Authorities op King's College 79-82 112 . . . 53 . .INDEX TO THE PROCEEDINGS A. Address by Miss Lorimer 13-35 82-103 61-76 103-109 1-11 Address by Professor Gilbert Murray . .. 35-45 B. . . ... Election of Officers and Council 53-58 Place and Date op next General Meeting Trust Deed Approved .





Adam, Mrs.
Anderson, W.

C. F.

Prof. E. V.

Baynes, N. H.






Prof. R.

Case, Miss


J. E.

Caspari,M. O. B.

Dingwall, W.


Prof. J. F.





Prof. E. A.


Prof. P.


Rev. A. S.



W. R.

Harrison, Miss


J. E.

Prof. F.


Rev. Dr. A.





Rev. Dr.


Jex-Blake, Miss K.
Jones, Fr.


Dr. F. G.


Prof. R.







Esq., and

Esq., as Trustees of the Classical



the ninth day of January



One thou-


sand nine hundred and twelve



University of Manchester of the







GEORGE KENYON of the British Museum London Esquire
JOHN WILLIAM MACKAIL of 6 Pembroke Gardens
Kensington in the County of London Esquire of the second





MACKAIL of the third part WHEREAS the Classical



" the

Association ")


formed in or about the year One thousand nine hundred and
four and is governed by rules a copy of which is set out in
the First Schedule




in or about

the month of December One thousand nine hundred and
nine the copyrights and goodwill in the two periodical publications known respectively as " The Classical Quarterly " and

Review " were purchased from Alfred Triibsum of Three hundred pounds by Samuel
Henry Butcher M.P. (since deceased) and the said Robert
Seymour Conway and they were registered as the proprietors
of the said copyrights and by an agreement dated the Third
day of December One thousand nine hundred and nine and
made between the said Alfred Triibner Nutt of the one part



ner Nutt for the


This First Schedule




of the Rules of the Classical Associa-

tion (see pp. 127-9).




and the said Samuel Henry Butcher and Robert Seymour
of the other part a certain covenant was entered
into by the said Alfred Triibner Nutt for the protection of


the copyrights so purchased as aforesaid
the said



as Trustees for


hundred pounds was money belonging
to the Association and the said copyrights were acquired
by the said Samuel Henry Butcher and Robert Seymour
of Three

and on behalf

of the Association


the several investments specified in the

Second Schedule

hereto are investments which were pur-


chased with moneys belonging to the Association




Three hundred pounds and
the moneys with which the said investments were purchased
the said


were and the moneys mentioned or referred to in the next
moneys which have arisen from voluntary

recital are all

subscriptions to the Association or the produce thereof and

which were and are respectively applicable for the general
purposes of the Association whether as capital or income

AND WHEREAS under directions duly given by the Council
of the Association (which Council is hereinafter called " the

Council ") the periodical preparation publication distribution and sale of " The Classical Quarterly " and " The
Classical Review " are managed by a Board called " The

Board " (hereinafter called " the Board ")
Members appointed by the Council two
of whom are so appointed on the nomination of the Oxford
Philological Society and the Cambridge Philological Society
respectively AND the Board has in its custody certain
Classical Journals

consisting of seven

moneys belonging to the Association that is to say the sum
of One hundred and fifty pounds on deposit with the Manchester Liverpool and District Banking Company and certain
moneys standing in the Current Account of the Board with the
same Bank AND WHEREAS the said Samuel Henry Butcher
died on the Twenty-ninth day of December One thousand
nine hundred and ten and since his death the copyrights of
the said publications and the investments specified in the
Second Schedule hereto have been transferred into the joint


of the said

Robert Seymour Conway Frederic George





Kenyon and John William Mackail



declarations stipulations


as Trustees for the Asso-

has been agreed that such

and provisions

shall be

made and

entered into with reference thereto and otherwise as are
hereinafter contained and a resolution of the Association
was duly passed on the ninth day of January One thousand
nine hundred and twelve approving of the terms hereof and

authorising the parties hereto to
trust as are hereinafter contained

and execute the same



make such

declarations of

to join in these presents


that in pursuance of the said agreement and

and in consideration of the premises they the said
Robert Seymour Conway Frederic George Kenyon and
John William Mackail do hereby declare that they and the
survivors and survivor of them and the executors or ad-


ministrators of such survivor or other the Trustees or Trustee
for the time being of these presents (all which persons are
hereinafter included in the expression " the Trustees " where

the context so admits) shall hold the copyrights of the
publications known as " The Classical Quarterly " and " The

Review " and


profits to arise

from the said

publications or otherwise in connection with the copyrights


also the said investments specified in the

Second Schedule

hereto and the income thereof and any other moneys or

property to be received or acquired by the Trustees for or

on behalf of the Association upon trust for the Association
and to be dealt with in all respects as the Council shall
determine and direct. And in the meantime and until and
subject to any other direction the Trustees shall hold the
same trust premises upon the trusts and with and subject
to the powers and provisions hereinafter contained that is
to say


As regards the two publications hereinbefore mentioned
any other publications which may be acquired
by the Trustees for or on behalf of the Association or which may

as regards

be handed over to them in accordance with a resolution of the
Council the Trustees shall permit the preparation publication


sale thereof to be

under the sole management

profits arising 2. The Trustees and each of them shall be respectively chargeable only for such moneys and property as they shall .DECLARATION OF TRUST 117 and control of the Board and may permit all proceeds income or therefrom to be received by the Board. of the Association to acquire or in the opinion of the Council will The Trustees may if they think fit receive any profits arising from any publication for the time being vested in them or the Association and any subscriptions contributions or donations to or for the Association and any such profits subscriptions contributions or donations so received may be used and applied by the Trustees in any manner in which money in the nature of 3. for tively without inquiry. 5. 6. The Trustees any time on the request shall at of the Council apply any part of the trust premises in the purchase of any publications which the Council may think fit in the interests any other manner which in tend to promote classical studies. PROVIDED ALWAYS AND DECLARED as follows :— IT IS HEREBY FURTHER The Trustees shall not nor shall any of them be responsible any acts of the Council or the Board or for any irregularity in the appointment of any Members thereof and acts purporting to be done by the Council or by the Board may be accepted by the Trustees as being done by the Council or the Board respec4. Any written statement signed by one of the Secretaries for the time being of the Association as to who are the Members of the Council or of the Board or as to who is the Treasurer of the Association or of the Board may be accepted by the Trustees as conclusive evidence as to the fact so stated and they may act on such statement without inquiry and notwithstanding any notice to the contrary. capital in their hands may be used or applied.

Signed sealed and delivered by the-j (Sd.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 118 respectively actually receive notwithstanding their respectively signing any receipt for the sake of conformity and shall respec- and responsible only for their own respective and defaults and not for those of any other Trustee nor of any banker broker or other person with whom or into whose hands any trust moneys or property shall be deposited or come nor for purchasing or lending on the security tively be answerable acts receipts omissions neglects of hereditaments with less than a marketable title nor for the any investments through their happen nor for any other loss unless the same shall own wilful default respectively. IN WITNESS whereof the said parties to these presents have hereunto set their hands and seals the day and year above first written.S. S. Professor of Greek.) R. The University of Manchester. The Statutory power new Trustees of appointing of these presents shall be vested in the Association and shall be exercised by Resolution in General Meeting but so that the person so appointed shall be elected by the General Meeting from one or more persons nominated by the Council provided nevertheless that a statement in writing signed by one of the Secretaries of the Association as to a resolution of the Association having been duly passed and as to the nomination of the Council having been duly made shall be conclusive as regards the surviving or continuing Trustees or Trustee and the Executors and Administrators of a last Surviving or Continuing Trustee. 7. And the Trustees and each of them may reimburse themselves or himself or pay and discharge out of the trust premises all expenses incurred in or about the insufficiency in title or deficiency in value of execution of the trusts or powers of these presents. Ronald Montagu Burrows. Conway above-named Robert Seymour /^ ^x J- Conway in the presence of J [ l. ) .

THE SECOND SCHEDULE ABOVE REFERRED TO £289 18 5 New Zealand £3 IO5. University College. . per cent. with the Chartered Bank of India. Signed sealed and delivered by the"j John William y' \ Mackail (Sd. and China.C. The University. W. stock. Birmingham.) above-named John William [ Mackail in the presence of J | LS 1 Edward Adolf Sonnenschein.DECLARATION OF TRUST Signed sealed and delivered by the] above-named Frederic George Kenyon in the presence of Max Otto Bismarck (Sd. £133 Great Western Railway Cash on deposit at £4 per cent. Professor of Classics. Company £4 per cent. Debenture Stock.) 119 Frederic G. stock. Kenyon I J Caspari. London. Reader in Ancient History.. per cent. Australia. £300 £100 India £3 10s.

. .R.?. Pronunciation of Latin. New Zealand 3|% Stock £300 India 3^% Stock £133 G...— THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 120 STATEMENT OF ACCOUNTS lieceiptfi. A Interest on Investments : £289 18*. .. 6. less 3r/. New South Wales C.374) .. 1908 (4) „ „ „ Libraries 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 (29) (165) (1.... £ Entrance-fees (94) Life Members (10) Subscriptions.W. 5d. sales advertising...115) (50) (8) (3)-(l... Odd Sums Donations . 5. South Australia C. .. Stock (half-year) £100 on Deposit Balance from 1910 at Chartered Bank .A. \d.. Co.v. 4% Deb.

.. etc.. 1911 (Signed) R.W. C.. 4% Deb. — 77 16 90 13 9 2 7 2 341 Investment in £133 G. Printing and Stationery 25 19 Postage 24 48 . £ s.... Hon. 7 d.... 15 10 8 15 Proceedings.. Years Work.. Council 4 17 £ s.. Liverpool Meeting Reporting.. to 18th. ... 1 Manchester 4 42 18 11 8 19 — Birmingham 8 d.R.. Stock Balance.. .. Co. 7 5 . Clerical assistance Railway Expenses of Members and Committees .. Bank Charges Accommodation of Council Grants to Branches of .. (1910) . v. . .. 5 15 . vol.. . vol.. Treasurer. . .. 16 9 149 19 89 8 8 £580 17 8 . ... .... 121 1911.... Expenditure. 15 .STATEMENT OF ACCOUNTS DECEMBER 18th. (1910) vii. Beaton.. DECEMBER 1910. Bombay Liverpool . December 18th.




D. LL. J. 125 .D..D.. Lord Curzon of Kedleston. M.S. D. VICE-PRESIDENTS The Right Hon..S....D.C...M. O.OFFICERS OF THE ASSOCIATION FOR 1912 PRESIDENT The Very Rev.. H. Conway. The Hon..S. LL.D.. The Right Hon..C.. G.C.. Finlay.S. Mr. D. F.D. The University.D.C. British Museum. Mackail. G. Esq.L. D. O. Sir R.G. Professor Robinson Ellis.D.D. G.C. the Earl of Halsbury.C. M. M. Lord Loreburn. LL.D. K.M.C. Kenyon. D.. Lord Justice Kennedy. D. S.D.. D. The Right Hon. G. Professor Gilbert Murray. D. K.. G. LL.D. The Right Hon. Ph. F. Chicago. H. Sir Archibald Geikie.. Bart.. LL. D. the Earl of Cromer. LL. G. LL.. LL... Lord Bishop of Oxford.P.. M.B.R. Justice Phillimore. D.C.C.B.L.. Master of Trinity College. The Right Hon. B.C... Oxford... Gardner Hale. Oxford..C.D.D.C. LL. Litt.S..G. Cambridge. D.L..L. The Right Hon. Litt.C. Professor R.A.I. LL.. K.. The Right Rev.C.D. LL.C. D.C. Lord High Chancellor. Charles Gore.L. Edward Lee Hicks..C. M. D. D.C. P..R. K.R. O.. LL. F..D..I. Professor W.D. Esq.C. Professor Henry Jackson.S.M.L.L.LE.A. Asquith... P. Viscount Morley of Blackburn.L. Manchester.L. Lord Bishop of Lincoln.D.R. The Right Hon. F. The Right Hon. The Right Rev.M. Cambridge.Litt.A.M.. W. Henry Montagu Butler.A.

Sir E. D. Master of Gonville and Sir J.. Reigate..L.. Esq. C.A. M. M. E.. Caius College. Flamstead Walters..A. B. E. P. The University. Miss A. Esq.C.A.A. D.. A.. W. Robertson.. Nottingham. Walters. HON. Seaton. Esq. C.C.D. C. Cambridge... W.. London. Esq.A. SECRETARIES J. Roberts. F. Poynter. Girton College.Litt. M.A. The University. University College.. C.. E. Professor B. H. D. COUNCIL Professor R. M. Birmingham. B.A. A. Paul's School. D. M.. High School for Girls.L. P. J..L. Oxford. Maunde Thompson. Caspari. Esq. M. M. M. Tunbridge. London.. Litt. M. Royal Hollo way College.. Connal. D.. Esq.A. Garnsky. Litt. Oxford.C.C. M. R.. Miss Jex-Blake. The University. LL. Esq. M.. Cardiff. President of the Royal Academy. Litt. The Rev.. D. The University.A. W. Leeds.Litt.. Slater..A. B. Representing the Classical Association of New E. P. University College. Liverpool.A.. South Wales . Professor F. President Magdalen College. King's College. Professor E. S. Eton College. British Museum.D. H. Professor D. Sanders.D.B. Litt.A. Liverpool.. Professor T. M. M. Sleeman.C.: : APPENDIX 126 Professor Edward J. Miss M. Esq.A. R.D. B... Liverpool. W.A.. Esq. M. A. Pantin.A. Herbert Warren. TREASURER R. Cambridge. Ramsay. Representing the Classical Association of South Australia Professor J. Sheffield. M.. St. D. E. Birmingham.A. Taylor.A. G... Sonnenschein. Macan. 0.D. Bart. Postqate. S. Trinity College. Professor W. Postgate. M. of HON... University College. Granger. The University.. Woodburn. Master of University College. Chambers. Esq.. M.. M..C. Bosanquet.

the Council. The Association shall consist of a President. a Treasurer.— . subject to any special direction of a General Meeting. It shall be within the competence of the Council to make 5. The objects of the Association are to promote the development and maintain the well-being of classical studies. . The officers of the Association shall be members thereof. The Council shall be entrusted with the general administra- tion of the affairs of the Association. To encoui'age investigation and call attention practice of classical teaching by free discussion of its scope to new friendly intercourse and discoveries {d) To create opportunities co-operation among for all lovers of classical learning in this country. 1906. 1910. two Secretaries. the Association shall of be "The Classical Association. 6. and in pai'ticular (a) : To impress studies to upon public opinion the claim of such an eminent place in the national scheme of education (b) To improve the (c) and methods. and ordinary Members. 1. meet as often as it may deem necessary by the Secretaries to each member. The Council upon due shall notice issued 127 . October lOth Adopted at the Amended 1908. . January llth. a7id The name January 9th. Vice-Presidents. 1912. May 2%th. and. shall have control of the funds of the Association. RULES first General Meeting of the Associatum. a Council of fifteen members besides the Officers. and shall be ex-officio members of 3. and at every meeting of the Council five shall form a quorum." 2. 1904 at the General Meetings of January 5th. 4.

shall be elected for Members 11. Membership of either sex who of the Association shall be are in sympathy with open to all persons its objects. and in particular shall prepare the list of agenda and determine what papers shall be read. Vice-Presidents. the Chairman to have a casting vote. but shall be of the Council shall and the Secretaries eligible for re-election. There shall be an entrance fee of 5s. 16. The Council shall make all necessary aiTangements for the conduct of the General Meeting. The annual sub- . previous notice 13a. The President 9. Secretaries. Any member who may desire to propose a resolution or to read a paper at the General Meeting shall give notice accord- ingly to one of the Secretaries at date of the Meeting. shall be elected for one year. The 8. 14. on retirement one year. 7. notwithstanding. but vacancies may occurring in the course of the year be filled up temporarily by the Council.APPENDIX 128 rules for its own procedure. 13. the Treasurer. Ordinary members shall be elected by the CouncU. President. and shall not be eligible for re-election until after the For the purpose lapse of one year. and Council shall be elected at the General Meeting. the place to be selected at the previous General Meeting. or at any place witlxin the limits of the British Empire which has been recommended by a special resolution of the Council . of establishing a rotation the Council shall. the Chairman to have a casting vote. Treasurer. 15. It shall also have power to bring before the Genex'al Meeting without all business which it considers urgent. provided always that questions before the Council shall be determined by a majority of votes. The 10. 12. provide that one-thii-d of its original members shall retire in the year 1905 and one-third in 1906. Rule least six weeks before the Notice of resolutions sent in under this shall be circulated to Members together with the names of the respective proposers. Vice-Presidents. The General Meeting of the Association shall be held annually in some city or town of England or Wales which is the seat of a University. and shall not be eligible for re-election until after the lapse of five years. be elected for three years. The Election of the Officers and Council at the General Meeting shall be by a majority of the votes of those present.

. other bodies having like objects with upon their application to the Council and by vote of the same. 12. associated Classical body shall Association. may compound for all future subscriptions by the payment in a single sum annual subscriptions. Classical Association shall relations with have power to enter into its own. privileges of members beyond such as they shall enjoy through the operation of this rule. The 20. shall member's name from the 19. The provisions of Rules 8. of any body If the President so associated is unable to attend the meetings of Council. The Council shall in each case determine the contribution payable by any such body and the privileges to be enjoyed by its members. Members who have paid the entrance fee of 5s. 17. Rules of the Association shall be made by vote at a General Meeting. 10. The President of any body so associated shall during his term of office be a Vice-President of the Classical But the members of the not be deemed to be members of the nor shall they have any of the rights or Association. upon notice given by a Secretary to each member at least a fortnight before the date of such meeting. of fifteen The Council 18. the Council shall have power to invite that body to nominate a representative to serve for a limited period (not member of Council beyond exceeding one year) as an additional the number 15 mentioned 17 in Rule 3. .RULES scription shall be 5s. 129 payable and due on the 1st of January in each year. and 16 shall not apply to the Vice-Presidents created under this rule. Alterations in the have power to remove by vote any list of the Association.

Miss.A. Dimedin..B. L.A. E. Adcock.. M. Barton Road.G. A. M. M... Adshead. p. Reigate..J.A. AiLiNGER. T. M.A.A.A.B. Bombay. W.. Rev. Aldersgate Street. S.A.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OE MEMBERS *^* lids list is compiled from information furnislied iy Memhers the Association. M.... Antrim. B. Clyde Ptoad. M. A.. W. 180. Surrey. S. Shrewsbury. Otago University. Francis Road. Co.. Allen. Dervock. Esq. E. Adam. C. Prof. Miss M. Adams. S.A.A. Oxford. Kidderminster. M.. F. A. *Alder. Oxford. Middlesex. N.. N. Miss E. Agar.. Abrahams. Enniskillen. Cambridge.A. St. E.. Xavier's College.. Maida Vale. Abel. M. Bishopshall West. G. B. R. Rev.. Cambridge. Birmingham.. of as to a to Abbott.. Ager. S.D. F. E.. Jesus College..S. Cambridge. 21. B. Fermanagh..Z. *Alpord.A. B. Miss M... M. E. Edgbaston. Queen's College.. Clifford. The Grammar School.B. F.. 51.. Pinner. Mrs. M. M. J.C. Commercial Travellers' School. M.A.A. Allbutt. H.. M. M. Sir T. T.. K. ivith view to corrections in the next published List.. West Didsbury. St. L.A. The Members lohose names an asterisk is prefixed are Life Members. Woodburn. Merton College.R. Allen. Barnstaple. 84.. Seaton. M. T. Wolverhampton. M. Adam.. St. S. School House.. D. C. and Members are requested to be so kind to send immediate notice of any Change in their addresses E.. W.. Portoi-a. King's College. Man- chester. Andrews.. Lisconnan. R. Abernethy.. 65. 130 . Portsdown Koad. Tettenhall College. M. Allen.. *Allen. Co. Radegund's.A. Bishop's Road. 11. Alington.. Miss A. Adams. Cairndhu. Cambridge.A. Gloucester Gardens. Miss E...

Cranleigh School. C. G. D. Prof. Warden of All Souls College. St. Sir B. I. Armstead.T. M. Sutton-on-Hull.A.A.A. Allison.L. Cambridge. Arnold. *AsHBY. Junr.. W. F..S. Hertslets. Antrobus. *Atkinson.... Y.A. 131 Egerton Hall. K. Bombay.. M. Victoria Park. G.A. Lady Margaret Hall. Armitagb. H. M. 18. N.. L.A. Bucks. Trinity Hall.. vS. Seiriol. F. Christ Church. Ven. G.. AsQUiTH. AsHFORTH. Litt. E. Vice-Principal. Oxford. 20. Rose Valley House. J. Archdeacon W.P. North Wales. Sir E.. LL. Surrey. M. M.. Albans. M. *Anson. H. Manchester. Surrey. Miss E. E. Pall Mall... A. F. Archibald. Alton. C.D. . Essex. Prof.. High Wycombe.A. W.. Trinity College. J. Bangor. Ashbee. 9. 50. C. T. Kingston. Bi-itish School. C. L. Edgbaston Park Road. 0. Mrs.. The High School. Ci-anley Gardens. Hwi. Anderson. L. Wakefield. Miss H. Pupil Teachers' Centre. Manor Place. Bryn Sheffield.. W.W.. H. M. Anderson.. Cambridge. Antrobus.A.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS Allen.. K. M. J. Claygate. AsHWiN. Wilts.. Hawthorne Terrace. Neville. Brackley. M. I.C. Royal Gi-ammar School. Pev.... Arnison.G..A.... Rt. Birmingham. Marine Terrace... Mrs. 62. Perse School. Marlborough College.. Clifton Hill. Heycroft.. AsHWORTH.S. College. M..A. F. Hermit's Hill.. R. H. 1. F. *AsHT0N. B. Burghfield Common. 19.. Miss H. Mortimer. The Thana. Ontario.A.. Rome. Miss M.. Queen's University.. Manchester.. Oxford. Dublin. W. 3. Angus. West Didsbury.D.A.A. 37. Allwood. Berks.. N. B. Cavendish Square. Bart..... B. G. M.. Wright.A.. Argles. Aberystwyth. c/o Menzies. Oxford. E. Brentwood. M. B.. Edinburgh. *Arnold. Yorks.. A. B.. Prof...C. a.B.. Miss A.. F.C. Bombay Presidency.. M. Elphinstone College. * Anderson.W. *Anwyl.C. M. Alverthorpe. N.A. *Atkey. R. University House.. M.P. Sir W. Appleton. M. Anderson. B.A.A. B.C. Anderson. 3Iiss E.O. W. Magdalen College School.. V..M. M.A.

.A.. S. 53. M.A. C. K. London. Ross. St. Cheltenham. Barlee. The Shanty. M. Balcarres. Rev. 64. G. Pendleton. Birkenhead. M.A. Queen's Gate Gardens. T. Miss E. Baillie.A.A.. Miss D.. Bombay.A. D. 14. Bedales School. Toronto. Bailey. M. Bakewell.S. Newcastle-under-Lyme. Norland Square.. Kent.... B. Badley. Hon. Miss E... M.A. E. Oxford. 40. Lawson Road. John's College.A..A. I. Staffs.. London. Montcalm. Miss I.. W.. W. M.C. Bagge. F. S.. Bloomsbury Square. M. M. 7. Sheffield. Norfolk. H.P. Lloyd.. Miss L.A. Mapperley Road. Grammar School. Balliol College. Charing.. C W. Athenaeum Club. 5. Nottingham. 34. M... E. a.. Ilkley. W. E.A.. Bernard's Road.A. Balfour.. P. John's Vicarage. B. Cleeve Hill. S. 19..A. Barker.. Stradsett Hall. Eccleston Street.. AuDEN.. Olton. B... Austen-Leigh. W. Stourport. Secretariat. Baines.. Baker-Penoyre. M. Banks. Barber.W. Ball. S. S.W.. Hellenic Society. Windsor. M. Cambridge. M. B. Birmingham. Miss E. J.. J. Lord.W. M. Miss M. Rt.. Thornhurst. J. Petersfield. H.. G. White House. Barker..G. Baker. St. B. M. M. Rev. M. M. Prof. Ballinger.. Atkinson. W. Canon P. Stirling Road.. Oxford. Downham Market. Hants. Bampfylde. Hardwicke Court..A.S.A.. Master of Clare College.Chantrey House. ll. F.. *Barlow. M. W. D.. Stoke-on-Trent.A. Barker.A. A. High School for Girls. Baldwin. B. Edgbaston. Birmingham. Principal. B. Manchester. Merchant Taylors' School. M. Miss K. Cyril. M.A..A.. L. Miss G. Head Master. J. J.APPENDIX 182 Atkinson. St. Park Avenue. Barker. M. M.. E.A. Yorks. Kent.. . Ball. Bailey. Audley Square. Barke. Astley Hall. Gloucester. Upper Canada College. Ross. Gerald.A. P. Canada. B..A. Stoke Lodge.D. E.P.C.. Bromley.. ff. C. Eton College. Eccles Old Road.

. Barrett.A. Beggs. A.A. 2Irs.. W.. M. Basingstoke. A. M. Hon.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS Barlow.A. *Bahnes. *Barran. King Edward VI. M. B. M.C. Barrows. Birmingham. Edgbaston. C. I. E.. Portugal Street.. Miss J.. M.. Sir J. M.. H.. N. 19.D. Ecclesbourne School. Rev.. Milverton. Cheltenham.. 4. The Deanery. I..P. T. Fitz Walters. E.A.. S. 10. Miss H. Wentworth Road. . Eev. Bean. M.. 100. Beaven. I. Ripon.. Murray. S.S... Eev.C. Barnard. E. a. New Street. Liverpool. Barnard. Beeching. M. N. Birmingham. 44.. D.. London. Miss M. M. 25a. Bombay.. B. P. Bombay. J... Wimbledon. M. *Batchelor.. Bayliss. Bramley Rectory. N. Tunbridge Wells.A. Miss E.'s High School for Girls. W. 64..A. Mr. Sawley Hall. C. *Beckwith. Bell...A. Belcher.C. Leamington. Worple Road. J.. Bell. B. Brentwood School. Queen's Gate.W... B.A. F. High Court. Bell.A. M.. M. Canon G. Hampton School. Northwood. Bate. Rev. King's College. The College. B. Wavex'tree.A.A. Scroope Terrace. Bombay.A. M.A. W. Baknett. Whitehall. M...A.O. near Maidenhead. Westminster.. Birmingham.W. E. R...W. 16. Mr.A. Prof. Beck.C. Prof. Justice. Essex.. M. JRev. Liverpool. Beasley. Harborne. T. Justice. Bell. H. W. E. The Ladies' College. M. Brighton. Rev. Miss H. Manchester. E. Dudley Road. Middlesex. Alexandra Drive.A. Sefton Park. Cambridge. Board of Education.S. M.W. Bedford. Jamaica. B..A. A.D. Hayes. High School.C.. Greyfriars. S. Hon. E. Yacht Club. S. Beaman... Very Rev. Cowley Street. Hazeldene. Baynes.. J.A. A. Pendleton. Prince Alfred Road. Wimbledon. Weston-super-Mare.. Edinburgh.D. Miss E. G.A. 16. M. The Army School. S. 42. M. City Road. *Beare... S. 3Iiss. Merchiston Castle School.. Beaumont. M. Bart.A. B.. Belcher. Malvern P.A. D. M. M. LL. Cambridge.. H. W. B. High Court.. M.W.. Edward.. Norwich.L... Behrens. King's Road. Dublin. Canon E. T. Beasley. Eccles 133 Old Road. S. Hayes. Battiscombe. C. Trinity College. M. Belcher. York House. Lensfield Road.. p. Baugh. Eastwood..O.

Et.. *Bernats.A. Waldeck Road. G.. Canon E. Berks. The University.A. Canterbury.APPENDIX 134 Park Eoad. Perham Road. BousFiELD... Silchester House.A. H. W.A. Bernard. J. Lord Bishop of. Blundbll. 3. B. W. Liverpool.. W. Windsor. Bevan.A..... San Gervasio. XXth Century Club. M.. 23...A.S. Bland.. E.. *Benson. S. Cambridge.. Surrey..A. H. Kew. Powis Square. Worthing.. Nalder Hill House. Prof R. 11071. M. E. Mrs. I.. Oxford. B.. Blackheath. 0. Eaton Place. Cambridge. C. India. Berridge. J. *BiNGHAM. S.. Wimbledon Common. 7. Eton College. Dorset. Blunt.. II Ciliegio. P. Eaton Square. M.W. C. M. CumBombay. Magdalen College.. Bombay. W.A. St.. M. Beckenham. Queensland.. E..W. H. Bayswater. M.A.. 16. Eton College. Rev. 53. Prof.. B. Prating Rectory. Old School House. M.. Miss E.. C.. Netting Hill. Staverton Road. Christ- .A. 0. W. a. Silchester. Poena. von B. Edmund's School. 16. M. Brisbane. BoNSER. B.. J. D. II. J.W.. N. W. Benn. Benson. The University. W. *Bennett. Aberystwyth. Wimborne. Windsor. S..E. B.A. p.. Oxford. B. S. High Hall. Et. C. Colchester. St. S. S. J.A... Bewsher. *Blagden. Paul's Preparatory School.A. *Benecke. Bethune-Baker. Eev.. the Botting. E. Benger. Bennett. a. B. Altamont Lodge. A. Steyne School. F. Eev. Sefton Park.. Eev.. Bensly.A. M.A. F. M. BowEN. Godfrey P. Florence. Newcastle-on-Tyne. W. Lancaster Road.. Miss E. M. Alexandra Drive. church.A. Eev. The Knoll. M.. M. West Kensington. Eev. Sir J. Eev. A. C. Swansea.. Magdalene College. C.D.. Blakiston. *Bensly. M. H. B. Middleton Grange.. Upper Riccarton.C. Bourne. Nottingham. Oxford. Sussex..A.A. balla Hill.A. *BoWEN. F. Eev. Miss F. H. Lancing College. *Bevan. Miss M.. Newbury.. Liverpool.. Miss A.. Chi-ist Church. V.. 21. Vanburgh Park.. Priory Road. E. Bell. Grammar School. W.A.. Bolus. 42. Miss S. 3. BiNNEY.A. M. C. H. M. M. C. E... High School. Ifiss L. 54. Benton. Colet Court. Sherborne. T. 22. Cranmer Road. Reading. C. M. 108. M. Billson. BowLBY. Hammersmith. New Zealand... G.A. 99. *BosANQUET. M. B. A.A.

Miss H. Dublin. Browne. Andre\v's School. T. Rev. C. R. Brown. M. Rev. India.A. Browning.A. E. The University. H. New College.A... Bradford.. Kent. Mrs.Litt. St. Michael's Hamlet.A. May Bank. Stone Buildings. Branfoot. Broadbent. Bridge. Aigburth. Prof. M. Bristol. 46. Bramwell.. W. Braham. Brown. W. T. H. Winchester. Tue Brook. K. Eton College. H.. W. C.. Bombay Presidency.C.. Rev. v.. D. Bramley. Wellington. 33...A. St. The Nunnery.. John's Vicarage.C. Eev. Liverpool. Bright. Joseph. University College. M. I. Branpord. M. Southampton Row. Liverpool. Berkeley Square. F. W. Oxford.. Brodribb..A. Satara. M. F.A. Hammelton Road. Miss M. Brooke.S.B. Bromley. H. Boyd.A. H.. Prof.. Mrs. The Nunnery. Afton. Michael's Hamlet. J.. G. H.J^AMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 135 C Boyd. Oxford.C. Bradley. T. B. Brightman. 1. M.. Brown.. Astell House. Brooks.. Rev. Panch Mahals..A. Ed ward es Square. Culver's Close. Rankine. Broadbent. Royal Street. Eaton Terrace.. D. M. Ahmednagar.C. Kensington. S... Godhra. W. Liverpool. Rev. Bombay. Bramley-Moore. Salisbury Street. B. Wilts. M.. Brighouse. Browne.. New Zealand. *Browne.W.. C. 31. Aberystwyth. Societies Club. 9.A. J.L. Stonehouse.. Admiral Sir C. S.. Bramston. A.. 4. E.J. B. I. J.J.. E... M. Francis Xavier.. A.A. Brown. Rev. Brock. Bow..A. Enford Vicarage. S. A. James's . K.. L. W. Victoria University College. a. University College. Springfield.A.A. Brayne. L. Cheltenham. M.. Livei'pool. C. Very Rev. Brinton. Acomb Street. Judge W. Ernst. 63.W. Durham. Lincoln's Inn. I.. Bombay Presidency. Eton College. St. Miss. Brogkman.. Magdalen College.C. Theodore. H. Windsor. St. Nepean Sea Road. Miss L. Prof. M. Bridge. C. W. Manchester.. St. J.. Liverpool. 5.S. c/o London and South Western Bank. Windsor. Eastbourne. Apsley Crescent... M. F. St..C. Gloucester..A.. S.. Farm Street. Whitworth Park. BA. M. Pewsey.

Mrs. Miss M.. E. Richmond. W.. Bruce. Vicarage. Bishop of.D. Hon. Rev. BuRNE-JoNES. *BuRTON. The Borough Road Training College. Montagu. M..S. W. Butler. Burnet.. R. Rev.. Canterbury. Miss M. C. Burke. Prof. W.A.. Washington. J. Prof. Trumpington. H.. Tiinity Lodge. J. Burnley.D. L.A. B. Cambridge. Archdeacon W.. Edwin. Godalming.W. Bull.D.D. S. E. Montagu. Manor Road. King's College. G.. Oxford. A. Edmund's College. Rev. Rt. S.. c/o Miss Bryce. BuRGE. Burroughs. M. Prof. Rev. Bury. 19. Burton.A. D. Campden Hill Square. Trinity College. Litt. BuNCE. S. Bury. Gravesend.). M.. .. F.A. G. Bart. Oakford.. M.A. Burrows...APPENDIX 186 Brownjohn. Rev. Ven. Tunbridge Wells. M. M. Burnley.. N. G. The Lodge.. Girls' High School. Cambridge. Burrows. Litt..A.. Gower Street. Egerton Terrace. Rev. Hay ling Island. Butler. Arundel House. BuRNSiDE. BuRSTALL. Edgbaston.C. Dudley. Andrews. School of Art. Bampton.. 15. B. R. Rev. Rt.. Manchester High School for Girls. D. Burns. M.A. See Southwark.. Manchester..A. Butcher. M. M. Rev.D. Cambridge. Rev. Cecil. BuRKiTT.. Merchant Taylors' School.. Lanes. D. Elvaston Place. C. S.. F. Charterhouse. Hertford College.O. Birmingham. *Bryans. the Lord Bishop of. Butler.. Andrew's. M. University College.D.A.W. Cambi-idge. A. Bryant.. a. M. Rt. E. H. E. D. Prof.A... LL. M. Great Crosby. R. Cambridge. (British Embassy.. E. (Hon.C. J.W..A. Miss S. St. M.. Ph. Burrell. 14. Hants.B.. 4.. Ware. Lynton House. Devon. K. a. Cranley Gardens. B.) LL. Edmund's School. Westroad Corner.A.A.Litt. Manchester.W. Hon. St.. Rev. St. Milton Mount College.. Queen's Terrace. F.P. M.. C. Reedley Lodge. St. W. O. 41. Sir P. Isleworth. Southborough. King's Road. Prof. Bombay. D..A... James. Mrs. *Bryce. H. U. 32... A. BuLLER. M. The University..L. Miss A.A.D..

Greenheys. Miss C. M. *Caspari.. A.A. M. N.S. A.. B. O. Carnoy. P. Uom. W. Campbell..C.. M. Chantry Mount School.A. B.. M.. Bombay.... Liverpool. M. Campagnac. West EaKng. Masborough. Mrs.. Leadenhall Street. Abei-tillery. Royal Exchange. Wolverhampton.A. Caldecott. J. The Park. Belgium. Windmill Hill. F.A. 59. Godalming. 50b. Hereford. Chandavarkar. Case. 10.... M.. M. A. Bishop of.. The University. M.. F. Rev. M. Channon. J. Chapman. Sir Narayanrao G. John Street. Hove. G. School House. Bombay.. Cade. Chesterton Eoad. G.A.. Campbell. W. D.. E. F. Hampstead. Argyle Road.W. Carson. Cattley. Hon. 18. M. E.. G. M.. Whitehall. M.W. Cambridge. University College.B. J. Campbell.C.. C. St.A. Case. J.B.A.A. Cattley. South Carter. Miss M.A. Box 374. Casartelli.. 5. Cartwright. F.. T... Kolaba. Cameron. M.A.D. Holly Lee.. L. Sussex. Cuffe Parade. L.A. Birmingham. Hon.. Miss E. M. T... R. Upper Drive. Livingstone Drive. Windsor. See Salford. Manchester.A..NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS Byrne. Birmingham. Eton College. 84. John's Street. Rev. K.. Portsdown Road.A. Carter Street. Fitzjohn's Avenue. 1... St. Liverpool. Ashfield Road. S. Chapman. Bishop's Stortford. D. 101.. J2ev.A. Corbeck-Loo. Chapman. Manchester. J.. C.. W. Mr.W. Chappel. Caton. Chambers.. G. Bombay. N. Repton. LL. 29..R. M. High Court. C. Rev.D. Board of Education. Miss Esther. S. Rev. E. H. Municipal Secondary School. M... Carrdthers. Burton-on-Trent. Erdington Abbey.. 100. M.. Belvedere School. Lou vain. M. E. Carmichael.. T. M.. B.A.. Windsor. Campion. Prof. Manchester.. Senior Chaplain. Eev... Secretariat. Rev. I. M. M. R... Worcester. Campbell. Carlisle. Oxford. 3. Chambers.. 3Iiss 137 A.. Great Comp. London.A„ Eton College. E.. Church of Scotland. The University. Cambridge.A. W. H. The Grammar School. Rev. Canon W.A.A.A. Manchester. M. King's School. D. Christ's College.A. Hampstead. M. T. M. Calthrop. N. 18 . Chapman. Cheltenham.. Bt. Miss J. O. H..P.

Grammar School.S. G. Liverpool. H. London. Crudwell.. Rev. H. CoDD. Waverley. H. Sunnyside. Liverpool. Clark. Coghill.. Claxton. Clark. Ashburton. M. F. S. E. Haileybury College. E. Doncaster. W. Clendon. M... F. Chatpield. Rugby. Churchill. Manchester. L.. Bucks. Waley. Princes' Park. Clarke..A.A.. E..A. Gray's Inn Square.C.. City of London School. Broughton and Crumpsall High School. Eton College. Elm Court. A. Surrey. L. Clapham. M.A. C. M. S. The Grammar School. H. M. M. 14. S.0. B..A.. Miss F.. J.. 3. D.. St. B. B. The University. G. Milton Villas. R. Cole.A. Ellerslie Preparatory School.D. Church. Newbury. Oxford University Press. Windsor.A. E. Adelaide. Huddersfield. N. Cambridge. The University. Rev. Rev. F. R. See Ely. P.A.A. C. Haberdashers' School. H.G.. Rev. A. Municipal High School for Girls.. Rev.APPENDIX 138 Charlesworth. M. M. M..W.. Oxford. Meanwoodside.A.. Denbigh Gai-dens.. M. Rev.A. Miss A. E. Manchester. .M. 12. Clark.A. F.D. W. Cohen. Hornsey.L... Chitty. Higher Broughton. Cricklewood. A.. S. Hyde Park Terrace. D. N.. Aylesbury. R.A.C. M..A. N.. Coles. E. J.A..A. Cholmeley.... L. B.. B. C.A. Perth. Coleman.. D. M. O. Chavasse. W. Temple. Troy House. A. a. Clark. Windsor.C. CoBBE.. Northampton. Miss E.... R. Collie. S. Erpingham Rectory..A. Church Avenue.. M. A.. Crudwell House. Beryl House.A. Queen's College. C... 3. Fremington. Coghill.A. Coleridge.A.A. Staffs. Trinity College.. Warkworth Street. E.... Chilton. P.. M. A.. Amen Corner. M.. Eton College. Mrs. Staffs. A. a. Devon. V. E. B. B.. Church... Clarke. 7. Herts. A.. B.A. near Malmesbury. Rev. Norwich. E. B. D. Denstone College. 2. Richmond. Victoria Embankment. Bishop of.. M. Peter's. M. Handsworth. Wodehouse Eoad. B. Stationers' School. Donnington Square. Collins.A. J. Australia. M. Devon. Cohen.. M. 11. Chettle.C. Miss G. Collins.. *Cobham.. K. J.. Bombay. Winchester Street. E. Glenalmond. H. B. Leeds. Masetti.. D. H. Chase. B.. 2. lit.

Litt. OoLViLE.. Hawkhurst. c/o Messrs. Manchester.A.. M. K. Rev. F. Kingston. CoNNELL. Cook. CowELL. M. Miss F. B. Cooke. F. Cam- CoLvm. M. Wethersfield. Manchester. Sheffield... W.. Miss P.. M. The University. G. 3. L. Windsor. F. M.A.A. E. *CoRNFORD. Keble College. M.. Bei'khamsted. H. C.. CoRLEY. M... Liverpool. Merchant Taylors' School.A. 19. British Museum. Margaret M... Merchant Taylors' School. St. R. B. Magdalen College. A. Kensington. Prof R. M.. M...W.. Cowl. B. Cambridge. F.. Mudie. Lievjt..A. M. CoMPTON.. Gravesend. R. J. *CoNWAY.A. Cradock. Edward's School. H. 3.. Conway. M. Dryden. Madras. Rutland Park. CoNNAL. Oxford. G. E. Rue du Pare Royal. John Street... H. Woodfield Avenue. B.. CoNDEE. M. B.A.... Cranmer Boad. CouRTAULD. M. M... Torpels. W. Clough Hall.. Porchester Terrace. M. P. A.A.D. Miss A. B. W. B... S. Oxford. CoRDUE. CoMPSTON. Conway.A. C. Trinity College.. H. Linnet Lane. Rev. 4... Prof. Paris. Grace.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS CoLLisoN-MoRLEY. M. Uyde Park. Didsbury.C. S.A. E. 2. Miss E... W. Eton College. F. CowPERTHWAiTE. M.. 22. .A.G. L. Cornish. Essex. 139 Scarsdale Villas. Prof. Cooper. St. 16. 13.A. A. F. Prof.A. CouzENS. CooKSON. M. A.. Cowley.. H. North Road. B. R. Oxford. W. Cambridge. *Coupland. Leeds.A. Mrs. Newnham College. Eton College.. N. Oxfoixl. Grange Terrace.A. Braintree. Trinity College. F.. M. CovERNTON.. Cambridge...A. Streatham. Crosby. Junr. Canada.A. Liverpool. M. Sir bridge.A. 22. Sandhurst Kectory. B. Kent. Miss E.. Queen's University. The Waver Farm. Cooper..Watson. S. Oxford.. 3.. Charing Cross. A...W. W. Magdalen College. Windsor.. Conway.C. C.. Milton Mount College.Colonel W. The University. The Cloisters. Miss A. M. MA.. J.E. CoLSON. Bristol. E. Ontario. Rev. The University..A..A. Prof. M.. W. Cox & Co. M. S.A. Rev.A. Oxford. Draethen.

Cromer. Rugby.A. M.. Liverpool. Hon. King's College.. Oxton. Leeds. West Didsbury.A. H... Crerar. M. M. Leicestershire. M.. 18. T..C. Consulat de Belgique. 7.. H.. Clarendon Eoad. Cronin. 56. *Daniel.. Croft. A. Grammar School. J. Cruickshank. Cheshire.. Dale.C. Rosewarne. The College. R. *Darlington.R. Lowther Road. Vicarage Road. F. Miss K. D. G. Eev. G.. Barbadoes. Lutterworth... Fore Street.A. Elstow School.A. W. Oxton. Montpelier Road. E. Curtis.. Davies... 1. *Davidson..M. W. D. B. K.S. M. H. A.. The University. Bournemouth. Wycombe Abbey School. Bucks. Crawford. . W. O. F. D. I. 89. Davies...S..A. 28.W.. Durham. Byculla Club. A.M.. The School.. Willowbrook. Bedford..G. Bombay. 71.. M. M.C. Glendower Mansions.. H.. The Greenway. S. M.D. Wimpole Street.. M..A.Litt. Rev. Whitehall. M.E.C. Llewellyn.. CuvELiER.. H. *Crees. E. D.W.A.. Harrison College. M. R. A. CuRZON of Kedleston. R. Rev. M. Eastbourne.. Uttoxeter. B.. Crypt Grammar School. Crofts. Brighton and Hove High School.I. 1.. C. Greenwich. 24. H. Miss A.A. Frof.. Dallas. G. S. M. M..E. Rev. A. Board of Education.. M. M. Hammersmith Bridge... M.B...APPENDIX 140 Cran.. Dale.A.A. M. Dale. Sussex.A. Glendower Place. Earl. Dalton. C..W... Daniel. Ingestre Road. Cromer Terrace. J.. B.. 36. 80.A. W. A. Milesdown.A. B. Rt. the Earl of.. M.A.D. Digby Mansions. R.A. G. Winchester. Dakers. S.A. Maurice.L. Davies. S. G. B.C. N. Cambridge. G. G. B. Miss A.. D. Miss C. M.. Brighton. Man- chester.I. Dale.A. E.. Davidson..A.. Westbourne Terrace.C..A. Danson. Carlton House Terrace.A. Clyde Road. Glasgow. Davies. Gloucester. Davies. B. A. The Hill. Leeds. Chaucer Road. J. Eon. I. F. Miss C. Roan School.. J. M. David. Vice-Chancellor of the University. Llewellyn. Secondary Council L. Rt.. Bidston Road. M... E..C. Cheshire.W. S.I. Miss Uxbridge. Hertford. B.W.A..I. *Crosby. Staffs. Hyde Park. Miss A. Davies. D.A. Aberdeen.S. G. School.S. S. T.A. Bombay.A. H. Sir A. T.

Leeds. W. Pangbourne. B.. S. Fallowfield... E. Lincoln's Inn. G.. Queen's College. K. Surbiton.. Djelal Bey.. Brighton. Fallowfield House. B. *DoNNER. Denman. Nicolson Institute. Ashton-under-Lyne. L. F. Sir E. Bombay... D. Farley. Rev..W. Berks. R. Litt.... Boutflower Road. Davis. The High School.. DowNiE. 3. Sir S. Derriman. Blackburn. S.. B. Worcestershire. Great Smith Street..A.A. E. Eailham Road. Ghapelville. University College. Rowton. S. Battersea Rise.A.C. Norwich..Litt. Heathlands. Devine.. W. F. De Gruchy. DoNKiN. 15. Surbiton.. Dublin.A. Boyd. The College.A. Coldharbour Road. A.. Northfield. Dawkins. Dawkins. Dingwall.A. Weybridge. Prof. E. DoBSON. Withington Girls' School. LL.. H. New Square. Salisbury.. S. 71. D. M.. Grove Eoad. Mill Hill Road. Oakamoor. Sittingbourne... H. (No address. The Hostel. 18. .) Dawes. DoBSON. Liverpool. Raglan.. A. Yorks. M. Ghapelville. M.. Scotland. Miss K. De Quadkos. De Winton. Kalbadivi Road. Manchester. Bristol.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 141 Davis... Dill.A. Miss M. W. M. Miss M. Englefield Green. DoDD. Holmwood.A. Fallowfield... Mrs. M..A. Miss M. DoweoN... Magdalene College. Manchester.. President. F..J. Dix. 1. D. J. DoMAiLLE. W. M. Dawes. P. Rev.. D. Prof. S. Grove Road. J.A.D.. Cambridge. M. Day. Chester. Rev.W. Surrey.. Manchester. F.A. Golquhoun.R. C.. Clayesmore School. 14. T.W. The Lodge. Consul -General for the I^njjerud Ottoman Empire..A. S. New York. Miss E. Miss 0. B.. Fowler's Road. The University. LL. Delany. S. G. Miss B. C.S.A. a. C... W. M.. Rev. Waterloo Park. B. Rev. Staffs. B. J. Stoke-on-Trent..D. Belfast. *Dawes. The University. F. DoDD. J. Rev. LL.D. S... Alex. Oak Mount. B. Sedbergh. Boyd. Surrey. P. Stonyhurst College. E. Prof. The University. Dover. Stornoway.W. Miss M. Turkish Consulate. Bristol. W. M. Deeks. Dawson.D. Redland.Sc. Miss E.. W. Gore Court. The Old Bell House. 64. Miss M. Prof.. Dill.B. Donaldson..A. N. Manchester.

. Bolton.. Cliff Court. Withington. Manchester. Englefield. H....A. EcKHARD. J. H. Captain E.... St..A. Peterhouse. Heath Grammar School. St. Endcliffe Crescent..A. S...D. M.D. D. Sheffield. Sidney Sussex College. *Eden. Bedfordshire. B. G.A. M. G. L. Durnford. M.G. *Dymond. Armstrong College. EcKERSLEY.. 5. Dean Close School. Windsor. Eliot. A. Edmonds. J. Windsor. J. M..C. B... Bristol. Glasgow Road. Eton College. M.A. M. Bombay. G. 22. LL. James's Park. *DuFF.. Dudley. J. Cambridge. J. Carlton Manor. DuRNFORD. Sheffield. Elliott.. M. M.A. H. A. See Wakefield. R. Wadham College. King's College. Miss M. B. Alan Road.A. Southampton. F. O. Oxford.. J.W. Droop.A. Harrow. B. Edmonds.A. Bombay. M. Broome House. Massie Street.. Sandy. Edwards.A. M. C. Cambridge. Tewkesbury. C.. M.A. Drummond.. M. Government House. E. Newcastleupon-Tyne. W. Earnshaw. Hyde Park. C. Prof.. Carter Knowle Road. Halifax Road. Miss M. H..C. Miss U. A. Halifax. R. Panjab. C. *Drysdale.. Manchester. Crouch End. M.. D. c/o Postmaster.. H. W. S. DuNLOP. . Bedford.A. King's Lea. P.A. Cheltenham... G.I. M. Cambridge. Edwards. Easterling.A.. Hillmarton.. A. Cambridge. Sir C. Mrs. High Court. A. N. James's Court. Duff. S..A.. 23. Ellaby.. C. 24. Bath. 57. Miss E.. J. Banister Court. R. Rev... M. K. Edwards.. M.. Miss E. M. Eton College. Endcliffe Holt. Mrs. G.A..B. Drummond. D. M. Edwards... Edgehill.. Kemerton. *DuNDAS. Christ Church. Du PoNTET.APPENDIX 142 *Drewitt... Wight. R. Yeadon. H. B. S.. Miss O. M. Cambridge.M.Litt. Ellam. Bromham Road. B. High School for Girls. W. Cheshire. 11. Cleveland Gardens. C. E. 37. Elliott. Buckingham Gate. Ambala. Major-General ¥... Didsbury...E. N. Rt. J.S..A. Ealand. B. Trinity College... 23. I... Cheadle. E. R. Great Gransden.A. Duckworth. Bishop of. Leeds.. J.A. R. B. Frenchay. Oxford.

. Hertford. Phillimore Gardens.A. ExoN.A. Galway. Manchester.Litt... D.A. M. Farnell. Co. C. N. Prof.. Halifax.. MissJj.. Lady. Trinity College..D. Ecclesall. 143 Eishworth. M. LL.A. N.. Chelsea. E. Farwell. The Academy. M. W. Queen's College. Rishworth Grammar School. Herts. Ely. Ithaca..W. M.A.A. W. Rockville. Elmer.A. Ipswich. Faithfull. West Buckland. C. Edinburgh.. Falding. Enthoven. B. H. Field.. Berkhamsted. ¥... K. Prof.. E. Fairbairns. Ferguson. Faulkner. H. R. University College E. Robinson. M. M.. Ely..S. E. Ladies' College. W.A.. U. T. W. the Lord Bishop of. M. Dundrum..C. G. The Palace. C.A. Dublin. W.D. B. M. Croydon. R. Abingdon. M.A. S. Britwell.. Haileybury College. Christ's Hospital. C.. Rev.I. W.A..A..A.A.D.. Eon. Eev. Oxford.. D. S. Grammar School. Holmes Chapel.. Evans. S. Miss C...E... Ferguson. EsDAiLE. Warden of Radley College. L. R. Michael's Street. M. M. Felkin. Evans.A..S.C.. S.. England.. Lord Justice. Fenning. Cheshire. Farside.. W. Enfield. Litt. Ermen. R..R. Hertford.W.. D. R. Westerfield Road. 20. S. Sheffield. Surrey.Y. Waverley Road. The Anchorage.. Girls' Grammar School. Cheltenham. Rev. Miss M. E.. Rippingham Road...A. I. Ewart. J.B. 89. Ellis. Sir R. Pt.. LL.. ExTON. L.. N. Oxford. Doncaster. M.. J.A. Elliott.. Withington.. Simla.W. Ambleside. B. Evans. Reading School. B. M.A. Miss J.A.C.. M. Beech House Road. Ellibton. Ellis. Ives. 15..M. Ferard. W. Ferrall. The Ridge. Frognal. Yorks.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS Elliott. Prof. Rt. H.D. R. W. Finlay. LL. B. Exeter College. 3frs.A.. British Museum. 31.. 17.A. . Southwell Gardens. M. W. K.. Burton Court. 26.. Miss E. Devon.. Oxford. India. N. A. St. M.. The College. Weetwood.A. St. Berks. School. T.A. Bombay. Miss M. Cheltenham. B. B. C. Eppstein. H. B... High Wray.. Rev. Hawthorns Abbey. F. Bradford. Cornell University..

Canterbury Road.C. Fletcher. E.. Charterhouse.. Prof. Kensington. Balholm. Frazer. M.A. Miss A. Garnsey. M. H. Newnham College. a.. Flather. St. Gardner. C. J. 70. Fleetwood. Miss A.. Ahmednagar.. The University... Fry. F.L.. C. Beverley Road. E. Fremantle. Wood Green. Egypt. 135. Rossall. Major J.. 3. Fotheringham.. Fyfe.C.. P. London. H. Godalming. Hills Road... County School. Gardner. M.C. M. Thurlow Park Road.C.. M. Wimbledon. C. Edwardes Square Studios. Fuller. Blackheath High School. FuRNESS. T. G..A. Ford.A. T. Darlington. M. R. Lincoln College.. Va. B.. Epsom. c/o Agent-General New South Wales..A.... W.E. Florian.. J.. Berkhamsted. Oxford. M... The Deanery..D. Head Master.. Oxford. Harrow.APPENDIX 144 FitzGeeald.. Merton Hall Road. Darley Dale. M. M.A. Head Master. Miss Gadesden. Very Rev. Miss F.. S. E. M. University of Virginia. B. J. London.. M. M. M... Fry.W. Eev. 17. L. Litt.. W. S. Sheffield. Miss B. Gallie.. D. M.. Barnes. E. The School.. India. Kidderminster Road. S.A. B. Cambridge.. Charlottesville. R.. Warde. Liverpool. The Training College. S. Merton College. Cairo. Chatham Street. Furneaux. n. B. Liverpool. E. Cambridge. Fowler. Frisch. Cannon Street. S. M. Oxford.. Fleming.A. High School for Girls. U. 3Iiss M. FoRSTER.. . Gardiner. Manchester. Fletcher. FuRNESS. M. Prof.. St.A. Prof. Flood.A. 90. 2. M.. Shahjehanpur. A. Bombay Presidency. B.. E. 12. Herts. J. a... University College.A. I.. FooTNER. The College.A. The Grammar School. N.A.. Milham Ford School. The County Secondary School. R. Princes' Park. B. Magdalen College. Elmsleigh. IL.A. Lionel G. J.A. Forbes. Matlock.. Bruce. Elphins. Gardner.A. E. K. Ford. Dulwich.A.. Cambridge. R.A.A. M..E. E.. Keyne's.. T. Forrest.D.. Bromsgrove..A. Miss A.. FuRNESs. L. S. F.G. Shrewsbury. H.... M. Khedivieh School..W. N.S. E. W. Forbes. King's College. M. B.A. *FiTZHuaH.A. 125. Oxford. 19. M. United Provinces. Hamilton.A.A. W. Oxford.S. S. Lincoln. D. L.A. K. J. B.

Birmingham. C. Rev. Iffley Road. F. T. Ely.A.C. S... Giles... Wesleyan College. All Souls College... M. G..S. Bishop of.A. Haslemere. H. LL. A.A. . M.D. 35. Goode. GooDELL. Rt. Mary's Hall. M. British Museum. GoRSE. Gore.A. GiLSON. Mrs.. Glover. a. London Road.R. Prof. Tonbridge.. Surrey. Goodyear. H. Gibson. 3fiss E. Shepherd's Down. I. Cambridge. Sir Archibald. Crick Road.. near Liverpool. Kemp Town.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 145 Garrod.A. Gravesend. Oxford.A. Miss G. Oxford.. The Vicarage. R.. Cam- bridge. Gladstone. Island Road. C. Wool ton Vale. Oxford. GiLSON..A.. J. H. M. Glazebrook. M... M. Selwyn Gardens..A. Sheffield. St. Conn. M. 4. Liverpool. St. 39. Windsor. Miss E. Goodhart. Hesketh...... H. Giles. T. Gibson-Smith.. John's College. *Genner. M. Eton College.Wharf edale.. Jesus College. Lincroft Street. Manchester.D.A. 23..A. W. Canon. D. Goodrich. G.S. *Geldart. Litt. Edgehill Road..A. B.W.A. W.. C. Prof T. M. God LEY.A. Brighton. M. Wimbledon. Godfrey. C.. Castlebrae. Mrs. Oxford..D. 323.A.C.. Canon M. M. A. 20.A..... E. Ph.D. E.A..A. Oxford. The University. King Edward VI. Gibson. Gordon.. Royal Naval College.. Goodwin. C. Warwickshire. Geden. India. S. U. Cambridge. Mus.A.. Master of Emmanuel College. Prof.. Surrey. W. J. M. M. D... St. Rev. LL. B. Miss F. Martin. M. Alwyne Mansions. School House.. D.. Cambridge. B.S.D. Bev.'s School. Merton College. M.A.. Rev. P. Gibbons. Charles. L.A. M. Gedge. Gordon. 99. S.. Allerton.. Bir- mingham.. Gerrans. Canterbury House. Cambridge. School Lodge.A. W. See Oxford. Miss U. W. D. C.. D. R.C.. Abingdon.. Osborne. M. M. M. A... M. Leeds. New Haven.A. Ghey. M.. P. D. GiLSON. Rev. M. H. R. M.. *Genner. Lowestoft. Ahmedabad. Magnus 19 Grammar School. a. Newark-on-Trent.D. H.D.. Handsworth. B.L. M. Geikie. Marston Green. The Rectory. Oxford.A. W. Bui-ley-in. Richmond. M.A... John Street. R. M. Gavin. Moss Side. D.A. G.. Gaselee. R. The University. Gillespie. Bac.. Magdalene College. M. The College...

Miss A. Rev.Litt. R. Upper Bridge Road. Grigg. M. 69. Grundy... Stanislaus College. Cheshire. J. Leeds. Oxford. p. Miss A.. B. W. Mrs. Ph. Gudeman. Corpus Christi. L. M. Aberystwyth. Grange Road. W. 35. B. A. Granger. Avenue Road.. L. B. Herts. Green. Prof.. Martin's. Kensington Crescent.W. Newport.A. M.. N. M. Grant. ManGreenwood. Cambridge. Rev. G. Cambridge. a. Victoria Park... B. Greene. H. H. Station Road. C. H.. School House. E. Gurney... West View. W.. B. Bowdon. M. Goss. J. GouGH.. Gray. Cambridge. Grafton. C.A. Ormskirk.A. E. Litt. Queen's College. M. W. Grenfell. Wilderness Road. A. R. Bernard's Crescent. G. J..A. St. Sheffield. W. Prof. M. Notts. W. GUPPY. Bombay. Rev.. Buckland. Hepworth Rectory. B.A.. M. M. Gray.. 3fiss M. J. Cheshire.APPENDIX 146 [Redhill. 3. S. Paul's Girls' School. Diss. John Rylands Library. G. Grundy. Gunter. Buckingham Palace Gardens. 4. Green. Manchester. St. Dean's Yard. Moss Side. Glossop Road. Greene.Litt. Clifton Down Road.A....A. Oxton. B. 389...A.J.D. Hunt. M. Stone Buildings. T. Birkenhead School.W. M.A.. Hulme Grammar School. M... M..D.A. Bev.. Heslington Street.. University College.. Queens' College. 14. W.. Gray. Gregory. A. Gurney. Rev. Ph. .. [chester. King's County. Emmanuel College.Sc. Graves. C..A. F. [Nottingham.. St. Albert Square. Brook Green. Griffin. Gould. Mi's. Green.. S. St. M.. Franz Josef Strasse 12. 69. F. D. Oxford. W. Rev. Egerton Hall. The Univei-sity.. GouGH. Greenhalgh. 19. Greene.C. Grenfell. M. W. W. C. Miss F.. Green. W. A. Bristol.. 10..W.. All Souls College.D.. Prof. Sandcroft. Salop. Grensted..A.D.A. M. S. Litt.. F. M.. Miss L. S. W.. Oldham. H... Man- GuBBAY. S. T. D. Hammersmith. Queen's College..W. P. Canterbury. chester. Ennismore Gardens.. Retford. Westminster. Prof.. Grammar School.. 5. Litt. Berkhamsted. Miss M. A. Rev. Deansgate. University of Wales.A. The King's School. J... S. Gow. W. Ireland. GouGH.A.D. Ennismore Gardens. Munich. Oxford.. 39. A. S. Edinburgh... Tullamore. Malabar Hill. H. M.. c/o Dr.A. M. Oxford.

... King's College.A. Great Crosby. G.Litt.. Anfield Road. L.. Hallam.A. G. LL. Paul's Road. Haig.. Grindlay & Co.A.A.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 147 GuTHKELCH. C. The Hulme Grammar School. York Stx-eet Chambex-s. G. *Hall. H.C.. John's College. Reading. *Haigh. Hart. Cambridge. 19. E. F.P. Rev. Harrison.D. Rev. Walthamstow. Bombay.. Miss J. Harrow-on-the-Hill. T. Harris. W. Harrower.C.A. Great Yarmouth. M. South Lawn. H. D. Sedbergh. p. D.) Harper. J. B. Greenbank School. Miss M.. King's College.D.. a.W.. Hardie.S. L.A. Hall. C. Strand. M. The Moor House. Ennismore Gardens. R. Trinity College.. R. 27. Newnham College. Milnthorpe. St. Liverpool. Birmingham. WestmorHamlet. Mrs. C. J. Newlands. Mecklenburg Street. [land.A. Heversham School. Wellington College. London. India.. M. Bryanston Square. Hale. Selly Oak. M. T. E. U. M. Joseph. Harrison. H. Harper.C. Rev.... G.A. 54..A.. H.. c/o Messrs.L. W.. 84. S. P. Ifiss A. W. *Halsbury. Rev. M. Hamilton. G.. Surrey.. Rev. Yacht Club.A. Forest School. Leicester. 4.A. W. M.. Wellington. Ortygia. Oxted. Hon.A. St..O. Yorks. The Greek Manse. E. LL.. Miss E. *GwATKiN. Chicago. J. B.. M. E. J. W.. Cambridge.W. K *Hadow. P. B... Manchester. W. M. F. 3.S. Guy..C.. Rt. Edinburgh..A. B. The University. C. Hammans... M. Herts.. the Earl of. Prof. D. S.. J. Hall. Liverpool. (No address. 4. Litt.A.A.. E. M. I.A. Armstrong College. Prof W. Newcastle-on-Tyne. Cambridge. Hales. M. Kolaba. Chalmers Crescent. 61. Bombay..Litt. Haig-Brown. H.. Baldock... H... Bombay... B.. King & Co..C. . c/o Messrs. Parliament Street.S. Rendel. LL. Sassoon Dock Road.. King.D.A. The Bi'ewery.. M. A. W.. *Haerison. Harper. 3Irs... Hardcastle. B. Chetwynd House. J. Alexandra Road. Miss B. Miss E.A... M. *Haigh. Oxford. Hartley. Aberdeen.D. Shropshire.. GwiLLiAM. M. B. Sefton Park. Andover.D.. Hardeman.A. The High School. Prof.. B. GwATKiN.

. Hendy. M. Rev.. Oxford. B. West Downs. B. Oxton. Cambridge. 3. M.. M. York House School. B. Henderson.. Principal of King's College. B.A. W.. Heath. Windsor Avenue. Rev. Birmingham. S. Hagley Road. M... Henry. Bromsgrove. M.A. B. M. Burnley. Haslam.A. J. Hon. G. Miss M. 5. V. H.. B. Norfolk. Victoria Park.A. L. L.A. A.A. Board of Education. B. H..A.. Fettes College. Henson. M.A. School House. 38. A'^. LL.. Grammar School..A. He WARD. Tib Lane... Victoria Park. London.A. Lansdowne Crescent. Hampstead. N.. H.. Hewart. W. Eton College. J. H. Brother Edmund. Cross Hill..A. Bromley.A.. W. Approach Road. R. *Haynes.. B.... Whitehall..D.E. M. Lanes... W. M. . New Walk Terrace. Heard. Principal. W. Heseltine. Heath. M. S... Sussex. Prof..C.. M.APPENDIX 148 Hartley.. Cheshire.. W. John's Wood Park.D. B.. M. Belfast. Brasenose College. F.. B. Exeter College. M. Rev. W. Hetherington. J. Palace Grove.A... Winshields... 98. C. M. M.. *Hebbrden. C. Kent. Henn. S. J. Chingford Lodge.. Oxford. F. E.. Bishop of.. St. B. G. Whitehall. Haydon. Mrs.A..A. M. Rev. N... LL.W. J. York. C. School House. Haverfield. Haverfordwest. Kensington Park. Brighton College.. Headlam. Headlam. Henry. A..D. Reedley Lodge. Manchester.. W. Herford. Helbert. J. Herman.W. Broadhurst Gardens. Manchester.. S. 41. L. 16. A. L.A. London. Prof. N.. Queen Anne Terrace. H.A. Rev. W. Manchester.. Miss C. S.. Board of Education. B. D. Henn. C. Westmorland.A. G. 224.D. Xaverian College. Grammar School. J. Grasmere. Hbadlam. Ph.A. Tonbridge. Round Hill. Hbathcote. F. R. Bank of England Chambers. Hett. See Burnley. The University. Windsor..W. M. Manchester. Parmiter's School. N.A. Edgbaston.. A. p.. M. Heppel..W.A. A.. Henry. Hebblethwaite. L. Acton. Birkenhead School. Edinburgh. Great Cressingham. Henderson. Hawkins. Birch Grove. Oxford. Winchester. New College. G.A. Hayes. N. Oxford. B. Kent. D.

D. H... F. E. A. Miss R. *HiRST.. Lichfield. W. The Red House. Miss D. St.. 14.. M. Abbotsford Villa. Bishop Hicks... L. Giles'. Bev. Miss M.. Lansdowne House.. Miss M. Heptonstall. H.. Rev.. Cheshire. Htldesheimer. Suffolk. P.A. A. Twickenham.W.W.D. Stratford-on-Avon.D.. F.. London. Clopton. Miss G... Fossedene. U.A..A.. S. M.. M. 2.. G. Yorks. St. Westleton. HiGGS. Edmund's Road. Hogarth.A. Birmingham. N. B.B. W. KW.. Hodgson. HiLLARD.M. U. Beal. Barmoor Castle. S.S. W. High Street.. Hobhouse. L. G.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 149 Hewetson. MA. Holme.A. M. Northumberland.. Hodgson... F.A. M. Temple. HoDD. L. R. Holder. Regent A Street. V. M. Miss M. Bt.C. 20... Holland.. H. Hogarth. Miss M.A. Hodge. M. M. C. D. R Hicks. v.. Rev. Barton-under-Needwood. High School for Girls.. Wheelwright Grammar School.A. H. A. E. Hicks. Miss G.A.A. M. D. M. Calday Grange School.. Hollowell. 3fiss A. Mrs. Hollidge. Staffs. Slater Ing. Rev. Conduit Street. Dews- . M. Australia. West Kensington. Hodgkin. W. Holding..A. Hicks. E.O. *HoDGE. Mount Pleasant. K.. Unley Park. East Putney High School.L... LL. West Kirby. M. Thornbee Street. A. E. M.A. S. Paul's School. D. Hodgson.. S.. Putney. Canon W. High Master of St. Harcourt Buildings. Hodges. See Lincoln. 45. D. S. 33. 18.. Rev. New York City. Carpenter Koad. A... E. Kyre College. Chelsea Embankment. A. Tonbridge. M. Oxford. Prescote. E..S.W. Southsea. 20. North London Collegiate School. Hill. M. E. Saffron Walden. Old Palace.A. Columbia University. Cambridge. Barnard College.C. Edgbaston.. Sax- mundham. bury... Hirst. Hampstead. Downside Crescent.D. of. New York.A. T. British Museum. 5. The Wadleigh High School. Hebden Bridge. Carlton Road. Lincoln. J. D..

The School. 144. Sussex. South Kensington. A. S. S. J. L. Baron F.. Oxford.A.A. Buxted. near Hull. C. Miss HoYLE.D. C. HussEY. . G. Kensington. Sunderland. *HoRSFALL.. New College. H. T. M. Moston. Manchester.D. Miss S. Perth. B.Chancellor the Victoria "University of Manchester. Ashley Lane. D. The Vicarage. Hughes. Hooper. Moss Side. Vicarage Gate. *HoTSON. V.. Claremont College. H.. W. M. K. Jesus College. Sir A. Fern Bank. W.. HoPKiNSON.. HuTTON. M. S. L.. Durham. M.. Cheltenham.C. Miss M. Miss C. Litt..S. Bold Street.A. Hutchison. M.. Hughes. Eev. Manchester.. W. T.. F. Oxford. G. M. Nottingham..... S. Orley Farm School. W. Brixworth.A. HoRSFALL. M. Kensington. Houghton. F.W. St. Government House... HuLBERT. 49. 8. Berkhamsted. M. Rev.A.. Australia... B. L. E.. Houston. S. Harrow. Innes. A. Huddersfield. P. A.A. J..W. H... C. 13. The College.D. W. HiJGEL. A. North Bailey. Hopkins.Litt.A. James's Square. W. Belgrave Villas.A. The University. Oxford. of Hose.. Rice...A...A.A... Rectory Terrace. W. RL Rev.. Vice.A.. G.. J. How.A. A. B. Wingfield House.APPENDIX 150 Holmes. Dulwich College. H.. East Hayes. J. B. H. H. Cumberland. Herts. M. Sir A. Hopkins. HuLTON.. House. F.A. Dorset. A.W. Hull.. Sir J. High School for Girls. Hulme Hall.. Miss A. Douro Place. HowARTH. C. Hughes. M. Bart. Drayton Gardens... T. M.. Bombay.. Harrow. B. Queen's College. S. Miss E. Windham Club.. M. V. von. S. Liverpool. Miss J... How.. M. Miss K. 11. 10.. Hunt. 2.. Hunter. H. Miss E. 21. Lorton Hall. Rev. BA.C. Hutchinson. I. 20.A.E. Great Malvern. M. B. Hessle. Eev. The Cottage. The School.. F.A. E. 107. M. Northampton.A. W. the Lord Bishop of.. Eaton Terrace.. Oxford. Guildford Grammar School. M. Manchester. M. Australia.. Sidcup. Heatherley. HoPKiNSON. W. Sherborne. HuBBACK. M.A. HuBBACK.A. LL. Chislehurst Road. King Street. HoRT. H.

Miss K.. Jewson.Litt. Bracondale.. Eastbourne.. *Jevons.A.. *Jex-Blake.. M.A. * Johnson. Cambridge. Ballard's Shaw.W.. Jackson. Cardiff. M. M. M. Trinity College. Trinity College. Cambridge. 30. M. Kenley. Levitt. Litt.A.. L." Bombay. Jelf. Oxford Street.C.. B. Jerram.. J. G. D. Eton College.M. Cambridge. Woodlands. Criccieth. li.. Monmouth. Queenwood.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 151 *HUTT0N. S. Grammar School. Cambridge.. N. S.. Cambridge. Essex. C. Altrincham..A. Walton Street. Perth. Miss L. The Rectory. Berks. Tower House. Very Rev...W. Miss C. Jones. H. Cambridge. Christ's College.D.. L. M. Woodleigh. S. Norfolk Street. Miss A. M. M. Wales. W. Warden of Trinity College. Broomhall Place. B. Htslop.. Norwich.. Malvern. H. Cyprus. Victoria Park Road. H. C. 10... R. Rev.. M. Hampstead. 29. c/o the "Advocate of India. Willoughby Road. E. Paul's School..A.. Jones. Glenalmond. F. Windsor. 3Iiss H. Johnson. Chichester Street.. Jones.. L. Limpsfield.. F. M.A. I. *Jenkinson. The James. Liverpool. M. Fernley. W.A. L. S. Alveehurch. M.. Lloyd. Limassol...A..A. 0.A. 32. B. St. *JoHNSON. Miss E. 134.A. O.. C. Oxford. R J. Hiss E. 13. Jenkyns. Ennismore Gardens. The Writers' Club. N. J. Cheshire. Nelson Square. Johnson. Jones. N. 33.A.. Image. M. Brad field College. Jenkins.. Miss E..A. Jex-Blake.D. The Grange..B..A. B. R. Bishop Hatfield's Hall. Worcs. Jex-Blake. C. BA. E. Chaucer Road.A. A..P. Honey Lane....... p.C. F. M..E. C. Durham. Principal. L. Surrey. Berks.D. T.A. Girton College... E. N. Maidenhead. .. S. A. B. Chester. C... West Kensington. B. Rev. Miss R. W. Impey. A. Rev. 16. R.. Irvine. Impey.. M.A. C. Prof.A. Johns.A. The College. *JoHNSON. M. Folkestone.A. Miss James. Wyss Wood. F. J. *Jasonidy.. Lady Margaret Hall.A. D. *Jackson. Oxford.. H. A. Johnston. Gii^ton College. Miss D. James. James.. Strand. Waltham Abbey. M. 11. Principal. Blackfriars Road. Litt.. Afiss B. Sheffield... Ingle. D. M.

W..A.A... Secretariat. Miss F. L. B.. W.. B. M. Kingdom. Catharine's College. H. W. Windsor. M.C.. Jones. M. (University of Michigan). B. Rt. S.. DubHn.. Clifton College. Bombay. United Service Club. Keen. Kensington.C. Miss E. JuDSON. W.A..A.. Tower Bridge. Miss J. Liverpool... Alexandra College.. Hulme Grammar School.A. S. Miss E. 102. M. Rev. C. M. C.J. Highfield Road.. Grammar School. See Hull. Presidency. Keeling.S.Litt. Jukes. J..A.. King. Keeling. G.A.S. Yorks.B. Herts. W. J. B.C. Aston. F. Sefton Park. Birmingham.. E. Cambridge. King Edward's School. 145. 19. I.A.. Manchester. H. A. I.. Keen.. M. Totten- ham. Shenstone.. C. D. Kempthorne. Bristol. Nasik. Dean Close School.A.. Kennedy. S. S. J. The British Museum.A. Kennedy. Oxford. E. Calcraft. Ker. M. T. A. Wilson. 0. Oxford.A.. U. C. Maidenhead. W. W. C.. Prof. St. Ignatius. Belvedere College. Brookdale Road. Keane.B.. C. Birmingham. The College. Shenstone. G. Bombay W.A. M. Keatinge. Cheltenham. Hyde Park. Michigan.APPENDIX 152 Jones. Rt. R... Rev... F. T. W. 9. Cambridge. Rev. (No address. S.. King. H.. W.. M. Cambridge. C. King. Bishop of. I.V. Lord Justice. Eton College.A. Olave's School.) Kelsey. Gloucester Terrace.A. King. H. C. J... Miss M... Bradford. .O. Nantwich.. 23. F. L.A. LL. S. Hon. M.A.. Vicarage Gardens. Dublin. KiNCAiD. Kenyon. W... KiDD.C. F.J. Tappan Street. KiNDERSLEY.. Willaston School. Kendall. Southport. Rev. District Judge. M.. New College. Edgbaston. A.. Grammar School... M. A. Sherborne.E. W. Cordwalles. 40. H..A.A. Godalming. St. Hitchin.D. Brighton.. Kennedy. Rev. St. Ann Arbor.S. Stamford Hill. St.A. G. M.. Joseph. Kennedy. S. Charterhouse. Mrs. Abbeylands. W. Ivy Street.. B. 5. Kemball. B..S. M. 826. W.. Margaret's Road. Kensington. Kelaart... Calcutta. F. E.. Jones. *Kelsey. King. R. M. H. E. Rev.. Haileybury College. Kennedy. Phillimore Gardens. E. Kensington.

. Leader.. Lattimer..A. Cambridge. M. N. Bombay. E. J. West Downs. B. High School for Girls. Temple. Bromley. Dublin. F. The Phillips Exeter Academy. Malabar Hill. Westmorland. J. 50a. A. M. Canada. N. M. Prof. Bowdon. See Manchester..A.A.. Miss A.. Langpord. W.A. Rev. KiRBY. L. W. 18. 20 . Povighkeepsie. M. H. Liverpool... Latham. Copthill. Surrey. *Lamb. W. J. St.. Reigate. Bishop of. A. KiRKPATRicK. Elphinstone College. C.. Elmshurst. B. M.A.. Bombay. Kyrke-Penson.. M. R..A. B..J... Larbolette. D.. Merrion Square. Mrs. C. U.A. Rev. Leach. Albemarle Street. M. The Deanery.. Rev. Bedford. Mikleton. Knight.A. Langley.. CLE. Steyning School. Sussex.. KioxjHiN. Harrington Square. Pembroke College. Very Rev.Y. H. Lang.A. Camberley. Liverpool. Grammar School. Knox. Layman. New Hampshire. Frof Abby. Thornfield. Toronto. G. M. Comberton Hall. Leach. The Cliff. La Touche.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 153 Kipling. M. Mi's. Langdon-Davies.. *Knight.. Miss C. P. Laurie.S. Cheshire. R. Miss A. M. E. I. Lang. Surrey. S. Lea. Bt. Abingdon.. M... Miss E. E.. Royal Academical Institution. M. Ely. C. Kirkby Lonsdale. Xavier's High School..S. Krause.. Prince Alfred College. Oxford and Cambridge Club.D. Goldington Avenue. Pinewood Grange. K.C.C. Bombay. a.S. Kidderminster. Lamb. Digby. Pall Mall. Australia. Lawson. N.D... Lancelot.. B.C. T. 40. Mrs...A. D. Rev. K... Exeter. Bucks. Miss H. KiRTLAND.. Langridge. East Finchley. M..W. E.A. Cheltenham. B. La Motte. Wycombe Abbey School. M. M. T. Miss E.A.I. Latter. Liverpool College. G. F. N. Reigate Hill.. Frof.. F. E. Winchester. J. India. North Devon Lodge. Victoria College. Cambridge.W. Berks.. F. Rev. 44. 3.. Sir Richard. Temple Gardens...A. U. S. Belfast. Knight.S. S. Layng. Vassar College.. R. M. J. K. Trinity College.A. Burgh Heath. D..A. X. Miss E.. Ahmednagar.. Queen's Drive. Adelaide.. J.

M... 204. R. D. Leahy. Fitzjohn's Avenue. E...A. R. Birmingham. N... Esholt. a. LiNNELL. Godalming.. B. 92.. Limebeer. Miss J.. 43 & 45 Harley Street. Yorks. M. A. M. Nottingham.A. LiBBEY. LL. Slough. Wrexham. High School. B. Gordon Square.. Leman. Manor Road. M. The Vicarage. Manchester. Warden. Leeper. Leckenby... N. 13. J.. The Grammar School. E. LiNDSELL. . Rev. near Shipley.D. Kensington. W. Prof. G. R.D.D. W. Oxford. Warden of Trinity College. Lincoln. Lewis. Lewis.D. Lewis. Miss A. Miss M. Bank of England. 6. G. Litt. W.D. 324.C. Cheshii'e.D. Jackson.. S. Southcote. London.. M. Miss C. M. M. Perry Barr... Elm Grove Road. W. Monument Road..A. M. Rev. Sheffield. Abercromby Square. Queen's Square.. A. Liverpool... Clax-endon Road. LL. Ambleside. E.. Linton-Smith. London. Leary. near Birmingham. King's College. F.. A. Cape Colony. LiNZELL. Miss M.A. Grove Park.. University. Blundellsands.. C. Miss. L.. Castlebrae.. Dover Street..A..APPENDIX 154 *Leaf. B. Litt.A. Birmingham.A. H. 0. Hampstead.W. College Hall. Rev. Alex. L. Rev.. H.A. Leeds.W.. Rt... Batheaston. 84. 29.D. Lewis. Lee-Strathy. Rev. LL. Wallasey. M. French Hoek... Ashdell Road. D. Miss D. Hillside. Mrs. M. Harborne... Lewer. a. Lehmann-Haupt. Ledgard.. M. M. Fulneck School. Leeds. Birchfield Road. M. High School. Craigellachie. Lewis. Rawlinson Road. 58.A. C. S. Sherwood Rise.C.. Liscard. Legg. P. W.. Liverpool.M.. Miss M. H. S. Prof. W. Sussex Place. Melbourne Lee. Ealing Common. M. Prior's Field. Bath. Oxford. LiLLEY. E. London..A. Lewis. Lee. M. Miss E.. B..D....A. Lincoln. A. W. Lindsay.W. Africa.A. Putney.A. Queen's College. Lipscomb. Stanley C. Brow Hill..A. M. Balliol College. The Gale.A. Wimbledon. M.. Liberty. Lexham Gardens. Leqard.. Herbert Road. Rev. M. liEWis.W.A. Lidderdale.. E. Miss E. 5.. Bognor.. LL. Cambridge. G. Pudsey.A. Lewis. W. Farnham Common. Bolton. F. the Lord Bishop of Old Palace. Sir Sidney.. E. 2. W. Ph. 26. B. 108. Miss D. S.. Miss B.

Kent. Kensington... Cambridge. Corpus Christi College.. Paternoster Long WORTH. Roundhay.. Brighton. Rev. S.. MacGrbgor. I. Highfield.A. Oxford.E. the Hon. G. Oxford.. BA. *Mackenzie. R. Ha warden. M. Eccles Old Road.. Master of University College.A. S. 96. Oxford. Leeds. Wolverhampton. Wales. Dickenson Road.. Rusholme. AUerton House. H. LoRiMER. Montpelier Road. Cambridge. Lines..A. F. LowRY. D. B. W. M. G..C. LoRiNG. E. E. London.. J.. F. Tonbridge. 92.... i¥wsE. W. Brighton and Hove High School. Luce. S. . Lucas. LovEGROVE. Miss S. Warden of Keble College. J. Macfarlane... Miss G. Lewisham.. M. Somerville College. Lock. Stamford. 39.E.. W. Junr. Charterhouse. Miss H... 6.A. N.A. LuNN. Eton College. Eton College. Bromley. Rev. School House. M. Oxford. H. M...A. Miss A.. G.A. MacInnes. M. M. Mackail. A. G.. Lord. Girls' High School.W. C. Lyttelton. Hon. Leicester. Longman. M. S.. Worcester College. Llewellyn. LoANE. Blackheath.A. S. London. G. G. Bedford College. W.A. 145.P..Litt. Catharine's College. Oxford. *LuBB0CK. W. R. H.A. W. Clarendon Park Road. Queenmore School. W. M. LovEDAY.... LL.. LuPTON. Windsor. Rutland. Swindon. Rev.. LoLY. Canon W. 8. Knockaverry.. Stafford vStreet. Chelsea. Windsor. Lord High Chancellor.. Mackesy. Oxford. Manchester.A.. Linnell Close. LoREBURN. Eaton Square. Uppingham School. F. Hon. Rev. a. 6.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 155 Livingstone. C.. J.D. Windsor. Luxmoore.W. D. St... LoEWE. Hendon... Tettenhall Road. Macleod... B.. *Lyttleton. D... W. M.. W. B. M. Lys.. M.. Miss A.D. P. Macalpine.A..W. M. Springwood. *Macan.. Rt. T. Impington Park. High School. Pendlebury.. J. Wadham College. Macfarlane-Grieve. Church Street. The Old Christopher.A. J. M. B.A. N. L. Rev. Row. Eton College. Pembroke Gardens. Lodge. J. Eton College. Godalming.A. Pendlebury High School. W.. C. Windsor. L. E.A. B.. Manchester.A.. School House. J. Leamington. Colfe Grammar School.. W. E. Miss E.

M. Newcastle-underLyme. K. Marshall. Miss A. C. R. University College of Wales. S. Newcastle- on-Tyne.M.. Calcutta. Martin. Lord^ 198.A.W.. H. Macnaughton. J. C.Y.. H. M. 7. Marshall.. ment Street. A. B. c/o Messrs. J. Ovingdean Hall. Yorks. B.B. London. Elphinstone College. D.A. Eshe Road. A. Bedford. D. Provost of Queen's College.A. Miss G. Bombay Presidency. New York City....A.. Hon. Rev. Queen's Gate Gardens. Bedford Place.. Parlia- Marshall. C.A. Vassar College. D... New Cuthbert's Street. Hampstead. H. Marchant. Marrs. Maconochie.A.D. Liverpool.A.. M.. St.A. a.. Lincoln College. A. I. C. Marshall.. Rt. Matthew's Drive. . St.. J. Ph. F.APPENDIX 156 Macmillan. Queen's Gate. M. B. F.. H. St. Luckley. Blundellsands. B.. Bombay..A. P.. Rt. A.D. Marsh. Ovingdean Hall. Rev. M. Macurdy.. Grindlay & Co. Oxford. London. Bombay. Wokingham. J.. West Bromwich.D.O. 3.. N.. S. M.. Poughkeepsie. CLE. D. Macnaghten. 11. Bishop's Court.. Sedbergh School. Woore. Leonards-on-Sea.S. Laurie. Nasik. Ltd. Bombay. W. B.A. 54.A. R. M. p. Manley. D. S. *Malim... G. Rev. H. 27. MacVay. Xavier's High School.. Madan. Bombay Co.. D.A. Wadleigh High School. M.W. Rev. W. H.. Marshall. M.. Brighton.. St.. John's Wood Park. Manchester. N. E. D. Oxford. G. 37. Marillier.A.J. Croydon.. Whiteaway Buildings. F.. H. D. Macnaghten. H. 12.Litt.S. W. *Macnaghten. The Crescent.A.. Manchester.A. Grammar School.A. U. U. Rev. 20. M... Magrath. St. Far Cross. Mrs.. Stafls. H. H. M.. M...B. a. M.A. Mainwaring.S. M.S.A. L. Marshall. Brighton. Mann. Windsor. Westbourne Terrace. Director-General of Archaeology in India. Rev.Litt. Prof... Aberystwyth... Mansfield. E. Magnus.. Eton College.. The Crossways.W. Hornby Road. a.. LL. the Lord Bishoj) of. Miss A..

A. Doods Eoad. J. G. Oxford. West Kensington. Miss M. N.. N. St. The Lodge. 6. Mayall. M. Miss K. King's College. P. 3£iss L. Rev. G. H. M. G. H.. N. N.C. Campden W. P. Matthew. Reigate. a. Kingston Hill. S. Martin. McDouGALL.. Australia. Adelaide. Mavrogordato.. Whitehall. B. Mrs. L. Hawkes Bay. Matthews.. Ebury Square. B. *Matthaei. W. Bev. W. Board of Education.A. Siam..A. Prof. Ch. May. Bangkok...W. A.. Devon Place. Mason.W. McAnally. Pembroke Gollege. B. Queensgate House.. 3..C. A. E. Lower Walton.Otane.W. 157 Muswell Avenue.. B. Rev. Warrington. Inverness Gardens. Savile Road.I. *McCutcheon. A. Surrey. B. 70. Mayo.Mus. McCrba. Belsize Park Gardens. M. Westfield College.. J. Hill. McMillan. St. W. G. Miss A. Masham.. Bede's School.. M. H.. G. The Perse School.W.A. Miss M.S. B... Lonmay House. South Hampstead.A. 1. E.. St.A. M.. M. 6. K. McElderry.... E.).A. F.. D.W. T. Galway.. Miss G. . Jliss L. Fallowfield.. J. D. Oswaldkirk. Merchant Taylors' School.. p. Bromsgrove. B.A. Bromsgrove School. Paul's School. J.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS Martin. Warkworth Street..A.. Cambridge. Cambridge... Oxford. Cambridge. Durand Gardens. Mason. G. Manchester. Rev. W.. Brixton. L. Mattingly.iBritish Museum. Rev. J.Z. Massey.G.C.. Wilbraham Road. H. High School for Girls... Mill Hill School. 70. 2. Newnham College. Miss M. O.W. Prof.A. A.. Matheson. Mayor. LL. McKay. Cambridge. Gordon House. S. M. Lady Margaret Hall.. S. F. Rev.. Mason. 3fiss E..A. Miss D.A.A. Ampleforth College.A. Peter's College. M.. E. B. J. W. (Scot. B. N.. Stafford. W. T.. McClurb.. Mason. Mathews.W.. Muswell Martin. Canon A.. St.A. 52. M. The University.A. Liverpool...A.. S. Hampstead. J. J. Demesne Road. R. R. M. K 3. Eastbourne..A. Stockwell Secondary School. H. S.D. *Mayor. K.. York.D. S. Pearce.E. J.. Box 24. Hill. Michael's Vicarage. Queen's Gate Gardens. McCormick. McLean.. B.

C. Mrs.. W. Merrill. Miss A. M.B. Manchester..A. G. Merrick. Bankside. Holland Boad. T..L. A.G..A. S. Meyer.Phil.. Miss. British Museum. S. Sion College. MiLFORD.M. Shrewsbury House... C. E. G.W. Rev.A. W. M. Brooks's Club. 110. I. Miss E.C.. S. W.. U. Birmingham.. University of Chicago. Winchester.. Measures. Mrs. Oak Drive. Milverton. MooRE. Bombay. Yacht Club. 46.. E. Miles. Rector of Lincoln College..A. V. 14. 40.C. I. G. S.. W. Miss B. B. M. Eev.. E. Rev. Oxford.A. M. A. 47.S. Wellington Square.B. Moor. MiLNBR. D. A. MoNTEATH. G. J. Miss B... MoNTEATH. W. Moore. M.A. St. Kendal.. Montague. H. School.A.. N. Rugby. Somerset. Oxford. Merton College.. B..W. E. V. J/rs. Menzies. 1. Sydenham.. Miss E. M. M. Lis Esgol.A..D. Luke's College. The Boltons. C. The Boltons.. MiALL.. B. M.. Miss M.. M.A.R. F.A..S. Liverpool.. Bombay Presidency.. N. M. W. Greenbank Cottage. Manchester... Haileybury College. Exeter. Mills..A. Chelsea Embankment. S. Moore. M. Worcester.) Menzies. Karwar. Moor.. Oak Drive.W. D.L.A.. Victoria Embankment.C.A. Miles. M.Sc. C... Abingdon.. Milborne Grove. E. J. E.A. Surbiton. Rt. M. 14. James's Street. W. E. Surrey...W. Isleworth. MiNTURN.A.C. Michael. D. Clifton Hill..C. Cheltenham. M.. Rajkot. Fallowfield. J.. S. Viscount. The Lawn. Wadham House. 1. K.. Hale.. J. E..E. Canonbury. Letchworth. India.. Appleton Rectory. Prof. Meiklejohn.. M. A. Middlesex.A. M. Miss E. Belgrave Koad. MiLMAN. E. G..A. MooRE. K. Rev.A.. B. H.. M. Norton Way N. G. Kensington.. MiCHELL. R.. Kathiawar. (No address.APPENDIX 158 McMuRTRiE. 14. G. M. W. Melhuish. Compton Road. Hertford. S. Rev. C. M. Manchester.A.D. J. T.. West Horsham.C.. Head Master. F. Prof. Grammar School.A. 10. S. G.. Farnham. King Edward VI.A. Fallowfield. T. S. Milne. Miller.. Christ's Hospital. W. Clifton Hill. *MiTCHESON. Goldhill.. MooR. North Kanara. Dr. *MiLLiNGTON. S. Merry. Winchester. F. Montague. 105. Mead.W. Ladbroke Square. Hon. S.. P. McL. L.. E. Eversley Crescent. Milborne Grove. L.S. D.S... Miss M.A. M.. 14. Peak Hill. . P. M. LL.. *Millard. St. E..A.O. Mills... W.

MussoN. M. Oxford. Wimbledon Park. L. S. M... A. W. of Blackburn. A. MoRLEY.D.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS Morgan. Highfield Park. (No address.D. Darnley. Brackenside. Banbury Road. Helena Road. G.W. Tewin. Grammar School. Myers..C. Manchester. Lincoln College. Miss E. L. 4. N. A. J. Bristol... Seaforth Hall. T. Nairne. *MuRRAY. George's Square. M. Cintra Lodge. J. J. Greville Road.A. Rev.. Zealand. Flowermead. Prof. C. Newcomb. E. W. Grosvenor Road.A. G. Sale.C.. Cheltenham. *MoRSHEAD. Miss H. M. J.D.A.. Board of Education. Otago High School.. M.. A. Jesus College. Moss. MuNRO. Alfx^eton Vicarage. M. A.) Morton.C.. T. M. G. B.. Naylor. Hyde Park Street. County High MoRisoN. H. *MuMM. *Myres. LL. Adelaide. E. H. MA.W. Sir K. J.... Herts. 15. S. 39. Pittville 3Iiss A. (King's College. Hereford. W. Ernest. M. G. Murray.A. L. The Lawn.A.A. L. Neild. D. MoRRELL. S. Halifax. The University. Sheffield. *MoxoN. Rev.. Nairn.A. Canada. Prebendary H. John. Rev. MA.... Miss Newman. Cambridge.. G. Miss C. H... S. 57.. H. Murray. Et. St. 101.A. MouLTON.. M. Hon. . Miss M. Westbury Road... Oxford.A. Litt.W. M. Rev.. Morris..A. Rutland Park. Oxford. M. Miss B. D... Prof.D.A... Hampton Park. Muir-Mackenzie.. Derbyshire. MuscHAMP. Litt... Liverpool. LL.. Reading.Litt. K.W. Prof. Merchant Taylors' School. J . W.D. M...A. Newton. Cheshire. Leominster. Kilburn Priory. LL. Worcester. Oxford.B.. The Vista. Bristol. New L. S. H. Ivy Dene.. B. Viscount. Rev.A. E. 1. Howard. MusPRATT. R. A. W. Dunedin. Witney.. The High School.A.... Prof.. K. K.. 1. Newman. Redland. 19. near Oxford. St.. 50a. Prof.. W. A. Chislehurst. London). *Newton. Didsbury College. 159 School. M. Australia. Christ Church. Dalhousie University. Whitehall. Morris.A. Welwyn. M. J.. Albemarle Street.

D. (University College). Betteshanger.. St.A. M. T. St. Nicholson.. O'Brien... Fleetwood. E. Bristol.M. K. B. P. Northants. Oxford Terrace. Minnesota. Christ Church.. 26. Rossall. Colwyn Bay.. E. Norton. L. Bruton. K. B. Oldershaw. Handsworth. M. M. Rev. Orange. Co.A. D.A. Hagley Road. Grove City.A.. Keble College.. D. Grant. Norwood. M. Rydal Mount School. Haslemere. Rt. a. The Grammar School. Norwood. Maidenhead.. J. Liverpool. Fernley. Thomas's College.S.. M. Portsmouth.. M. Northbourne. Oundle. Oxford. W. Nowers.. 15.S. The High School. NiCKLiN. Kent.. NicoL. Kensington W. Ninian Road. Bombay Presidency..A. G. S. M. Nolan. NiMMO. Ormerod. Letchworth. F. W. W. A. Berks. LL. R. M.. Oliphant. A. M. J. p.. Miss E.W.D. C. Oakeley. Grove City College. E. Monsignor E. Owen.. T.M.J. Baldock Road. U.. G. Denmark Villas. O'Malley. Birmingham..A. Miss M.A. Rev.A. H. G. 32.... Jerningham Road. Aske's Haberdashers' School for Girls. Square. Liverpool College.. Nicholson... University House.. V. Kathiawar.A... Barton Street. Palitana.A. S.. Nolan. S..A.A.. Kildare.. p. Hove. *Oke. B. 215. M. OsBORN. M. Lord. P.G. Miss J.A. Cardiff. Oxford. Miss H.. lion.A. The University. Miss B. M. King's College. Grammar School. West Kensington. Prof S. His Grace St. S.A. Ph.APPENDIX 160 Newton. E.A. M. Sallins. Kiddermiuster.C.. Pennsylvania.A. Tudor. James's Square...S. West Kensington. Paul. W... U. King's College. NixoN.. 65. Norfolk. a. W. T. Lanes. A. 21. .. I.. New Cross. Liverpool. Sussex.A.. Owen. Clongowes Wood College. Rev.. Miss. Cambridge. Very Rev. Norfolk House. C.E. Miss M. Birmingham. M. Talgarth Road. S.A. H... G. Eastry. King Edward's School for Girls. M. B.. Prof.A. C. Nightingale. Owen.M. King's School. NoRRis. Sidney House. the Duke of.

16. Trinity College. E. Pearman. E. W. Miss E. Macaulay Road. Palmer. Old Bailey. H. *Pearson. 153. E..W.. Rt..A.A. Percival..A. Paine. Pendlebury..A. Oxford.A. p. W. B. 16.. Sefton Park. Bishop of... Westfield College. Kensington. Penny. Manchester. Arlington House... G. Oxon.A. Wolverhampton. B.. Manchester. M.. B.D. Stoke Poges. VVheatley. Woodcote. Tatoi... C. Rev.. M. Andrews.. Miss M. M.. O'H. Paton.D. LL. Whalley Range. E. Summerfield Road. E. a. Canon T. Somerville College. W. W. Croydon. University Registry. *Pearson.. A. Prof. E.. J. Perman. Wellington Road. Peskett. Ravensholt. C. M. Cardiff. M.. N. Miss A. M. Hall Place Gardens. Peake. Pember. Prof. Merton Court Preparatory School. W. the Lord Bishop of^ 161 Cuddesdon. 3. Pantin.. West Kirby.. Bombay. T. Netting Hill High School. Pallis.. Page.. Godalming.. Pavri..A. p.A. E. M. The Hermitage.. Pembroke Dock. I.A. Kent. Warlingham. St. N.. Footscray. Albans.S. Cambridge.A. Rev. Hampstead. E. G. Small Cause Court. Gunnei'sbury.. *Penrose. M. Norland Square. Cathay's Park. Magdalene College. Peacock. Bombay.. Paul. J. 21 . Paterson. Miss E. L.A.. Acrise. Aigburth Drive.A. D. M. Cambridge. M. Paton. County School. Barrow Street. S. Miss C. L.. Marlborough. Abbey Park South. W. Parker. A. Pearce. Transvaal University College. Birkby. Miss C. W... A.A... Liverpool. R. p. West Bromwich. Papillon. J.. E.. M. Miss D. W. Grammar School. Nateby. Secretariat. M. v. Woodstock Road. 39... J. C. See Bombay. Canon R. M. W. Bucks.. St. B. B. Stoke House. 17. R. Parry. a.A.A... Huddersfield.A.A. Rev. Surrey.A.. p. S. M. Bedford Place. Rt. Brandenburgh Road.. Parry.B. 13. Miss Ida A. St. *Pearson. Pearman.. A. Paget. Queen's Gardens.. M. Pearse...NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS Oxford. 60. Pretoria.A.. Cheshire..C. J. Rev. a.A. M. Dewhurst Road.. H. 50.G. B.. Oxford. J. M. L. F. A.A.

Bart. PiLKiNGTON... Pooler. Miss D... Blossom Street.. *PiCKARD.. H. Canada. . A.C. W. T. Bombay. C..A. M.A.A. 70. F. B.J.... Miss H.M. York. Scotter. Pickering. Well Walk. Grove Park. 21..L. Pollock. Powell. Miss M. L. Oxford.) PoYNTER. PooLEY. Liverpool... Hon. 24.B. Phillips. E. LL.E. P.C.. N. PiCKARD. *PowELL. Rev.Litt.L. H. Pickard-Cambridqe. Market Street. M. N.. W.S. R. Bart. H. Oxford. L. Powell. Cambridge. Sir E.C. Mansel House.D.. Litt. Pratt. K. The University..A. Balliol College.A. M. M.. D.. LL. Oxford.A.. S.W. 60.. K. St. M.. D. M. B. W. W. S.. D.. J. English Street. Phipps.. Phillips. Yorks. Count.L. N. J.A. PosTGATE.. Newcastle-under-Lyme. Oxford. Plaskitt. St. D. Plaistowe.. M. Dublin.. John's College. W. Marine Lines. M.A. 60. E. Cambridge. Oxford. E...D. R.A.. 80. PoYNTER. Eev. P. G. Settle. Rev. Rainhill..A. Lanes.L. Blackburn. Staffs.A. Chester Terrace. M. *Peterson. Mary's Hall.. A. Mrs.. Mary's College. Stonyhurst.W. Huntingdon Koad. Theological College. Lowestoft. Kensington. St..C. 29.A.. Plater. Hampstead.. C. Queens' College..A. Addison Road. F.. Campden Hill.APPENDIX ]62 Peskett. Lichfield. Pollard. Miss M. Litt.. P. L.D. Prof. G.. Bart.A. G. 5.. Bradford. South Lodge. Ij. Briar's Hey. M.. C. Miss K. Princijyal W. F. Mrs. Cricklewood. Montreal. Overdale School. M. St. Harley Street.. Judicial Commissioner of Sind.A. Grendon. \V.. Platt... *Phelps. Poole. A. Sir F. D.. Lee. Bradford Commercial Institute. (No address. Oriel College... McGill University. Oxford. M. Miss M. J.. Telegraph Chambers. B. Plunkett.W.A. Downpatrick. Banbury Road.D. Pope. W.G. 26. M. Paddington..R..... Rev. M. Rev. M. U. M. a. Michael's Hostel. Prof. Sir W. Upper Fitzwilliam Street. Miss E. Orme Girls' School. B.. A. Hyde Park Place. Pope.A. Regent's Park. E. Powell. PiGOTT.. The Schools. Walm Lane.. Banbury Road. Shrewsbury. M. Phillimore.. T.. A. J. Karachi. Cam House. Miss S.

R. 29. M. A. King's School. Prickard. J. The Cathedral School.C.. Secondary School. W.. Dedham House. 8.D.. 3Iiss E.. G. Eton College. 53.D.. M. M. B. Summer Lane. near Ware. Herne Hill. Qdelch. *Radford.Sc. QuiN. Gill & Co. M.O. Canterbury... Ph.. L. J. R. Broad Street. Miss K.C. Eton College. *Raleigh.. Rendall. M. M.A. C.A. A..A. Cambridge. Dedham.. H. D. J. Litt. Sydenham Preedy. M. Tho University. 43. Rapson. Dublin. E. M. Liverpool... Frof. Y.A.A. W. Windsor. *Rackham. Leeds. H. G. Queen's Road. Rennie.. Radcliffe.S.. Simla.A. Fonthill. Wellesley Mansions. Park Road.A. Rendall. Essex. Hon. P. Mr. West Road.A.E. a...A. University CoUege. I.D.. B. S.. M.. M. Hereford. Miss F.E. Women's Settlement. Reid.. Sussex.. 14. Cheltenham. Blairgowrie. G. H. Pv. C. Windsor. Intermediate School for Boys. PuRDiB. Oxford.. Farnham. H. Pye. J. Deronda Road. c/o Messrs. Prichard.. G. M.. India.. F. Miss. Drumore.A. a. Wood Lane. M. Cambridge. W. M.C. Ragg. Liverpool Collegiate School. Highgate..S. Prof... 36. Cardiff. Miss J.A. Rawlins. M. K. 35. Shotover. B. Galway.. .A.A. Prideaux. H. W. Litt. M... Moscow Court. West Kensington. *Rainy... *Ramsay.. Lieut.S. J.. PuRTON.. M. Ladies' College. Hants. F. Prof. Hill Road.. Cambridge.. Litt. N. India.. C.. F.B. S. M. Birmingham. 318. Reynolds. East Grinstead.A. Miss IC. Rev.... IL. Bombay.. L.. Hillside Gardens... Fleet. M. Rawnsley. O. Surrey. Holland House. Purser.. Rendall.A. Reilly. Christ's College.D. Box 86. Pq'o/. I. a.. The College. Rackham. Stanstead Abbots. 8.. Litt. S.. W. Ramsay. Reeve. J.O. Price. Uxbridge. W.. 0. Winchester. Rev. Glasgow. B. Guildford. W. Rev. W. M. *Radcliffe. M.. B..D.. PuRDiE. Bombay. Miss J. Newport Road. C. J.A. Headingley. G.A.O. M. Trinity College. Herts. Kolhapur. 15.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 163 M.A.A. Mortimer Road. P. The Grange. Shamley Green. N. Reade. R.

M. F.. Windsor Court. W.W. G.D. M. Miss M. Ealing.D. J. Stockwell Road. Rhys. RiDGEWAY. Falkner Square.. M.. Leeds. Headingley. W.A.. G. B. Bayswater. 43. Jesus College. Oxford.A. G. M. M. King's College. Bombay. Germany.. Richards.. K. Rev. Wadham College. *RiDDiNG.. A.A. Roberts. Miss M.. Miss F. Riley. Fen Ditton. F. F.C. Sir W. Training College. M. Sevenoaks. The Lodgings.. E.. R....A. C.. Kelvedon. Liverpool. 5. Westfield College. E... . St.. Felbrigge. Halle-an-der-Saale. Miss A.A. L. RiCKARDS.. Lichfield Road. 3fiss S. Sc. Surrey. Litt... Stamford. Richmond. Yorks.A.W.. Cambridge. Prenton.A.A. E. S. 13. M. L. Bradford. Gainsborough House. W. T. C. The Rectory. LL. Edward's College. Richards.. Richards.D. T. 67. Kingswood School.. Beechview. B. RiGBY.. M. E... JRev.. St. S.A. Richmond. Wyss Wood.APPENDIX 164 Rhoades. Miss M. Prof.W. Everton. Ritchie.. J. Miss 0. R. A. Beavor Lodge. Richard. W..A. Richmond. S. Prof.. M.. South Luffenham. Eev. Roberts. N.. Roberts.. B. M. 30. Victoria Terminus. Victoria Square..A. Borough Road. Richardson. Bath. Angerweg 34.. Miss E. Essex. Rhodes. S. M. Prof. near Birkenhead.. J. M.A. Rhys.A. 9.. Cambridge. B.A. Richardson..A. New Cross.B. C. Liverpool Road.A. Kenley. Liverpool. Chester. Miss K. H. O... M. M. Aske's Haberdashers' School for Girls. M.B. Robert. F.. Master of Gonville and Caius College. Litt... Oriel College. Oxford. Robertson. Gordon Road. B..A.A.. Oxford. M. Girls' Grammar School. F.. Hammersmith. Rev. S.A. Hampstead. Kingsthorpe... M. Michael's Crescent. Miss C. F. Principal of University College. Richards. Sutton Coldfield.. Br.E. Roberts. W. M.A.D. Richards. Richardson. Richards. Cambridge. Aberystwyth. W.

Salfoed. E.. Kent. Perse School.. Rev. St. M. RuBiE.A. Coldhurst Terrace. E. Miss. N. Bedford. Llancrigg. High School for Wells. W. Tower Bridge. Miss E. Banbury. Brighton. M. M. 199. E. Andrew's Road.. India. Knighton. Rev.. Victoria College. N.A.. Robinson. W.. 165 B. Bombay Presidency. St.. Holmfield... Mansfield Road..A. St. L. RoTHFELD. J. N. S.A. Toronto. M.. K. S. Miss A.. J. Stoneygate School. W.. B.. Grasmere. Russell. E.. *Salmon. Reading.. J. Litt. Robertson. c/o Messrs. West Hampstead.A. Robertson. 14. G. 11. Olave's Grammar School. Notts.. The College. Cambridge.A.. 15. Oxford.. RoBY. German Place. A. the Bishop of. Didsbury.D.. RuNDALL. Miss M. LL.. B.S. Nagpur. Frof. M.A. Christ Church. C. M. Mary's Lodge. D. Oxford. *Rou8E. G.. Bedford Park. Rev.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS Robertson. W. Sanday. Broach. Queen Anne's Gardens. F. S.. H. Streatley. Yacht Club. The High School. C. I.C. H. Prof. Souldern Rectory. Trinity College. RoBY. Oarrington. The University. G. B. RouGHTON. Museum Road. Ridge Road.A. 7. Rev.. G. M. C.. A. R Rogers. Oxford. E. W. Robinson. Andrew's Crescent. E.. A. M. Leicester. J. High Bank. *Ryle.... L. Rogers. St. Girls.. 39.W. RossiTER. Bedford Park. W. B.A.. J. G. A. Westmorland. Malabar Hill.. RoscoE. 80.S. M.. Tunbridge .. RoMANis. Finstock.A.A. M. Miss M. Aigburth. Leicester. Cardiff. D. Manchester. W.A.D.. M. Ltd. D. I. M. Robertson. Leeds.. Otto. RuDD. G. W. Manchester. Alden & Co. *Sadler. Beverley. F. Sanders. M. Central Provinces. 328.. M. M. Malvern. Robinson. Ilsley Cottage. Afiss G. London. St. Russell..A.. Russell... Gordon.. Canada. H. T. Charlbury. E. Oxon. West View. D. G. J. Bombay.D. Bocardo Press. RooKE. Cambridge. E.. Liverpool. W. M.. Prof. Sale. Charterhouse.A. 3fiss A. S.C.. Rev. M.A. Bede's College.... B. Eltham College. W.. RusHBROOKE..A..E. RuDD. Rev. B. M. A. G.A. Sale.. Esmond Road.C. Bombay. Rt. Reigate. H.

Stavelea.C. Sands.A. Apollo Street..A. School House.. Saunders. G. Tower Bridge. Fife. Cambridge.. Blackpool. Cambridge. Ponders End. Shepherd.A. M. Scott. E. T. Westminster School.. Reigate. 2.APPENDIX 166 Sanderson. Sir J.. S.. Oxford. Rev. M. Windsor. C.. South Shore.. Newbury. M. Hindhead. Girton College. J. M. Sheppard. Oxford. Cheltenham. F. ScHOMBERG.. Wallasey High School. Andrews. S. King's College. Surrey. Miss M. 5. Shillington. H. Keble Road.. D. C.A.. Shewan. Sharpley.A.J. Shadwbll. Hebdcn Bridge. Oxford. D. M. D. Hartley Road. H. Sharwood-Smith. Cambridge. M. The Close. Hornby J. E. M. Eton College. Mrs.. The High School.A. I. Eastbourne. E. C. Olave's Grammar School.M..D.. St. *SiLC0X.. The School. Cambridge.. B. 15. Provost of Oriel College. C. Manchester. Milnthorpe Road.A.. Bijapur. Cautley Avenue. I. M. (No address. Selwyn.St. Cheshire. Woodburn. Hampstead.. 16. Felix School. Woodstock Road. Hereford. Parktown. T. S.. B.. near Hitchin. 36.A. Phipson & Co. Maresfield Gardens. Saunders. 1. S.A. Hull. St. Stonyhurst. Miss E. Merton House.A.. L. Yorks. Walter.. B. H. Arnold. Sargeaunt. E. . C. D. S. Hymer's College. Oxford. H. M. A..A.A. Newnham College.W. Scott. SiMPS0N. R. Sandford. Harley Court. Ladies' College..C. Road. a.L. M. St... E. Eev.A.. Exmouth. M. Southwold. Fern Lodge. Sheppard. Oxford. Simmons. Oundle. Seaton. N.A.. M. Didsbury. a.. Mary's Hall. Blackburn... John's College. M...) M..A. Sandys. W. B. Sanderson. Woodstock Road. Liscard. *Sheepshanks. Miss B.. S. Seebohm. J. Sarson... Bombay.. Miss L. Sharp. Clapham Common. Sikes. M. Semple. W. S.W. Litt. Miss E. Shannon. T. Cambridge..... College House.S.. R. 64.A.P. P. M. c/o Messrs.A. P. J. Miss N.D..A. Eev. C.. Miss I.W. C. E. M. SiDGWiCK. c/o The Times of India. Miss A. *Sharpley... Lawnhurst. Seehof. Simon. V. Bombay. ScoLES.E.A. Clarendon Villas. India. G.. C. Bailey.. Saunders..

Eton College.. W. Whitburgh. M. Pali Hill. Sharia-el- Madabegh. Oxford..A.. Sir W. Southlands College. c/o Mrs. N. Rev. The Vicai-age. S.. Rev. M. *Smith. M. Smyth. N..D.A. Magdalen College.. *Squire. Sowerby.C. Miss 0. Smiley. F. W.A. 33.. Hunts.A. W. Northanta.. *SMiTn. . Frognal. v. Liverpool. W. Southwark... Northwood.. G. R. S.. D.. Solomon. Llanishen.A.A. B. 114. Miss W. Kittsbury Road.A.W. Cairo.L. F. S. Welford Road.. A. W. B. D. A. *Skea.. J.. Miss R..A.... I. W.t. Snow. Sheffield.A. M. E. M. Rt. St.. H. Warden of New College. A.A. University College. Rev. M... G.W. Elgin Avenue. Darlington.E.. A.. Newton Grove. Birmingham. Well Road. Rossington Road. Sherborne. Bandra. Christopher's. Prof. J. Sing. The University. J. M. Spooner.. Victoria Embankment. Canon A.A. Sloane. Christopher's.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 167 Sinclair. Berkhamsted. Miss E. Liverpool.C..A. Slater. Sowels.A. J. Smith. D. Salisbury Cambridge... the Lord Bishop of. City of London School. K. Oxford. Miss E. a. E. Windsor. Canada.. Manchester. Prof. Joyce. Bombay. Oundle School. M. Liverpool. University College School. Durham. *Slateb. St. Hampstead.D. L. Herts. Fairholme Road. Kenniugton Park.Litt.. M. Cardiff.. Spalding. M. Rev. J. Victoria University. Grammar School. M. Linnet Lane.. D. King's College School.. Miss M. S. 12. Holly Hedge Cottage... Battersea.. Miss E.. INIossley Hill.. The School. Thetford. D. 15. Bishop's House. Smith..Litt. Sloman. Miss W. Norfolk. Miss G. Toronto. M.. M. S. Prof E. Middlesex. H.. Bradford. E. Sonnenschein.. Riicker.D. 13. John's College. Mrs. Prof. 31. M. C. J. O.W.. 2.. *Spilsbury. Fernley. A.. A. M. LL. M. St. C. Leicester. Smedley.... West Kensington. The Grammar School. D.A. N. Skeel. Gillaid. Linnet Lane. Smith. T. Bedford Park. Wimbledon. SowELs.. C. Villas.. 66. Smith. Smith. M.. L.A. Oxford..A. Dr. Godmanchester. M. Prof. M. J.A. J.A. Prof. The Rookery.W. Litt.. Smith. Slater. J. Spenser. Sleeman.A. Giils' High School. Sonnenschein. J.

Sheffield.. Hope.D.A. Dean of Christ Church.. Florence. c/o Messrs. Prof.. Yacht Club. Miss E. 5. J. L.. Oxford... H. Albemarle Club.. 15. Miss Stuttaford.... Stuart. B..A. N. Miss S.A..APPENDIX 168 Stanton. M.A. LL. W.. J.H. Prof. Strangeways. Oxford. Kent. Corpus Christi College. Clifton Hill. J. A. Ecclesall Ptoad. E. LL. Rev.. Stanton. B. D. George. *Stuart. St. L. H. W.A. M. J. Charing Cross. M. Rev. Kenilworth Road.. Rev.D. F. Bristol. Cambridge. The University.. *Stawell. Birmingham. E.. University College. Stock. *Stone. . C. Cambridge. B. T. 41. H. St. C.. W. T. George's Training College and High School for Girls. Farnham Common. 5. Strong. Cambridge. Miss F... W. Westbourne Park Villas. Viale Milton. Queen Anne Terrace.D.D. S... 4. Storr. Stobart. Sullivan. Trinity College.. Stewart. Stevenson. Stephenson..W. Endcliffe Rise Road. E. Rev.A. Melville Street.C. 40. E. Liverpool.A. R. M.. M. Tonbridge... Trinity College. Prof. J. J. H. A. Strong.A. Edinburgh.. John's College. Dover S. R. M. *Strachan-Davidson. 82. Radley College. Prof.... F.. Essex.A. A. Bombay. M. M.. M. D. 37. J.A.W. Stewart. Stenhouse.. V. Bedford College.A.. M. M.. Slough. Fidd Place. L. B.A. Street. W. Master of Balliol College. Stewart. Greycoat Hospital. Hampstead. Oxford.. Nottingham.A.A. M. Miss E. C. Cambridge.D. Very Rev. Stephanos. Stokes. Steele. E.. W. p... Cambridge. M.A. Clyst.C. L... D. Eton College. M. B.. Oxford. M.. F. Park House. The Park School. Miss A. M.. Stocks. C. The Malting House. N..D.A. Miss A. W. Strong. Felsted. Stone. Oxford.D. A. 9. H.A. D. John's Wood. Preston. 133. G. Stoneman. M.. High School.. Stevenson..D.. Stokoe. Sheffield. Redington Road. A.. C. W. Summers.D. St. The University...A. W.. G. Capt. Abingdon. J. M. Rev. M. LL. Mrs.. Steele. M.. Mecklenburg Square. Stroud.A. 61.A.W. Westminster. Cox & Co. Italy... Stevenson. D. Christ Church. St. Arthur. Strudwick. Trinity College. W.. Steen. Windsor. W. M. Cambridge.. H. P. Queen's Gate. Streane. The School House. Gloucestershire. 35..D.

Cyrus.. Somers Place. Taylor. M. S. 18. 2.. Taylor. M. Cambridge. M..A. H. N.W. A. Miss G. M. Hamam Street.. Talbot.C. Cheam. J.. The Manor House.E. Taylor. Manchester. Medland. M.. Surrey.. Miss M. Rusholme.. R. S. West Kensington. K. Rev. M.W. 0. Miss L. 0. Girls' Grammar School.A. Miss E.. Edgbaston. Queen's Road. Edith Road. Miss Tabor.. Jfzss M. W.A. South Kensington.A.. Syson. Miss E.. SwiFTE. Bombay Presidency. J.S. C.A. Taylor. Tarrant. M. a.. M.A. 16.. Baring Road. Netherfield Road. C. S. C. of 169 Tib Lane. Warden Road.. *Sykes. S. D.. G. C.A.W. Board of Education. Manse. Taylor. 12. Green. St. M. Grove Park. Taylor. C. Stanhope Gardens... 22 Serge. TcHiRKiNE. Surrey. E.A. Northcourt.F. Miss A. Korea. Bombay.. Brough.Litt. Woodlands. M. Rusholme. Stanford. Miss M. F..NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS SuTTONj E.A. F. A. A.. Bradford. Symes. U. West Deyne. SwANN. Uppingham. Bank England Chambers.E. B.. (No address. Sykes. 13. J. Taylor. Kensington.A. Tayler.A. Westmorland. Connaught House. E.. *Tanner.. Rev.D. Poena. Chigwell School. Rev.... B. Rev. Major. Tonbridge..A. Taylor. M.. T... Canon R. Weston-super-Mare. D. Manchester. G. The High School. Bombay. M.. Taylor. near Kirkby Stephen. Swallow. B. S. F.. Dunmarklyn. Service consulairo de I'empire russe. Englefield Talyarkhan. B. Tonbridge School. C. Miss D. M.... Lanes.. Montrose. Tatton. S. B. G.A.. B.B. R.. I. Bedford College.A. Royal Holloway College. Fleetwood. S.. Victoria Women's Settlement. Essex. A. SwANN. Miss M. M. J. A. . Reading. Baring Road.. Woodlands. Bombay. S. Miss A. Liverpool. Mrs. London.General J...A. George Road. M..B. K. D. Abingdon. S. Birmingham. Manchester.. 67. Tancock. M. a. G.) Tarachand. Rossall School.W. Grove Park. Taylor.. Symes.. B. Taylor. L. Stanford.C. Tatham. Little Trinity. M. Coleherne Court.

. Thompson. M. The Wick.. The Elms. 6.. Cardiff. H.C. B. F.A.A. M. The College. Wolver- hampton.. Christ's Hospital. a. Miss E.. S. R. Middlesex. St. Thompson.A. Thomson.. The Elms. Chester. Cambridge.. Unwin. Miss E. Tyler. A. Rev. Carleton.. Godalming.APPENDIX 170 *Tennant. Prof. Thornton. 30..A. H. Primrose Hill Road.. M.c/o Messrs.A.. Cheltenham. Thompson. The College. 40. Kewferry Road. S. M.. Whitehall.. Surrey. Thomas.A. TiLDESLEY. N. F. S. Nunclose. T.A. a... IJpcorr..A. H. H. B.. *TowER. M. Hove. University College. M. 17.. G. King's Gardens. West Horsham. R. Sherbourne Lodge. M. Stradella Road. a. B. M. TiLLEY. Thompson. Upcott. Trayes. E. S... F. Terry.A. Thompson. L.. D..A. Sussex.. M.A.W. R. M. Maunde. Harcourt Street..W. The Lodge. Thompson..A. Louth. F. Thrinq. Lincolnshire. J. B.C. Old Elvet. a. M. Dial 19. 39.A.A. 16. M. Miss E.. H.A. E. M..A. Lisson Grove. Inkerman Ten-ace.A. D. M. M.A. A.A. Mutley. Cheltenham. Cottage.. Hants.. Chelsea. O. The End House. Bramshott Rectory. Selwyn Gardens. ToMPSON. P. Miss B.. E. 18.A. Ci-anleigh School. J.A. F. Sir E. Wimbledon. Thomas Cook & Sons. Dee Fords Avenue.. M. Northwood. Sussex.W. J.Litt. Wolverhampton. Charterhouse. M. Wellington College. W. Joseph. C... N. M.. . The Gables. L. Dublin.C... Thomas. Turner. C.. *Trollope. Albans. C.W... Reading. Thackeray. M. A.. Whitehaven. Miss L. Tottenham. W. Exeter. Mayfield. College House. Tyttenhanger Lodge. M.B. Tressler. Plymouth. Berks. 2... Hove.. Grange Road.. Miss B. Tildesley. M... S. B. Colum Road. E. S.. Boltons. Trenerry. London.. M. Heme Hill.. Tombs. F..A. E. M.A.W. M. St.E. a. Liphook. Thorneley.L. Durham. Ure. Thompson.A. The S. W. Grassendale...L. A. Miss L.A.. Liverpool. G. H. John. Bombay. Towers. 11. M. Goldthorn Hill.... Malcolm Road. India Office. Eev.. Leamington. Titherington. Miss E. S. British Museum. 16. W. Cambridge. Goldthorn Hill. The High School. Royal Aveiiue..

Walker. F. King's College.A. I. Mrs. Vaughan. Roxborough Park... E. Stone Buildings. Warburton.. H.A. Mass.S.C.. Windsor... Sandbrook.. *Varley. D.A. Eton College.. D. Bradfield College. de G.. B.. Halliwell Lane. M. Bishopsgarth.B.... Secretariat.. Vernon. B. Waldstein. Haileybury College. Herts. C. Queen's College. J. Cambridge.S. Comballa Hill. Bombay. S. Walker.A. Pierremont Hall. Miss H. 141.A. J. St. Litt.. Rev. 5. E. Berks.. Prof. M. 8. 3. Miss C.D.. Albans.A. Selwyn Gai-dens. British Museum. Oheetham Hill. 11.A. Verrall. Wage.C... Flamstead.. 171 Xavier's College. M.. A.G. B. M. S. B. Newtonville...A. Lyttelton Road. Bombay. W. M.. Wallace. Wadia. E. North Bailey. Vaughan... M. Kensington Park.. Harrow.C. Berks.. Miss E.A. Altamont Road. A. C. Rev.. S. W. Bombay.. Horncastle. A. Cambridge. B.A.. 5. Vakil. 0. Esplanade Road. Wadia. Wilderness Road. M. ViNCE. LL. S. B. Kingston Road. Walde.B.. M. C. B. Rev..D.. G. Durham. Walters.A.D. Cambridge. H. S.... Wellington College. Broomfield. M.A. A. L... B. Bombay. *ViNCE. F. W.Jones. de G.A. Walter... Magdalene College. *Vaughan.B.. M. M.A. Stanley Road. Prof. St.. M.. King's College. B.A. Lincoln's Inn. J. M. Dovercourt.C. B. E. M.. Valentine. Vaughan. Selwyn Gardens. 5.. Berkhamsted. W. Nottingham. Leslie Lodge. W.W. W.A. Broadstairs. M.. Laurence Pountney Lane. W. Malabar Hill. Rev.A. Walker. Manchester. Veysey. High Pavement Secondary School. the Lord Bishop of. Selwyn Gardens. R.... . J. Rev.A. Veenon.J. Falcon Villas..A. A. W. Walker. W. Virgo. V.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS Vaeth.A. Lyndhurst. U. A. Braeside. Verrall.. 29. Cambridge. Crafts Street. 20-21. B. M. N.. W. Wimbledon. M. Langton Rectory. Queen Anne Terrace. W. Birmingham.. W. M. *Verrall. Oxford. Essex. Bombay. M. 43. Walters. LL.A.. Miss I. Vaisey. M. 10. J. M.. Miss E.. Stanley Gardens. *Wakefield. H.A.. Cannon Street. Vincent.. Rt.. Litt. Prof. The Lodge. Wakefield.A. Edgbaston. v.A. M.. M.. H.. Cambridge.A. C. W. Hertford. Cambridge. C.

Rt. Hertford... H. M. Yorks. East Madison Street. Prof. Rt. Oxford. Warman.. Merchant Taylors' School. J.C.A. Ann Arbor. M.. School House... Manchester.. Edmund's College. M. Crich Common. K. Pv. Waterfield.S. Ipswich. J.. The Deanery. B.. C. Watson.C.. W. M. H. D.W.A. Rev. Watkins. Watkins.. C. Wardale. D.A.. M. D.. M.A. London. Wavendon Manor. Leicester. Technical College. F. B. G. Warner. Liverpool.S. W. The Dene.. London. G. M. Waters.. Master of Peterhouse. Grammar School.... R..A. Surrey.. W..O.. M. Rev. Wells. Welldon. Miss E. Miss J. A. Ward. K.. 28. Michigan.. M. H. 7a.. Bosloe. Ware. Old Hall..A. School House.. Wedd.. 0.. Brook Green. Oxford. Bedford. E. St. B. Whibley. Rev. Adelaide.. W. N. T. Paul's Girls' School. A.. .. C. A. F.... Webster. B. Wadham College. Ward. Cambridge. The Grammar School.APPENDIX 172 Ward.E. M.. Mrs. 9.D.A. Waters. Miss L. Windsor.A. Monsignor B.A. University of Michigan. S. S. B. near Falmouth. Magdalen College... Oliver Grove.A. Manchester.... W. M. Huddersfield.A.D. 7..D. Derbyshire. Wadham College. *Wells.A. A. A.. Beds. Upper Cheyne Row. St. Stanwick Road. Abercromby Square. Principal. R. Pemberley Crescent. Christ Church. President of Magdalen College. South Norwood. Westaway.. Lancaster. Warner. The Wyggeston School. R... Cheltenham College. Oxford..A. Sir G.. Prof.. Waterlow. J. M. Oxford. Bishop. M. Oxford.. 10. Wenley. Rev. M.A. F. W. Watson. Rev. Watts. B. Sydney.. Prince Alfred College.Litt. Ward. West Kensington. Litt. M... Cambridge.A. King's College. Matlock Bath. Wells.A.. King's Parade. Newnham College.. S. Cambridge... J. The Oaks.A. M. M. M.A.A. 1. Haileybury College. Cambridge.. E.A. Australia. M. P. D. W. Caterham-on-the-Hill.. Warren.A. S. M. A.A. M. H. Beaconsfield. Ward. M.A. Miss E. Eton College. Watson. Woburn Sands R. J. U. C. Watson... a. Watson. Clare College.. B..A. W.L. Webb.. Rev. T. M. Went.A. 509. Sedbergh.A. Cambridge. W.A. Weech. N. Rev. Wedd.



Whibley, L., M.A., Pembroke College, Cambridge.
Whishaw, Miss E. II., M.A., Corran, Watford.
White, A. H., B.A., Hillbrow, Rugby,
White, 3fiss E. L., M.A., Heidelberg, Albany Road, Southsea.
*White, Frof. J. Williams, Harvard University, Cambridge,
Mass., U.S.A.

White, W., M.A., The Grammar School, Boston, Lines.
White-Thomson, R. W., 39, Hans Place, S.W.
Whitefield, Miss E. G., B.A., 94, Stanwell Road, Penarth,
Miss T. G., 82, Vincent Square, S.W.
Whitestonb, R. a. W., M.A., 31, Fordhook Avenue, Ealing,

* Whitehead,


Whitty, R. F. L., B.A., I.C.S., Yacht Club, Bombay.
Whitwell, R. J., B.Litt., 70, Banbury Road, Oxford.
*WHiTWORTn, A. W., M.A., Eton College, Windsor.


Quentin Road, Blackheath, S.E.
W., Mus.B., Castletown Grammar School,

3fiss J., 20,


J. T.


Wigglesworth, 3fiss E., 102, Greengate Street, Oldham.
Wild, A. C, I.C.S., Hyderabad, Sind, India.

Wiles, G., B.A., I.C.S., Belgaum, India.
Wilkinson, H. Spenser, M.A., 99, Oakley Street, Chelsea, S.W
Williams, A. F. B., Savile Club, 107, Piccadilly, W.
Williams, A. M., B.A., Bedales School, Petersfield, Hants.
Williams, C. A., B.A., L.C.P., 21, Orchard Road, Eastbourne.
Williams, Eev. F. S., M.A., The College, Eastbourne.
Williams, Rev. G. H., M.A., Grammar School, Carlisle.
Williams, Herbert, M.A., 7, Manor Road, Edgbaston,
Williams, Rev. II. II., M.A., Hertford College, Oxford,
Williams, L. Stanley, M.A., The Ryleys, Alderley Edge,

Williams, R., B,A,, Tan-yr-allt, Salva, Pembrokeshire,
Williams, Miss S. J., B.A., Merton Hall, South


Victoria, Australia.

Williams, Prof. T. Hudson, M.A., Plas Tirion, Bangor, N.
Williams, W. Glynn, M.A., Friars' School, Bangor.
Williams, Prof. W. H., The University, Hobart, Tasmania.
Williams, W. N., M.A., LL.B., Selwyn College, Cambridge.
Williamson, H., M.A., 46, Park Road, Pendleton, Manchester.



J. A., M.A., 6, Marloes Road, Kensington, W.
Willis, 3Iiss M,, M.A., The High School, Sligo.
Willis, E. A., B.A., Mount Pleasant Road, Bombay.
Wilson, Rev. 11. A., M.A., Magdalen College, Oxford.
Wilson, Prof. J. Cook, M.A., 12, Fyfield Road, Oxford.


Wilson, R., M.A., Grammar School, Leeds.
Wilson, T. I. Wood, B.A., The School, Repton.
WiNBOLT, S. E., M.A., Christ's Hospital, West Horsham.
Winter, F. G., Melrose Hall, West Hill, Putney.
W^iSHART, Miss J. R., M.A., Dovedale, St. Luke's, Cheltenham.
WiTTON, W. F., M.A., St. Olave's School, London, S.E.

Wood, 3frs. A. K., Moorside, Glossop.
Wood, H., Ridgefield Terrace, Failsworth, Manchester.
Wood, H. McKinnon, B.A., Balliol College, Oxford.
Wood, Miss M. H., Training College, Cambridge.
Wood, Rev. R. Gifford, East Cowton Vicarage, Northallerton,

Wood, R S,, B.A., 56, St. John's Park, N.
WooDARD, E. A., Liverpool Collegiate School, Liverpool.
Woodward, Miss Avery, B.A., 11, Mecklenburg Road, Nottingham.

Woodward, A. M., M.A., The University, Liverpool.
Woodward, A. W., M.A., The University, Liverpool.
Woodward, Prof. W. H., M.A., Crooksbury Hurst, Farnham
WooLRYCH, H. R., M.A., 31, Redcliffe Gardens, S.W.
Wordsworth, Miss E. C, Bj^., Rydal House, Old Swinford,

WoRLEY, Miss M. L., M.A., High School for Girls, Oxford
Worrall, a. H., M.A., The Lodge, Louth, Lincolnshire.
WoRRALL, Mrs. Janet, B.A., Crimsworth, Whalley Range,

WoRTERs, Miss E. B., 2, Saffrons Road, Eastbourne.
WoTHERSPOON, G., M.A., King's College School, Wimbledon, S.W.




M.A., Poona, India.
A., B.A.,

Hutton Grammar


near Preston,


Wright, Rev. H. C, M.A., Haileybury College, Hertford.
*Wright, Prof. J., D.C.L., LL.D., Ph.D., Litt.D., Thackley,
119, Banbury Road, Oxford.
Aldis, LL.D., D.C.L., Trinity College, Cambridge.
M,, B.A., 12, Holland Road, Harlesden, N.W.

Wright, W.




Wynne-Edwards, Eev. J. E,., M.A., Grammar School, Leeds.
Wyse, Miss T., B.S., Teachers' College, Columbia University,
New York City, U.S.A.
Wyse, W., M.A., Halford, Shipston-on-Stour.
Yate, Lieut.-Col. A. C, Beckbury Hall, Shifnal.
Young, F. S., M.A., The College, Bishops Stortford, Herts.
Young, Miss M. S., Aske's Haberdashers' School for Girls,


Cross, S.E.

Yule, Miss A.

F., F.S.A.S,,

Tarradale, Ross-shire.

Zachary, Miss K. T., 6, Grosmont, Headingley, Leeds.
ZiMMERN, A. E., M.A., Oakhill Drive, Surbiton.
ZiMMERN, Miss D. M., Oakhill Drive, Surbiton.

Public Library, Newcastle-upon-Tyne.

Lake Forest



Forest, Illinois, U.S.A.

University of Texas, Austin, Texas, U.S.A.
Public Library, Copley Square, Boston,



Mount Holyoke





University of California, Berkeley, California, U.S.A.


Princeton University, Princeton,



Library of Congress, Washington, U.S A.
Mitchell Library, Glasgow.

Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.A.
London Library, St. James's Square, S.W.

The Hon. Treasurer


addresses of the following

Harper, Miss E. B.
Kelaart, W. H.
Melhuish, J. E.
poynter, a. m.
Shepherd, W. 0.
Tanner, Miss L. K.

Davis, Miss







the present

M. Moore. the Hon. Wokingham . F. A. T. E. Maidenhead Mortimer Newbury Pangbovrne Badley College Reading . F. Rev. Lang. P. H. A. E. A. Rev. Alex. J. F. E. Beaconsfield Warner. W. Luxmoore. Marsh. F. T. . Channon. F. C. W. W. L.') (^Tlds is Buckinghamshire — continued ENGLAJSTD Bedfordshire — Bedford . . place or district. Irvine. Goodhart. Vince. Reid. G. J. Strong. G. C. G. M. Macnaghten. W. Sandy . Rev. H. A. Lubbock. . Parry. E. A. . J. Svmes. K. H. Layng. Churchill. Davies. E. R. Rev. Duckworth. Rev. Caiv^ College Coles. Wol)urn Sands Whibley. W. lyn. G. Billson. Miss I?. B. C. R. J. T. C. H. Miss C. H. L. F. Edghill. Edmonds. Austen-Leigh. Lyttelton. Kev. Leary. Rev. Robinson. L. H. Durnford. . „ High Arnison. A. Abingdon Tatham. D. C. Miss B. . Bevan. Oldershaw. Cambridgeshire Cambridge BUCKINQHAMSn IRE— Aylesbury 23 . Eev. Daniel. Wycombe Abbey Slater. I. Wells. Vaughan. D. E. TOPOGRAPHICAL LIST OF MEMBERS an index intended for reference only. A. Miss. Miss H. V. S. M. C. Sharwood-Smith. M. G. F. I. E.. Prof. Headlam. Prof. Hon. C. G. . For full titles the aljihabetical list Names marked * denote the Local Correspondent for the should be consulted. . Cattley. Chittv. C. Stone. Stone. 177 — : . S. Prof. Cornish. Broadbent. G William. Llewel- . Anderson. Coll. Eppstein. H. A. H. G. Rev. P. Bradfield T. Miss A. Cobbe. Blakiston. Sheepshanks. C. Berkshire— Gibson. F. H. Beckwith. * Ramsay. E. J. Vaughan. Rev. M. Miss U. Slonqh . Rawlins. J. R. . W. W. W. Rev. Miss E. S. . M. Westaway. W. E. \V. J. Impey. R. Field. H. W. Rev. P. B. G. O. Kiudersley. Lyttelton. Miss E. Allbutt. Ure. E. Mnsson. F. N. . Grace. . H. G. Miss E. Bingham. W. S. E. E. Eton College Belcher. C. H. Stoke Poges . Roscoe. E. L. Keeling. Sir G. G. William. Kyrke. Sir T. H. Whitworth. P. J. H. Mansfield. T. G. H. W. James. B. W. . A.Penson. M. W. C. E. Wellington Coll Upcott. Brinton. Devine. . E.

E. P. Rev. C. Benson. Rev. Sir J. H. Thompsou. E. Butler. H. Rev. F. J. Bethune-Baker. P. A. R. E. J. Parry. J. W.*Wood. S. W. Petcrhouse . L. Kennedy. Rev. A. Training . . Wedd. J. . Prof. Canon E. Miss J. Miss A. H. G. St. W. J. Canon R. D. S. G. Flather. Durnford. Pembroke Coll. Prof. E. E. S. Mason. Whibley. Hicks. I'eskett. Queens' College J. H. J. S. Duff. Burkitt. A. Richmond. Gardner. Angus. Miss L. Miss J. M. Sharpley. St. Prof. Catharine's St. S. D. E. Girton College *Jex-Blake. Gaselee. N. R. M. J. *Rackham. Verrall. V. Nixon. Coll. CDonaldson. A. Lamb. Waldstein. *Peskett. Ingle. . S. Plaistowe. Jones. W. J. Graves. A. Jenkinson. E. G. C. C. B. College . Rev. . Miss A. Prof. H. Trinity Hall . Rev. Mayo. Steen. S. Wedd.* Jones. *Lawson. H. Image. Cornford. Loewe. Prof. Cambridge Adam. J. Taylor. J. Tilley. P. E. Prof. M. T. Atkinson. Edmunds.*G\\es. H. . Stewart. Ridgeway. T. Corpiis Christi College Streane. E. H. V. Newnham Coll. H. W. E. Rev.APPENDIX 178 — cojitinued — cmitiniied Cambriogeshiee Camhridgp Caius College (^conUniied) Christ's College Clare College . W. *Matthaei. Prof. F. Jesus College King's College Abbott. E. Byrne. B. O. C. Vernon-Jones. S. Aldis. Gwatkin. G. G. . Appleton. Robertson. Prof. H. Coll. Mrs. D. Mrs. Mason. F. Frazer. A. Miss E. Rev. Edwards. E. W. Mrs. Rev. H. Cambeidgeshiee — contintied CamiHdge — cooitinusd Selwyn College * Williams. Miss M. N. E. J. Johns Coll. . Rev. H. Wright. H. Conway. Prof. M. G. R. W. Rev. Collins. . Jackson. G. Dr. W. Rev. A. W. J. J. Bury. D. F. . G. N. Miss M. Beck. . H. Shillington. F. Ward. H. M. M. B. E. J. Cook. Barnes. A. B. Mon- tagu. E. J. Stuart. J. D. J. A. Rev. Trinity College. M. Miss E. F. H. S. Grav. Hayes. J. H. C. M. W. W. L. A. Rev. Skeat. Crouin. Stobart. N. A. A. F. Prof. Rev. . G. Glover. Miss A. . F. Colson. E.W. J. Campbell. H. Rev. Prof. F. Sidney Sussex *Edwards. H. C. Mrs. Sikes. * Harrison. Giles. Magdalene Coll. Lewis. Gibson. W. W. Prof. Rev. E. P. . E. Mrs. J. A. Roberts. Miss K. J. *Wardale. W. Bury. Morris. T. Kennedy. G. C. Emmanuel Coll. R. Miss A. Sheppard. Rev. E. M. . 8. R. Greenwood. Adcock. A. C. Rouse. Butler. C. L. Macfarlane - Grieve. Rapson. Stanton. Miss S. Harrison. R. Sandys. A.

Elliot. C. N. HoUowell. Stenhouse. Miss L. G. Rev. W. . . Miss. Jevons. H. . K. Mrs. Miss B. F. — Sherborne Bensly. Walker. T. Cheadle . F. Durham Bramwell. Cruickshank. COR>fWALL Falmouth — Braintree . Mrs. Rev. S. Earnshaw. Miss L. Miss E. Dobson. . F. Gray. F. . Bourne. E. W. F. D. Chester Williams. Miss S. J. J. J. Cattley. . Felsted Rhoades. . . Walker. Gunter. Plymouth West Buckland Evans. Miss M. E. DevonshieeAshburton . Eev. Prof. G. R. A. Waterlow. H. W. . Dorset . . H. . H. H. . A. Wood. — Brooks. Rev. Ridgeway. H. . B. Trayes. Norwood. G. G. Wilson. H. J. Riley. C. T. W. Smith. H. . Miss B. E. Abel. H. Richards. J. Rev. Fen Ditton . C. Rev. Semple. Brentwood . Bristol Derbyshire— . . (Bishop of Ely). . Dedham Valentine. . W. Prof. Principal F. Prof. Sale . . J. . H. M. Suiiderland Danson. Mrs. W. . Smith. I. Ashbee. J. Cowl. . Sandford. How. Jenkins. Buller. H. G. TOPOGRAPHICAL LIST OF MEMBERS J)'EVOT^sniRi&— continued Cambridgeshibb— continued Cambridge — continued Verrall. Waltham Abbey Johnson. A. V. Rt. F. Williams. Miss M. Rev. Thompson. Miss D. Bampton H. F. Bernard. Kclvedon Saffron Walden Hirst. Matlock Bath Repton . . . Eev. Miss K. D. Morgan. Baton. Ermen. R. Cumberland — Carlisle J. Stanley. . O. Jones. Courtauld. E.. Trenerry. Rev. Lorton Whitehaven Alfreton H. L. Canon Rev. G. Rev. S. . Thompson.N. R. Doveroourt Stephenson. . Verrall. . Mrs. B. Ely Glazebrook. Wallasey West Kirby . Cobham. . Miss M. Rev. S. S. Essex Griffin. Guy. Rev. Mills. A. Muschamp. G. de G. E. W. E. W. Holmes Chapel Nantvnch Oxton 179 . R. G. H. Barley Dale Qlossop . J. Sir J. Rev. Hoyle. Chase. W. Rev. . Junr. Chigivell School Swallow. . W. Miss M. M. E. Johnson. A. J. King. Bean. E. Hutchinson. Limebeer. . D. C. Gloucestershire C. Rev. . H. W. D. Wimborne Cheshire— Alderley Edge Altrinoham Birkenhead . M. L. . Miss S. J. T. A. Rev. H. Baines. Lang. L. A. Miss M. Hughes. Ncwcomb. J. . Davies. King. Day. lood. Walthamstow . Kirkpatrick. . Miss K. F. Colchester Rendall. Watkins. L. G. G. Miss L. M. N. Moxon. Smith. E. Bar/istaplv . L. Rev. Miss F. F. Miss M. C. V.— . B. H. Canon M. Tombs. Miss B. Church. S. C. B. A. Bowdcn . Ward. L. . . . Miss B. . Miss B. A. Very Exmoxvth Fremington . Durham — Darlington Fuller. F. Miss R. Rev. Prof. M. W. F. Miss E. Miss Exeter deG. P. Hebblethwaite. Dobson. . Rev.

Coleridge. . Lord. H. . . Bishop's ford Stort. . Loiy. Rendall. B. . Rubie. MJ-gs M. A. . Vaughan. Haileybury Fenning. . W. Rev. Ellaby. Miss M. . . A. T. Miss E. H. J. Brock. Bowen. Case. Rev. Watford . Qloucester . M. . May ling Island Bryans. . W.TFO'RDBHI'RE—Oontinucd Covernton. Stonehouse Stroud . Kirby. Newton. Miss. . H. Williams. Baker. . Milford. T. Ragg. S. G. . G. . Rev. Badley. Leominster . Bromley . Petersjield . Berkhamsted Evans. . C. Latter. . S. L. L. Canterbury Moor.Cade. Esther. Waters. . — . Heppel. Lady. A. Miss E. Portsmouth Southampton Southsea . Miss A. H. C. R. . J. Isle of Wight. Heetfoudshiee Sald^ch . E. Rev. Veysey. B. M. E. Miss A. Ward. H. Sloman. Judson. C. H. H. Hampshire — Andover . E. Albans . E. W. R. J. Canon Burton.. Barnard. Rev. . Miss J. F. Rev. Nicol. J. Titherington. *Walde. H.. Moor. Rev. EUam. Greene. M. Prickard. . E. E. Miss M. F. J. E. Broadstairs Holder. Ross. . Prof. G. Curtis. W. . . M. Goss. H. Burnside. H. Burton. . Pearce. Godfrey. Basingstoke Fleet C. Rev. A. B. L. R. R. Ware . W. Ashworth. Miss J. Folkestone Fuotscray Gravesend Hawkhurst . Hammans. Heeefoedshiee — Hereford . . Cheltenham Boyd. Ferguson. Footner. W. Rev.. Miss G. N. E. Miss K. T. . D. A. Miss A. J. . C. L. Exton. A. Miss H. T. O. Harry. . . Layman. Kent — Beelienham Blackheath Berridge. .. . J. Hitchin Letchworth Crees. S. Miss H. C. Osiorne . C. . R'EB. . Helbert. Canon . Wace. Stanton. C. Waterfield. R. King. Rev. Miss E. Miss H. Miss L. L. The College. Rev. F. S. Rev. F. Miss H. Barker. L. W. Horsfall. Wishart. P. M. H. P. M. J. . C. W. . H. C. Jelf. . . Towers. C. Mrs. Winchester Huntingdonshire— Godmanchester . F. . Miss E. Hayes Belcher. Crawford. G. Bea/iCloseSch.. J. M. C. J. Neild. Miles. Bramston. R. A. H. . C. Edwin. . L. Wright. T. M. M. Ladies' Coll. J. Kennedy. Myers. Miss E. Conder. Sharpley. . H. . Ernest. Miss E. Barker. Thornton. Hopkins. W. G. Faitbfull. W. Canon B. N. Northbourne. J. Hall. A. T. C. . Coll. R. E. Trollope. W. D. Rev. P. Lijjhook . Bramley. Miss Mary L. C. L. . See London. P. Sowels. A. Rev. W. H. . J. M. S. Papillon. Compton. Saunders. Kemerton St. Charing Chapman. . Newman. B. Nowers. White.. Miall. L. *Purdie. E. Whishaw. Miss M. Drysdale. Eev. A. . F. Purton. Bournemouth . Davies. Miss M. P. M. APPENDIX 180 GhoucESTEUSniUE—contmued Cheltenham.. Hertford L. T\Iiss Young. S. Rev. Canon P. Banks. Chislehurst Eastry Elthaui .

A. Rev. Rev. G. N. Clarke. Symes. W. Ormerod. A. G. T. Campion. V. Sittingbourne . Miss E. Ashton. Lipscomb. A. (^continued) Hodge. E. A. J. P. F. Dr. Postgate. W. M. Moore. Sarson. C. Rev. Dawkins. Boyd. Burrows. Hartley. R. Coghill. Miss M. Prof. S. Liverpool . Blackburn 181 Manchester Agar. F. Fry. D. Alexander. R. Rev. Sir A. J. J. K. D. T. W. R. Brockman. M. T. C. Prof. Woodward. Greenhalgh. Codd. L. Brown. Rev. F. . Kenneth. Downie. de Winton. T. Watts. E. Prideaux. Miss B. Miss F. Watson. H. Miss A. S. Prof. Hardeman. G. Arnold. Sanders. F. Robertson. Robert. Woodward. Rev. See Stonyhurst. A. H. H. M Dover. . . Tunbridge Wells Barnard. Rigby. A. Gwatkin. Miss Prof. Boyd. A. Muspratt. M. Miss D. Rev. Collie. Blackjjool Bolton . Mrs. Forbes. . Kipling. Cradock-Watson. Brown. Bridge. A. Tancock. H. C. Pallis. A. Ven. Miss Dymond. Bosanquet. Rev. A. A. C. Campbell. C. Mason. C. Miss O. Sing. Prof. Dakers. Dawkins. Carruthers. B. Gladstone. R. A. Miss B. W. E. Miss L. Goodrich. . T. Miss E. Rev. E. Caton. W. O'Malley. F. Miss E. Miss A. Linton-Smith. Dale. Miss. W. Miss E. Conway. Mrs. J. J. Miss M. Domaille. Miss A. C. G. E. J. H. Carter. Ewart. A. . P.Prof Herman. Hon. E. W . M. Mrs. C. L. C. Goodyear. Woodard. . A. Hubback. Mrs. P. Beaumont. Rt. Rev. . B. Henn. Hooper. Smith. Mrs. Mrs. Eckhard. Richard. S. R. Frisch. Brooke. Connell. Canon. C. Archer. Miss B. Barlow. Smith. M. C. Miss E. Rev. . Gibson-Smith. Bramley-Moore. E. W. Sir E. Rev. R. H. Thorneley. Lancelot. B. J. Lancashire — Ashton-under- Lyne . W. Mrs. Rev. Liverpool Ritchie. E. M. Stokoe. H. A. M. H. R. W. liANCASniUE—contimied . E. Miss C. Campagnac. T. B. Tonlridge . Lehmann-Haupt. Miss M. Stewart. Miss F. Miss. F. Donner. Miss E. Miss S. Jones. Theodore. AUen. K. H. F. Bevan. Beasley. A. R. Mrs. J. J. M. Gordon. T. Robinson. (Bishop of Burnley). Burstall. Henn. J. Bull. D. . Macnaughton. Lowry. R. S. Burley-in- Wharfedale Burnley Keen. J. Prof. W. H. Conway.TOPOGRAPHICAL LIST OF MEMBERS Kent — continued Sevenoaks Sidcuj) . Rev. Miss B. Edwards. Barlow. Great Crosby Lancaster Bunce.

Pilkington. Wigglesworth. Russell. Miss M. J. J. Miss A. Stoneraan. Rev. Mrs. Miss A. . Herford. Davis. Hall. Worrall. L. D. S. R. E. Rt. B. Darlington. H. Hewart. Paton. Fumeaux. Prof. Hopkinson. Rev. [NCOLNSHlKi!. T. C. . C. E. J. Lutterworth Howarth. Southport Stonyhurst Kidd. Montague. . . Neiotoii Heath Oldham . . . F. G. T. Miss E Green. E. Miss C. A. (^continued) . . Mrs. L. Rev. . Casartelli. Sutton. Plater. H. H. Rev. G. G. Kelsey. Rev. B. P. A. Montague. B. C. N. May. B. A. Sinclair. C. S. Lilley. . S. S. W. Rev. Mrs. Sir W. J. J. Rainhill Rossall School . . (Bishop of Salford). Sloane. J. Mead. . H. Rev. Welldon. A. Maclnnes. Wood. . Massey. Gregory. Sir A. J. I. Rt. J. Miss M. M. C. Rev. Knox. Manchester Gnppy. J. M.- Horsfall. A.. Miss G. . Moulton. M. LEICESTERSniBB Leicester . . Llewellyn. E. Joseph. G. Williamson. Miss A. Mrs. . Mrs. W. Hopkinson. Simon. . Brother E. Miss E. . Mrs. Janet. Harper. Salford . Scoles. G. E. C. W. I. Peake. Taylor. E. . . . A. Rev. Nicklin. « Warman. H. . Roby. P. H. . . Hartley. Rt. H. Henry. Horsfall. M. Ormskirk Preston . Taylor. Prof. APPENDIX 182 LAi^CASni'RE— continued Grensted. Macalpine. P. Taylor. Boston Went. Rev. . Wright. E. Warburton. Rev. Rudd. L. (Bishop of Manchester). . L. G. S.

Piatt. C. A. Branford. Simpson. Richards. Miss F. Paul's Sch. F. Paul's Girls' Gedge. Baillie. Miss E. Rev. Bland. . Miss E. G. Coll. P. Martin. Wood. Miss C. Westminster School Col- legiate Sch. Melville. Miss H. Miss E. Jones. Y. Prof. . Crofts. P. Green. Miss E. Olave's School . Caspari. Miss C. G. Bennett. M. Miss B. Dr. . Miss W. Streatham High W. Wimbledon High Owen's School. Holding. Balcarres. D. E. Bailey. Miss J. Nairn. Greentvich . Miss E. Masham.*Powel\. Bridge. Antrobus. J. Miss E. Loane. B. Gardner. Asquith. Lewis. Miss A. . Benson.Hon. St. H. D. T. Mary's Coll. P. Smedley. Rev. Felkin. M. Slater. . Prof. Watson. Baker-Penoyre. . Browne. Gerald. Admiral Sir C. A. High . G. Miss M. E. Armstead. McClure. J. Mary Datchelor School and Training Eeeve. . Rogers. Miss H. Turner. Miss A. Sotting. E. Ross. G. Miss M. Gow. Rev. . I. Miss R. Sch. Sydenham S. W. C. St. Lewkhavi High School . Rushbrooke. *Pantin. E. B. R. . N. E. Mrs. Westfield Coll. Ecclesbourne School Beasley. \V. Sargeaunt. B. Training Coll. Brodribb. H. F. W. H. School Gray. Sotithlands Coll. Sir J. Lewer. School . Powell. Wimbledon : Miss W. T. . H. L. Mathews. Edward. T. P. Stationers' Sch. . A. Miss H. J. Gould. P. E. Bell. Miss A. Very Rev. E. Univ. C. F. Netting 188 S. W. McDougal. Barker. . Miss F. Or. D. fll mil Sch. J. Skeel. W. L. Cholmeley. A. Solomon. M. Behrens. Miss L. R. W. Sir R. Mrs. School Mason. Hillard. Adams. Balfour. Miss G. C. Right Hon. Alford. C. * Conway. Prof. J. J. E.H. Anderson. Richardson. Purdie. Butler. A.TOPOGRAPHICAL LIST OF MEMBERS London — continued London — continued King's College Univerdty Oakeley. Benton. F. Armstead. . St.H. . . . H. 0. F. J. Stookwell Sec. Islington Queen's College . W. St. E. Chettle. Miss E. . ff. Spenser. A. Rev. Rt. J. Miss S. G. King's Coll. . Miss M. S. A. A. Prof. Miss C. C. Tollington H. G. Miss M. D. Godfrey R. . Hill School . N. A. . . Spalding. K. Beggs. Paul. H. Bonser. * Parker. Prof. H.^mith. Kingdom. W. L. . Canon G. F. W. Wood . Witton. . Harper. D. Rev. Smiley. D. J. G. L. Wotherspoon. Miss J. Rev. M. M. C. Bradley. A. . J.Rt. Bruce London Abrahams. County School Forrest. Coll. Wells. London . Dr. Sch. Bampfylde. Bell. J. Coll. S. G. E. . A. Hon. R. T. E. E. E. (co7itinue(V) Walters. . Miss M. . S. . La Motte. Lord. G. Barnett. Blundell. Miss . . Miss H. Sch. School Roan Sch. . J . Merchant Taylors' Sch. Miss S. Gavin. H.

L. A. W. R. Langridge. W. Rice Houghton. Rev. Johnson. Sir Sidney. Colquhoun. Lindsell. A. H. D. Rev. G. Campbell. Greene. Miss E. Leaf. Macleod. Miss A. Rev. Liberty. Linnell. R. Hodgson. H. F. . A. Mr. Hulton. S. P. P. B. G. J. J. John. Heath. J. M. Marshall. Lee. Rt. A. D. W. Hildesheimer. F. H. McL. V. W. P. L. Gurney. T. Miss M. H. Davidson. H. Hon. O. Haigh. Droop. G. G. Rt. G. J. R. Miss C. Miss E. Marillier. Cooke. A. Sir Cohen. G. V. Miss A. Longman. Rt. Sir S. W. Haynes. H. Judge W. A. Burge. Hon. M. Ker. Dr. Eutton. Cohen. J. E. N. B. G. C. Miss F. Miss V. Butcher. H. Hon. E. Ernst. Milman. Colvin. . Miss A. E. C. Lord. Miss A. Finlay. Easterling. Mc Anally. F. Mrs. Farside. Garnsey. Miss E. Chapman. Earl of. Collison-Morley. Heward. . Macmillan. Miss E. De Gruchy. Miss A. L. W. Loring. MissB. Miss C. C. Hicks. Kemball. C. L. W. Hiigel. Sir R. Haydon. N. Rev. Johnson. von. Knight. W. Calthrop. Earl Lattimer. Dingwall. F. D. Magnus. Walter. I. Hon. A. W. Leader. B. P. Lord. Rev. L. Kenyon. C. Hon. Lord Justice. Miss E. H. Kt. Millington. W. J. R. Farwell. A. S. M. T. W. C. Miss C. Chambers. Merrick. H. Forbes. Mudie. P. K. of Crosby. H. Matthews. Kennedy. Rev. Miss B. Gilson. J. T. Miss M. Miss M. Miss M. R. McCormick. G. Davidson. Curzon. Dill. W. Hill G. Viscount. A. Miss M. Headlam. G. Hodd. K. Rt. Sir P. M. Gurney. Dale. C. N. Bruce. Baron F. Burne-Jones. J. P. G. Fitzgerald. and Mrs. Minturn. B. Holmes. Miss M. Miss E. Lee. S. (Bishop of Southwark). E. Hon. Milner. S. . Browning. G. Loreburn. R. Macnaghten. Cromer. W. Mitcheson. W. Collins. S. J. H. A. G. J. Meiklejohn. Dunlop. Mavrogordato. T. R. Grigg. Hutton. Mayor. M. E. H. Michael. V. W. Mackail. H. Menzies. H. Rev. W. Miller. J. P. Rt. Hon. Ford. J. J. Kensington. J. Jex-Blake. (continued) . Mattingly. J. H.APPENDIX 1S4 London — continued London — continued Loiidon {continued^ . M. Campbell. Esdaile. R. Earl. Prof. W. E. M. Hetherington. H. London . W. Halsbury. K. Mrs.

Mrs. F. Whyte. E. Baynes. G. Spenser. A. Wilkinson. Hon. Virgo. H. F. S. Hort. E. Beeching. Very Rev. W. Plaskitt. Richmond. J. . . Miss D. G. Miss K. . L. Miss L. IjQ'&'dot^— continued Morison. H. . A. Vaisey. H. . . J. Whitestone. R. Walters. W. Strong. Harrow . J. S. F. J. Nolan. Wood. M. W. H. S. H. Sir F. N. M. Morley. A. Hodgkin. L. Doxonham . A. Burrell. Radford. G. P. Sowels. W. E. G. A. Pendlebury. LJtid Tiviclienham Uxhridye .— . Ridding. W. Sullivan. Waters. C. G. Stawell. William. Miss M. Thetford . W. . M. E. J. . . Talbot. Pollard. Rackham. Miss L. M. A. Miss T. Stevenson. . J. B. . Miss M. Tennant. F. R. Thomson. J. S. . Nicholson. Varley. Ideioorth . M. F. Duke of. Miss E. Mumm. Rev. C. Wi ter. . Miss B. Raleigh. . L. . Vaughan. Deeks. Willis. Gran. Sykes. Hodgson. A. (continued) White-Thomson. F. H. G. G. Middlesex— Enjield Pooley. B. B. A. F. V. . {contimied^ . W. . . Stuart. H. A. Woolrych. Miss L. S. John. T. Yarmouth Norwich (ft. Charlesworth. TOPOGRAPHICAL LIST OF MEMBERS London — continued London . Miss B. Haig. . S. H. Innes. Taylor. Thomas. H. St. Clark. Miss J. Rev. Thomas. G. H. Miss E. R. A. F. . Murray. PI. . Tompson. Sir A. J. Eev. J. Preedy. Northampton Oundle . Hopkins. Miss M. B. Muir-Mackenzie. M. J. A. Pember. Sanderson. F. A. L. Squire. Romania. G. M. Wye. . W. Miss G. Mgr. B. F. Bagge. Thompson. E.J. Rooke. Morton. . Sale. Et. F. Du Ilarnnv School . Terry. Richmond. M. M. . Great Cressing- ham . Sir W. . R. Miss Kendall. 24 R. A. . Ford. Marhet . Sir W. Whitehead. Taylor. E.W. C.SirK. Prof. B. Ca^jt. Seebohm. . Miss E. Heseltine. A. Pollock. Stuttaford. P. . Sands. Sykes. Hallam. C. C. R. of Blackburn. N. Miss 185 NORTHUMBEBLANDBeal . K. Fairbairns. A. E. Miss C. Adshead. B. . Nightingale. R. Miss A. Poyoter. L. D. H. NORTHAMPTONSHIBE Brixtoorth . Miss K. Phillimore. Williams. Sir E. G. Miss N. Miss A. Jewson. Richard. Thackerav. Ponder' s . C. Taylor. T. B. Viscount. Miss L. . G. Vincent. Pontet. M. London . Storr. Miss M. H. McMurtrie. . Norfolk — Diss . F. C. C. Green. . B. Paget. Miss J. R. F. Watson. Norfolk. . Miss J. Rev. Miss E. Watson. R. . Simmons. Nortliwood Pinner . C. L. M. Hulbert. C. . Miss F. J.

W. Rev. Robertson. G. Prof. Murray. L. S. C. Exeter College . J. Coll. C. Rev. : All Souls . C. Rev. H. T. D. C. . Gough. Hadow. B. G. Wood. Allen. Rev. B. Haverfield. Rudd. . Keile College Henderson. G. Rev. G. Duff. S. K. Cookson. Granger. Houston. H. Bell. Smith. Christ Church . W. Merry. H. Hertford Nottinghamshire— Neivark-onTrent . H. Mcrfon College Bailey. A. Rev. J. W. Miss C. Rev. G. H. Rev. W. Miss E. Miss A. Betford S. Warren. .* W. Miles. . . Brown. Wilson. P. W. J. L. *Fyfe. Rev. Hunt. Clark. Rev. B. W. A. D. Cook. Lineuln College. B. Anson.Burroughs. W. G. Matheson. H. Lock. Livingstone. Heberden. L. R. R. Spooner. Henderson. . T. W.AyiD— continued Newcasth'-on- Tyne . R. Lindsay. Wight. A. W. B. E. H. College .TB. Sanday. H. OXFOBDSHIRE— Banhvry M. Prof. Very T. *Dundas. Walter. H. R. A. P. . M. H. W. W. J. C. Dr. Queen's College . J. Walker. . R. Walker. H. Cooper. Prof. J. Whitwell. A. S. Richards. Oxford. A. W. Russell. E. C. W. H. Blagden.APPENDIX 186 Oxfordshire — continued J^OB. M. McCutcheon. E. W. R. P. Rev. E. G. C. E. Anderson. Garrod. Lady Margaret Oriel College . H. W. Mann. Blunt. Brasenose C. L. Magrath. H. Hughes. Wright. J. C. J. M. Cyi-il. Joseph. R. E. . Rev. (Bishop of Oxford). A. H. H. . . Webb. Godley. . V. Rev. H. . Rev. . How. Strangeways. . W. . Rev. J. Ashwin. L.i. J. B. M. H. K. . W. . Neto College . Gore. Allen. Balliol College Miss Fletcher. W. Warner. C. Pickard . Scott.*Binney. P. M. S. A. S. . L. . Prof. Williams. W. E. J. Leman. . Brackley Charllury Cuddesdon . Prof. R. Brightman. J. R. Rev. . J. H. Wilson. J. Fowler. P. Rev. Prof. Cowley.Davidson. E. R. R. Scott. Joachim. Rev. Farnell. . Miss (Principal). Hull Argles. L. A. Nottingham . C. A. . Rev. Sir W. Strachan . T. Gardner. Geldart. A. A. Magdalen Coll. J. Keatinge. Benecke. M. Warde. W. E.*Genner. McKinnon. A. Corpus Christi Grundy. W. C. Woodward. . Rev. F. Hunter. W. A. Prof. C. Phelps. A. Greene. F. F. A. Prof.ViiBEB. W. . B. W. Shadwell. S. Prof. C. . H. Miss E. . G. Munro. B. Rt. Barker. F. Jex-Blake. Coll. Rev. Sidgwick. . Stewart. R. Rev. •Owen. F. Jesus College Qorse. A. M.CamVjridge. Marchant. . Grenfell. L. P. H. Owen. E. Strong. A.

Oxford R. B. Chapman. J. R. Mrs. Rev. Prof. Holland. . G. Miss A. Tildesley. Luce. S. Genner. Miss I. T. F. . Worley. Watkins. Silcox. J.. Dr. S. Fleming. H. South wold I. J. Shropshire— Wellington . Miss E.. - Staffoedshire- .— - TOPOGRAPHICAL LIST OF MEMBERS OXFOEDSHlEE Somersetshire — continued Legard. Knight. M. Pope. Moss. Camberley Caterham Yate. Rev. — Surrey Burgh Heath . M. Miss A. Tildesley. Clendon. Miss M. Somerville Coll. N. B. J. . Macfarlane. Norton. A. L. *Stevenson. T. C. . E. . H. W. Wells. Mrs. . Tressler. Pickering. W. W. A. Miss G. G. H. R. J. . Mackenzie. Miss G. Battiscombe. R. A. M. R. Hodge. Tabor. Mrs. Grenfell. . A. W. A. D. M. Fletcher. G. R. Goodwin. . Bryant. Phillips. A. . Miss M. L. J. C. Hogarth. Rev. G. Prof. L. J. J. Elliott. Miss E. G. H. J. Farley. Poole. H. R. W. . Witney Richards. Powell. Florian. Worcester . H. Macan. C. W. F. . Stafford Barke. A. . Miss M. . Wolrerham2>to7i Ager. Shifnal . E. M. Longworth. Miss D. Watson. . C. Miss D. Robinson. M. . M. . Peacock. . Barton . . Penrose. Mare . . Lt. R. A. Miss E. J. S. Rev. J. P. G. C. V.Rev. A. Miss M. G. Miss A. Syson. Miss M. Pope. Gerrans. . Elliston. . Rhys. Lowestoft Phillips. *Hall. E. Marshall. A. Rev. G. . - Newcastle' Cooper. Newport . Myres. L. Miss N. Goode. Pearse. R. D. Rev. . J. Lewis. G. Hogarth. A. Trinity College *Coupland. University Coll. Coll. Miss D. Langdon-Davies. H.-Col. . Milverton T. E. H. Rev. . M. . Wadham Coll. Bath Ealand. . Snow. L. D. A. Prichard. C. Webster. Schomberg. Charterhouse School . Miss L. W. Newton. F. Bath continued St. Rev. . — Ipsioieh WcstleUm . Kendall. E. S. wider Needwood . P. W. Somersetshire— E. C. A. Alington. H. E. P . Lys. Jerram. Rev. Denman. . . . *Rogers. Powell. Miss M.Preb. F. T. Pearman. Hamlet. Clark. (^continued) Stocks. U. * 187 Cheatn School Claygate .. Richards. Armitage. J. . A. Miss E. Miss A. . Miss A. W. A. Stoke-on-Trent Sutton Coldfield Richardson. Ellis. N. Miss B. Caldecott. Uttoxeter West Bromwich Manley. G. Miss B. . C. T. H. Rev. W. Shrewsbury Gough. J. . Miss C. Taylor.Rich- mond. G. Handsworth Lichjield . . Miss H. A. M. Miss S. Rev. W. L. E. T. Ball. A. Bruton Weston Lorimer. Cowell. . M. W. M. L. Suffolk Richards. F. Drewitt. F. W. s?/per under-Lyme RUTLANDSHIBBS. McCrea. Luffenham TTppingham . Mills. R. Bakewell. Denstone Coll. A. John's Coll. . Daniel. . H. L. .M.

N. Marshall. Prof. J. . W. H. Ledgard. Ballinger. Lee-Strathy. Rev. D. A. Bayliss. . Stock. EngleJieldQreen Donkin. Jackson. K. Miss M. Miss M. Miss M. L. Rev A. Miss E. D. Gilson.. . . R. Heath. W. H. liatham. Baugh. R. Rev. F. Hett. W. Mrs. Rev. M. Ball. Kingston Hill . G. S. E. Miss I. Rev. G. Redhill Reigate . D. C. B. Eew . A. C. Moore. Miss E. A. Rev. A. Saunders. Seaton. Alder. Hobhouse. A. . . J. W. L. . H. . Dale. . G. Rev. C. continued Cranleigh Soh. . V. Linzell. C. A. . E. L. Mainwaring. Bernays. E. Maunde. Miss J. . . . . E. King. Miss L. Woodward. St. A. Miss A. H. Rendel. H. . . Lewis. Mrs. T. Guildford Haslemere . E. A. . Ferguson. W.. Church. D. M. Quelch. Zimmern. Paine. L. Dawes. A. Mrs. C. H. Prof. Measures. E. Gardiner. Chambers. Warlingham . Surliton . . Rundall. . W. Rev. Buxted . B. W. E. Zimmern. Frank. Millard. W. N. Miss H. A. M. . G. West Horsham Selwyn.. A. ¥. Prof. Swann.. King. Stey7iing Geikie. Thring. David. Miss K. O. Miss E.— APPENDIX 188 Surrey — Suss EX continued Eastbourne Johns. H. Lunn. Rev. . C. Rev. L. Rev. L. E. L. J. E. Croydmh . Loveday. . L. . Dom. . Tyler. Farnham Radcliffe. N. Williams. . G. Martin. Rev. A. Leamington . Sir E. Sir A. C. D. Herbert. . Dawson. Worthing . P. Weyhridge . W. C. . St. Canon. . T. Page. lA-mjJsfield .. C. Hardcastle. Bennett. C. L. Miss M. L. M. T. A. R. A. M. E. Turner. Miss M. *Belcher. C. Birmingham . B. Cole. B. Miss M. . . Gough. Miss F. Davies. H. E. Orange. Thompson. Brighton . Hove . . Eastbourne Browne. Rev. H. H. . C. E. Carson. Lancing . A. A. Miss A. Oxted . B. Rev. Ryle. M. G. H. Leonards . W. Hindhead . A. T. T. Pearson. . . Prof. Tower. C. S. E. H. Lewis. Chapman. Miss E. A. Dawes. . E. . W. Miss E. Taylor. Ghey. Sonnenschein. Burrows. Winbolt. G. . . A. L. . Rugby . Miss E. R. Williams. {continued^ McKay. Miss M. Mrs. Rev. Jones. Carlisle. 3Iarston Green . Williams. B. Miss.. Oke.. Archibald. Rev. E. J. B. J. . RadclifiEe. S. C. F. Geden. Hussey. J. Wilson. Miss E. Miss D. Richardson. Rawnsley. Richmond . Ven. Worters. Miss C. W. S. Bowlby. H. Harris. B. Miss E. Godalming . H. W. Vince.. C. J. Rev. Nimmo. R. George. Mayfield . Lea. C. Antrobus. Miss B. . A. . East Grinstead. E. Hayes. D. Rev. A. S. . James. Upcott. Gilson. Mayor. Epsom Milne. Beaven. . Miss E. S. Barrett. Rev. Miss A. A. Dr. Brownjohn.. . Dawes. Miss D. 0. G. WAKWICKSHIEB— Sussex— Bognor Marshall. Marshall. Kenley .

H. R. Hamilton. Pickard. M. S. D. H. Northallerton Oswaldkirk Jiipoti . Miss A. . Ward. Rev. . E. Atkinson. O'H. Chappel. J. J. Miss E. Rev. R. . S. Rev. Stour Stourbridge Wyse. Esholt. Dudley. S. Penny. C. Adam. R. K. B. H. L. Furness. V. C. Saunders. W. A. Hodgson. Hessle . L. Miss K. E. W. Falding. A. Salisbury . H. Sedbcrgh . C. Miss A. Rev J. Pearman. C. F. C. Impey. Miss A. M. Atkey. Miss M. Arnold. YorkshireBradford R. S. A. W. J. W.on Avon . Dodd. B. L. Miss D. Moore. Prof.Rhys Sadler. N. Weech. E H. Morris. C. M. W. House. Keeling. J. W. Rev. F. S. B. Roberts. L. . A. E. Miss M. H. H. F. Huddersfield Leach. Malim. Halifax . Yo'RKSuiRE— continued Bewsbury Holme. . . Barber. Miss G. Westmorland— IlJiley . Mathews. C. Wordsworth.. Leahy. White. W. A. Miss M. J. Rev. Wilson. G. Chavasse. Branfoot. Evans. (rrasmere Kendal Kirkby dale . H. A. Derriman. F. Lewis. A. (Bishop of Hull). Wynne-Edwards. . Stourport Worcester W. N. Krause. Rev. W. Kirby Stephen Milntliorpe Wiltshire England. Ambleside .. P. S. Sheffield . Miss C. E. Kidderviinster Malvern Northfield Shipston . Mayall. Hughes. Kempthorne. Nicholson. H. S. . — Malmesbi/ry 3Iarlborough A. . H. L. Couzens. P. H. E. . . G. Miss M. T. *Lewis. Edwards. Hull . . Moor. Clapham. Elliott. Rev. . K. Sir J. . C. Miss M. Haslam. Robert. A. Harrison. Roby. . F. M. Roberts. Zachary. E. E. E. Eliot. .on Dix. F. . . A. Rt. J. Claxton. A. C. Dowson. M. Prof. J. N. Boncaster Lons- - . Johnson. Ellis. . Swindon . . Sharp. Price. Rev. . C. Taylor. .TOPOGRAPHICAL LIST OF MEMBERS Warwickshieb. Sir C. E. James. . Miss M. E. R. A. Prof. F. Burke. Hendy. Croft. . Libbey. . Miss M. M. . . A. E. . H. J. M. Settle . Miss K. M. Broadbent.continued Rugiy Michell. Lupton. G. Rev. C. . J. . Miss J.. Grant. H. Tayler. . Clark. H. Green. . . W. S. B. Baldwin. A. . A. Wood. Marlborough College Pewsey . . H. Miss J. (continued) Strafford . G. Dudley . Rev. K. W. B. Miss G. B. Mrs. Canon W. Rev. Miss M. Smyth. G. . Miss G. H. T. Miss. Escott. K. E. Beuerley . Miss F. Lidderdale. Salmon. Jackson. M. C. Leeds . WorcestershireAlve church Sromsgrove 189 Rossiter. Allwood. Barran. W. Rev. C. Newman. Mackesy. . . . Prof. Gillespie. . Gibbons. Rev. Miss B. Rev. M. Connal. Prof. . . V. A. . Forster. Hebden Bridge Higgs. R. . J. Miss E. Pickard. R. . Mrs. E. H. R. A. . Dale.

T. Count. . Principal. H. WALES C 1EDIGAN— Aberystwyth Anwyl. . E. Miss M. G. J. *Williams. F. Aberdeen . Mrs. . K. ISLE OF Castletown Wicksey. . Keane. . . . Lloyd. C. W. Trof. Plunkett. Junr. Prof. Prof. narrower. Prof. T. Stornoway Tarradale . W. A. . (^continued) * Bummers. IRELAND Belfast . Ramsay. H. . S. Taylor. Phipps. Dr. Eden. Rev. . . . T. Perman. Davies. M. . Sheffield Pembrokeshire— c(i«i^m?/e(^ J. T. E. J. I. Grafton. Allen. G. B. G. Miss C. W. Prof. J. L. Henry. J. (Bishop of Wake- field). Miss A. Heathcote. J. E. . Miss L. J. N. Prof. E. S. EUROPE Belgium— Pembrokeshire— Haverfordwest . . R. J. F. A. . G. Prof. E. . A.. Prof. . 1. Miss M. . John. R. C. Blairgorvrie Denbigh— Coltvyn Bay . R. F. . . H. Dill. B. Miss . Delany. A. Prof. Prof. . C. J. . G.*Exon. Rev. Carnarvon Bangor SUgo - Arnold. D. Geo. Glamorganshire— Jcnkyns. Prof. Benger. . Andrews . McElderry. R. Williams. . L. .. . Shewan. G. Willis. Grundy. Allen. Pye. Miss B. AbertUlery Monmouth Glasgow . Miss A. Clongowes Wood Nolan. Burnet. F. . K. E. Sir S. Leckenby. Wakefield Pembroke H. Louvain . T. Laurie. Miss M. Rev. Atkinson. C. Reynolds. C. Roberts. . Stevenson. V. Wrexham Edinburgh Osborn. Miss E. APPENDIX 190 Yo'RK. M. Prof. Thompson. Miss M. W. R. R. Prof. Prof. *Beare. Prof. W. . . Rev. Rev. W. Buckland. Dundrum Ferrall. Rev. Rev. . R. Clarke. A. . Enniskillen Galway . Abernethy. Keen. Prof. Rev.. Henson. . Rt. G. Bell. Rev. Davies.BUi'RE— continued Sleeman. . Miss E. Williams. Bensly. W. E. Dodd. A. . . A. . Glenalmond Montrose St. Green. Criccieth . A. Miss E. E. L. Cartwright. J. G. L.. W. J. Hyslop.. T. Carnoy. G. Pearson. Rev. von B. J. Rennie. . . W. Ferard. E. Bflwnjiatrick Alton. W. A. Tullamore . F. Ashforth. Dublin . . F. *Slater. Dervock Pooler. . . Brighouse. C. MAN J. J. Penarth Swansea . . Prof. M. Cardiff Norwood. Rev. R. Hardie. SCOTLAND Hudson. . E. Heard. A. James. W. Whitefield. W. Robertson. La Touche. D. C. Rev. Yule. . Flintshire— Hawarden Lodge. J. Rev. Prof. Monmouthshire — . Pearson. C. Prof. Prof. Prof. Marshall. Jones. W. Salva Stokes. R. C. Browne. Miss A. Purser. G. A. Thompson. E. W. Yeadon York Eckerslev.

Piof. Batchelor. Gallie. Fitzhugh. H. Prof. W. Benn. E. New York — Ithaca . Miss I.S. MacVay. Prof. Mbditebranban — Cyprus . VlRQINIACharlottexville Steele. Rome . C. B. . Prof. Burns. E. H. * Hirst. L. J.S. R. Colville.A. Prof. Prof. U. *Leach. Faulkner. Chandavarkar. Mr. Langford. Prof. R. J. Hodges. Prof. J. G. Montreal Toronto Anderson. E. R. Gudeman. . Rev.A. op Columbia— U. A. New Hampshire— Exeter U. Howard. H. . . J. . Prof. Prof. Prof. J. F. C. G. T. U. A. Sir.TOPOGRAPHICAL LIST OF MEMBERS Au^uic A— continued EvnoFH— continued France— Paris . NORTH AMERICA Canada— . Hon. .S. Prof. Barlee. A. . W. Nova Scotia — Halifax U. C. Maj. W. Prof. Ne7v . Peterson. Robertson. Rev. . K. P. . G. Gebmant — Halle . Munich . — India A hmednagar Kingston — Oliphant.-Gen.A. U. Rt. Rev. Bell. M. K. Prof.S. der- Poughkeepsie • SaaU Kobert. Minnesota— Paul U. Smith. M. E. . H. G.A. S. O. Elliott. Bombay .A. Prof. J. Miss A. Prof. . Kirtland. .A.S. M. Mr. Knight.A. P.S. W. C. Haig. Illinois— Hale. Larbolette. O'Brien. G. Cubbay. . . Haigh. A. . A. . A. . Drummond. C. C. P. . Bright. . D. Drummond. W. New York Djelal Bey. . Chatfield. Macurdy. Miss G. . C. Cameron. Miss T. W.-Colonel W. Wenley.S. C. P. U. Hon. ASIA Jasonidy. Mis's Cowperthwaite. Hart.S. U. Prof. Wyse. Mrs. R. J. Sir N. Prof. H. O. Lamb. Kincaid. .Lieut. Beaman. P. Mrs. Prof. S. Kitchin. Cuvelier. Carmichael. Principal *Auden. . Johnston. Hotson.A. . T. Hon. J. N.Brown. Chicago . Pennsylvania Grove City Florence 191 Elmer. . Nen-tonHlle .A. Merrill. J. Kelsey. E. G. Prof. S. De Quadros. E. Hon. G. W. E. . J. W. Bryce. G. Mr. P. . A. U. Rev. Boyd. G. A. M. Major J. Dr.A.S. Cambridge Wallace. St. R. Miss . . Ashby. H. . W. A. Ambala . Murray. G. Ailinger. Italy — . M. M. Boyd. Goodell. Mabsachusetts— White. S. B. Abby. . X. C. B. Anderson. Cordue. T. Capt. L. A.S. W. Justice. Justice. Michigan— An?i Arbor . District Washington . Crerar. M. D. Connecticut— Haven . G. T.

J. C. Adams. Enthoven. . . B. . Reads. . . Pratt. . C. G. N. V. . Karrvar . WEST INDIES P. V. E. Thana Korea Percival. M. C. Bowen. P. E. R. M. . Bijaxnir Broach Calcutta . . Lieut. . Belgaiim W. . Owen. . F. C. Marrs. Major-General . Macnaghteu. N. Prof. Is'asik Poona P. . Monteath. . . L. E. . A. E. G. . Leeper. P. SlAM Banyhoh Martin. . APPENDIX 192 Asia — — continued — continued Asia continued India — conti?iucd India Madan. Sonnenschein. Adelaide . Braham. . J. . C. . G. E. . I AUSTEALIA- Hobart Victoria Wiles. H. . Austealia- Corley. Fremantle. Rt. Wren. A. M. D. J.— . C. Wadia. New ZealandC'hristchurch Russell. M. S. Kathiawar . . C. H. S. Rev. E. . H. Morrell. . J. Bolus. R. Miss M. . Miss S. N. Reilly. J. T. G. Brayne. Claremont Perth . L. F. . Bousfield. Wadia. A. Sowerby. Monteath. AUSTRALASIA 0. R. Cape Colony— French Hock Pretoria . J. Bunedin Sanderson. D. D. . Pavri. Shannon. Bombay (^continued) Simla Rainy. F. S. W. . W. Prof. Lewis. L. A. . S. A. . C. . . S. . F. . C. Langley. . H. J. Hon. Satara Shahjehanpur . Tchirkine. M. Madras Naif pur • — Mclhourne South Yarra Wild. H. J. . . E. S. A. Brown. Wellingto^i BrishaJie Talyarkhan. Hollidge. Vaeth. Sheppard. Quin. S. F. E. T. . Swifte. McLean. A. . G. Williams. Queensland— Vakil. E. . . Sale. Mrs. F. E. C. . R. . J. Coghill. A. M. . Meyer. J. H. D. Rev. A. R. . Paterson. B. . C. J. Kennedy. W. Oodhra Hyderahad Karachi . T. Jukes. Rev. Maconochie. Hubback. Tottenham. R. J. . NORTH AFRICA Furness. F. Vernon. E. F. Naylor. F. Allison. W. Mr. Dalton. P. N. Rickards. . K. R. Miss . Hutchison. . G. H. E. C. Swann. Barrows.D. Rothfield. R. (Bishop of Bombay). . II. A. D. Whitty. C. Tarachand. J. Ward. Martin. . A. . J. KolhajniT . P. . W. Roughton. B. A. Stephanos. Miss E. . E. A. C. F. B. . A. Palmer. Prof. Barbadoes Jamaica . M. . Pigott. 0. T. . H. Williams. Miss M. Dr. McMillan. . R. Otane J. E. SOUTH AFRICA C. EaYPT— G. Cairo J. C. . Tasmania— Willis. Prof. Rev.L.

D. Esq.) Chairman . Ewart. the Bishop of Manchester The Right . .. . Herford Hopkinson. Officers and Committee were elected held on January 27th.) (Sir toria University M. Cornish. Baton. Miss M.A.S. B.A.A. C. Esq. . . . Esq. J. Burstall.A. Miss E.. L.. . work began with the Annual Business Meeting. . year's . the Bishop of Salford Miss S. . LL.. A. M.A. B. D. M. H. H. 193 . Esq. H. Conway..D. M. Dean The Vice-Chancellor of the VicOF Manchester Alfred Hopkinson. B. : Esq. B.. Professor R. Vice-Presidents The Right Rev. B. D. H. Miss Thos. 25 .A.R. Esq. Boyd Dawkins. DoRev... Committee Professor R. M.A. The Rev.A. Esq. .A. S. . M. Hon. Treasurer H. Moulton.A..A.. Schmidt. M. Secretary to the Excavation Committee: Hon. D. Warre G. Miss G. Allen.S.A. M. . C. . K.. . S.A. ... M. B. Warman. The High School. M. The University. Williamson. J.A. Miss H. Miss R. E. LL. Rees. Esq. Archdeacon of ManWiLLOUGHBY C. J.. L..D. M. M.A. E.. . B.A. Secretaries Lilley. .. F. THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION MANCHESTER AND DISTRICT BRANCH President Edward Donner.A. Professor W. Bishop Welldon.A. T.C. The Right Rev. (Scot. V. Esq. F. .A. J. A. Esq.A. M. matlle Miss E. . S. Rev. Hon. T.. Miss C. E. Hon.D. Professor H.D. Litt. Llewellyn. M. . Hogg.Litt. Esq. Montague. Agar. .A. J. M. Sir Bart.Sc. Miss M. W. . chester D. Rhodes. May. The . Hopkinson.A. Esq. H. C. Kelsey. Campion. Burrows. B. The Ven.A. Dover Street..A. M.::: : . H. Guppy. Lang. J. Dakers.

and contains six photographs and a plan. October 27th a fresh period of work ])egan with a lecture by Miss Jane Harrison. Professor Moulton on " The Making of a Language. M.I. Members of the Branch Public " University also received special intimation of Lectures ... Hicks. The party visited the castle. delivered in the John Rylands Library by Professor J. of which the Bishop of Burnley is Chairman. Dionysus. H. where they profited by the presence of On July Professor S. Thereafter they were most kindly entertained to tea at the Palace by the Lord Bishop and Mrs. Newport the Branch. In the autumn of 1911 it published a brief Report of the excavations hitherto conducted there.R. on " Pompeius the Great in Literature. in the Light of Recent Discoveries in Crete. viz. Lord Bishop Arch. Hopkinson. Capper. on " The Dithyramb." On This was followed by a social meeting at which Miss Harrison was present. P." and the other by Rev.D. The Report is written by Mr. Lecturer in Classical Archaeology in the University of Manchester." As mentioned in last year's Report. and over 60 associate members. Postgate. the Excavation Committee An Arabian Romance of the have devoted much attention to the site of the Roman Fort at Ribchester. and the cathedral.. and it is hoped that a permanent Museum will be erected on the spot in the charge of the Local Committee.) The excavations will be resumed early in the spring of this year. a and afterwards. The business was preceded by a lecture. one by Professor Mackail two on Tenth Century. and have held careful consultation with the Local Committee. over 60 regular . Litt. J. the the kind guidance of the of Lincoln. and the Drama. A. (Manchester : at the University Press.A.A. H. The membership remains nearly the same." 15th the Branch joined with the Manchester Branch of the Historical Association in an excursion to Lincoln. late President of the remains in Bailgate.APPENDIX 1^4 and the Treasurer's Balance Sheet approved. under member of the Branch . The Branch's scheme for the interchange of lectures in schools has continued to operate through the year.B.

A. Archdeacon Burrows. The Rev. The Rev.. . J. Waterfield. James. Secretary of the Reading Circle Miss H.A. Canon Hobhouse. 49. M. . King Edward VIL's High School New for Girls. M. Reynolds. M. M. Vince.A..A. Hookham.A. .Litt.A. R. . M. Edgbaston. R. Esq. Committee Miss Alder Miss Baugh . . Barrett.A. M. M. Esq..A.A. P. M. Registrar New Street.. Chappel. M.. . . . M. Clendon. . the Lord Bishop of Oxford.A. Hendy. Cary Gilson. M. M. Cattley. Esq. . Esq. R. Miss Major J.D. Secretary R. 100. St. . The Rev. .A. Esq.A. A. J. Bishop Ilsley. Baugh. City Road.. . F.P. Miss M. M. .Litt. Vice-Presidents : The Ven.A. M. .A.A. The Rev. Edgbaston.. M. G. T.. George Stock. Street. . W. H. The Rev. Hon. . C.:: — :: : . . J.. King Edward's School. M. : Miss Inez Watson.. M. LovEDAY A.A. D. G. The Esq. Rev.. Miss Brock The Rev.. Professor Sonnenschein. E. R. Bentley A. . . Hon. Esq. . A. . M. R. . Heath. . Esq. Middlemore.A.A. M. Treasurer Miss E. S. Canon Ford. M.A. Esq. City Road. Esq. Miss Miss Nimmo C. Beaven.A.. Hon. D. schein. Hon.. M. The Rev. . . Measures. BIRMINGHAM AND MIDLANDS BRANCH 195 BIRMINGHAM AND MIDLANDS BRANCH The list of officers for 1911-12 is as follows : President The Right Rev. H. Esq. D.A. Norris Professor SonnenEsq. W. Balfour. The Right Rev. M. Gary Gilson. .

. Professor E. .A.A. Montgomery. J. : Annual General Meeting of the Branch for George Stock. M. M. . Linton-Smith E. Postgate. Esq. Esq.J. . with the further nieetings were held in conjunction Socratic Society of The membership The Reading lUO. Esq. .D. Emeritus Professor H. Caton. Esq. Gladstone. Oxford. of the attended." Friday. . F.. Kenneth Forbes. — as follows Lecture the passing of Accounts and Election of Officers. Griffin. S. Esq. . LL.. : Hugh Stewart. LL. G. H. . Campagnac R. Esq. Rev.D. Blackman (of Queen's College. LIVERPOOL AND DISTRICT BRANCH President Professor R. Lehmann-Haupt. Vipan. Hon. Brown.D.. A. December Uth. Hon. Esq J. F.—" Life in Ancient Egypt in the Feudal Age. Esq.B. L. Oxford).D. Aylward M. and the Egyptian Archaeological Survey).. "The by- Conception of Fortune in Greek Writers. Legge. E. Bridges. V. L. Esq. Professor C.D. Lancelot J. M. H. Professor J. . . Hebblethwaite The Rev. S. Mr." Professor J. Thursday. LL. Professor P. . . Pallis. . The Esq. . Myres A." Mr. C.—'' The Greeks in Cyprus. Secretaries Esq. . V. Esq. F. Litt. Bosanqdet. Paton. B. Muspratt. APPENDIX 196 The Branch has held General Meetings February 23rd.— : : . . October 20th. Birmingham Branch remains slightly in excess of has met regularly and has been well Circle University. A. LL. Esq. Myres (Wykeham Professor Two of Ancient History.D.\TSOx\. K. Vice-Presidents : ViceThe Right Rkv.. T. Cradock\V. H. Weisse. Strong. . Canon Gibson-Smith Robert . . . P. . . Treasurer J. . St. . Professor J. The Rev. the Lord Bishop op Liverpool Chancellgr'^ir Alfred Dale Miss Baines The Rev. E. Esq.

personally I2th. Fellow of Mertou College. S." by P.—'' Erasmus at School. of full members whom 197 63 are of the Association. Esq. Fellow of St. Greenall kindly showed the objects in her custody at Ribchester. November 18th. site. in Classics. The following meetings have been held during the year 1910 : October 28th.. December Sth.. An expedition was made to Ribchester to view the Roman Fort and the results of excavations made by the Manchester Branch. Linton-Smith. Esq. Esq. — " Some Aspects of the Status of Women.d." — conducted the party over the October 12th.A.. Esq.— LIVERPOOL AND DISTRICT BRANCH There are now 112 members of the Branch.— "The Province of Asia in the First Century a. May." by A. May — " The Relations between Research and Teaching by A. Allen. Campbell. F.. — " Man and Nature in the Augustan Poets. followed by a discussion. Y." by Professor Strong. Oxford. 1911 : February 17^^. November 10th. and T. under the Roman Empire.. Cambridge. June 10th. Miss M. M. — " National Character as : revealed by the Language of a Nation. Legal and Moral. Gomme. John's College." by Professor Conway. .S." by Professor Strong." by the Rev. W.—"" Sophocles..

and the Treasurer. History. J. Treasurer Dr. Leman Mr. Barker. . of S. P. . R. . J. L.—'' The MaussoUeum of Halicarnassus Knowlton Mr. p. R. Secretary Mr. G. F. Principal Symes Dr.:::: : — : APPENDIX 198 NOTTINGHAM AND DISTRICT BRANCH President Lord Savilb. Committee Granger. May S. The following papers were read at meetings of the Branch its February 22nd. The number of members was 55. J. B." by : : Preedy. E. Houston Miss C. P. H. The Branch also held two joint meetings :— March I5th (in conjunction with the Thorston Society). Sculptures and Restorations. Vice-Presidents Rev." by Dr. Granger. M. Guilford Mr. J. . Strangeways Mr. C. ." by Rev. E. Walker Mr. Granger. . Francis . S. Chairman Dr. . R. Committee Miss E. Rev. Strangeways. S. Wood the Secretary . 19<^. E. Rt. . A collection of objects of interest discovered at Margidunum was exhibited. .— " Realia in Latin Teaching. . Adam Mr. C. G. November 15t^. Felix Oswald on the results of the previous season's excavations at Margidunum. P. S. Rev. E. Houston Mr. .— " The Brehon Laws. Jones Mr. L. Clarke TuRPiN . W. F. L. A. Brady. F. Brady Mr.— A paper was read by Dr. Bishop Baynes Miss Miss E. C. . .

W.A. I.A.S. Lord Bishop of Bombay The Hon. G.A. Sir Richard Lamb. . A. M. Newton. R. .C. M.C. St. Xavier's College. Sir N. Esq.. .E.B.J.A. P. . R. Anderson.C. C.. : A. Justice Beaman. Justice Batchelor. Chandavarkar.S. Secretary The Rev.. H. Palmer.B. Esq. Esq. S.. . LL. Governor of Bombay. G.A. Treasurer G.. .). . N.G. a performance of the Medea of Euripides was given by the University College Students' Dramatic Society under the auspices of the Branch. (Retd.I.. The Hon.S.E. . Ailinger. M. Sir George Sydenham Clarke. t! The Rev.A. . The play was produced under the direction of Mr. Bon.S. S.B. Hon.C.G. E.S.C. L. The discussion was opened by short papers on the subject by Messrs.M.. E. G. E. J. . Vice-Presidents The Hon. Haigh Major-General J. B. Esq. CLE.L.C. Sheppard.. Mr. Committee G. Cameron. R. P.C. M. Swann.. BOMBAY BRANCH Patron : His Excellency Brevet-Colonel the Hon.:: :: NOTTINGHAM AND DISTRICT BRANCH November 25th 199 conjunction with the Nottingham Branch (in — A discussion was held on reformed methods of classical teaching. LL.. M. Esq. . of the Assistant Masters' Association). Mrs. Adam and E. G. 1912. J. I. On March llth. Mr. President The Hon. I. C.C.S. I. Thomas. F..S. Anderson. J. Pavri. The Right Rev. C. Whitty.. Bombay. I.

I. Cameron.— ' I." Some Classical Novels. Past and Present. Vaeth. E.S. E.C." paper by Mr. in Bombay. 1911 (reported last year). Rothfeld.. F. Haigh.A. Our numbers have risen to 120. August m. September 6/A.— Paper by the Rev." April 6th. S. A. their Origin and Use.—" Plato as a Literary Artist.S. T. Besides the meeting of January 10th.J. M.— Mr. the founder of the Branch and Hon. J. we have held five meetings.— APPENDIX 200 The year under report. the second of the existence of our Branch. R. on " The Influence of Geographical Conditions on the Civilization of Greece." by Mr.. A. July 5^." We have suffered a great loss by the departure for Europe of Mrs. No fewer than seven papers have been promised for next year.— Lecture by the Rev. its first . as The Branch and its work have become well known is shown especially by the surprisingly good attend- ance at our meetings.C. Secretary. at all of which lectures were delivered: March 9th. Bolus. Rickards read a paper on " Classical Scholarship. 0. has been one of steady progress. on " The Roman Numerals. J.?.

.A. Esq. . Mrs. . . M.. H. B. Chief Justice South Wales. Holme.A. C. Esq. A. Sir G. Woodhouse. Secretary F. . Stiles A.:: ::: . B. Weigall.G. Todd. The Right Rev.D.A. of New Vice-Presidents The Right Hon. M.C.A. J. Br. Mon signor O'Brien The Rev. Piddington. Esq. B.. M. . C. The Rev. M. R. H..A.CL. LL.D. B.G. . was reappointed as the representative of the Association of England..M. Assistant Professor E.. M. . R. .A.A. The Rev. T. Lee Pulling. M. . Brennan.A. BousMiss Fidler. J. . Nicholas.. L. Little. E. Mutton. Kaeppel. B. Esq. . The Rev. H.D.A. M. NEW SOUTH WALES 201 REPORT FROM THE NEW SOUTH WALES CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION OF 1910—1911 President The Hon. M. A.J. M. . 26 upon the Council of the Classical Association ..A.A D. B. Professor Thomas Butler.A... Allen. S. B. R..D.. Hon. M. F. The Rev. . Esq.A. B. M. Mr. J. M. M.A. Ph. His Honour Judge Backhouse. J. P. M. Esq. Cullen. Esq. B. Ph... A. B.A.A LL. . Edmund Barton. Miss Badham Mrs Miss Louisa Macdonald. W. Treasurer Professor W. Prescott.. .A. B.D. Purves. G. S.A. A. Esq. Esq.O. Esq. D. Esq. W. L..A. .. C. M.A.. Radford. H. Sir P..M. Garnsey. Byth. Andrew Harper. . Wing. N. Esq.... . . M. S. Clement Professor Alexander Mackie.. J.A. J. FiELD.A. B.A. Esq. C.A.A. B. L. . . Council Miss Eleanor Watson. Hon. Garvin.A.

and May respectively. M. LL. the paper provoked an interesting discussion.D.Sc. M. Vice-Presidents (Cantab. President Professor Henry Darnley Naylor. LL. (2) "Demosthenes was meeting this at attendance Franklin. by Critics. Sir Samuel James Way (Bart. Todd. The membership reached a total of 79..: APPENDIX 202 At the Second General Meeting. :." by Dr. March. and it is hoped that the third year of the Association's life will see the issue of its Proceedings up to date. (3) Professor MacCallum read a paper on the Epistulae Ohscuronm Virorum before a large audience (about seventy). This Mr. M. R. . Professor George Cockburn Henderson. A.). As the result of the experience of the previous year it was found desirable to have only one paper read at each meeting in order The papers to give more ample opportunity " its Monuand Forum Roman The (1) read were as follows means of by illustrated was ments. THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA 1910—1911 Patron : The Right Hon. held in August 1910.A.).). Chief Justice of South Australia. Professor William Mitchell." his and the lantern. There were three ordinary meetings held during the year. Professor William Jethro Brown. Chancellor of the University of Adelaide. B. F.. (Edin.D.).).A.A. In accordance with a resolution passed at the Second General Meeting steps have been taken to issue an abstract of the papers read before the Society. D. in the months of November.A. (Oxon. the President delivered an interesting address on the relation of classical studies to modern life. Although the for discussion. (Cantab. The prospects of theAssociation from thepoint of view of membership and in respect of the interest taken by members in its work are encouraging. : not large.

H. M." J. Mrs.A. M." Professor H. M. M. M. H. McMillan. The Hon. Fitzgerald. " . At by Professor Henry Darnley Naylor. The Cretan Inscription. " Lucian.A. M.A.A." A committee was appointed to draft rules to be submitted to a General Meeting.A. 1911. Ward.) . A. M. Treasurer. . 1908." G. Treasurer 203 : D. five in 1910. The following papers have been read and discussed held. Hollidge. : " Set Books " Civilizain University Examinations. tion in the Odyssey. HOLLIDGE. and an Executive was appointed. A. The Hon. Hon. Secretary : G. to be called it formed. H. Ward.A. B. three in 1908. was resolved that "a Classical Association The Classical Association of South Australia be a meeting convened on March 28th.A. H. Executive The President. ." Rev. " The Policy of Demosthenes. " Teaching of Latin. Dorsch. Hollidge. (Oxen." D. F. Rules were adopted. Rev. (Cantab. M.A. . 1908.A. . F. seventeen meetings have been and four in The members number 36. B.— : SOUTH AUSTRALIA Hon. McMillan. J. . The First General Meeting was held on April 10th. five in 1909. Girdlestone. J. Since the foundations of the Association. Darnley Naylor.).A. Secretary." D. .





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