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W„ 1914 .w CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION PROCEEDINGS JANUARY 1914 (VOLUME XI) WITH RULES AND LIST OF MEMBERS ^' \^ LONDON JOHN MURRAY. ALBEMARLE STREET.

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Classical Association of New South Wales Classical Association of South Austraua Classical Association of Victoria 3 .. 1913 : Officers and Council Rules 16th. 1914 29 Tuesday. .. 1914 APPENDIX TO THE PROCEEDINGS . STATEMENT OF ACCOUNTS. 104 . Nottingham and District Branch 188 London Branch 189 Beistol Branch 190 NoBTHUMBEBLAND AND DuBHAM BraNOH 190 Cardiff and District Branch 191 Leeds and District Branch 192 Bombay Branch 193 .. 114 Names and Addresses of Members 117 Topographical List of Members .CONTENTS PROCEEDINGS OF THE ELEVENTH GENERAL MEETING Monday... 194 195 196 .. 165 Manchester and District Branch 183 Birmingham and Midlands Branch 185 Liverpool and District Branch 187 . 95 INDEX TO THE PROCEEDINGS . January : 5 12th.. DECEMBER DECEMBER APPENDIX TO 106 15th. 111 . January 13th.. 1912.

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Litt. Mr. the month amination begins. Sir F. HELD AT BEDFORD COLLEGE. But accurate scholarship and literary appreciation are not mutually exclusive. met in the The Kenyon. have no doubt that it is educationally better for a boy to grind at gerunds to the complete exclusion of literary interest. to the teaching of younger boys. If we did that.s' ELEVENTH GENERAL MEETING. Livingstone read the following paper on " The President. LONDON. Vergil's philosophy in scenery Honour Moderations Ex- spirit of unrest goes . are inquiring where they can find a compendious account of some headings on the Roman's interest few notions on Cicero's merits as an advocate. or 5 . at 3 p.A. January 12tli. Second. literary than to let intellect and will grow flaccid as he skims the cream off his books with a dilettante enjoyment that shrinks from every exertion and ignores every difficulty. which they can ' get up ' . R. and diffident They want to know some They a few general questions.m. and paper is the teaching of the classics as should say two things at once I : First. D. occupied the chair. or a abroad. and I believe we could make our latter as it is February is examinees pay in education as admirable for the for the former. G.. a book that with a very few and simple changes classical before the visits to their tutors.. Teaching of the Classics as Literature.. Bedford College. K. 1914 On Monday. I do not of course wish to sacrifice the immense advantage we gain from the present thorough grounding in scholarship. and I. mutatis mutandis..C. that I confining myself to the case of students at the Universities in the top forms of schools. W.B. we should lose more than we gain. the Association large Lecture Hall. though some am and of the following sug- gestions are applicable. for one. F." my " The subject of literature. or to substitute for it a mere appreciation of literary skill.B.

but without scrutiny or criticism. . Could a greater on their manner of reading. I suppose. why it has never occurred to common thinnest of arguments) he won them. on our The answers manner inci- of teaching. and ask them what was the religion of Horace. And if this applies to undergraduates. They have seen. and it has told no coherent or intelligible story. who have had a classical education. to adapt a phrase of Newman. and satire dentally. will one or two be lucky if may quote some he finds twenty noticed that Horace of the Odes and Horace of the Satires are. have read the Aeneid with only a vague conception of Vergil's views of this melancholy world nor have they ever considered how a Greek was housed or what he wore and though they : . Let any one who thinks that simple experiment. passive. They are like tame animals brought up by hand. and precise qualities for sense — how many (often with a hopeless client what the great orators of the world. not without enjoyment. But why confine ourselves to ing two distinct views of ? Ruskin himself uttered the amazing dictum.' schoolboys ' ' . he pleaded. I am over-stating the case try a Let him take any ten schoolboys. and are on the verge of University life. that Horace is just as true and simple in his religion as Wordsworth. about sMps or houses or dress in antiquity. it applies a fortiori to schoolboys.' and that he prays to Diana and Faunus just as earnestly as ever English gentlemen taught Christian faith to English youth. From six I suspect he will get no answer passages from the Odes per cent. otiose way. and helpless when turned out to forage for themselves. If you have them on the precise question they are comfortable enough but they never seem to have learnt how to elicit and digest the facts in private reading. accustomed to be fed at regular hours. for the most part. labour through the speeches of Cicero. the tapestry of literature from the wrong side.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 6 or on the Greeks' views of a future life some information or . They lectured . But no. two distinct people expresslife. who have he . before what and the sort of courts we rank him among In fact they have read their books in a vague. them to ask the obvious questions of cases Cicero won. be devised ? to all these questions are of course implicit in the books they have been reading. and must have dawned upon them had they read to any purpose.

can never get away from subjects to teach. me after ten years of teaching is that the case with almost every he has been taught actively to grapple with the problems of translation. the greater part have drifted past him. . for want of applied intelligence and of system in reading. . interest in the classics. and the teachers. but in no other sense of the word has he been taught to read. Thus it is much easier to teach history than to teach literature.TEACHING OF THE CLASSICS AS LITERATURE No 7 in spite of lectures. But how will you bring before him living counterparts of Antigone or Oedipus or Prometheus ? He may meet them when he is older they may come to him. At the best they connect with the world in which he interests. and on the Roman wall bring before his eyes the actual problems of a frontier. because he has not own heart or in his surroundings. but. you can take a boy to Northumberland. some grains knowledge have lodged accidentally of mind. This side of his education has been left boy this is to chance in his : . and . Haverfield suggested last year. stimulating . practically nothing of which they live. This failure of our education can. the human heart which interested in it. but of life — he has as yet seen nothing. by striking and picturesque and forcible situations. without his trying to arrest them. be traced to several of these is inherent in our subject. they are not For they know it. we do not succeed rest. passion which are its privilege blatant epigram. causes. and for the present the great figures and situations of literature pass before him in a half yet met their counterparts in his They were wrought by dream. But they miss almost entirely that revelation of are attracted . to what appeals to the young in literature. it does not form a part of the world in and you cannot show it to them. by the fire and at the worst by tawdry diction. because it : literature it is is and we the most difficult of so hard to hitch on to a boy's Think lives. not overstated the facts. and flashy rhetorical sentiment. by the melancholy which is the foible of youth. or even being aware of their presence. ' ' is the best teacher of literature . is the core of literature or even aware of its presence. when he has had experience of life life as Newman says. The first I think. in really getting the I hope I have The general impression made upon contents of the classics inside our pupils' heads. As Prof. music of an obvious kind. their creators in the fires of passion.

and. not in which most people read. taking no precise note of the country through which we are carried. of system. This. . To study literature. as Prof. as in the poet. like a great actor. can by a little want of something which. That and of teaching literature to the young. there are certain things which one reading. possible to lounge . like the boy in the fairy story. or the natural objects on the bank of course you derive and this is the way profit and pleasure from such behaviour But it is literary lounging. can ever quite get over A it. can take us into the heart of literature and thrill us with emo- we have never experienced in life. and his mere personality is enough get him. of that is it men who have had an bility to the significance or intenser sensi- beauty of things than the average man. vaguely charmed by the beauty around us. : . greatest reward of studying literature companions of poets. but I think too diffident about the value of system. submit devise literary weights and measures. a matter almost of inspiration. poet's secret no one can interpret it to others except by feeling Get your Edmund it for himself. it is no use trying to replace personal stimulus by a . it listeth. I believe. if you cannot Morshead. to be the <^t'(ri9. lulled by the pleasant music of the stream.' Of course there little is much truth in this. we Of course are a it is and drift through a book. or bloweth where highest flights is in the The makes us the teacher. and for this there are no rules. and it is more profitable instead to turn to the second cause of our failure to teach the classical literatures. But this is a matter of </>ij(rts we cannot create great tions which . systematize imaginative writing. as one drifts in a punt in summer-time down the Thames. teachers . we become conscious of a thousand voices to which we had been This is the deaf. They open our eyes. and to seize and impart its it The to ' You cannot rigid spirit rules.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCL\TION 8 no one will understand their workmanship unless he has himself at least stood near the furnace. ' What frigid pedantry ' ! some one will say. is the great difficulty I do not see how you great teacher. unlike trouble be acquired a it is : want of rix^'-q. Murray has shown of late years in Oxford by his lectures on Greek tragedy. of birds and beasts and inanimate things. literary Te'xv//.

averted when . and three see her in Hades. and Anna leaning over her. they leave the rough stone seat and enter that wood of olive. he sights Italy Prospexi Italiam summa after three unda — how entirely you miss the picturesqueness of you see the half-drowned man tossing from trough to trough of the immense aequora and for one moment. as three times she painfully times falls back in a faint . coniux ubi pristinus illi Respondet cur is aequatque Sychaeus amor em motionless. their entrances and exits.— . I will is an art of reading. instead of having to grope them out for themIn fact there selves. lifts herself on her elbow. and may it First — and this is a point where we can help them to enjoy literature as well as to understand it — boys who read descriptive what they or dramatic writing should be taught to visualise A be taught. mention three points. TEACHING OF THE CLASSICS AS LITERATURE has to learn. their dress and attitudes. It is not enough to open our ears to what Sophocles says of Electra. and the poet means us to see the shapes. as he is lifted out of them on the crest of a wave. cheque depends read. the scenery in which coin . in descriptive and narrative writing. and thus in most history. . for poetry bodies forth the all shape of things unseen. and hardly any do it more . on being turned into which alone the poet can for its ultimate value and the symbols of language in must be exchanged for the vision itself. her and with eyes fixed on the ground then see moving away without a word to the wood. or Vergil of Dido and Palinurus. give us his vision they move. and ourselves move among the local habitations in which he has placed them. and there no reason is why 9 our pupils should not be taught them. laurel and vine. We must see in a Greek play the figures. and in nearly poetry . where the nightingales of Colonus sing see Dido with the wound in her breast. and movements their gestures see the Sophoclean Aegisthus as he raises the shroud. . see Palinurus. But most boys do not naturally visualize at 2 all.' catching sublimis ah Vergil's phrase unless ' sight over the grey waters of the darker coastline of Italy. and the change in his face when he discovers his wife dead beneath it see Oedipus and Antigone as — . listening to Aeneas. days and nights among the mountainous waves of the Tyrrhene Sea. This habit of visualization is not of course possible in all literature but it is indispensable in reading drama. The eyes must be open too.

he has surely missed half— the humaner half of what they read. at least to understand. : : — — Horace has to teach him. and how they changed him by or a blank in the lottery of family or . though he could tell you who Sulcius and Caprius were. Eliciting from an author anything more than his success in most obvious meaning is rather like reading cipher both arts comes from natural aptitude for them. Yet if this be so. if he self. Still. what the had he independent means times into which he was born. and there are certain may approach an author. or about their publication what was his whether he had test for poetry. first book. of recitations. and here again we cannot lay down very definite rules. whether he was popular or not in Rome if you were to put any of these questions to a boy who has read the satire thoroughly. This point needs no labouring. . . him may in inquire the class of his parents. boys were taught if thus to see what they read. . . what his father was like. accident. in what ways home influenced him.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 10 than occasionally. and. of poetry I think. There was nothing revolutionary about my my first proposal . He may ask what his health categories with which a reader wish to penetrate to his real and physique were (how much the consumptive tendency Vergil explains in his views of life !) to which he belongs. of Roman bookshops about his own writings. is It is that boys should be taught to notice the contents of the books Most boys have read the 4th Satire of Horace's Yet if you were to put to them a number of questions and ask what you learn to which this satire gives the answer from it of the Roman idea of a gentleman. and next even more modest. life what was his profession. there . you would find him puzzled and silent. the influence on tion and he . as might be done for the it by were. what his method of writing private means. enjoyment Much. of the or what Horace thought public peace. if not to enjoy. are certain guiding rules for the decipherer. The teacher must simply do his best to catch the sidelights that fall. . what his daily life. I now pass to points where we might help them. his favourite books. educa- whether he drew a prize friends. if one has eyes to see them. on the author's character and times and then train his pupils to do the same. and what the commentators think of capsis et imagine.

the sublime. and indeed you can hardly discuss two alternative readings without * Essay on " The Interpretation of Literature. . and insist on answers. and to get some reasons for the answer and a boy : would be more interested in thinking why Cessere magistri Phillyrides Chiron is Amythaoniusque Melampus bad poetry. temperate. his emotions coalesce with one another awe. ideal emotion — how writings do these make themselves What ? the ludicrous of motives. and how do Wonder. the bene- volent affections. and how Vergil came to write it. then. politics or . . just. despondency. of the original or Prof. his merits ' .TEACHING OF THE CLASSICS AS LITERATURE on religion his and defects as a writer. than in rememberwho Melampus was and w^hy he is called Amythaonius. . . suggests. Yet it is possible to ask what are the good lines. touching in Transcripts and . This. grief. as Prof. what the bad. Housman's improvements of Juvenal . strongly. the moral sentiment. on 11 his views man Dowden his vices as a . love. terror. In ing — at present apparently principally — give an admirable opportunity for this field textual difiiculties used for memory training teaching literary taste and insight. the emotion of power. Are his senses vigorous We can ask. or the reverse of these enlarge this his his feeling for the beautiful. . dominate ? ? is Is which Is he and through felt in he of weak or vigorous class of will In the conflict ? motives with him framed to believe or framed to doubt list of questions almost indefinitely even with this Umited list to pre- is likely prudent. is How much efiective criticism implied in Bentley's emendations of Horace. in a passage of Vergil. we shall rise from our reading with far more knowledge than if we simply peruse the page currente oculo. ? hope. is what I mean in urging that boys should be taught to notice what they read. irascible emotion. . admiration and religious sentiment. ? ' but ^ if ? Is he One can we come to our authors. What are and fine ? Does he see colour as well as form ? his special intellectual powers ? Is his intellect combative or contemplative ? What are the emotions which he feels most attraction or repulsion virtues and ." Studies. It is a more difficult matter to teach a boy to distinguish good from bad poetry.

fatal to I usual. for classical It study was usual when was a schoolboy and an undergraduate. I fear most schoolboys would be equally vague and it does not do to be too sanguine It : about all teachers. taken from a variety of well-known The most definite schools. and grammar should always be kept in separate com- the right text. Father and daughter stood before my sight. might be given some idea of the stock Also. that. if the vision of them interrupted by a doubt as to whether TrvOoLfieda or suddenly And so I would suggest. it is. and I believe is still mix up grammar and literature in a book's lesson.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 12 on their respective literary merits. is ridiculous. in the unblurred That. From eve to morn. a deliberate study of the author's personality and point of view. literature is Trv6wfjie6a is . as Landor says. You translated twenty lines of a Greek play and then went through it. classical. realism. for grammar this method may be. but of course any one could feel it when it was there. imagination. think that boys I vocabulary of literature. in a book's lesson. I felt the looks they gave. For literature demands unliterature. Here are three points : visualisation. what they thought imagination was. and it is also the way in which it must be read but Antigone and Oedipus will not move before my eyes. from morn to parting night. outline and clear colours of life. reply was that it was not easy to put into words. noticing points of grammar and literature indiscriminately Now. the lean kine of grammar and text quickly devour their fatter brethren of beauty and thought. divided attention. however excellent in the order in which they turned up. If miss the latter. is the way in which tragedy is written. And reconducted each serener shade. I am certain. the words they said. fancy. To these I would venture to add a very small and easy reform which I believe would do even more than a change in the pronunciation of Greek. after ten years' study of Latin and Greek. and literary discrimination. . to you are looking for the former you are certain to Once admitted to the company of literature. Yet how many do know ? Recently I asked a number of freshmen. if a boy has no idea what is meant by romantic.

in passing. At the same time unseen translation has two further advantages the effort to make out the meaning of the original. I wish to make a plea for present system of unprepared translation. first grammar and text then let these be put on the shelf. that of the sentence. of prose if some changes ever wished to reduce or abolish Latin and Greek composi- many of the advantages which result from translating English into Latin result from the reverse process. laborious workmanship. and their grave king. this one offensive or revolutionary it is I the principal causes : while it has the merit. sits Instead. the adaptation to a changed linguistic atmosphere and climate and scenery. but I would suggest. for what worth. are as Burke as in translating Burke no more easy to find the idiomatic English Latin thought than to translate romance or great in translating Cicero into into Cicero. and then back again to the and the let the fallen monolith on which wood and the nightingales the fallen king. It equivalent for ' idealism ' is ' ' into Latin.TEACHING OF THE CLASSICS AS LITERATURE We partments. And further. : precede the translation of it. . In conclusion. of complying with the psychological law of Undivided Attention. to the speculations of Brunck or Dindorf. to forget for the moment in their company Schneidewin and Wecklein and Campbell and Jebb. That of it a very small point is is among : and so unsatisfactory. forty minutes of an hour be devoted to translation. the quest for equivalents. The complete recasting and rearrangement tion for boys after a certain age. while we join Oedipus and his daughter and the volatile Athenian crowd. which must of mind. is and developing the muscles tion offers. got at present. 13 should abandon the present method by which a teacher darts from the exquisite mise en scene with which the Oedipus Coloneus opens. of English than to recompose them into Both tasks call for agility and elasticity and conscientious. me It always in our seems to that a great deal more might be got out of the Unseen hour than is we I will not embark on the thorny subject and verse composition. nor to dissect a Ciceronic sentence into the minuter members an oratorical period. one of the best ways of exercising of the mind that our present educa- translation into English teaches . am certain that the neglect why our literary teaching is reform will hardly seem to any If so.

THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION

14

manipulation of our own language in a way

tliat

the reverse

process never does.

Only it must be a very different sort of translation from that
which is commonly in use at the present day. Consider the
present Unseen hour. Papers are distributed, the piece is translated by the master— I will not say into good English— but
into good Anglo-Latin or Anglo-Greek, and a time which might
be really valuable

for the teaching of literature has

no edification

except the practice of accuracy, and no interest except the
What might be is very different from
revelation of the marks.

what

Suppose the piece to be Latin.
eyes to its contents, and make them

is.

pupils'

of its author's or his nation's
criticize

piece

the

fecund parent of unseens,

is

us what

Statins,

it

reveals

might make them
instance,

for

that

rich in literary instruction.

might print varying renderings
elicit criticisms of their

might direct our

tell

We

mind.

literature.

as

We

of the passage into English,

And above

value as translations.

We
and
all,

we might insist on as high a literary standard of translation as
we demand in the case of Latin and Greek proses. We do not
applaud a Latin prose which is mere canine barking, devoid of
style, because the concords are accurate, the tenses
But if they are accurate,
in sequence, and the words classical.
idiom and

we

give a first-class

English at

Cicero's speech

First-Class

man

of constancy,

that there
of the

is I

good

influence of

:

mark

if

to English translations

which are not

people here are doubtless acquainted with

Many

all.

on the Bodleian Law, translated by a
:

'

Conscript Fathers,

of gravity,

if

if

there

of fortitude,

if

is

Balliol

anything in you

humanity (which

of

most certainly know), fortify this common citadel
open the Pig Market, closed by the intolerable

bad men

;

be unwilling, be unwilling that the seat
most delightful meeting-

of the Muses, the School of Divinity, the

places of Boards of Faculties, should be stained by royal power

and polluted by cruelty. Which that it will certainly happen if
you do not prevent it by your votes, I most confidently predict
yet it is hardly
and vaticinate.' This is a professed parody
more bizarre than the stuff which passes for translation among
schoolboys and undergraduates at the present day, and the
;

— to those printed

aroma of which clings not always very faintly
and authorized versions through which we give

to a non-literary

TEACHING OF THE CLASSICS AS LITERATURE
public their idea of the masterpieces of Greece and

course
is

15

Rome.

Of

we are going to transUite into this Anglo-Latin, there

if

beyond the mere

profit in the performance,

little

making
have no change

We

the original out.

take the

first

they come

atmosphere in the process of translation, we

English words that come, in the order in which

—like

was moving

of

effort of

need not recast our sentences, we

into a

I think, then,

whose conception of a change
different room in the same house.

a person

that

we may with

of air

send to the knacker's

profit

those spavined jades, Anglo-Latin and Anglo -Greek, misbred out
of

by

Literary English

ployment

of

Literal Accuracy.

them degrades the pupil because

Our present emit is

slovenly

;

it

degrades the original Latin and Greek, by letting boys suppose
that Cicero and Thucydides can be housed in the

hovel of language that they can run up
language, because

it

;

it

first

shanty or

degrades our

own

allows people to describe these productions

To reform it completely is no easy
you will, it is almost imconceal the fact that you are not writing

as translations into English.

matter

as every one knows, try as

;

possible in translating to

spontaneous English, that there
language behind you.

boys

will

evade the

And

there

difficulties of

is
is

an original in a foreign
always the danger that

an Unseen, and

excuse that they were trying to write good English.
difficulty

you in
The latter

tell

can be easily met by insisting that by the side of a

translation into real English the pupil should produce an Anglo-

Latin rendering in the present

style.

For the former, we can

encourage ourselves by remembering that some seventeenth-

and eighteenth-century translators surmounted it.
Orrery's
Pliny is no less exact in its scholarship than admirable in its
English. And even if we cannot reach these heights, we can at
least teach our schoolboys to avoid gratuitous solecisms.

At

present they come up to the Universities without ever having
learnt that, in translating a Latin sentence into English,

you
you must leave out connecting parthat hendiadys and apposition, so common in Cicero,

must break
ticles

;

it

up, and that

are not found in English style,

that

we

and must not be reproduced
and past participles
not the same as the order in a

are not fond of absolute absolutes

that the order in an English,
Latin, sentence.

is

;

;


THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION

16

One might add many

points to tliese

between the English and Latin use
could be taught without any danger
scholarship in translation

— notably the contrast
metaphor — but these

of

of impairing exactness of

and they could be taught very

:

simply by telling boys to reverse the rules they use when they
are translating into Latin, and observe that the corollary of the
maxim, Put connecting particles into your Latin prose,' is,
Take them out of your English translations.' And so with
hendiadys, past participles and the rest. I cannot conceive a
'

'

better medicine for our distempered English of to-day than one

which drew accuracy

and

of thought, precision of expression

grace of style from the fountains of Greece and

Rome.

It is

Demosthenes into journalese.
have touched very cursorily on a huge subject, and have
put forward dogmatically some views which would have been
tentative had time permitted me to insert qualifications. Perdifficult to translate
I

haps the suggestions

came

across

I

have made are already in practice I never
I was a schoolboy and undergraduate

them when

But the problem remains.
what

perhaps they have been found useless.

At

present, our pupils do not learn to get at the heart of

they read, or even as near

it

as they might."

The President. " In your name I thank Mr. Livingstone
for his most instructive, suggestive and admirably expressed
paper. I am, however, inclined to think that Mr. Livingstone has
exaggerated the failure of our education and made out a worse
case against himself as a teacher than he need have done.

He

think he has done this in two ways.

I

has sometimes put the

standard to be expected from schoolboys and undergraduates in
He has also
their first years higher than is quite justifiable.

sometimes made out a worse case
undergraduate than seems
it is

hard to expect the

requires,

fair.

full

for the existing

With regard

appreciation of literature which he

and which wc look

for ultimately,

What he

schoolboy stage of development.
revelation of the
literature depends,

human
is

heart,'

from boys in the
described as

'

the

on which the appreciation of

beyond boys

of that age.

look for in education at that stage

and the power

schoolboy and

to the first point,

is

What we must

the supply of materials

of dealing with materials

which

will

bear fruit

DISCUSSION

17

life and of literature is exThat condition applies as much to English literature

afterwards as their knowledge of
tended.

Secondly, I think Mr. Livingstone has

as to Greek or Latin.

done some

injustice to the

education.

I

many

am

desiderates— and when

of the lessons he

chester

I refer to

'

many

be said of

better specimens of public-school

quite sure that he himself learnt at Winchester

it

as representative

;

of the other great public schools.

time no one would

say

I

'

Win-

the same thing might

At the same
and

deny that there are defects in education,

New methods may

that methods can always be improved.

have the advantage of stimulating fresh interest and producing

But each good teacher

fresh results.
of his

own."

Canon Cruickshank.

—"

as to the interest excited

agree with

sombre

I agree

by

him that the situation
But I am very grateful

I shall try to

make one

or two criticisms.

best teacher of literature, he said

I

Indeed, his paper was

same

lines

full

venture with some hesitation to
First of

all,

he took a gloomy view

the same argument, I presume, would apply to
the

I also

unduly

to Mr. Livingstone for

with regard to teaching boys literature, tragedies,

On

in

used which were profoundly true.

remember.

and

of thoughts of value,

Kenyon

Mr. Livingstone's paper.
has been drawn

many of the expressions he
When he said life was the

methods

find out

with Sir Frederick

colours.

something

will

you might

say.

What

is

etc.

But

all literatures.

the use of a boy

reading Macbeth or Othello or Paradise Lost or any masterpiece

Our own language is not quite on the
and Greek, but the arguments
of tragedies are unfamiliar to the boy, and I am sure Mr. Livingstone would not wish to cut at the root of all serious reading and
But I go farther. I say
restrict boys reading Shakespeare.

of

French or German

same footing

?

of difficulty as Latin

boys have a natural liking
are

many who

for literature of that kind.

enjoy reading Shakespeare by themselves.

There
It

is

not quite accurate to say that they cannot appreciate a tragedy.

On
to

the contrary the horrors of a tragedy are rather attractive

many

minds.

They may not approach the tragedy from the

proper artistic point of view, and do not get so

much good

as

Mr. Bradley would, but the ordinary boy does get enormous
pleasure out of reading Hamlet or Othello or

3

King Lear, with

I feel that instead of giving to literature twenty. that are put before what he With Some in the masterpieces of literature. the whole thing became easy. I used to race to the end. Livingstone as to the importance of pointing out literary value. but the 1 Aen. enthuse ' on literary is. Another passage which I never knew fail to make boys laugh is the scene of horror in which the matrons of Troy. first found Plautus and Terence very hard to read because there were no stage directions. I years as a schoolmaster. and Latin (which you wish if is the first minutes of grammar and grammar boj^s to thing) forty minutes and to understand the Greek you must give them five of literature. like myself. It is of interest to him to anticipate the whole thing and to see what these people have said and felt and done.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 18 of which he has had uo experience in life and you must remember this elementary fact. they There again the limitations you must be am ' beautiful this or that an awful bore.^ That passage many taught the Aeneid times . Livingstone really exaggerated the inability of an immature mind to enter into the experiences situations . come ideas before boys. kissed the doorposts. say. As soon as you got it into your head that stage directions were required. many After experience of the doorposts kiss With those two It ! classical passages — the matrons of the doomed have another criticism to make. A tragedy has an interest to him although he has had no experience of life. when the place was being burnt to ashes. from that point of view I think Mr. 490. — to it is unsafe to trust the British youth city and the sad death of Dido. more first . With regard to Dido. though boys are very difficult to matters. and knowing the enormous difficulties of getting people to construe aright. always struck boys as ludicrous seems to me quite reasonable. that the boy conjures up before his mind the image of the life he is going to lead. When you probably think of the teacher it skill how in I . skilful in willing to allow that putting literary it requires than one perhaps took the trouble to apply. people here. ii. The death of Dido was the anti-climax it always amused them. Therefore. I have and always found the story of Dido excited the risible faculties of boys more than any other part of Vergil. it said about visualising things I heartily agree. I am fifty-five quite with Mr.

Mr. Livingstone's accuracy. and grew up knowing these stories and feeling the as a teacher . but do not imagine that they have not been said in the past. precepts with which Mr. which were infinitely remotest idea of the twelve lines they got through in the hour they did not know what the subject-matter had been. but the human mind has a to everybody most extraordinary capacity for not listening or for forgetting. " When I was invited to another school — about ten days to introduce a more lively method of teaching Latin. W. I spent the first part of the time listening to the classes. I have had to deal with the subject from both points of view. LivingThat is what I saw and heard last year." Mr. Paine. Livingstone concluded. they are familiar who has taught. Go on saying these things by all means. for more dull and lifeless than any Mr. —" point of view of one I should like to ofier a remark from the who has had twenty-five years' experience and more than that as a' parent. stone has described. by means of such books as Kingsley's Heroes and those charming versions They of classical episodes and stories by Nathaniel Hawthorne. two of whom have taken good degrees at the University.DISCUSSION thiug is 19 that they shall understand the Greek or Latin. and I think a system I adopted with regard to my boys. had make them see what the them to use imagination. so that the literary criticism must be confined to a shorter time than With regard to the Livingstone implied in his paper. may be of interest. They will be said for centuries and nobody Avill pay any attention. loved them. I found the rest of my time had to be occupied in asking They had not the the boys what they were reading about. even since I have been at Durham. to tell I . At the days we managed to see a little in Latin. I have told people to leave out conjunctions or to put them in I should not like to say. From their earliest years I began to interest them in the tales that they would afterwards meet with in classical literature. How many times. You may go on telling people these things. When it came to introducing any other method of teaching Latin. I should like to bear this testimony to Mr." Canon Sloman. As speak one word of Latin without seeing what these boys stories in English to story was about and teach end of four or five it is impossible to you are talking about. L.

opening. is a revelation of the quite understand that a but surely that It is is boy will human I simply because he has not yet been in love. Then most of the make the easy and take things Mr. as a matter of practice. and I I believe especially call the attention of those who have little boys or girls to deal with to it. unmethodical tion. the work of the teacher. Again. as Mr. Livingstone has been advocating will follow without any further and difficulty. and I feel very confident that the only way is to give a boy an interest in that which he reads. I thought it would away that dullness which. nobody ever takes the trouble to see that he will enable him to grapple with the has a sound method which difficulties of a Latin sentence. Read such books to them just as you do ordinary fairy-tales they will find them quite as interesting and will grow up knowing the foundation of what afterwards they have to study in the In the case of my own two boys it certainly original languages. Livingstone says. deal of the difficulty We and in him set many cases will certainly much very relieve throw out that suggestion because. ? I think not. entirely outside his present experience. In — especially since Mr. might be saved at the beginning. . it I which we let a boy begin his translaup with a vocabulary and grammar. J. have found — " My own it valuable. Livingstone's proportion of time to be devoted to the literary side." impression that a great is due to the extraordinarily happy-go- is way in to get it lucky. I Mr. so that when they began to read them Greek they knew what they were reading about in Latin or beforehand and gave them a it many boys that which to that that system is is real living literary interest in a dull routine of lessons. in my previous experience as a teacher. a play which I am particu- . questions of socialism Is all literature my own teaching I Lloyd George came The great and individualism continually crop up in Greek and Latin authors. of very great value. the Fifth Form I I think a great deal of time By the time a boy gets into should vote for Mr.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 20 keenest interest in them. I had found an obstacle to so many. V. which. Saunders. — an exceedingly valuable politics into prominence heart. the difficulty I realise of getting a boy to understand great literature. has borne more fruit even than way more I expected. outside his experience have found and laugh over the death of Dido.

world and the is Anderson then gave Way a lecture on " there. It 21 seems that the characters in the Philoctetes are extremely well adapted to appeal to the gentlemanly and sporting instincts In the Persae. as the slides can be used in place of notes." C. between two cover-glasses. First statistical and descriptive slides. can be added required. as it is nearly free from It is mounted parallax and allows easy tracing from the original. In the case of maps a thin photographic film." of which the following is The Undersummary. and. At the resumption. a of lantern slides to illustrate a set lecture is simple matter. They can be prepared in a few minutes." was now taken. washed and dried.THE UNDERWORLD AND THE WAY THERE fond of reading with boys larly to me is the Philoctetes. Such a skeleton set may be made at home and enables the lecturer to dispense with manuscript. is better than a glass plate. and this is not a intended to be a demonstration of various methods of forming a series of explanatory slides which will serve as a skeleton to which slides. W. in the Poetics with the Sixth Form. audience not likely to catch readily can be clearly shown. there are those lines of the British boy. and if properly made will stand even the heat of an arc light. by using Indian ink and a crowquill. which Aeschylus was deliberately playing to the Athenian Finally. too. a large amount of matter can be placed on the screen. The use under con- is to be a demonstration of the use of pm-pose. slides for this Mr. is Maps and plans can be prepared in the same way and show up more clearly than most of the slides prepared photographically. fixed. F. the We are now to have a demonstration of how said The possibility lantern lectures can be used to assist education. which are easily writing on the " Notice " plates used for public an- come made by nouncements in theatres or the open street. . I have always found it advantageous to read gallery. such as that of the Hellenic and when borrowed from collections Roman societies. The tea President interval : " of organization in cormection with the Classical Association for providing slides for use in schools and elsewhere This lecture sideration. unfamiliar names and anything that the Dates and figures.

and not as a reasoned exposition of a difficult theme. slide. gives just what the There are sketch with titles insertet/ plans and illustrations which come within artist wants. above it. shown by themselves on a special The present lecture is not intended from no less wide a than four separate as hints of the material available an are screen. and to photograph on an ordinary The negative can be cut down and used as a Such negative slides do not require any special care in development. better as a rule than illustrations from books. A few experiments will show whether half a match In the same way or two matches will give the required depth. as they appear dull to eye which has adjusted itself to the brighter light. but it is not advisable to insert them in a series of ordinary slides. best single lecture.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 22 Coloured iuk can be used. There are other subjects that are best dealt with many by panoramic views. screen. and if corprints. where the cannot be disentangled from the re-drawing. often make good slides. as the white lines on the on black are not so dazzling as black on white. Where a small map is not available the shortest method and white that all is is to draw in black needed. and an exposure made by holding a lighted match about 6 in. and whether they are weak or strong show well quarter-plate. Colour slides can nowadays be easily made either by the Autochrome or Paget process. sets. especially general or detail is often so small that general mass. many the 3-inch square of it A bold black-and-white of a slide and can be copied without the use The negative a camera. as it covers too They to be a specimen of a The slides are selected and are to be regarded field. The subject is chosen because it bears directly on myths and . Original photographs from snapshots add a personal interest Picture postcards can be easily copied and to a set of slides. and with care a brilliant map can be drawn in the same time as on tracing-paper. photographic from negatives can be made of the grain of the trace no show rectly exposed and developed paper. plate is laid under the original with a cutting shape of plate glass above to secure close contact.

Hermes. Avernus and the Phlegraean Fields as the setting and to suggest the influence on the poet's amazing country. so the great with the heretics and Hell. by the Starting with the story in the Odyssey. which be compared with the Etruscan wall-paintings at Corneto may and the Esquiline v/all-paintings. The appeal men Mohammed. vase-paintings from South Italy provide a later version. lead to an account of the difficult problems of the popular soul. Eraser's Pausanias provides abundant material for a study of the series of myths represented. and gives a reproduction of Prof. In the case of Vergil it is possible to describe the Bay of Naples. It is here that the snapshot and personal notes aid the imagination and arouse interest. lead on to the " Harrowart . and The early traditions of the Descent into Limbus. Persephone and Demeter. reliefs who and sculptures. Few paintings have been more fully described than '"The Underworld " by Polygnotus in the Lesche at Delphi. Robert's restoration which can be placed on three lantern slides direct method described above. of the Sixth Aeneid. soul of this Christian Iconography provides survivals of the old tradition and Dante's Inferno may serve as showing the blending of the Pagan and Christian. one can take this restoration in detail and mark the Then the series of red-figured additions to the Homeric version. together relegated to the Christian is so powerful that poetry combine to people the Underworld with new inhabitants. all of interest to those The representation are familiar with literature. with Misenum. of the diminutive winged figure or an actual bird. Orpheus and the Euries can be shown by a large number of vase-paintings. The Underworld is for each age peopled with ghosts of discarded Just as the ancients cults. There is no subject in which the influence of classical types and figures can be traced so clearly as that of the Underworld. 23 enough to name Homer. Charon and his boat.THE UNDERWORLD AND THE WAY THERE It figures familiar iu literature. Cerberus. were to the imagination who had been cast of antiquity. as given in the Apocryphal Gospel of Nicodemus. Vergil and Dante. either as a may creeds of antiquity and of the Mysteries. placed in Hades the giants and monsters down by the Olympians. is Aristophanes. This general survey gives a framework into which various myths and figures may be set.

the theologians. it is all promote the use false). entirely outside What we I something deal with might be called applied archaeology. of by the I — how to among our eye-teaching. but Sir Frederick me will forgive if I say unexpectedly to preside over the destinies of the greatest classical museum in the world. I hold there present who is is if it is no room sceptical. but one was it is about to be taken up strenuously by the is Association." like. as have just termed eye-teaching. I part and parcel so horribly neglected in our Classical Schools am going to speak about Museums. yet they are necessary because they alone can teaching attractive : and tive as well as efficient. would say that not merely no other question so important. for is Even On make subject attrac- this side of the question any one here would only invoke the authority of argument. friends. if Scientific archaeology is the scope of the ordinary literary student. to the vision in Milton's Paradise Lost. So. of archaeology as a science to be taught as a science. as I prefer to call For the Association. and so The theme was one where the poet could claim to have a special revelation without much fear of censure Last Judgment with Museums on " I should tion on its its gave free scope to the painter. I want with to make my me plain. just at the time one who think I is other questions taken together are not really so urgent and at the same time so We are. too. and that the matter difficult. if I may. going to succeed. then read a paper on " The Influence the Classical Revival. that would indeed be English classical scholars. but of the same question of Eealien. and that of others who are working we do not lay stress on the teaching any more than that we want grammar position First of all. you hold teaching can be is Now we hold this not the whole case.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 24 ing of Hell " and the Hell-moutli of the miracle plays. I we cannot make our doomed. to congratulate the Classical Associa- courage in facing the question of the use of the lantern. Doom Browne Professor H. But that necessary for efficiency. which has been and Colleges. but all however. a good omen when it has secured as President not only among the greatest and best known of is who owing to that very fact called (I will not say prematurely. or. in Art. If there is . efficient without the lantern and the museum.' ' it. or.' ' it.

at once address myself to the practical aspects of We the problem. and I declare that although Universities do not always know it. are often rich people. there are the Training Colleges and other semi-professional institutions last who but not least there are what most are are not from us. the Association should try to influence. I which the first can speak with more definite knowledge. is institutions. And as the Universities dominate the school system. permanent other material. Roman societies in the own members (who. Let me. This is of already done by the Hellenic and course. One great difficulty to be faced in this matter of types of the schools and and other colleges. but only for their by the way. almost illustrative things — I mean those slides or objects which are attrac- . they can be the most hopelessly antiquated and unintelligent bodies in the whole world. in many cases to provide circulating collections of smaller objects suitable for class demonstrations. Wait and see. both important. There are what I may call the Public-school type and the Secondary type. clearly the requirements of these different institutions all there are alike many the whole area 4 may call the Extension willing to receive help clamouring for Now I . . sore need of aid as are). lantern slides. make use of mean the bringing also to of new materials to educational centres. a very upon them of light shining will gospel authority for stating that body is full if We ray have the eye be evil the whole Then among the of darkness. and agencies. little be most beneficent. though from different points of view .MUSEUMS AND THE CLASSICAL REVIVAL 25 a former president of the Association and say to them. schools there are so many types. By creating machinery We us. I . and not by any means in such many members of our Association presumably case of books and slides. and are indeed it. then. all important in their own way. and we have existing machinery. I It will be necessary and collections of slides of antiquity and topo- hope merely as a temporary expedient. including hand-books to found or develop local graphy or. have a two-fold duty before have to create machinery. though I might just point out in passing that which cover a large. including. the variety There are Here Universities and University colleges.

as distinct from the large class of things which are important to the teacher merely on account of their association with ancient life. show them casts of the tragic mask with show them the aulos and the its onkos and the cothurnos . you . or the grave. of view quite agrees with his. Anderson. Show them views of the extant theatres. and then you understanding of the Bacchae. thought bacchanals must have looked like. what Macedonia was like. stimulated as it will be by the Euripidean text.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 26 tive to mind as well as eye on account of tlieir intrinsic beauty. what the Athenian audience was really like. If I may give a concrete instance teaching the Bacchae to a class. bearded Dionysus on the Theban Tetradrachm by all means show them a Thyrsos with its pine-cone top and wreath of wild convolvulus . . . we have an interesting lecture on just heard such the subject from Mr. many other — suppose you are give their minds One plan would be laboriously to collect a lot of woodcuts of gems. — their reading of texts will be vivified as well as things. and want to a real grip of the subject. What we want is to brighten and deepen our teaching all along the line to plunge the senses and the minds of our students If we do this. them an impression which is certainly unreal and and misleading. what Euri- more than Now likely positively false for the other method. The result of this will be either to shock your students or more likely to bore them to what death but artists. but as a rule I feel very strongly that for the most part waste of time to try to illustrate them to it is directly. vase-paintings or reliefs. I I do not know that certainly think my point we want illustrate our texts. pides was like with his friends and his enemies will have helped them to get a real . the infant Dionysus with Hermes. illus- more or trating less grotesquely Bacchanalian scenes. Here may I especially as say a word in reference to the illustration of texts. kithara . will give will not really carry them forward in their work. but you can safely leave the revels to their own imagination. or rather very likely of the later Greco-Roman period. undoubtedly into a sort of atmosphere of antiquity. not too many. Use your lantern and all your powers of illustration to make your lads or your girls understand what a Greek theatre was really like. show them a theatre ticket.

MUSEUMS AND THE CLASSICAL REVIVAL

27

Yes, we shall be wise to seek out new machinery, but where
we can use that which exists we shall be even wiser. I want
to know why we do not insist that every public museum, from

the largest to the smallest, in our remotest provincial towns,
shall give us

in the

work

some help according

of reviving classics.

much

to their different capacities

Surely

we belong

to the public,

anybody else.
I would insist upon much more is this, we can be
represented if we only take trouble to insist on our rights. I
have made some inquiries and have convinced myself that on
the part of Cm-ators and Trustees there will be little backwardness to help us if only we will take the initiative by devoting
to their assistance the small amount of trouble which is inThey are quite willing to be of service
volved on om' part.
to us; they know what every one knows in his heart, no
matter how he may rave and storm against the iniquity and
namely, that we represent somecruelty of classical education
really
possible
it
is
not
to get away from, and
thing which
don't
really
want
to get away from if they
which perhaps they
and have
But what

as

right to be represented as

could.

The Curators may be at first a little incredulous why should
?
They have never been asked to do anything for
classical students, and naturally at first would find it difiicult
The ordinary idea of a classical section
to go about the task.
in a modern museum is a few badly made and badly kept casts
such as the Apollo Belvedere or the Venus of Milo, and they
have given them either a few rough coats of whitewash (which
wonderfully improves them) or they have stuck them into a
corner with other unwieldy and heterogeneous things which
;

they not

are not particularly interesting to the classical student or to

any human being. This is all our own fault. Most of us do
not care, many do not know of the educational casts and models,
aye, and originals also, which could be got at a small cost, and
are actually supplied to the museums and schools of Germany,
Austria and the United States, At the present moment a
committee has been appointed by the British Association to
discuss the work of public museums in relation to our educational
system, and this committee, though by no means intended
primarily to do the work of the Classical Association, has shown

"

THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION

28

already that

that

it is

prepared to consider favourably any suggestions

we can make

For myself

I

to

them on the

do not despair

was founded at the

subject.

of the Classical Association.

close of the Victorian era,

identified itself with

and has even

tried to

and

it

It

has certainly

promote the

Classical

Jebb, in his masterly article in the Encyclopaedia Brirevival.
out that the great revival of letters did not
pointed
tannica,
start in the centres of learning, that the Universities of the

rather opposed the

movement

in its inception,

they proceeded calmly to annex

it

when

Apart from the aspect

as a success.

great period of original

it

though

day

of course

was already established

of the

Renaissance as a

and creative achievement, the revival

which we are going to witness may be for our age equally important in its own way. We have many analogies with the
Quinto-cento revivalists. For one thing we, too, represent the
reaction of persons saddened by formalism and antiquated conventions.

We,

too, suffer

from deadly apathy on the part

Universities and other respectable bodies.
to oppose us actively

how we

;

they

will rather

They

of

are not going

look on quietly to see

and v/hen the psychological moment
upon our necks and press us to their aged

shall turn out,

arrives they will fall

bosoms, declaring that we are indeed their Long-lost Child
The President. " In thanking Mr. Browne for his paper
!

must remind you that he

is

a prophet speaking here in his

right on a subject with which he has identified himself.

I

own

He

is

also one of the representatives of the Classical Association in

Ireland.

We

are glad to

welcome him here

in the latter capacity,

and we also are grateful for a stimulating speech on a subject
which is very much in the minds of the Association just now
and which works in very well with the two papers read earlier
I may add that the trustees of the British Museum
in the day.
have embarked on a scheme for supplying casts of objects in the
Museum to public museums and schools of art, and almost any
body which can show itself to be of public importance. But it
would

rest with those bodies

and

their curators to

make

that

grant educationally effective."

The meeting now adjourned, and reassembled at 8.30 p.m.,
when a Reception was lield by the Piiincip.\l of Bedford College.
Following the Reception, the Bedford College Greek Play Society

REPORT OF COUNCIL

29

gave a most successful performance of the Second and Fifteenth
Idylls of Theocritus.

The Association reassembled on Tuesday, January

13th, at

10 o'clock, when

Mr.

W. H. Duke

read the Report of Council.

" The Council have pleasure in reporting that the membership of the Association has during the past year well maintained
its

numbers.
Branches and Affederated Associations

The recently formed Branches for Bristol, London, and Northumberland and Durham have been formally affihated to the
Association and are making good progress, and the inaugural
meetings of new Branches for Cardiff and District and Leeds
and District will be held shortly. The Classical Association of
Victoria has been affederated and is rapidly increasing its numbers,
which now exceed 200. The influence of the Branches upon
the progress of classical studies may be seen in the estabUshment of a special Chair of Imperial Latin in the University of
Manchester. The increased interest in the Classics which has
led to the establishment of this Chair is undoubtedly due in some
degree to the activities of the Branch founded in Manchester
in 1905.

Occasional Publications

In accordance with the resolution passed by the Association
at its last General Meeting a committee has been appointed for
the issue of occasional publications. In accordance with the
Committee's recommendations a paper by Prof. D. A. Slater,
entitled Ovid in the Metamorphoses,' has been issued to members.
'

Latin and Greek in the Universities of the British Empire

The Committee appointed to consider the position of Latin
and C4reek in the Universities of the Empire has presented a
report which will appear in the forthcoming number of Proceedings.^

Educational Conferences

At the Imperial Conference of Teachers' Associations held in
London in July 1913, the Association was represented by Prof.
Conway, Mr. Gardiner and Mr. Hendy.
1

See

p. 95,

THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION

30

Dr. M. E. Sadler and the Rev.

W. H.

Keeling were appointed

to represent the Association at the recent

North

of

England

Educational Conference. The Association have offered to cooperate with the Committee appointed by the British Association to consider the use of museums as an aid to teaching.
Illustrative

Aids

to Classical

Teaching

The Council have given much attention during the past year
to the question of extending and organizing the means for this
They appointed a Committee
object in Schools and Colleges.
last May to confer with representatives of the Hellenic and

Roman Societies with a view to joint action. The joint conference has made suggestions for the formation of a Classical
Materials Board, and has framed the outline of a preliminary
scheme. The Council propose to proceed actively in the matter.
They have secured the cordial co-operation of the Association
the Reform of Latin Teaching, which has already taken

for

steps to form a circulating collection of coins, pictures

and casts

for use in schools.

Pronunciation of Latin
Association's rules for the pronunciation of Latin have
been reissued by the Board of Education for the use of Secondary
Schools recognized by the Board. The Board report that the
introduction of the reformed pronunciation has in their experi-

The

ence been attended with remarkable success.

Grammatical Terminology

The Council has pleasure in recording the progress made by
the movement initiated by the Classical Association in 1909 in
favour of a uniform system of grammatical terminology, applicThe
able to all the languages of the Indo-European family.
Report of the Joint Committee, after receiving the general
approval of all the eight Associations which were represented
on it, has been accepted by two Universities (the University of
Wales and the University of Birmingham) as a basis for questions
and it has
on grammar in their Matriculation Examinations
been adopted either in whole or in part by the writers of ten
grammars published since 1911 grammars of English, Latin
The movement will doubtless receive a new
and French.
impetus from the Report of the American Joint Committee
(constituted in 1911), which is to be published during the present
Similar Committees are at work on the same problem
year.
;

in

Germany and

in Austria.

and defined more clearly. . In consultation with the Editor the Board has considered. The enlargement of the two journals. besides subscribing themselves. I desire to — " In of the Report. reported last year as made possible by an increased circulation. Mackail from the Board. 106. and their grateful appreciation of the services rendered by him as representative of the Asso: ' . ciation. seconding the adoption of this Report take the opportunity of adding a very brief explana1 See p. We appeal strongly to all members of the Association to become subscribers. to one of the journals or both. both on their own account and also as a help to the whole work and influence of the Association. and can only be effected through further substantial increase in the number of subscribers. The Classical Review. submitted to this meeting. of being permanent. We ask the Association to join in thanking them for their services during the past year." The President moved the adoption Mr. a Vice-President of the Association and an active member The Council of Council for many years.REPORT OF COUNCIL 81 Balance-sheet The Balance-sheet for 1912 was published in the last volume The Balance-sheet for the past year will be of Proceedings.' In presenting the Report of the Classical Journals Board the Council desire to place on record their regret at the retirement of Mr. gives every promise But further enlargement is very desirable. the scope and character of the contents and it is hoped that the usefulness of the of The Year's Work volume to members of the Association and to students of the classics in general may thereby be increased. if they are not already. should use their influence in order that the Review may be taken in by public libraries and the libraries of all schools in which the classics are taught. Mackail.^ Obituary regret to report the death of Professor Robinson Ellis. In particular. deserves the active support of all members. The Classical Quarterly and The Year's Work have all consented to continue in office for 1914. which interests a wider circle. We venture to suggest that members. Classical Journals Board — The The Classical Journals Board reports as follows Editors of The Classical Review.

this It would take a good deal of passed. Accordingly tlie Council in May last appointed a committee to consider the matter and to invite the Councils of the Hellenic and Roman Societies to consultation with a view to subsequent This joint conference held several meetings and co-operation. stated in the Report. appeared to us that the time had come to attempt something on a systematic footing towards increasing the facilities at the disposal of schools for this purpose and providing a permanent and central body from which advice and aid could be sought. three and four years.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 32 and extension tion of one paragrapli. and Report before us now of the Council to carry forward last which has been As to this Board. Since then conferences have been held with that committee which have been harmonious and point now towards definite and. The recommendation that a Classical Materials Board should be constituted. the situation was further developed by the formation. While these conferences were going on. or at least to a considerable portion of the field which our Council had in contemplation. I trust. some- what in the same manner and on the same general Classical Journals Board. the matter has very much engaged attention of the Council throughout the past year. make if definite proposals. which proposed to devote itself to a similar object. As the The recent astonishing development of classical archaeology and the degree to which marked It has revived classical study has been one of the most it we have features of the situation which to consider. it will and bring to effect. in consequence of the proceedings Summer at the committee School at Cambridge last autumn. of a special of the new Association for the Reform of Latin teach- ing in schools. few days been which have been approved. that dealing with the proposals under the consideration of the Council with regard to the organization of material aids to classical teaching. successful committee of our Council have within the able to which. is if I this be the duty were to go into : detail. lines as in existence it is the between recommended that should consist on the one hand of representatives of archaeo- logical study and on the other hand of acting teachers who are and are interested in the use practically working on the subject . it is time but the main upshot of the matter is The results. the situation became cleared up gradually in many aspects.

organization can be amalgamated and merged in the the province of which will extend over the whole field of such archaeological provision as issued to schools or colleges. and further suitable illustrative material as the work The reason of this temporary definition or limitation that the Sub-Committee of the Association for Latin teaching have already taken steps towards circulating a loan collection of casts. hope. and contributions of money or material will be invited. or otherwise. coins. as the use. and pictures. value of such material depends wholly upon its being relevant. as may than be found necessary depend on the bodies giving co-operation. in illustration of Greek and Latin authors most commonly read in schools. that any may be usefully recommended or It will be part of the programme material. develops. of course. it is recommended that. by the Board. towards the objects in view. when the Board has been constituted and has started work. or otherwise. financial. above all. upon its being properly explained and set forth it is before the pupils for whose advantage it is meant. a matter of the first importance. I It These proposals have been approved a few words as to the financial aspect of the scheme. acting as a permanent advisory body. advisory. its duties should for the first year principally comprise the provision and sending out of photographic slides. with the aid of financial contributions coming from other quarters. casts. sUdes. sent out should be accompanied by instructions and explanations as to its proper This is. used being properly selected for the purpose. members nine or such further number Its constitution will or desirable. As regards the distribution of materials to schools.BB DISCUSSION It should consist of not less of archaeological material. by Council. thought that the initial purchase of material to form the may add is nucleus of a loan collection should be regarded as capital expenditure. the places where and. It is proposed that this Association. and the two things will therefore work side by side until the time arrives (which it is anticipated by all is the bodies concerned may be at no distant date) when the whole new Board. should be in a position to guarantee the expenses of the mainten- we 5 . respecting the purpose and use of illustrative material. The further duty of the Board would be to advise schools and colleges.

we consider The be self-supporting. proposal. This legal expenses. R. be chiefly of a secretarial and They need not. proper share of the cost of secretarial work. C. and to this year a balance of £95. whether direct or indirect. but we always welcome new members. THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 34 ance of the work for the first three years. we think. 106. will The expenses. depreciation of slides or other material. and a Another possible source of income will be such profits. Treasurer) presented his Report and "I now present the accounts for the year that has ended. sary expenses.. be heavy. covering interest on capital cost. The Association keeps up well in numbers.^ On comparison with those of 1912 it will be seen said : just that the Receipts are about £15 less (£418 as against £433) and the Expenses £39 less we carry forward But the advantage is more apparent 1912 an exceptional charge of £44 for (£403 as against £442). This sets forth in broad outline the proposal which the Council have adopted and which they will proceed to organize and bring to effect with the approval of this Meeting. should be such as to provide a reasonable return. that the that it slides year or two. years' doubt. I am pleased that the number of those who pay their subscriptions through their Bank increases. considering the great interest widely will and be able to start on a firm footing and with might further say on this financial matter thought the charge for the hire or purchase of first has ought to the matter. is when that has been set up an appeal should be made for an towards capital expenses and a three I think there felt in is little it if new Board good prospects. beyond capital expenses. Mr. 1 Sco p. and for other material when added. than actual. then. we think. Arrangements can be made to obviate the necessity of having definite quarters for which rent would have to be paid by the Board and a sum of £30 or £35 annually will. ." The Report was then carried unanimously. it is during the I the Board initial sum guarantee fund. after which. as we had in The diminished Receipts are chiefly due to a falling off in the number of life members from fourteen to six. that such an appeal will not be fruitless. been wisely set on foot and taken root. as may be reasonably hoped to accrue in respect of publications or materials sold in connexion with this scheme. Seaton (Hon. meet the necesclerical nature.

— AMENDMENT OF RULES mode of payment saves trouble both This ends the formal part of a few words. the large concourse . in order secure the reduced subscription to the Journals. moved the following addition to Rule 16 " The subscriptions of members elected during the months of any year shall count for the ensuing year. beg to move the adoption of the financial statement of 1913. — " It is a great pleasure to be allowed to put before you. E. which the Bank." Mr. Mr. but I should like to add wish to impress upon members that." " In moving the addition of the first sentence I am and said making no new proposal. Journals and that to the Association must be paid by the end of January one is no use without the other. without entrance fee. N. that for the future Libraries shall pay the same as others. as their subscriptions reach I was carried. two conthat is. and one who has done man to foster the study of classics in our as any hving The name suggested time in this country especially. Seaton. which was carried. Hitherto. The reason of this — is that the publisher copies to print. I my to the 35 member and to myself. the Council propose only. may subscribe by an annual payment last three Libraries of 5^. as much one of the most beloved. In last year's Report the Council mentioned that a resolution had been passed by them to the same efiect. as the nominee of the Council for the Presidency of the ensuing year. Gardiner seconded the motion. both the subscription to the ditions must be fulfilled to . Professor Conway. speech. the name of one of the most famous of hving scholars. may make an number of who pay through estimate of the This does not concern members me early in January. on behalf of the Council. Professor Wilham Ridgeway of Cambridge. is that of In view of the remarkable demonstration organized in the summer of last year by which his sixtieth birthday was celebrated. per annum : There does not seem to be any reason why they should pay less than other members. Libraries have paid 4^. Therefore. but it has been thought better to add it to the Rules explicitly." Miss Tarrant seconded the adoption of the Report.

could not find a more appropriate leader for the Classical Association than Professor Ridgeway. interest of the average schoolboy. so to speak. Ramsay. influence upon those who have come near him has been exerted on the one hand in the cause of thorough research.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 8« of scTiolara who had been in any kind of connexion with his stimulating personality." I am happy add my voice to Professor Conway's in praise of Professor Ridgeway. It is remarkable how peculiarly attractive his theories are to boys. while Professor Eidgeway is one of the great princes of research." I beg to second this proposal. should make a student's access to the mind of the thinkers and poets of the past not more laborious but more easy and more We direct. the publication of a respects unique by entirely his in the in former pupils and close associates. the life- blood of the classical system. volume it is some annals of English scholarship. nor without leading every one concerned But I with the topic to think more deeply and truly about it than before. As a schoolmaster I can bear witness to the immense interest evoked in our profession by Professor Ridgeway's researches into the early age of Greece. and on the other to connecting it with the real circulation. and the by welcome given to the celebration public opinion. We Mr. written all warm the leading organs of unnecessary to dwell at any length upon his claims to such an office as the Presidency of this Association. relation it has to the life of experience the fruit of such studies But if there The temptation own research and to the community in whose to be absorbed in his is is of a forget actual to form an abiding element. while he touches nothing which he leaves as he found it. and privilege to be allowed to propose his —" I count it a name. yet there is no man whose heart is more firmly set on the central purpose of professor what all Classical study. is any scholar living who has always had an eye to the Hia it is Professor Ridgeway." . so that the new material should at once contribute to the great humane ends of literary education. should like to say that. but that is our fault and not his. to be able to are not all of us able equally to appreciate his studies of the horse and zebra. The Classical Association may feel proud if it secures for its President a man whose fame is so great and whose learning and interests are so wide and varied.

which was carried unanimously. It is not merely a matter of form that the retiring President should be asked to take a lower We think this the greatest step and become a Vice-President. Trayes having seconded the motion. In spite of the great calls on his time entailed vast institution of which he or made is by the control of the the head. and known personally to many members of the Association. no detail has not been thoroughly grasped by him. and Professor Flamstead Walters. that the gap caused as Vice-Presidents. that of the retiring Kenyon. the coming year. honour we can offer to a retiring President. Treasurer. Bosanquet. Mr. Miss Jex-Blake. Caspari and Mr. Pantin. our President has found extra time to devote himself strenuously to the service of this Association throughout the year. I declared re-elected. who is well I pro- at present should continue by the death name of Prothis country and many others for his researches on the subject of Roman Britain. the ofiicers were taries. Mr. Fletcher." Mr. " I have to propose the Vice-Presidents for Professor Dobson. if for no other cause. and there has never been a case in which the honour has been better deserved. Mackail. As I myself have seen at Council Meetings. having . President. the list as it stands. —" I propose that Mr." Miss Case seconded the proposal. Secre- need only say that we are under great obligations to these gentlemen and are very grateful to them for being willing to undertake these arduous labours once again. Seaton be re-elected as Hon. by adding the known throughout of Professor Ellis should be filled fessor Haverfield. automatically : — "Five members of the Council are retiring Mr. Sir Frederick I wish to propose.ELECTION OF OFFICERS 37 The motion was then carried unanimously. Mr. and Mr. Mr. I propose. There is a serious gap in the list caused by the — death of Professor Robinson who pose that those Ellis. Duke as Hon. from the fact that two years ago at our last Meeting in London he gave us an extremely interesting One more name lecture. The Council have prepared a list for the acceptance of the Meeting. With that exception are holding office Further. with the addition of the names of Professor Haverfield and Sir Frederick Kenyon. Ramsay. then.

and only a still smaller minority continue their interest in the classics after their examinations are passed. and author of an excellent book on Fronto and His Age Armstrong . of the Association Grammar . which was carried. Lorimer. Oxford : Miss H. Brock. College. Birmingham. Mr. . number still a large one — of You boys and will find that girls who out of that learn Latin. only a very small minority reach a standard that enables them to read the Roman authors with any pleasure. L. I feel. Caspari moved and Mr. if These children leave school with very anything. hold the an Durham and North- next Meeting at Newcastle This was approved. Professor of Classics. Wight Duff. W. and Mr. Master of Merchant Taylors School. Cradock Watson. the case of the average pupil. the Reform of Latin Teaching. J. Livingstone showed yesterday how even the teaching of that small minority that gets into the Sixth and goes on to the University might be improved. L. Edward VI Girls' School.— — THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 38 regard to such persons as will most retiring and represent studies. Crosby gregor. over as the Rome and But I first Greece would ask you before passing judgment to consider the gross results of classical teaching in our Secondary Schools. Mr. To an audience that includes those who are recognized the world and authorities on the language our title may — must— seem literature of presumptuous. But I ask you to-day to consider the case of the great majority. Miss D. The best way of opening this discussion is. of Bedford College. Macthe London Branch . M. I fitly take the places of those different aspects of the field of Classical propose on behalf of the Council that you should approve the appointment of the following of Somerville College. Newcastle-on-Tyne. and Secretary of M. as the result of many little. hours spent in the study of ." Miss Skeel seconded this proposal. Paine then opened the discussion on the new movement towards oral methods in teaching classics. H. King Mr. to begin by justifying our title. Mr. Gardiner seconded that invitation received from the recently formed umberland Branch to should be accepted. Head Mr. of the boy and girl without special final linguistic ability. and said : " I have been asked as Secretary of the Association for the Reform of Latin Teaching to open a discussion on the new movement towards oral methods in teaching classics.

which this century has seen spring up throughout England in the counties and still municipalities. fact that many of these continue to have made and are making experiments in various direc- yet a great proportion of us have found that much time can be saved by the application of Direct Method principles to the teaching of Latin for at least the Method principles I first two years. where a full exposition of the principles of Direct Method and their application has been drawn up by Professor R. the numbers that from the first an investigation into more perhaps by the come year after year.— ORAL METHODS IN TEACHING CLASSICS 39 Thoughtful teachers have long sought the causes of this Latin. and I hope that — the small point I make now will bring essence of the Direct Method. If our aims difier at all from those Mr. C. We have. it is by Classical Association itself has given evidence its restoration of the the need of some Are there not some members here who have themselves wondered whether the visible results of the time devoted to Latin reform. feel very strongly that Latin should be taught and that indeed to the study of Latin in many for the last three years in far greater life might be imparted other schools. it is only in some unessential details. That teachers has been made abundantly clear by was demanded by have attended our Summer School. have met together September for discussion and experi- methods of Latin teaching ment. still We tions . of the Direct Method show how they are applied in the class-room. home something Probably all of the those here present . L. do not mean Oral Methods And by Direct so-called. Some of us who in those schools. waste and have asked themselves whether Curricula Roman and on Terminology and by pronunciation of Latin that its felt it The work on inevitable. something to add. If ? more must they have doubted the advisability of its introduction into that great number of schools. Livingstone put before the meeting. Archer I have not time to explain the principles or to and Mr. The aims of Direct Method teachers or nearly all of them you heard yesterday. I must refer those of you who are interested in knowing them to the 1913 Report of the Association for the Reform of Latin Teaching. however. Von Glehn. L. curriculum justified its retention in the there be such.

It is said that we neglect grammar in our teaching and that thereby the pupil loses some of the mental discipline exacted by the traditional method. could talk either be not rash to set any — of their com- neither of these things so who has been taught on the Direct Method can within his limits. an of eiiort. My answer is that Direct Methodists teach grammar as rigorously as it is taught by the traditional method though it is true that we teach it after its use by the that pupil has shown the necessity of its acquirement. a developed. and that any application of Oral Methods that is not based on grammar — . So that even one month of learning Latin on the Direct Method pletely as the child leaves the child a changed. not before adopts whatever scheme of work the Direct Method teacher must of necessity be a grammatical scheme. Livingstone set before us translation. likely to attain to this ideal But we if find that the learner the teacher does not tie the mill-stone of Anglo-Latin round his neck at the beginning of the journey. an educated person. without much in Latin or language within the hmits — if it But they could do knowledge. it is the very essence of on the REAL we shirk difficulties. after even one month of learning Latin. would be more rightly described as Oral Chaos than as Oral Method. reached a high standard in both languages before he be allowed to begin to study the art of translation. him Latin And in the Latin period the pupil should have and English in the English period. Why. There is a more rational method of preparing him and that is to teach to attempt this difficult but fascinating art.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 40 when reading a Roman or Greek author think to a large extent Greek and. The second objection is raised in the form of a question Do you use translation V No. we do not use translation we aim at : . . it is of frontal attack From the very driven to express himself in that language. Thirdly. only by the attempt to express himself in a foreign language that he can ever reahze what a huguistic difficulty is. In the ten minutes allotted to me I shall just have time to answer three objections that are raised to the use of the Direct Method. Method to make a Direct objected that difficulties of a foreign first lesson the pupil and it is is language. Translation such as Mr. as his ideal is more is also one of our ideals.

by my and criticism. criticism of the traditional method. as it our aims before you. demand among Method principles for need of secondly. my if reason for doing I had abandoned it. i. having special relies regard to Girls' a week. It is this difficulty con.e. Association will agree with I me am if I —by correction. He could only answer that one minute a week of the direct method would be better than twenty-four hours of traditional method. Schools has shown us very the large and growing teachers for the acquirement of Direct application in their my of class-rooms . so ex- so. and that was that it put too great a strain on the children Two And learning Latin. therefore. on the Classical Association for all expert information. will become. so I hope it will be able to rely upon it for help and encouragement. Paine would consider the minimum time which would make this system reliable. for add I all the use hopelessly in- Whether teachers it they will— sue going to depend on the co-operation is We to say. the quahfying these teachers to take a Latin class in Latin thirdly. am very grateful to the Council for this opportunity of putting The Association for the Reform of Latin Teaching has some useful and necessary work to do. : own had been lesson. Could Schools where there were often only three lessons this method be taught in that time ? Mr. your co-operation. difl&culties years ago I had myself one strong objection to the Direct Method. in helping these teachers sure is still members of by suggestion. your active co-operation. Method— for setting out to use the Direct to be well or of classical ill qualified scholars— that ask.ORAL METHODS IN TEACHING CLASSICS And when by that language its very genius understand how real those easily is 41 you synthetic. but is adequate to the amount of work to be done." Miss Case asked what Mr. the difficulty of supplying this need. Paine replied that this led him into a position he had hoped to avoid. and. 6 . of this Association. as I guessed at the time. made fronting us that the invitation of the Classical Association to open this discussion especially of— shall tion I say ?— fii-st-class welcome to me. The propornumbers of the scholars to the Latin school has increased each year. perience subsequently proved that the excessive strain due to my own uneconomic arrangement Our experience Summer in the clearly three things firstly. that would have been But.

or what that the oral method I wish to receive will by some easy up to the study of. Duke inquired ledge of Greek if the metliod directly encouraged a know- Were the and Latin metres. Livy. shall we say. What an assurance upon. etc. or whether be confined to the was to it Anything that would make initial stages. etc. Canon Cruickshank. but when on these occasions at the Summer Schools. Paine recommend the transition should be made to what he called the traditional method ? I did not quite make out from however. The point that occurs to me is. it — statement whether he wished the oral method to be carried his through the whole of a boy's education. I method cannot imagine that the gentlemen who have devoted so much time to the method have done so for amusement : they must think theirs is the only . I see that the young people are employed in learning plays and reading easy stories written by eminent men of the I come to look at the books used present age. am is is now to discuss the do not know them Is the who maintain not one of those teaching of classics not prepared I : till I new method necessary do I ? I that everything in the present bad.. but the introduction of the oral based on some such assumption. written by people of my own generation. " I have heard some severe strictures passed on the oral method and have also heard a whole-hearted defence of it. to study metre if He necessary. the study of Latin real and interesting to boys would receive the whole-hearted support of the Classical Association. Pupils were asked to read correctly and metre to allowing them if possible to get the but there could be no objection eventually for themselves. Paine thought this must be a question of the stage reached. I wish to feel more certain than I do at present that the oral method will succeed in landing the young of the present day in an appreciation of and close contact with the master- transition lead boys pieces of antiquity. thought. Horace's Odes and the best passages from Cicero. I feel a little jealous that the young generation should continue to read plays on the death of Caesar." Professor —" Dobson. was rather a barren art. scan as they read pupils asked to ? Mr. when does Mr. details of the oral I am method. as shall regard it with tolerance. I is want to know.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 42 Mr.

follows " I : am exceedingly sorry that cussion of as it is written as ' I cannot be present at the Oral Methods in the Teaching a subject in which I have been of Latin much ' dis- to-morrow. that they are not getting the best return." Mr.DISCUSSION right way They make a complaint. who was unable to be present. the the On subjects ? The in classics. The fault is not in the system but in the pupils. but respect I ? choly about the results of his own work. had asked that his views on the subject He had might be communicated to the Meeting. Sometimes it is science. This involves criticism of methods and results. but the fact is that everybody is inclined to feel melan- school. time is spent greater made that objection may be have been number of people enormous ? An what about English find that the majority of girls taught and practised in the oral method in English. of teaching classics. or write the language grammatically. history than or in French equipped any better but on classics. have already compared I with other subjects. . interested ever since have always attached gi'eat importance to the living voice in learning any language. classics Do we and boys on leaving school take literature. and associations at certain times feel as individuals do.' I began teaching. an adherent of oral methods. contributed in 1900 to Sadler's Special Reports. with the views of the extreme left. that boys and girls 43 do not take an interest I gather. in classics after leaving why should classics be singled out for blame in this have been present at meetings of teachers of other subjects. On the other hand it seems to me and easy to exaggerate the role of oral work in teaching Latin the point . as to the disuse of the mother . I ' . sometimes mathematics. and yet they leave school unable to write decent English prose. I emphasized and I carried out the suggestion there made in my Ora Maritima. whether ancient or modern in my article on Newer Methods of Teaching Latin. Mackail stated that Professor Sonnenschein. or to spell. and the complaint is universal that subjects are taught wrongly in school. which I published a few years afterwards on the So I suppose I may be regarded as lines indicated in my article. in French or English history or interest in great a their studies in these pursue want to and do they ? German boy or girl does not get average whole.

I said in my short paper that we advocated the was use of the direct method for two years. and the difficulties which arise owing to the fact that the teachers do not know English.^RDiNER." Mr. especially those who have not a quick ear. in a class. . is it not the experience of teachers of modern languages that in the early stages any it is essential to have four or five periods a week. have made definite advance in knowledge. I find I problem of curious facts as to the similar teaching young Englishmen Arabic in Egypt. or better still. could quote some myself quite unable to agree. with regard to the question of time. toleration— not that toleration which allows you to throw a wet blanket over us. action and life and everything round you can explain the meaning of of Latin. If the Association will have through the school period.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 44 tongue in class work. when you Latin words. the use of Latin as a means of explaining Latin at an elementary stage is strictly limited. It catch a few votes. — " Many of those here present must have had some experience in teaching modern languages by the direct method. I who has taught Latin on the direct method my know for attempt to that any one two years will teach the pupil in the same way all and the boy will then go on himself. Is not the demand that translation into English be abandoned a clear exaggeration of a principle which in much to commend it ? German experience seems much may be done in schools to to has itself support the view that while make Latin a living medium of communication between teachers and taught. Paine. certainly at the end of two years if not before ? It has certainly is been my experience in teaching French that by means it of transla- necessary at an early stage to check results Otherwise it is impossible to be sure that the lower boys tion. Is it not a fact that among teachers of modern languages there is a growing tendency to adopt translation.—" The use of Latin is limited to nothing at all But though are explaining the first word in the early stages Latin cannot be used to explain Latin. and I would ask them. Again. but allows us a trial for two years— the result will be that. but it was seen through." a little Mr. you will be persuaded that it is only wise to continue it. G. having practised the direct method for two years.

whether my complete ignorance. in teaching or a new system ment in the and aesthetic developEvery one thinks that he of physical. I myself am not a very strong believer in it. shape of eurhythmies. and suggesting a practical scheme. My comparative indifference is not. " method ? Hendy. or the abolition of the difference between the sexes by educating them together. —" if any progress is 45 to be made by the direct propose that a committee of the Council be I appointed to inquire into the possibilities of the oral method. but had not seen the method in practice. . Oral methods are obviously one of the instruments which every teacher of languages would wish to have at command. Ramsay was a special difficulty in public schools.DISCUSSION a period everv day. wonderful results might be produced. idea in education exaggerates it is it without the application of the principle of liberty through the Montessori methods. Advocates said there of the . adding to but with a lower division the liveliness and interest of school with these large numbers he questioned the usefulness of tho Mr. in sifting committee of new methods. and might subject which would be useful to all this sort issue might be useful a statement on the teachers. cleverer boys of an average age of fourteen to fifteen and found the use of the direct method produced admirable results. and a committee of this sort might help considerably in thinking the matter out. having a lesson a day in direct method began to read originals before the end of their first year. Every one who affairs. intellectual. and to understand and apprethree lessons a ciate week it them. method blamed others for not adopting it more widely. alone has at last discovered the key. Mr. arouse interest and make progress." Miss Woodward thought that in the case of girls' schools with was possible to use the direct method She had doubt profitably. that he for the first time is introducing Nature into education and will revolutionize the A teaching of the future. however. Boys as to translation. but with thirty there was For some years he had had the all the difference in the world. due entirely to but to a long experience of educational new gets hold of a measure. but one of the great obstacles in public schools was the With ten boys he could imagine that size of the divisions.

of going abroad and acquiring enough colloquial German and colloquial French to discuss within certain limits the feeling topics of the moment . be The proposed committee might do valuable lost. My We know the benefit. aim were to learn a language conversationally only. when learning is one of some doubt. these own they threw cold water on the idea. to be able to translate any passage and to repeat any passage of the whole the mind. That people with this oral experience are often quite at fault. but on the other hand some scholars are old-fashioned enough to believe that the higher stage can be reached earlier by the old methods. used to read the Odyssey or Aeneid in the original as a holiday task. lie did were such as to justify not tbink the results with large numbers its adoption. those who If be solved would not benefit very much by — " A good many of us are not in touch with new methods. Possibly the subject-matter was not perfectly understood in all its beaxings at the moment. as I say. In fact. One hears on occasion from are teaching in the schools how much the life old pupils who of the class gains from the adoption of them. Do we want our students to acquire no more knowledge ? The object of the old method momentary than that fact raises doubts. ' He dwells with pleasure on that attainment. wished difficulties to the suggestion. On such a committee there would be an opportunity of collecting information and instructing the Association. The boys in the sixth form at Bath College. but when it comes to reading a book.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 46 method. every one giving their experience. by heart. Professor Slater. when examined in it. French or German. but it remained what was best of it latent in — — method may be more valuable at the beOne thinks of the old-fashioned type of scholar in old days who aimed chiefly at covering ground. for instance. Miss Case was of opinion that the Conference was somewhat of the nature of a revivalist meeting. The oral ginning than later. and we might have the advantage of the experience of those who are teaching modern languages.' The work was done and the reading gave them. Odyssey and was required. and making acquaintance with long stretches of literature. was to gather material which should sink into the mind. If the much would service by . a possession for Lord Selborne in his Memoirs tells how he took up the life.

. The Chairman felt the Association would allow the Council some discretion. Mr. Mr. Paine stated that he would always be glad to give such information. Do not merely as a means of enlivening the an hour. F. in haste. His own feehng was that. Conway welcomed the appointment of such a committee and would be glad to co-operate with it. Professor if it was not desired by the advocates of the direct method that at this stage the Association should take such a step. but the direct method. to gain take lessons of it all up 47 Then we should know what round by adopting the new method. and naturally it would begin operations by getting into touch with the Association for the Reform of Latin Teaching and the advocates of the direct method. He gathered that some had doubts on the matter. they might proceed to the next item on the Agenda. of the suggested committee was voted on and carried. The Chairman said it would be the business of the Council to obtain information of this kind.DISCUSSION collecting we have let us and sifting the evidence. Miss Case suggested that a list of the schools where the direct method was being practised would be very useful. Paine thought to act to the best of their judgment. it somewhat premature. and that this information could be privately given to any one who wished to know where they could inform themselves on the subject. Thompson thought that the suggestion of the Com- mittee was exceedingly good. If it were understood that the Council were left a certain amount of liberty Mr. and that a little more time shouJd be given to experiments. Trayes hoped the instructions to the committee would be not to consider the oral method. Mr. the Council might think it wise to go no farther in the matter. which was an extension of what was understood as the oral method. Miss PuRDiE pointed out that speakers were losing sight of the distinction between the oral The appointment and direct methods. E. Paine stated that the Latin Association did not publish such a list." Mr.

THE CLASSICS AS AN ELEMENT " Many of the distinguished IN LIFE men who have occupied the Presidential Chair of the Classical Association have commenced their addresses with protestations of their In their cases such protestations may for no one would have guessed at their unworthiness unless they had themselves pointed it out. prelates — —and much of the significance of their presence in this Chair has lain in their in which a public classical testimony to the manner education has trained them for and to the value which they conceive it to and practical various spheres of activity. however. assume that it is so obvious that no words need be unworthiness. I will merely remind you that you are yourselves responsible for my since the action of your Council presence here to-day. But evidently that is not the kind of testimony you expect when you choose as your President one of the rank and file of your own body. As for me. and Sir Frederick Kenyon read the Presidential Address. and impresses that great body of practical men whom we desire to influence. without affectation. as well as mine. I can. That testimony life. Most of your previous Presidents have been men of affairs statesmen. politicians.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 48 Dr. It sounds a note which appeals to the public ear. . possess as a general basis for intellectual work is in of the greatest value to our cause. lawyers. see some glimmering of method in your madness. have been necessary wasted upon it. one who is committed . and of your last General Meeting must be taken to be your action. for twelve months I have had the pleasure of basking in and now is the dark the sunshine of your compliment . In my case I may. Warren now took the Chair. — hour in which this honour must be paid for at your expense. however.

not only for the Proceedings. may be allowed to glance back at the past record of the We have now just completed the first Association. Our first Statement of Accounts showed an income (excluding life compositions and payments in advance) our latest shows an of £231. presented gratuitously to members in return for their five shillings). and federated Associations in New South Wales. life. Nottingham. from time to time. or may but an element of But. for it was on the 19th of existence of our years ten December. Birmingham. the Treasurer of £900. be right and useful that a President chosen from the rank and file should deal with the ideals which animate those who live in the classical atmosphere. During that period we have at least ful- member of your Council : filled first one function of early life. our latest list falls barely short of 1. and a from a month or two later. London. Liverpool. shows a total of 822 names . and Victoria. that the meeting was held in London which constituted the Classical Association of England and Wales. but also for The Year's Work (both of which publications are now besides thirteen libraries. and should try to show how the classics are. 7 . and to carry forward a balance of over £90. of first all.600. . Our list of members. and branches in Manchester. and Bombay. it may. South Australia. to pay. a President who has been of the Classical Association since its a member foundation. 1903. not life. with no invested funds investments to the amount £400 and nearly of income At first. in October 1904. Northumberland. Nevertheless. that of growth. merely a training for be. had some difficulty in showing a balance on that side which means happiness instead of misery after paying the bills for the Annual Meeting and the volume of Now my more fortunate successor is able Proceedings. Bristol.PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 49 beforehand to a belief in his own profession. as I remember well.

some time with the barbarous cacophonies of the unreformed pronunciation. after officially pronunciation. because the preparatory schools which feed it refuse their permission. that reform to is come true. indeed. has abandoned adopting the reformed it on the plea that the private schools will not conform to it . But taking the country as a whole. that. out of 577 secondary schools within the . and perhaps most of classical education.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 50 But the Association has more to its credit than a bank balance and a long roll of members. is its work which it classical studies In principle. in against their will and I am — e/coi/re? It aeKovri ye Ovfiw. it is were not perhaps comic) to see one of the greatest schools of the country thus pathetically powerless to do what it believes to be right. the figures elicited by a recent inquiry made by our Council are decisive. regard to the reform of Latin with definite. . sorry to have to confess maintains her ancient reputation as it. the ' that Oxford home of lost it was pretty. It can point to a good record of work done on behalf of the cause for — was founded the advocacy of the claims of and the improvement of the methods First in time. all that is necessary is a vigilant watch against backsliding on the part of those teachers who have been convinced or compelled pronunciation in England. In twenty-four out of thirty-nine of the greater public schools the reformed pronunciation is in almost tragic (if it practically universal use uniform use . to hear the Public Orator and the Vice' : last after sailing along comfortably for Chancellor. the battle of In practice. at the causes and impossible loyalties Encaenia. in seven the higher forms) Add to this . It is true also that one great public school. is won. in five it is more it is in tolerably in partial use (generally in in only three is it not used at all. suddenly trying to make their compli- ments intelligible to the ears of a distinguished scholar from the Continent.

trust will not be lost sight of by publishers.' produced a Report in January 1906. perhaps. which led to the institution of the volume which we employed The Year's Work. Yet another step towards the establishment of a scientific and scholarly uniformity in the methods of classical education was effected by the Report on the Spelling and Printing of Latin Texts in 1905. practically universal in Girls' Schools larly used at that . and that the area of permissible doubt is of quite trivial proportions the dodo. Another Committee appointed at the Second General Meeting. I hope all members realize what an amount of valuable information they receive in this annual publication. but that the opposition to it now rests either upon indolence or upon an irrational prerealize. it is regu- Universities. mumpsimus. as Cambridge and the newer and it is evident that well as in Scotland : in the next generation the transition will be complete. are the efforts which the Association has made . and you will not merely that only in this direction is uniformity attainable. to this.PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 51 purview of the Board of Education. ference for the old of the pronunciation of Latin was an Closely allied initial step in the clearing of the ground. and the Westminster Play will be cherished like a specimen of that the reform rests upon an ascertained basis of philological certainty. as Remember compared with that which is sure . which is now issued to them gratuitously. which I More vital. ' to consider by what means those in classical teaching can be helped to keep the most recent results of discovery and with in touch investigation. 550 use the reformed that it is pronunciation and sixteen a variant of it . came the Reports of The reform the Committee on the Pronunciation of Greek in 1907 and 1908. at no small cost to the funds of the Associa- know as tion. and in natural sequence.

in either the active or the passive work of education but there was a time was a matter of enthralling interest to all of voice. and 1909 form a group of documents of a instructive character. I am inclined to suggest that the work which has been done for Latin in these Reports might now be usefully undertaken for Greek. in the when it . on which we have had valuable Reports in 1910 and 1911. it is not a matter of attempting to impose a curriculum on all schools or on any school. circumstances of their own schools. There are many questions of considerable importance. of one of the great stumbling-blocks to progress. to adapt it The Reports of table. and consequently it is not possible to measure the effect of the Association's but its object is to make suggestions which efforts schoolmasters may consider and adapt to the particular manifesto of the first . 1907. namely. Yet another problem of method has been attacked by the Association in conjunction with other bodies which are interested in the same subject. the order in which authors should be read.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 52 to the requirements of the and modern time- Committee in 1905. to improve the curriculum of classical education. and which an educational historical position as decade of the twentieth century. that of Grammatical Terminology. educational . and so on. the stress which should be laid on Attic Greek as compared with other dialects. and we cannot but gratefully recognize the labour which the Committee devoted to the clearing away us. this 1908. such as the amount of time which should be assigned to Greek. on which I think schoolmasters might welcome a In these cases discussion by a competent Committee. The subject is one which loses its interest for most of those who are not actively engaged. which and again with profit may an well attain may most be consulted again by the schoolmaster.

If method is the sole reason of the existence of the Classical Association. the protagonist has been one of the founders of our Association.PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 53 And here there is a personal tribute which I think we should not forget to pay. Method. I think it showed a sound strategical insight that the Association . one of the original pair of Secretaries who laid down our policy and guided our early footsteps. who has also usually been the intermediary for reporting their results to the annual meetings of the Association. no small portion of the credit is due to Professor Sonnenschein. Committees which If the have mentioned have done useful work in the cause of classical education. In all these Committees. and is a vital matter now to those who are learners masters . classical believe it to be) of ancient art and literature. its sole supporters will be school- and schoolmistresses ? Possibly and yet method was a vital matter to us when we were learners. A. It does not reach is criticism that the heart of the matter. On the success or failure of the methods of education to-day depends the share which the rising generation will have in the great heritage (as we to-day. Others have no doubt co-operated zealously and loyally but I think none will grudge this special recognition of I . whom the classics represent art and literature. may it not be said. not merely a subject of class teaching. nor explain why we set so much value on the classics nor does it interest those to . Sonnenschein. his labours. Professor E. Now I feel that this enumeration of the principal activities of the Association perhaps open to the we have confined ourselves to the discussion of questions of educational method. the Reports of which have entailed so much strenuous and unremunerated work. after all. is mainly a matter for those who are concerned in the practical work of education. And in the existing state of educational controversies.

meetings of the Association and its branches. the principal organs of classical scholarship in this country have been placed on a more satisfactory and permanently attached to the interests of The papers which have been read at the learning. But the Association has done much more than this. our ten I think that this is a creditable record for and I think we may fairly say that the cause years' life . because of our existence.54 THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION should have devoted its first efforts to putting right certain acknowledged defects. basis. cause of classical education ? selves. and to clear away misconceptions which exist about to win adherents from some who are disposed to look . brighter. The annual volume on The Year's Work enables busy students to keep in touch with all important w^ork w^hich is being done by scholars in all parts of the world. but is to also in the stimulus which they must have given to archaeological interest in Manchester. but possibly vague. of our hopes and our ideals ? Perhaps we may do something us. but still more through the meetings of the branches which have sprung from our parent stem. Manchester Branch has even undertaken excavations. Not only in occasional papers at our annual meetings. and its prospects But what is this May we not remind our- of classical education is stronger. By the taking over of The Classical Review and The Classical Quarterly. assertions of the value of a classical education. if gathered together. would provide materials for a very notable The collection of essays on a great variety of topics. the value of which is not confined to the results reported be found in the volumes w^hich it has produced. even though the expression member is that of a single of the Association and binds nobody. the Association has tried to stimulate interest and to disseminate information in subjects of classical learning. rather than to general.

395 (Dec. With intelligences agape and eyes aglow. That of is all the sort of teaching which intellectual We interests. moment of least my 55 you may allow me. Our object is not to make small boys translate Xenophon and Caesar. a young chubby chap. of the living importance to our civilization to-day. i. I sat just so With others on a school-form rank'd in a row. with all who cherish the spirit of inquiry and the freedom of thought. all lands. the new voices of beauty and the insincere cries of self-advertisement great thoughts of 1 all ages and Poetry and Drama. vol. and to discriminate between the false and the true.PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS askance at brief At us. What I would most lay stress on is the width interests which we represent. opportunity. with all lovers of literature. who desire to confine education to a comparatively small area of antiquated and unpractical knowledge. nurtured likewise On skins and skeletons. all the allied and to be awake to the movements of our own day. are. . not only Homer and Virgil. to make in this one a confession commonplace though it may be. Goethe and W^ordsworth. also) the cause yours To my mind (and I am sure to of the classics is the cause of all imaginative aspirations. 1913). stale from top With all manner of rubbish and to toe manner all flies. and from a desk fed us with A dry biped he was. or should be.^ we wish to exorcise. When. I am afraid people sometimes look on the advocates of the classics as narrow and intolerant specialists. While an authoritative old wise-acre Stood over us. p. but equally Dante and Milton. The Poet Laureate —himself a classical scholar —has recalled A time sixty summers ago. and their actual of faith. of lies. but to give them intellectual interests which shall enable them to appreciate. with all lovers of history.

overawed by no tradition. a better lawyer. Catullus. mechanical. of freshness. Rather I would urge that by every means in our . and especially the young men who are beginning to be philosophers and men of science. either as alien or as useless ? Can our philosophers and men of science. Horace) it may be true that it stands mainly for law. or would make it the peculiar everything. for routine but the spirit of Greek is the very spirit of life. It is a cruel error which makes the term ' classical connote that which is formal. questions quiry. a less hide-bound politician. dead. is property of a select few. the interest in things of the intellect. are doing a grave disservice to the whole cause of intellectual and spiritual life in this country. Our creed is not merely that a man may read the classics and be blameless. of little practical value. Lucretius. Virgil.' THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 56 So far from being a narrow classical education. the widest is form of preparation for the needs of everyday life. rightly understood. a better merchant. for order. Of Latin (with the important exception of the greatest names. if he keeps alive in his soul the love of literature. of which the Greek and Latin classics are the spring and perennial source of refresh- ment. seeks for Is this life and beauty everywhere and at every cost. . of the method of Thucydides ? Have we so fully solved the problems of Aeschylus and Euripides that wc can get no hints from them ? Can we ever have got beyond the range of the inspiration and the insight of Plato ? Those who would banish Greek from our studies. of inGreek tries everything. a spirit to be banished from an age such as ours. Our claim must not be pitched too low. but that a man will be a better man liberal of business. a better stockbroker. and most cult. learn nothing from Aristotle ? De avc need nothing of the freshness of Herodotus.

not as an instrument of education. almost fellow-passengers : Now it is very proper that a citizen should keep himself informed on the affairs of his country and of the world in general. literature is crowded out. but as a living literature in actual use for intellectual enjoyment and And refreshment. men to of educated day to and from their places of travel by business. possibility of a It is remedy the fate of for those many thousands who care to take it. lovers of here we may claim all literature in of all is lamentable to see how the co-operation whatever language. or as we believe to be good for us and it is painfully true that. They say they have no time to read. interest in public questions.PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 57 power we should strive to extend the range of Greek. Now if you travel by the morning or evening trains on our suburban lines. And what are they reading when you see them in the evening ? The evening newspaper. what do you see your train every the doing ? Reading. 8 But is this quenchless . It small a part the reading of good literature plays in the lives of men and women after they have emerged from youth and embarked on the business or the pleasures of life. between their professional vocations. No one will deny that there is much truth in this plea. The time occupied by the journey may be anything from a quarter of an hour to an hour either way. and should take a healthy invariably. the reasonable requirements of exercise and of family life. But let me take one phenomenon which at once illustrates the evil and suggests the . the taste for it soon becoines atrophied. if the habit of reading good literature is dropped. We are all too well aware that we cannot find time to read nearly as much as we would wish. invariably. that. Excellent channel of communication to their intellect is at least being kept open. But what are they reading when you see them in the morning ? The morning newspapers.

in a place where you are free from letters and from telephones. And. and even the in the evening. and that no special knowledge of Greek or Latin is needed for it. the moving accidents by flood and field of the previous day. on the other side of the account. when for any reason you are unable to see a newspaper for several days. the financial news. or will duly find in your paper next morning if you can only wait until then ? Except at times of great and special interest. No doubt you may come on for reading . the Aeneid. . I should not. when once it has ceased to be novel. how immaterial their information is. marriages.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 58 information really justifiable for thirst have carefully' ? After you read through the political news. little you nearly all find that how you have missed. and (if you select your compartment carefully) from conversation. the sporting news. the foreign news. the law news. is it and deaths in the them over again to anticipate what really necessary to read words in different births. personally. whom I happened at the time to have a particular reason but there are plenty of other authors who might be substituted. I remember (if you will pardon a moment's lapse into autobiography) when living at about forty minutes' distance from town. five books of Livy. the whole of Catullus. the personal news. announcements of morning. consider how much use can be made of an additional half-hour a day. the Odyssey. and Martial. surely once a day (it is immaterial whether morning or evening) is sufficient to read the you news of the world. Consider. being able (without shirking or skimping the conscientious study of the longest of our daily papers) in the course of a few months to read through in the train the Iliad. And please understand that no special merit is claimed for this. repeat the experiment with either Livy or Martial.

such facility as he may have acquired in reading the classical lan- There are many men who can get along well enough with a classical author. passengers reading Shakespeare or Moliere. For such people (that is for nearly all of us) the practice of printing the text and translation on opposite pages makes such unceremonious reading of the classics as literature and for pleasure. . it is more easily put in practice with our native literature or with French. Modern enterprise has indeed made it easy for any one to maintain. the enjoyment and the stimulus which come from the best literature. but there you may take no note Dogberry's advice will serve : him go and you avoid the notoriously difficult and obscure authors.PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 59 obscure words or passages here and there. would yet be glad to see how an occasional passage stands in the original. if they can be occasionally helped over an unknown word or a difficult passage and there are others who. if any of us were to see our fellowof him. an easy and simple undertaking. and by practice to improve. But I do wish to urge the point that any man or woman who has had a fair classical education could easily cultivate this habit if the familiarity with Greek and Latin which they have acquired in school and university days were not allowed to rust as soon as they have passed their last examination. but let . as I have been describing. while they cannot make much progress except in a translation. or even the newest English or French poetry. I do not suppose we should feel bound to take up our testimony against them because they were not reading Homer or Horace. you can have. if . and. . who those desire to see the reading of who them maintained by owe a tribute are not professional scholars. with little drawback. Obviously this is a method which is not applicable only to Greek and Latin indeed. and all those guages. It is for this reason that I think all adherents of the classics.

E. intellectual interests be our if main the more fully cultivation and of object. Many of those here present will remember a brilliant lecture in which our loved and lamented President. and what thoroughly. the English Association and the Modern Language Association ? So. through the medium of Shakespeare or of Victor Hugo. T. Mr. from French or German or Italian ? That is the line of least resistance. task of teaching sufficient Greek to make the beauties of Aeschylus and Plato comprehensible. and from many points of view the impossibility of replacing Greek and Latin by modern languages may be.60 THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION now going forward under most honoured and (may I of recognition to an enterprise the leadership of one of our Page— I mean the lay such stress on Greek and say?) beloved members. or. but admittedly hard. over a wider circle of recipients. In . modern intellectual life. from those of the modern tongues which are also useful for the intercourse of daily life. and by following it much time would be saved. Loeb Classical Library. if we want variety. I would take a slightly different to our point of view in dealing with our present subject. contrasted the Hellenic and the Hebraic contributions to modern thought. we might succeed in spreading a love of Classical Association imaginative literature. by giving up the high. But why should we Latin in our plea for the cultivation of the imaginative cannot our needs be supplied side of our nature ? Why from our own rich native literature. demonstrated found in the relation which be argument seems to me to Greek and Roman (but especially Greek) thought bears . and but the ultimate basis of the has been. is learnt might be learnt Should we not. Henry Butcher. There may be many answers to these questions. dissolve our and attach ourselves to our friends.

In them we have no continuing . in the splendid efflorescence of the ture. Chinese. we feel something alien. the classical (which is mainly and the Christian (which we call Gothic or mediaeval). We may — — recognize the value of the suggestions of looking at nature and new methods new ways of of artistic expression which we have received from Japan.PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 61 our modern Western civilization the sense of beauty in its widest sense. Japanese however much we may admire them. but with the Christian in predominance. artistic and literary. and in the Renaissance. The mediaeval we have in the glories of Gothic architecture and sculpHellenic) mediaeval manuscripts which are so strangely neglected by the majority even of persons who have artistic taste. or by the strength and force embodied in Assyrian sculptures. and in many works of handicraft in metal and ivory. Assyrian. Our spirit is at home here in a way in which it never can be at home in the art of any other age or country. we are at home. And we have the combination of both elements. is composed of two principal elements. Now in the products of these ages and of these elements. Persian. because to no other age or country do we stand in the same relation of parentage. glimpses of unfamiliar aspects human spirit. in the paintings of those Renaissance. The classical element we have at its best in the creations of Greek art and literature and in a few of the greatest among the Romans. In all other expressions of the human spirit Egyptian. in mediaeval Christianity. Hindu. in the classical art of Greece and Rome. and in recent years perhaps still more from China. We may be impressed by the mystery with which the ancient Egyptian somehow contrived to invest the relics of himself which he has left to posterity. But their value and their impressiveness lie just in this fact that they are alien modes of the of expression.

some glass and but whole sections. surprise . executed some thirteen hundred years before the Chinese figure. with such result ? Graeco-Roman work as preserved something of the some mediaeval work. executed in the T'ang period. and particularly to that which is connected with the study of history. the classical and the Christian. a truth which cannot but be borne in upon that the idea interests him) who has (provided any one Sometimes one occasion to go about a great Museum. can never be at home there. One of the most recent acquisitions of the British . and the spirit of those peoples which have gone out from Europe. I fear. what would be the Everything Greek would remain. The European spirit. and expressively modelled by the artist's hand. one's eyes to many One would. be closing other sides of intellectual culture. including some which. But if for the moment you look at a Museum as a temple of beauty. But step across to the Elgin Room and look at the Theseus. This would is like to shut up everything that does not minister to the sense of beauty. Museum potter. is a colossal product of the skill of a Chinese the figure of a Buddhist devotee seated in meditation.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 62 city. freshness of its fountain head much among the prints and drawings. about the ninth century of our era. The face has none of the conventional lifelessness which we are accustomed to It is finely associate with Chinese religious images. And what would be left would belong almost wholly to those two great categories that I have named. . whole deporcelain or pottery partments of tlie Museum would be closed. of course. are found most generally attractive. And perhaps we reflect with and admiration that the figure was produced some eleven hundred years ago. and conveys a sense of dignity and aloofness which is impressive to a high degree.

the Roman As the civilization Europe was. one with whom we are at home. The of intellectual life So. The two thousand four hundred years which separate us from Phidias roll away. If the time should ever come when Greek ceases to be a leading influence in our literary and artistic consciousness. looking at the fine product of an alien civilization. one of our race and . that caused that reawakening which we know as the Renaissance. pression gradually developed themselves. We be of one blood. what we cannot say of Egyptian or Babylonian. and from a knowledge of ancient Greek literature and although other forms of exof Western .' Therefore when we are asked to give up Greek as a main staple of the education of our upper classes. : happened once in the history of the world. not which is C3 the most beautiful. in all sincerity. but which is In the Buddhist devotee we are the most akin to us. it was pre-eminently the recapture of the classical spirit. I feel assured. result of the barbarian invasions. Whatever other causes co-operated. for several centuries. which came with the recovery of the Greek writers and a new acquaintance architecture and in painting. an in the Greek alien thought. notably in human spirit was cramped and confined until Greek was rediscovered. the human intellect will have dark days before it. severed from communication with the Greek civilization surviving in the East. yet the with many of the Latins. an alien sense of beauty hero we see the ideal of ourselves. Mexican or Chinese. we are not merely blood. and to reduce it to the private preserve of a few choice spirits who will not be kept out of it. and we are able to say.PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS and say. it will be in the future. . thou and I. ' asked to deny ourselves the knowledge (or at any rate the first-hand knowledge) of many of the finest products we are cutting our of the literature of the world This has already civilization away from its roots.

is of such incalculable value in our intellectual discipline to-day. of course. as assuredly there must come. a new Renaissance will : Magnus ab Jam integro saeclorum nascitur ordo. Nor is only because Greek and it are so vital and Roman an element in our original literature spiritual we should resist the pressure upon us that would make them the privilege of the few. is artists (though here remarkable . strive to extend their range as a living part of our best education. type) one living channel of intercourse with the human And so the pulse of humanity spirit will be closed. and. and will not be fully evident until they can be viewed in retrobut a great and constant source of inspiration spect will be dried up. here and now. It is generally felt that our poetry and our art stand to-day on the threshold of a new development. On the bold and inquiry ventures. new encourages which spirit is the it one hand. It is the spirit of light. which stimulates fearless experiments. and the I stir speak with more of a a new promise is quite unmistakable. of freedom. moment the influence of Greek has a new life and At such a double value.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 64 be realized at once. redeunt Saturnia regna. redit et Virgo. . until there shall come. and especially the spirit of Greek. On the other hand it imposes the discipline of sanity and good taste . Alter erit turn Tiphys. It has a message and a training for us which arc of the first importance for this generation. beat at a lower rate. on the culture that contrary. of a refusal to be dominated by convention. It is also because their spirit. and (unless humanity should change its effects will not. et altera quae vehat Argo ervmt etiam altera bella. The actual achievement of several of our young poets. . and perhaps of our young diffidence). Delectos heroas Atque iterum ad Troiam magnus mittetur Achillea.

even if it be sometimes akin to the fascinabut I confess the Greek interests tion of a nightmare least peculiar to the race to other peoples. There is just one proviso which (since I am only putting forward personal opinions. because we shall remember that the greatest literature has habitually been founded on And we shall look with suspicion on art tradition. which. Jingle are the necessary or the best vehicle for the emotions of the twentieth century. but Timotheus. 9 . Cubist. There is a certain tendency. as it seems to me. is obliged to cultivate tlie ugly or the uninteresting. in earnest and are not merely new 65 schools — are and what not contortionists anxious to we may watch with interest out new methods of expression attract public attention. Futurist. the result was. to which no one else is committed) I should like to interpolate here. and to dwell on just those parts of Greek thought which are most and in which it is most akin Anthropology and mythology are great and mysterious goddesses. since we shall remember that. We shall refuse to believe that the only hope for literature lies in the obliteration of the past. in order to express itself to its satisfaction. We shall recognize that the Futurist is wrong in holding that methods of expression which faithfully reproduce the conversational style of poet Mr.— PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS So and far as the teachers disciples of the Post-impressionist. but we must not be surprised if Greek boldness. the supreme power of expression went with the clearest and purest beauty. not Euripides. and that when effectiveness was sought through violence of phrase and colouring. without Greek taste and sanity. who have a fascination of their own. in Greek. . their efforts to strike . among some of our interesting and stimulating leaders. to divert attention from the central products of the Greek genius to the fringes and background of the subject. leads them into pitfalls and blind alleys.

;

THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION

66

me

when he

least

is

nearest to the level of the black-

fellow or the Hottentot.

It

is,

no doubt, curious to

how the superstitions and folk-lore of our common
humanity underlie the workings of the Greek genius
but at best it is but a background, and the perspective is
In this
falsified if too much stress is laid upon it.
see

;

connection a phrase of Mr. Kipling's Private Ortheris
occurs to me, when, to account for an erratic shot, he
'

'

complains of

The

too

much blooming background

in front.'

name for the natural phenomenon of which
and it is the mirage of mythology
mirage
would, diffidently and respectfully, complain

literary

he spoke
of which
in

'

some

is

I

of

;

my

betters.

for not even the most
This, however, is by the way
ardent mythologist or anthropologist would seriously
deny that the supreme value of the Greeks to us con;

sists in

the unique excellence of their literature and art

On that I need
not dwell, for here we are all agreed on it. What we
have to do is to convince the world, and especially that
in the period of their fullest splendour.

part of the world which concerns itself with education,
that the cause of the classics, and especially the cause
of Greek (for Latin has other grounds of defence)

is

the

cause of intellectual and spiritual culture generally
that the classics are not a dead thing, but an element of
vital value to

scholars,

modern

but the

life

common

;

not a special preserve of

heritage of

all

who take

in intellectual things, of all that class in virtue of

the nation takes

its

rank

in the

part

which

world of spiritual values.

our task to persuade the advocates of other forms
of education, and perhaps especially those who are
concerned with the exact sciences and the handling of
It

is

concrete material facts, that

but their
ends, in

we

are not their enemies,

some cases that wc aim at the same
others that we lay the best foundations on
allies

;

in

which the superstructures that they desire

may

be

PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS
reared, in others that

and more

we

at least offer to

man

life

richer

Educan
a wider outlook on existence than

enjoyable, w? KaXKwirtcr fid

tion should give a

make

67

ttKovtov.

from the material surroundings of daily life.
It should open his eyes to regions of moral and intellectual beauty to which it is only too easy to become
Moreover, since most of us have but pedestrian
blind.
powers of expression, it should provide him with words
wherein to clothe and express those higher and deeper
he

will get

thoughts and feelings w^hich come to all of us at times,
but which can be atrophied and killed if expression is
never given to them. The most hardened haunter of
clubs and golf-links had once ideals and aspirations
transcending the material life of every day, and it is
our duty and our desire to kindle that fire as strongly as
possible in youth, and to keep it alive in middle age
above all, to give to as many as possible the keys of
;

intellectual enjoyment,

Our
and

and encourage them to use them.

ancestors, with their narrower range of education

their intensive culture of Virgil

attain such a

means

of expression as I

and Horace, did
have referred to,

an extent which we do not always realize,
surround their daily life with an atmosphere, however
thin, of imaginative colouring.
We are in danger of
losing this through the pressure of competing subjects,
and of substituting the pursuit of knowledge for the
cultivation of intellectual tastes and interests.
It must
be the object of our improved methods of teaching to
preserve for the average man and woman those imaginative elements which redeem life from being a mere
routine of material desires and their gratification.
Ladies and gentlemen, if we can go about our work
in the proper spirit, surely it ought not to be impossible,
even in a materialist age, to persuade our critics that, in
seeking to eliminate Greek and diminish Latin in our
educational systems, they are not, as they maintain,

and

did, to

THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION

GS

removing obstacles from the way of those who desu'c
education, but are in fact making that education less

who attain it. Much depends on
which we work. You will remember

valuable to those
in

spirit

doctrine of William Morris, that

the

workman must take

should not be

Roman)
we can instil
best

receiving

difficult

is

work

pleasure in
for

Greek

it.

is

the

to be good

That, surely,

literature (and the

essentially a literature of joy.

this doctrine into all
if

it,

;

if

the

who

we can make them

And

if

are capable of

realize that

Greek

literature and art are the product of that joy in creation
which is the supreme happiness of existence, then we shall
have gone far towards saving our civilization from the
loss of one of its most stimulating elements, an element
of life and discipline which is of vital import for our
race and for this generation."

Warren.

Dr.

having

tlie

number

—"

I

must confess

lionour of presiding on

of years

my

attendance at

Association has been intermittent.

words

of one of

Too
but that

is

my

predecessors

rare, too rare,

am

I

tliis

tlie

ratlier

surprised at

special occasion.

For a

gatherings of the Classical

I feel inclined to

say in the

:

grow now

my

visits here,

not from any want of interest, keenness, or sympathy

The best reason
is that I was
one of the first founders of the Association, and for some years I
came up from Oxford to serve on the Council. I have heard
as to the growth of the Association or its work.

for asking

me

to take the Chair on this occasion

to-day from the President with the greatest interest the tabulated

statement as to the growth and development of this Association

which does so much not only to guard education in the fullest
sense, but to foster the best interests of the country.
I move from the Chair with pleasure a vote of thanks to our
This vote might be moved from the Chair without any
President.
words at all still, I think you would like me, and it is my desire,
however imperfectly and briefly, to say something in support
of this motion.
We have to thank our President for so very
;

VOTE OF THANKS
much.
it

In the

first place,

we have

Hngers in our ears and sinks into
him for his helpful, suggestive, and
The more we think of it, the more we

shall find in

it

of those with

old

member

him

is

which

is

helpful for our daily lives

whom we come

of the Council

have to thank
This

still

to thank

discriminating address.

it

while the stimulus and inspiration of

are fresh, while his voice

our minds,

and Association,

Sir Frederick

Kenyon

for

for all that

and the

lives

But, speaking as an

in contact.

I

can say that we

much more than

only the fine flower bursting out.

represents.

09

We

this.

have to thank

he has done for our Association and the cause
some few
is a man of many distinctions

He

;

them are set down here on the paper which describes him.
But however many are the distinctions which can be expressed
in letters, his distinctions innate and acquired are greater still.
We have to thank him for his example more than for words
and services. It was a great day for the cause for which we
stand when he was appointed to the very foremost position for
any scholar in the world, the directorship of the great national
institution which represents those causes and interests both in
It was a great thing for us that
this country and in the world.
a classical scholar, so eminent and varied in his attainments and
sympathies, should be appointed. How did it come about ?
Librarians and great libraries, as classical scholars know, have
not always appointed the kind of man whom we should choose
of

for our President.

Their quarrels and petty bickerings are as

historic as their great contributions to literature.

Kenyon

said just

statesmen,

men

now

Sir Frederick

that our Presidents have usually been

of affairs,

men

of

wide outlook and experience.

Kenyon as one of those very men. I knew
him first at Winchester by examining him. I knew him at
Oxford, at New College, when he was elected a Fellow of my own
College of Magdalen, an election which we repeated with more
satisfaction when we made him an Hon. Fellow a few years
sympathy, love of
ago.
It is by this combination of qualities
I claim Sir Frederick

letters,

devotion to high thought, and practical

gifts

— that

Sir

Kenyon has done what he has done for our Association
and the world. I think, therefore, we have to thank him for
his example, and feel proud that we can put him forward as
a specimen of what classical culture may produce in happy

Frederick

and which I for all that. and I desire also to am In common all. knowing the kindliness of his nature. but will merely briefly thank to me. —" I have to move a vote of thanks to the Authorities of Bedford College for their reception of the Classical ." The vote of thanks was then Sir Frederick Kenyon. to second the How much wisdom thank him to well as for the delightful address to I will which underlie and are his geniality. but I hope in the future I may be able to contrive to do so." Canon Papillon. hanger. Those members of the Classical Association whose work lies in Ijondon feel especial pleasure in the fact that Sir Frederick Kenyon has been President of the those of us who have sheltered the last year Association during so . for your excessive kindness to myself. Strudwick for seconding other members this Resolution. as which we have Head Miss Strudwick. and My it is experience in trains difficult to is usually that of a strap- read the Iliad or Odyssey in these circumstances. good sense aud practical of the moment by concealed for the there is behind his tact now ask am listened. of this College. have listened with great interest I to Sir Frederick Kenyon's address and an especial appro- feel especially to his suggestion that one ought to read fewer newspapers and more classical texts in the train. " It is a great honour and privilege to be — allowed to second the vote of thanks proposed to Sir Frederick Kenyon. of the Association I bestowed on me.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 70 We circumstances aud opportunities. by thanking you I thank Miss I conclude Ladies and Gentlemen. prepared. with the grateful for the hospitality which Bedford College has shown to us here to-day. I must not take up more of your you for your extreme kindness time. many Saturdays within the walls of the British Museum priateness in his Presidency." Miss Strudwick. of the Latin motion which to bring forward. I have been accustomed for many know years to the exaggerated kindness of the President of Magdalen to his friends. We have ! have had experience here gifts I Department have the pleasure sure will be carried with the warmest and most enthusiastic acclaim by all. " — carried with acclamation. some of the eulogies he has ask you not to be misled by them. and I have had the benefit of Therefore I to discount am his friendship since school days.

CosTLEY White. — that of seconding the vote of thanks to the Bedford Ladies' College which for I am their hospitality one of the newest members. after five minutes. I desire to convey our most grateful thanks. as Sir Frederick Kenyon said. my senses were very happily tingled But. of proud to be a member. no question that we have is. and scholarly presentment of some well-known Idylls of Theocritus. that to me of — they are an alien mode of expression conveying a glimpse of an unfamiliar spirit. and when I . my own I will only feelings of gratitude to for some time sought an opportunity of Bedford College recognition and to us — of my own I regret to say. There however. been most splendidly and comfortably received. and who have been responsible for all the necessary household and domestic arrangements that have helped to make for her kindly . make one remark in Bedford College. buildings ' possible that it is ' opinion as to whether the exterior represents the last and highest word in Collegiate architecture.VOTE OF THANKS 71 Association to-day. and gracious hospitality to Miss Doherty. and it is possible that the President Magdalen may have drawn a slight mental contrast between the buildings here and those from which he has come but that is merely an ungracious remark which shows my want of artistic taste. of expressing to the recognition — my grateful the service they rendered to the classical world at Bradfield in their production of a Greek Play. and like to express particularly I should our thanks to our hostess. the wheels of this gathering run so smoothly . and to Miss Strud- wick and the members of the Bedford College Greek Play Society who (as I hear. " Seldom has a duty been assigned to me which I have undertaken with such pleasure as I do authorities in general. and pleased. the Antigone of Sophocles. emphasizing I have ladies to the Classical Association. the Principal. for I those who were was not able to be present last night) gave present a most refined. I came with a amount of prejudice because I knew they were going certain to use the modernized pronunciation. though. and for placing at out disposal these beautiful When I say these beautiful there may be some difference of buildings so conveniently situated." Mr. artistic. Miss Blomfield. or perhaps it is. at the Court Theatre some two years ago. They invited me to come to that play. To the and to each of those ladies in particular.

also invite one's friends to luncheon. regarded as collectors. After this brief introduction owing to the shortness abundance of acquiring such treasures Mrs. but they are far better expressed and carried out now. a form in which one could express the deepest sentiments of and one's heart. LL. illustrated by lantern-slides. on the spirit in which it was founded and the object founded. to a and to the mere demonstration. homelier and more simple days. to congratulate the authorities and all who belong to Bedford College. Strong began her lecture by comparing the Americans of to-day. on " Collections of Classical Antiquities in the Museums of America. — " May I. the feehng that part of the possession of famous works of art was the same. students. and reassembled when Mrs. although methods had become more pacific. I did not draw a mental contrast between Magdalen and Bedford College when I saw the latter. delivered a lecture. intended to . to the ancient Romans and to at 3 o'clock. in tendering this vote of thanks. past. Strong limited herself. Warren. Arthur Strong. the English of the Renaissance gloiy of a great nation hes in its . in tendering this vote of thanks." Mrs. them on behalf of the Classical Association for I thank kind their hospitality to us on this occasion.72 THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION had heard thirty lines of the play I pronounce our Greek wondered why we did not all I felt that in that pro- in that fashion. tween the Bedford College of those days and that in which we I think the spirit and objects were the same in those are now. present and future." Dr.D. but I was drawing a mental contrast as I listened to Canon Papillon between the beautiful College in which I find myself to-day and that which I knew thirty years ago when one of my sisters came here as a student. S.. of the time at her disposal of material. and to which There is a great difierence beI have frequently come since. May I be allowed. nunciation the Greek language was represented in a very human form. building in which the College now finds itself " ? The Association now adjourned for lunch. a word to the testimony rendered to of the beauty of Magdalen that is my it is College ? The add secret so well adapted to the for which it was The same secret may be found in these buildings.

The purchase includes so great a masterpiece as the by Hieron and Macron with the " Abduction celebrated sliyphos and Return of Helen " (Furtwangler-Reichold. Their sculptures. thanks to the efiorts of American and foreign scholars. rendered the Aphrodite on a swan (Boston) Rodin's admiration when this masterpiece by M. The collection of ancient glass at seemed. New York was now admitted. the fragment of mounted Amazon. . . and Museum New York of Berlin ran Boston very interesting to note that the Boston collection been enriched by the purchase of the finest pieces formerly belonging to the Marchese Spinelli. The head of Augustus recently acquired by Boston deserves to rank with the heads of the statues from Prima Porta (Vatican) and from New York possesses one of the rare the Via Labicana (Terme) a . 24). ser. pi. and probably from his hand an old peasant woman of the Hellenistic period (New York) while both New York and Boston have a specially rich series of Hellenistic and Eoman portraits. Mrs. the British Museum. such as our own Elgin marbles or the Pergamene marbles at Berlin or so many works of any one period as most of the great European museums. include such masterpieces as the Chios head. near Capua. of Suessula. while no art in American museums.THE MUSEIBIS OF AMERICA 73 draw the attention of students to the principal works of ancient She pointed out that. to be the most complete in the world. ii. and the could now rank It close. Art at the Burlington Fine Arts Club in 1903 . 10 who was at present finishing the catalogue. only the Louvre. celebrated was displayed at the memorable Exhibition of Ancient Greek . had lately was before Boston . to be of the The collection of Cypriote antiquities in New York had been completely rearranged in chronological order by Pro- first order. both vases and moulds. In the department of Greek vases. Strong wished to draw special attention to the collections representing the minor arts. as far as a cursory inspection could reveal. American collection had any great series. The Arretine pottery in the Boston Museum. which are now beginning to be known. or ever could have. of Oxford. in the style of Timotheus. . portraits of the Republican period. fessor Myres. rivalled only by the great collection at Cologne. Vasenmalerei. they were yet exceedingly rich in isolated examples of the highest interest and beauty. she believed.

from Civita Castellana. remarkable as a demonstration. me with —" I feel sure remarkable exposition. to the been fortunate and enough to make. Mrs. it practically certain that the of rehefs could not belong together . Strong has given us a very United States have the ideal of representative also shared collection of Greek by our antiquated museums on There is no occasion for us to grudge American Museums and collectors the collections they have this side of the Atlantic. Strong. and youth and his sister (the fragment Berlin [see Kekule. it throws not only on Ionian but on the early relations between Ionia and Mrs. and gratulate Mrs. Strong on her tour in America. Professor Studniczka. Griechische seemed a great pity that the two parts and the famous Boston reliefs. That a in the completely ideal is it Her I con- lecture is adds to our knowledge and interesting as an American museums. We ourselves have from those who have brought objects of skilful profited in the past . The Chairman will all agree (Sir Frederick Kenyon). xxxiii). Strong also added some remarks on the rapidly developing Museum of Philadelphia. Italy. in an able article in the Journal of Hellenic Studies had made two sets and Mrs. Probably the two pieces of sculpture which would continue some time to come were the superb to attract most attention for archaic stele in New York with the head of the Shulftur. have formed. 15]. Strong also spoke of the fine specimens of Ionian bronzes now to be seen in America the well-known tripod at the Fogg the splendid handles and other utensils Museum. demonstration. authorities. She also remarkable exposition of the administration of said you that Mrs.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 71 It included the wonderful archaic sarcophagi from Amathus and Golgoi. and lecture. showed additional reasons for dissenting from (vol. held it could not be reunited) by many competent of a girl is in . Harvard . for of Greek Art. lately purchased by the New York Metroand the famous chariot from Monteleone. It is the Directors establishing Art. including Professor Studniczka. the decoration of an altar balustrade. politan Museum . Professor Ernest to Gardner. . unique in importance for the light art. p. with the Ludovisi rehefs in the Museo delle Terme. in her demonstration.

I best. and same we should not in another country. who hold that the Dithyramb was a Spring Vegetation festival in honour of an abstract entity whom they term the Eniautos Daimon. not grudge those riches going to our cousins across the Atlantic. and that boys were As a initiated at this Spring festival. Strong for the trouble she has taken on our behalf. There is enough Greek Art in the world to enrich many countries. as a Corn Spirit). Dieterich later urged that Tragedy arose from the Mysteries (held by Mannhardt. but of this Year Spirit. be summary of Professor it Httle or my much. Cornford. and that the only Dionysiac element in it was the Satyric drama. human Daemon in honour of or Vegetation and they assume that it was only later that the woes of heroes were fitted on to the di-amatic ritual in honour of this abstraction.) like and they are forced to assume that the Olympic festivals. Mr. Murray). This view has been modified by the followers of Dieterich and Dr." Ridgeway's paper. such as those in honour of Brasidas of Timoleon (336 b. such as Adrastus. in feel The following He the responsibihty very much. were not Pelops or other heroes. We who beUeve in training for can only be glad that such Greek Art and literature as an inspiration and fine examples should have found their way to our friends in America. briefly described the present state of the controversy on had been universally held that it arose solely in the cult of Dionysus until he had argued that it had sprung independently from the worship of dead heroes. but will do whatever may is a be required of me. neces- sity of this theory games and (422 B. It of the hero Dionysus.C. Frazer." " Before beginning the lecture.. Frazer (Miss Harrison. to be in honour of Demeter. He proposed to test the truth of this theory . my return life I wish to heartiest thanks to the Association for the most unexpected and delightful honour they have done me in electing me their President for next year.THE ORIGIN OF GREEK TRAGEDY ancient art here. It is a very onerous position to the Chair of the Classical Association of England and fill Wales. he said. illustrated from the Dramas of non-European Races. In your name I thank Mrs. We 75 who do cavil at those the and should are rich ourselves." Professor Ridgeway then read a paper on " The Origin of Greek Tragedy. etc. and Professor G. which itself had sprung out of the cult the origin of Greek Tragedy.c).

and the two great epic heroes Rama.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 70 — that abstract entities were worsliipped before concrete human personages. who for their exploits were later regarded as incarnations of Vishnu. death dependent on a prior behef in the existence of souls after —and to do this by examining the dramas of non-European peoples and the dramatic dances of savages." all Shiah Moslems in the As its first ten days of the themes are the tragic fates of the month Mohurram does not fall this drama cannot be alleged that Fatima. Heracles. as in the lunar calendar any particular season. that games were held in honour of such rather than of the dead. Professor Ridgeway was able to show that at this hour religious plays on comparatively modern personages are popular in North. and (persons as historical as Napoleon). drama right Thus in India we can back to the honouring famous dead. The assumption that the abstract precedes the of the universal the particular. Adonis. and not merely secondary (as Professor Eidgeway holds). Marshall and several learned native scholars. The sufferings or is in full force. the their chief exponents at the Dassara festival (New Year).g. and their sons Ali. or Krishna is familiar. He took first the Passion Play of " Hussein. the refuted in India. All Hindu tradition regards them as once living men. and new shrines spring up. Hussein. J.West India. as in Greece. A vast mass of evidence proves the same for India.g. H. and other — — districts. and that Vegetation abstractions are primary phenomena. where the generahza- tion of the cult of an individual such as Dionysus. in honour it of a Spring or other Vegetation abstraction. At this hour the worship of men even in their lifetimes (e. is concrete. John Nicholson). and of dead devotees and warriors. the cult of Chand . and Krishna of Mathura (Muttra) are the earliest dramatic themes of which we know. at is celebrated by month Mohurram. But. e. King of Ayodhya. The drama is there bound up with the Epic. those of Rama and exploits of these worthies are dramatized. Brahmans of Muttra being Krishna being almost universal. through the aid of Dr. A Chola emperor in the eleventh century built a temple in which he endowed a troupe of actors to perform a play on his own own exploits in his trace the origin of serious lifetime. in Southern India.

is These nats. The No. Each has a medium or her spirit resides for the time. so amongst tribes of Assam a person resembling the dead not only represents him before and at the funeral. e." A solemn dramatic dance {Jcagura) was from the remotest times an essential part of the festival. a masked personage is in at the funeral represents the ancestress of the clan. the special nat of farmers.g. as in Greece. a famous general in the wars of This practice of pleasing the local deified ancestors with dramas. The same is Daemon true for Japan. are universally regarded as dis- embodied spirits. whom his dressed in proper costume. spirit until it some cases attended with Amongst others. As the Roman mimus imitated the gestures of a dead Roman at his funeral. the priests of which were regularly descendants of the " god. These dances went on with great magni- . imitates his or her gestures. their practical the veneration of nats. but is abode of the dead man's also regarded as the gets its final send-off. An old king ancestor worship except in great is is cities. origin of the latter being cheap imitations. and not to a Spirit.D. But these local " gods " are local heroes and heroines.C. Thus the Chinese drama springs out of the cult of dead ancestors to whom they of the Year or a Corn offer their thanks after harvest. to please him. 225. in the presence of the local god. especially after harvest. can be traced right back to the ceremonies at the Shinto temples erected in honour of the dead. nowadays not necessarily having any connexion with their lives. Kuang Ti. universal. as are also some of the gods universally worshipped. not the prototypes of human actors. A. mostly royalties known to the Portuguese. who is in . can be traced back to the solemn dramatic dances performed in the ancestral temples already in 500 B. Some nats remain merely local. offered the firstfruits of the official nats with special rituals thirty-six are historical personages. the Khan. and to them are There are thirty-seven crops. In China There are no regular theatres but plays are performed at the temples all over the country. whether among wild or civiUzed communities. others become universal objects of cult. which funeral games.THE ORIGIN OF GREEK TRAGEDY 77 The Professor showed that Pischel's theory of the Hindu drama from puppet plays is untenable. and recites his or her sad hfe. or serious drama. one well . Though the Burmese rehgion are nominally Buddhists.

^' " This paper begins with a topographical problem. Murray and other parts of the Pacific." the burial-place of chiefs and tribal ancestors. "" In listening to Professor Eidgeway's most interesting lecture you may have discovered that the subject teems with controversy. etc. rites consist regularly in introducing the boys to the ancestors. and the development of the primitive religious dance into the full Japanese no was carried out at Kasuga by the Emai. Failing the appearance of any champion. Australia. Frazer. the hereditary guardians of the temple. of his country. The initiation Island. situations that intim- . not mere abstractions. with the engaging — manner I it. which assume Vegetation lowers. their fol- ultimately depend on the worship of the dead. Finally. are all in honour of the dead. to itself whom the often first- fruits are offered. The Chairman. and that the Professor. Torres Straits.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 78 ficence at tlie temple of This temple was Kasuga at Nara. of hitting too near him to risk myself so far as to take part in up the challenge thrown down. Africa. The religious dances of New Guinea.d. the shrine of the Imperial ancestors. in the thirteenth century a. is in the habit. but if anybody desires to take in the Iliad. the masked persons representing the dead. but leads on to matters of literature. spirits. the ancient capital. and dependent on a prior belief in dis- is spirits. to secure their favour for the crops." Miss St A WELL then read a paper on " The Scamander Ford the controversy. I am quite sure Professor Ridgeway will not be wanting. you will like me to thank Professor Ridgeway for his kindness. In savage regions the same phenomena meet us everywhere. and America. Serious drama and tragedy thus sprang from the songs and dances in honour of the dead. the beHef in abstract entities. and two other families of musicians. Fiji. am if he sees a head. this frequently taking place in the " Men's Hut. then. embodied such as Vegetation secondary. the theories of Dieterich. Thus. river that two guarded Troy seems to The problem me of the it great closely connected with of the strongest situations in the Iliad. and entities as primary.

<«-&^^^" vv^^^ troyS .f^ELLESPCNT 5^e KUM-KOI "-"• . II.*'- I. 79 . PLIMY AND THE PRESENT DAY.iK'fn.—BOUGH MAP TO ILLUSTRATE STRABO.— BOUGH MAP 10 ILLUSTRATE HOMER.

channel. correspondence and who were concerned course in varying degrees. 30. and moreover the ately affect the whole structure of the how we ought to whether as men with discussion raises at once the question the Homeric bards in general. that of the Kalifatli Asmak. There is no difficulty about the general identification of the two Trojan rivers most often mentioned in the HisIliad. the line of tlie two.— ' THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 80 poem. in the front of his book. through one of which flows the Mendere. of chief evidence for this lies in the close The in its production. conceive a vivid sense for the actual realities in the fighting they describe. Iliad. that of the In-Tepc Asmak. the Scamander (or Xanthus). underlies the Iliad.' dreamers who but arbitrary world. Leaf's very stimulating book." . clearness. viz. and one of them he has put. but it is met there. At the present day another approxinuitcly. . paper was suggested to me by Dr. a name which is but a the southern ' — — ' Skamandros adapted to the familiar Turkish The other valley lying to the north of the Diimbrek-Su only a poor brook provides Hissarlik. correinsignificance But this very summer. influenced. live in a picturesque The idea in the of the main accurate. but a few has. . . It is the question of the Scamander Ford. made it appear extremely probable difficulties occur. slight mutilation of word dere. which runs to the sea on the east of the Trojan plain. with characteristic the . . and Dr. and the Simoeis. I think. sarlik lies at the junction of two valleys. tliat tlie waters of the Homeric Simoeis followed. — ' ' According to the present nomenclature the line of the Diimbrek- Su ceases just below Hissarlik. also meets the line of the Diimbrek-Su at Kum Koi but its presence is difficult to reconcile . by another channel. . and of its own walls and gates as revealed to us by the excavaThe theory is of considerable importance. the various poets throughout topographical indications between poem and the actual conditions of the country round Troy. dry in running Simoeis in which holds the subordinate place the sponds to the with Scamander {Troy. ' . close to the modern village of Kum Koi. 31). Leaf tions. compared the pp. One of the theses there upheld is that a strong topographical tradition. and there is no difliculty in supposing. or rather as what might I call ' tapestry-poets. with Leaf and Dorpfeld. Troy : a Study in Homeric Geography. " valley.

Again. and are encamped near by. Many scholars. 31). actually mentioned always on the way to the town.' as Dr. n 692 cp. and in such a context that the reader naturally thinks the ford must cross the road (E 433.' all. through a In fact. . . on is not to be denied any theory ' (p. and that in Homeric times it did cross the plain at some point and join the Simoeis. It is in no way rash to suppose that the river-bed has been changed. at the end of 0. ^ init.^ and this does present 1 E. in the three places where the ford it is is city. where the Trojans have beaten the Greeks behind their trench. the Scamander. of fairly accurate topogi'aphy.g. subject to violent winter-floods. so far as I know. and scholars do. some change of course has to be assumed for the Scamander. the line where Simoeis and Scamander join St/^oet? o-u/^t/^aXAeroi/ rjhk ^KtifxavSpos. 774. therefore. and Dorpfeld is conwest (from Kum Koi seato the vinced that in its lower course though it did in Strabo's. and I believe rightly.THE SCAMANDER FORD with Homer. ' : To'cro-a fxio-qyv p. time. The possibiUty. we if cannot it camp and Troy. passes nearly level alluvial plain. wards) it did not exist in Homer's not likely to be of very high antiquity Our real problem begins actual course of the ' when we attempt Scamander as conceived The Mendere now runs along the western side it never joins the line of om' Homeric Simoeis at ' follow its many western stream alone. comes across the plain somewhere between the ships and the Finally. the ford lying somewhere on the line of the crossing. assumed that the bed of the Scamander has changed. have. 32). their streams ' : r])(L ' poas of the plain. 32). or close to Troy. But the junction of the two rivers has usually been placed right in the middle of the plain. 349 fi). Dorpfeld puts the Kalifatli 11 Asmak it at Kum Koi. as be said ever to come between the Greek But in the Iliad the junction of the stated. Leaf says. This clearly implies that the Xanthus. two rivers is definitely E according to the natural meaning of which speaks of a spot to realise the in the Iliad'' (p. 81 Leaf gives geological reasons for holding that it is (p. ' ' where a river.dvBoto podoiv Tpo'ywv KaiovTOiV Trvpa ^atvero 'IXloOl irpo it is between reuiv ^8e (560—61). of a wide change of course. said that their watch-fires are seen ' the ships and the streams of Xanthus in front of Troy. taking the upper waters of to represent the old line of the Scamander.

must admit a poet and the felt of the rivers result of either excision is that Now this Minor alterations no one need object exaggerations of size and distance we but . it and the never was there at and the way from one to the other lay always open. much it (560-1) about the lines in to deal a severe blow at the whole theory of a strong tradition. Then the silt gradually stopped the old junction. must himself entirely at liberty to alter the topography in the most drastic manner. it it is such as to. up and down the plain. somewhere near the site pro- posed by Dorpfeld for the old town of Sigeion. I think. the indications in the Iliad. while the battle sways baclrwards and forwards. Leaf has we much when he we need reason on his side are to believe our poet capable of this. seems to me. the battle-field me seems to ' says. 39). the Trojan watch-fires . and the Sea- . (E 774) ? but. agree with itself. It great difficulties. are we to do ? Are we to accept such a view of the of that. while it involves only a small and natural change from the present course of the waters. AVhat. and round the city-walls. that Dr. I imagine that in Homer's day. or. when. appears altogether too to which right between their city enemy's camp. Or ? ' are we to take the bold step of expelhng an intruder the Hne about the junction This. and joined the Simoeis in the north-eastern corner of the plain.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 82 The ford will then come in the very heart of bound to have been an important military feature. with fact. then. for the matter armour and he is an unreal dreamer. go tactics of the scenery of also. One object of this paper is to suggest that the whole difficulty can be got over simply by placing the junction of the rivers much nearer the shore. If it is . and also with what we can gather from Strabo and Pliny (not that I think these writers very much to be trusted). no idea Homeric bards as . and put all. trouble no more about Homeric topography. who has Troy or the conditions of battle (p. as it is possible . ford and river are alike disregarded. and yet for most of the fighting. the main body of the stream swung to the right in a north-easterly direction. so that the ford comes about a mile or half a mile from Troy all from the Greek camp. and two or two and a half Such a position does. as a matter of surely and accurate to change at will the course of the great river the Trojans prayed. in the first place. no doubt.

(p. 32). fi-om the modern (xiii. and he wants to explain this. the Achaian camp. joining in the plain. but there has actually been in use ever since do not propose to I insist my 1895. vol. a channel Scamander waters diverging to the north-east. For note the for (yap) the Simoeis and the Scamander. been up. 1. bridge to the outlet of the In-Tepe Asmak. we might take really a is the point of its much older one re- divergence from the western stream as the starting-place for our old Scamander. I take this. just in the place I require for starting-point. and marshes. at first. marked "Harbour " in Map II. and Tafel ii. to be the large lagoon shown accompanying maps.' It is clear Strabo conceives that the silt has partially choked an original joint outlet. This new channel is not shown in most maps. I suggest. and some of ^ waters now flowing by this second most scholars. The Homeric junction of the Simoeis and the Scamander might be anywhere between this ford and the present outlet of the In-Tepe Asmak. the original passage for the Simoeis along the eastern edge of the plain having been partially choked. following in both the its . After mentioning the harbour of the Achaians. Ilion. and bringing down a quantity of silt.. 31). so that the waters have had to find other means of egress. Dorpfeld suggests that by Strabo's time the channel of the KaHfatU Asmak below Kum Koi had already been formed. and described by Leaf new This channel. more or less the line of ancient swampy hollows marked on Spratt's Admiralty Chart of 1840. and the outlets of the Scamander. and put our ford at the modern bridge about a mile lower down. 614). silted and it is this The supposition supported by Strabo line for the This portion. and this would fit in exceedingly ' ' ' — ' ' — ' well with the theory of silting-up. deposit it on the shore and create a blind-mouth. of is the only non- that I imagine to have silting-up is definitely In his time there were lagoons along the shore and more than one outlet for the Scamander. opened.' he adds. see also p. but it is clearly marked the for ' ' in D5rpfeld {Troja u. 1 .THE SCAI^IANDER FORD mander waters had to get away 83 Naturally to the sea elsewhere. sea-lakes. the place called the Lakemouth ^ {a-roixaXiixvr]). and following. on any precise course in detail for my old Scamander. and rest of my have indicated a possible I old Scamander. existent channel I assume.

couples the town of Sigeion and the Scamander because just near the city the river forks.). 30. Pliny. 34). though the passage ^ort yap rb vavaTaO/j. .).. 2 or 2i miles. But. cliaunel to the west.. and the old Scamander. a navigable river. the other near Rhoiteion.K(ifJ. plain ' par excellence. . and in a later passage from the same book (xiii. meet a little ^ in front of the present Ilion. 33). his Scamander being my old Scamander (see Map I. and then debouch towards Sigeion. would give a good sense to Avhat Strabo says both in the passage just quoted. irXTjalov 8k Kal is not conclusive — : 2. certainly suggests this. The two rivers. I take it. describing the coast from south-west to north- The Scamander. (see ' Map the II. and the town Then the harbour of the Achaians of Sigeion on the promontory. 1. and his Old right. and form the place called the Lake-mouth. map This that I suggest for Strabo also gives an admirable meaning for the passage in Pliny of which some commentators despair.. would be Asmak now meets the point where the Kalifatli thinking of the Scamander waters. into which flows the Xanthus after junction with the Simoeis. p. us turn to the Iliad and read which I We have assumed have an open for it cit. It also suits Strabo very well to assume with most scholars that the extreme western channel of the Scamander was already formed at (Map least by his day. east.Strabo. ibid.av8poi iKSLduai.' Strabo. by the name could then be called This view of the Simoeis. ' I think. and I have followed this in my map ^ I. the Scamander and the Simoeis.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCLVTION 84 Either of these two channels. 384). N. first forming a marsh {H. viz. in any case. op.). Now carefully according to the Homer battle-field. of all the passages in ancient geographers that bear on the subject (see Leaf. or both. 386.oi> irpbs 2t7eti^. roughly 2 J miles long by 2 miles wide. See Leaf. i. the ford serving as "A let map its 1 little" is quite consistent with the distance I assume. Troy. Strabo seems to have thought the distance between Hissarlik and the sea much shorter than it really is a mile and a half instead of tlu'ee. one flowing ' near Sigeion. Pliny. p.. v. says ' : ' ' ' ' ' ' This disposes. and he uses Xanthus (the divine name) and the significant names of Old Scamander for those waters that have swung to the Xanthus flowing into the lagoon. I take it.

would only mean five minutes for an un- a long it . 0. if we follow. For instance. and the fighting through part who. . so that them and opponents seized and if a detachment But it would not. with all 85 the advantages and disadvantages might act as a protecting barrier either to Greeks or Trojans. especially for the Trojans. tomb would be to say. if they crossed over lay between it to the confined space beyond. as a safety. I think. but I think it has also been thought. it it of their rule. the From rather less the Greeks are than a mile from the ford. now forced back. where Diomede also the first sixty lines of A. It is ence to the ford (cp. Towards the middle of A the Greek disaster begins. 11. it would appear. so that the distance which I assume agrees O (349-55) describing the 'Now when they had driven perfectly with the well-known hues in latter part of Priam's journey: past the great tomb to water them. Ajax contesting every inch of ground. across the mid-plain. from the run of the Past lines which describe the earlier flight of the Trojans (166 is fi). there can be no question the very end of the Eleventh Book. cally the and I. under special army to either of such a feature. on our theory. Paris tomb shooting his deadly arrows from the the tomb of Ilus. appear in the every-day fighting. It circumstances. A mile is on the other hand. rather nearer the river than Troy. at Greeks have marched out in the first confidence and pride. from certain verses which precede somewhere about the middle of the plain. Ajax guarding the retreat because . or again. they halted their horses in the river right. chariot. past the wild fig-tree they sped. the critics the latter part other grounds. with practi- whole of H.THE SCAMANDER FORD entrance from the sea. as a trap for either. on quite E. excise fights the gods. impeded this point way under such conditions while. the Greeks have been driven back. as I do.' of Ilus. in their rear. to see in these lines a refer- 692). making for the city That is ' (166-8). of the ford at all until when of either in the mid-plain or is all the earher under the very city walls. ' : the tomb of Ilus. but very slowly. and K. There would be no more reason to describe the Greeks crossing the Ford at the outset than there would be to describe the crossing of their trench or enumerate the guards in their rear. it is clear Now of Ilus (372).

But when v/e remember that the contezt describes Priam and the herald driving on a clear road with good horses and no one to hinder them. the ford in the centre of the field. have been made. with rain and storm on an autumn day and the rivers run full and the torrents tear away their banks and sweep roaring to fiery recount ' the sea. the plain beyond. much more ' Then panies ' — I think. tide has turned of Ilus the decisively against the Greeks. been realised.. the turbid Trojan cavalry pouring. behind There would not be much wall. and it seems to me that the glorious description of their headlong escape ajtpr they have been driven across the camp-trench is definitely meant to describe what And even as when the earth is heavy happened at the ford. for they are own trench and all. I take it. The next time the river is crossed by an army is when Patroclus puts the Trojans to flight. then surely we see that the distance of was not at If there better. when he had cloven the hindmost com- (those. that were slow in reaching the ford) . suits the least five minutes' words much run between the of driving ' no opportunity for describing the concluding part of the retreat at is M long ago.eya arjiMa Trapk^ At the tomb return to A. but the poet has the time for that right past "IXoto lAacrcrav (349) when we return to the fighting the Greeks have already passed the ford now inside their own camp. and at the beginning of ).' ' THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 86 though vaguely. Patroclus. I believe. if the topographical conditions had Moreover. and roaring stream brings of the splendidly this simile before us is. Under the conditions we have assumed particularly It apt. Hke a swollen through the passage of the ford. the position I am arguing for gives point to the lines which follow at once (394). and bursting out over Tlie criticisms on the simile would never river. I think. that they imply that the tomb is actually at the crossing (instead of being only the last landmark before it) and has been one of the chief reasons for putting this. because taken up with the account of Nestor and Patroclus in the Greek camp. such was the roar of the Trojan horses as they fled (n 384-93). their of the left Homeric speed if the narrator thought it necessary to all that happens in such intervals. about a mile two points the poet could hardly speak the first (ot S'lirh To ovv /".

and would not let them reach the city. as the context shows. and I cannot help suspecting that a direct reference to it may have originally stood in place of the very troublesome line about crossing a trench (380). is after Patroclus' death. of Troy. already described ten verses ago (370). otherwise unexplained.' ' (The wall. blurring and it is line describing the crossing been confused with and ousted by a line describing This would account for the present the crossing of the trench.) the object of Patroclus has been precisely to drive the Trojans o§ from the ships — Achilles. very slight change might restore the original e.^ puzzling condition of the text. but penned them up between the ships and the river and the mighty wall. for as the line stands it only repeats. Patroclus drives the Trojans into the big made by the great bend of the Scamander. instead 5' 6. be Some confusion and assumed tempting to suggest that an original of the ford has in any case. Commentators are all agreed that some- thing has gone wrong here. . the crossing of the camp-trench. and 6. with clumsy iteration. for the fleet. and so under the cumstances the ships are The only the ford is cir- safe.pa standing fourth in the sentence as it stands fifth in E 205 ra.pa. 87-96) what. that Now is. 84 n' ovk Up l/xeWtp dprj^ou).g. possible objection I can see to this account not actually mentioned here. of the original must. anxious that is he should do no more (U. as the Iliad now is that stands. I think. a line that just precedes the splendid simile of the torrent. raippou vTrepdopov iixees Ittttoi there might conceivably have : of avTUpv stood dyrlKpu oi w6pov ip' vwepOdpou <5/cee5 'iinroi (the last syllable of vbpov being long. then. I do not wish to press The next passage that concerns us 1 A However.. which curves corner in an unbroken line from the ford at one end to the southern Trojan valley at the other. everything becomes luminous. — indeed. between the and the fighters Greeks to hold.THE SCAMANDER FORD — 87 headed the Trojans back again towards the fleet. owing to the ictus. Victorious as the Myrmidons now they can easily prevent the Trojans breaking through their cordon to the single passage of the Ford. could be the sense in his present manoeuvre if we follow the ordinary map and suppose that the way to camp and ships lies open here ? But with the river where and only the ford I put it. are. and slew them there. this suggestion.

THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 88 when the bearers of his retreat once more (P struggle home. the last two lines of P speak of the Greeks weapons "about and around the trench " before Achilles But the couplet has ah-eady been felt as quite hears the news.. % init. far more poignant because far more intelligible.^ field at all the body fin. involving the annihilation of The half the army. just possible that there may have been a second trench. is the immediate result of his refusal to follow the wise advice of Polydamas and leave the ships. where they in sight of their by are saved his appearance. and left. losing their obviously out of place (see Leaf. and indeed does not approach it before 2 150.). I think. But Trojans have to first encounter. the Achilles before. made by the Greeks to guard the ford. terrible disaster at the ford. as there might be Moreover.] . od. ford. cutting into the midst of the flying Trojans at right and so drives half of them to the plain towards the (my city where the Achaians were routed on the day before otherwise so map gives a precise and clear sense to these Hnes. ' — — In front of them death-trap ($ 1-10). happen does happen. note 1). follows. encamped by the ships. the Greeks are across the river. And Ajax guarding the we are not on here again We during the latter part of the action. flush triumph. has the of Hector. there is the slaughter at the ford itself next day. absolute in an hard to explain) while the rest are caught ' angles. at the 243 The next if). It is not a might have happened at any time on the field directly due to his own rashness in camping. under the disaster that it is 1 As the Iliad stands. and that this is the trench referred to here and in n 380-83 (see above.. there is no way on a wider plain but a plunge into the swirHng river. and own camp-trench. [It is also. and when we return with him (215 IT). in morning. careless of his retreat (2 time they this fly. are with Achilles in his agony of remorse (xviii.). where he stands alone at the Skaian gate after the rout. After this. wheels round Here what we might expect some time to at the ford. behind them are the victorious out either to right or there is nothing for we know what it is Achilles holding the Greeks." This seems to meet the case. this situation makes the remorse of Hector. Iliad. day did the lightly as they do not escape so with his immortal horses dashes ahead to the river. loc): "The fight never crosses the trench.

line. like to run through the passages in those parts by and show. secondly. With the divine help the Trojans are repulsed. 701. and there can be no question of the river again till 0. fT). and this suits corner the main scene ofi though off the main this. chariot. ' while they step forward to the battle themselves' (774 Now rivers pretty clear from it is is in a secluded spot to reach. first. 758). when they drive the Greeks back once more.THE SCAMANDER FORD 89 circumstances. the goddesses leave them to pasture along the (E 590. since the goddesses reach the battle dove-like steps to notice that the braids and them moment Hera ' On my view the line (which especially it is when is : \vv Se there few reaches the Achaians she up' far from the city e/cas ttoA-ios Kot'ATy? iirl vr]vcrl is in a particularly important for allowing the Trojans to fight close to the ships (E 791). the Greeks have been driven back the Trojans under Ares. and there down on the spot where Simoeis and Simoeis in peace. in a confined area where the Ford must be crossed at once there if is any reverse. Hector. as of the Iliad that I conceive to be I think I can. and when we return to earth the Greeks are behind their trench (213). where the junction lies in a action. which the fighting not likely actually is my of map. 624. the junction. If we allow the bard to omit the crossing of the trench. trusting to his ' valour. bound up with the tragedy of the hero's death. that the junction of the fid^ovTai no reason whatever to cut out often done) as due to a misunderstanding. And. pretty steadily for about 200 verses Hera and Athene come to their The divine horses leap assistance in their heavenly Scamander join. 12 For the rest of the fighting is round the Greek . 606. as we must. now should wXecre is are intimately I rjfjn /St-^^t Trt^T^cras follow the later poets. He at once simplifies and varies his narrative by taking us to a scene in heaven (198-212). same tradition. the words agree ^^'ith the whole backward drift of the battle ever since line 590. that they all E In the latter part of by own Xaw The topographical conditions perfectly true. But just when the ford would have to be crossed this poet uses the same sort of device as the writer of A and M. is in the near neighbourhood of the present fighting. we can scarcely blame him for passing over the crossing of the river. Therefore (778). destroyed the people' ("ExTcop X It 107).

the Trojan guards are posted. And when they came to the drive him is. The I. 160. tomb of Ilus. must be recrossed before here I do agree that there about the ford. on our theory.^ are a much of Ilus at the beginning to the encounter of the hosts and reach the of Ilus without a river. 0. the eddying Xanthus. . T 3). as I on other grounds — 1-60 which introduce us to the mere piece of patchwork designed later for effecting the return to the original the additions of H. The assumption that it referred originally to another quarter might turn out to be but surely. near enough off to on foot. they hfted ^ I cannot see why Opu^ff/abi irfSlolo (A 5G) should not mean the Wherever the phrase appears spring of the plain. ' ford of the fair-flowing river. the river the Trojans are driven past the A of And (166). silence tomb poem after K. last reference to the H ford made by any of the poets and it is a reference that fits The battle has been raging particularly well with our map. the one in I think. and therefore the Greeks thenxselves can have felt no difficulty in connecting it with such a position. Thus their camp-fires. Later on Dolon says that ' Hector is holding a nocturnal council out of the din purpose this (415-16) ' enough far : ' beside the — an excellent place. between the ships and the streams of Xanthus. 433.'' in the Iliad it is in connection with the soav/nrd end of the plain (cp. Agamemnon But am sure that the this we We pass straight word is a most curious from the arming should. as we should expect. for be out of the noise. to make it is to go directly behind our evidence. inside the Greek wall.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 90 and at night the Trojans encamp close by and close to the (© 490). correct ' K . of tomb or hint to suggest the crossing of the need not trouble us at battle in the plain. in front of which to be reached minutes of . river and as I have already mentioned. are seen in front of Ilion. As the Iliad now stands. from the sea.3). wall. when Hector is stunned by a blow from a stone that Ajax hurls. His friends carry him to his chariot and towards the town. when there is no fighting. those scholars first lines of A — say who all if believe we follow. in about ten and at the same time protected from the off-chance a night-attack by the barrier of the ford.' K also harmonises with this situation. The Trojan camp is near enough for Agamemnon to hear the flutes and pipes and the clamour of the soldiers (K 1.

if soon as Hector's friends have crossed they can reach it in a few minutes they have got him out of danger. 27). It will be observed that the map I assume fits in with the whole conception. the divine River. they could have got it. the conception of the river as Troy's guardian seems me bound up with the great canto of the Flood in the same book (<J>). and perhaps also for the strangely weak state of the fortifications on the westerly side of Troy (see Troy. so prominent in $. . and to the significance that I am has for the closing scenes of the Iliad so great it loth to let go. I quite overlooked the passage at the beginning of Y(l-74) man conceived as a is would take Troy arrested. on either of the ordinary theories. not it and. why have they gone to the ford ? If liiin was only to get water. I should like to close with a few words about I once this. Finally. of flood. of the Scamander as the great guardian of Troy. and he can recover from his long swoon in peace. far more cj^uickly elsewhere. and they must be in the nature of a palinode. This would help to account for the length of the siege. as But with the ford where I suggest. ^ it is tremendous in is itself is saved. the reason is plain overtaken. (Note the emphatic position is due to verbal suggestions of Professor no way responsible for this exposition. 156). V he wishes those who love Troy to and makes Bradley's. And among Xanthus. Zeus so from which that very day itself see to it that for the time the city those who answer it the clear summons the great protector of the town.' Now. <l> their flight. I forgot the passage in (6). but now the objections to it seem to me quite inconclusive. though he if the gods together to calls 26. 88. The change of view is in plain that Achilles his fury that he he were not somehow tell them this (xx. pp. what is more. and. It makes a semicircle round the it : — — which would probably be impassable in time city. it I thought that it detained Achilles was impossible to understand how the Trojans could have been so hard pressed as the poem describes so long from Troy that it when they reach the gates at last but I forgot the rest of the Achaian host who would keep them in play. where Hera spreads a mist before them to check .^ thought the canto could not belong to the original poem.THE SCAMANDER FORD 91 out of the chariot aud laid him on the ground and poured water over him.

nor yet the odd peaceful interlude connected with it ^ (Y 75-380) when the heavenly common- hosts suddenly cease fighting.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 92 Y 40. 332. 74. who faces him in far more He boasted to Lycaon that he had a gallant fashion (152 ff.). The gods air is full of thunder- ous clamours. indeed. given to him. The gods come down init. tected at Asteropaeus before now it. then some direct and special interference becomes necessary if Troy is to be proplace encounter between Achilles and Aeneas.) written iu connection with the prepares definitely for it. just as step by step the insolence of Achilles himself increases. by the fact that *435ff only harmonises with T GS if a peaceful interlude such as T 75-380 has intorvoued. Y73. but at This ference. the reference to Apollo ($ 229 ff. * The connection is shown. . the original coming doom. passages. and the Flood-canto refers definitely back to it (e. of us. 74)). is to earth quite after the who always keeps the words of Zeus (Y after no detailed account first given of their inter- is manner of the earliest bard. This prologue to 73. rises against need not trouble much repetition in the scene. And compare T 153-5 with * 388-90. fury and arrogance. I make no doubt. even so conservative a critic as Monro admits that the comic battle between them which follows later ($ 385-514) can scarcely belong to the original poem. but me of a character which brings out the battle-madness fans the flames of Achilles' He was a little sorry for Lycaon ($ 106) . e. the divine intervention within discreet limits unless he needs a special and overwhelming range themselves against each other. It since the River-god does not appear anywhere else as a fighter. he has no kind of pity for Asteropaeus.g. and the effect. poet means to leave the struggle among the gods themselves . is It has because there how been thought that the death only a weaker echo of Lycaon's death just is so the repetition seems to forcibly the River-god the conqueror. a vague and splendid background for Hector's And vague. Y 24). Y is obviously scene of the Flood («I>). and watch a singularly These two long But when Achilles slaughters the Trojans in their own river and taunts them with their guardian's inability to save them.). therefore. and to the Fire-god as matched against the River ($ 331.g. Step by step the indignation of all.


;

THE SCAMANDER FORD

93

hero for his father and a goddess for his mother (109)

paeus he claims that his race

men

Father of gods and

(184

to Astero-

:

sprung directly from the High

is

Over the dead body

fi.).

of

Lycaon

he had cried that the river would not save the Trojans (130

now he

scorns even the thought of

and darling

himself, the scion

which

lines in

its

fighting for

Zeus (192-99).

of

fE.)

them against
The glorious

Achilles, confident in the favour of the Thunderer,

whole strength of the waters and the great sea itself
Then comes a warning

defies the

are very significant of his towering pride.

note

the Eiver-god in person makes an appeal for the con-

:

queror at least to spare his waters (214

him as an equal

he

;

fE.)

;

but Achilles answers

waters readily enough, but

will spare the

nothing shall stop him from slaying the Trojans (223

With

ff.).

that he leaps into the river-bed to drive the survivors through

them on the other

the stream and slaughter

Then

Achilles

is

hke a child in

his hands.^

It has always

of the

change

it is

;

only at the very end he

what dominates the close of the Iliad, the truth that
tXtitov yap
alike must learn to suffer and endure (fi 49

realises,

men

:

Motpat Bvfxov Oia-av
suit

The shock

been Achilles' vice to think the

tremendous.
whole world ought to yield to him

is

all

side (227, 233, 234).

at last the River rises in the fullness of his wrath, and

any

dvOpioTToia-Lv).

one's convenience

we

:

are

all,

each one of

passed with terrible powers ready to snatch our
the lives of

all

we

And

love.

made

This world was not

us,

own

to

encom-

lives

and

to a generous nature this sense of

a
man's weakness brings a deepening of human sympathy
despair
proud
touch of that rings out even now from Achilles'
Would I had died at Hector's hands, brave would
(4> 279)
:

'

:

have been the slayer and brave the
like a

swineherd in a flood

?

'

slain

!

Why

must

I

drown

Achilles alone against the river

Athena and Poseidon must appear and give
him strength even to continue the struggle, and then hasten
back themselves to their own alUes among the Immortals so

is

utterly helpless

;

that Hephaestus, the Fire-god, the only one
the flood,
1

i.e.

Achilles

may put
is

forth his

full

strength

who

apparently swept down-stream (see

to the E. of the ford,

could counter

at the bidding of
e.g. 241, 256)

and toward the junction with the Simoeis.

The cry from Scamander
particularly well with our

to his brother-river for help (307

map.

ff)

suits

'

THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION

94

Hera/ aud save the defenceless cliampiou of the
The scene that follows, the struggle between flood

mothei'

his

Greeks.

and

fire,

grandeur

of the wildest

is

so wild that

thought out of key with the rest of the poem

;

might be

it

but

not the

is

grandeur swung up to a dizzy height for a special purpose and
with a result that

justifies it

?

Could anything

bring before

more vividly how puny is man's strength in comparison with
the Titanic forces round him ? And when at last the river's
strength is destroyed by the Fire, another result is gained. Scamander cries to Hephaestus that he will not fight for the Trojans
any more, not even when all Troy is burning to the ground
with blazing fire, and the sons of the Achaians burn it (375-6).
We have seen the great bulwark of the Trojans broken by the
flame
it is almost as though the smoke of the divine anger
was sweeping already over the doomed town. And on thisfollows at once the simile which shows us Achilles like an incarnation of the reek itself, an instrument in the hand of Heaven,
sweeping across the plain as smoke from a burning town that
us

'

'

:

'

the wrath of the gods has sent, to bring destruction to
(520-25)."

The Chairman.
on a note

— "Our

meeting closes

of peace, concluding

of literary criticism.

We

like a

Greek Tragedy,

without discussion with a piece

are grateful to Miss Stawell

appreciated and enjoyed her eloquent paper, and

being sent back to

read our

many

Homer

afresh

we

if

we have
we end by
;

shall feel

some

cause of gratitude to Miss Stawell and to this meeting of the
Classical Association."

The proceedings then terminated.
^ The promise of Athena and Poseidon (291 ff ) that the flood will
bo allayed, and their speedy return to the Imnaortals (298) not to
Olympus are followed almost at once (330 fl.) by the call of Hera to

Hephaestus and
2

to

1.

If

wo cut

616.

the

his instant help.

Theomachy

(see above),

we pass

at once

from

1.

384

REPORT OF COMMITTEE APPOINTED TO ENQUIRE INTO CLASSICAL CURRICULA IN THE
UNIVERSITIES OF THE EMPIRE
Draft Letter

to Professors of Classics in the

Dominions

oversea.

THE POSITION OF LATIN AND GREEK IN UNIVERSITY
EXAMINATIONS
"Dear ....
" In the course of the Conferences that have been recently

held

in

London among the representatives of the different
and schools of the British Empire it became clear

Universities

that the question of the place of classical curricula in Universities

was one which
interest.

at the present

Many

moment was

arousing very general

of the English Universities have, for a long time,

been giving their attention to similar questions, and are deeply
concerned in finding their practical solution.
The Council of
the Classical Association has derived much encouragement from
the evidence, collected in the course of a recent inquiry,^ to the
general prosperity of classical studies, and to the place which

they have secured in the newer Universities even in what has
free competition of all subjects.
"Without

been practically a

expressing any opinion as to the degree of free choice, which
should be allowed at Matriculation or subsequent stages, the

Council desires to point out the great importance of preserving
the natural and vital connexion of all hterary and historical
studies with a knowledge of ancient

" The Council

by some

feels

life

and

literature.

that steps recently taken with this object

new Universities of Great Britain may be of general
In the Universities in question either Latin or Greek
up to at least the First Year (Intermediate) stage is already
of the

interest.

^ Conducted by tho Hellenic Society
by means of a circular addressed
to Classical Professors in the Universities of the British
Isles.
summary of the report of this inquiry was published in The Times,
Educational Supplement, Jan. 1912.

A

95

THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION

96

a necessary part of any course leading to a Pass degree in Arts
and regulations have been adopted in order to establish on a
firmer basis than heretofore the same requirement for Honours
;

Degrees in

strictly

all

In one of the Uni-

literary subjects.

henceforward any student presenting himself to enter
upon an Honours course in English, French, German, or History,
is required to possess a knowledge of Latin up to the Matriculation
versities

standard, and to continue his study to the Intermediate stage,

save that for Honours in English or
of

knowledge

Greek

in

is

German

the same standard

accepted as an alternative.

If

the

student has not reached the Matriculation standard in Latin
(or Greek) at the date of his entrance, he is required to give
four years instead of three to his Honours course. In another
University where Latin is compulsory for Matriculation in the

Faculty of Arts, the Intermediate Examination in Latin is a
necessary preliminary to any Honours course in Arts, with the
alternative of giving four years instead of three to the

Honours

course and taking the Intermediate Examination in Latin in the

year of the four.
" It appears to the Council that regulations of this nature,
which demand lengthened residence from students insufficiently

first

prepared in Classics, are in themselves not unreasonable, nor of
the kind which would excite hostility, while they should have a

upon the study of Classics in many of the newer
schools which come within the range of University influence.
The effect of such a requirement is to place a knowledge of the

beneficial effect

classical

languages in

literary study to

relation

close

which

its

with those branches of

indispensable value can be clearly

shown.
" The Council
in such matters

is

is

far

from wishing to suggest that uniformity

necessary

but

;

it is

conscious that the ques-

and
might

tions involved affect very nearly the prosperity of Classical

indeed of

all

literary studies

;

and

it

believes that good

be done by a friendly consultation among the leading teachers
To this end the
of Classics in different parts of the Empire.
Council hopes that you will feel inclined to contribute by answering the questions appended to this letter
to submit to

you

in

due course a summary

so far as their authors give permission.

;

and

of tlie

it

further hopes

answers received,

May we assume

that

Five from South Africa. .A. Acadia University. Victoria College. (a) of University of University Halifax . Wellington College. . . University of Alberta. its cordial thanks to its The Council desii'es to thank the Professors Suggested Questions on the Position of Latin and Greek IN Curricula for the B. The Committee beg to report that. .. Antigouish. New and in India. St. Adelaide . lege. Cape Rhodes University land Zealand {d) all . African College. Brunswick . for the construction of which the Committee desires Hon. Montreal University. Pietermaritzburg . Wolfville Scotia . addressed TO Professors of Classics in different Universities OF THE Empire. University ColBishop's College. One New . In Town Five in Australasia. The actual contents of the replies are shown in the accompany- ing table." A. Empire : University. Lennoxville . (6) bosch Natal University College. REPORT you will allow us to may make be able to send us use in this 97 way any information you of ? " Answers should be addressed to . Wellington Grahamstown. College. Brisbane University of Queens- the University. Zealand the University of Sydney . from twenty-two Universities outside the United Kingdom. viz.. Kingston Toronto March. Secretary. . . last the viz. J. Toronto . South Huguenot College. The Council of the Classical Association would be glad to learn the practice of your University in the following particulars 13 . Canterbury College. who have been at the trouble to furnish the Committee with the information to ofier Taylor. Queen's University. (c) viz. in reply to the letter addressed by the Council of the Association to the Professors of Classics in the different Universities of the they have received replies sent by Eleven Canadian Universities. Miss M. . of Manitoba New McGill . . Stellen- . E. . or other Degrees. Francis Xavier College. University Nova Dalhousie Victoria College. Bombay University.

is a classical language compulsory for the whole or part of the course In Arts. Medicine 1 Latin compulsory for Arts 4 Xiitin or Greek compulsory for Arts 1 11 . How far do your University courses secxire that Greek and Latin studies shall be pursued in conjunction.— THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 98 and to — — : any comment whicli you may have effect on the promotion of Classical also to be furnislied with make with regard to its study Answees In the Matriculation or equivalent Entrance Examination. (hU . In Laws. Canada (11 Universities /. Faculties (c) For for ? Students intending any Honours degree read to ? 2.A. (c) In Theology. is a classical language compulsory (a) For all Students. Honours standard ? (a) (6) THE PLACE OF GREEK AND LATIN IN THE CURRICULA OF THE UNIVERSITIES OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE A. if not Students of any particular (6) For Faculties. especially in courses of M. or. In degree courses.A. Law. and. Medicine 1 4 Latin compulsory for Arts. (d) In any Honours degree course ? 3. of which 1. if so. or B. and Colleges represented) Matriculation University or College (a) Latin compulsory for all students 'Latin compulsory for Arts.

Latin compulsory in some courses . 1 11 (6) In neither of the two Colleges giving Laivs Degrees is —but a classical language required Law in one case... 1 Latin and Greek required for Theology ... 2 . Latin and Greek are both required.. ... 4 . ... . . .. . Students usually take B....A.. com-se as pre- liminary... Degree Courses University or College. Greek and Latin in Conjunction Classical Honours (Greek and Latin) Only secured May . with other subjects No in Theology degrees information given 3 1 11 ... 1 Latiu compulsory in certain courses . 1 .REPORT 99 //. ^Latin required for at least one year in ours Courses Latin required for all all Hon- Arts {(Z) < 1 Students in Faculty of 1 Latin required except in Mathematics and Science 1 Latin required for Modern Languages ... 5 <No classical languages compulsory II ///.. (a) years Arts.. ... Latin and Greek optional 4 . two or three years Greek compulsory for two or three 'Latin compulsory for Latin or . ... 6 1 be taken in conjunction for Pass.. . (c) In three Colleges giving Theology Degrees..

D. //. (3 Universities represented) Matriculation (a) No {h) Latin or Greek for Arts .. such as Engineering (Mathematics instead).THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 100 M.B. Students. and Greek for Philosophy Honours. {d) Latin required for History and Modern Language to those Honours.. only open (c) Theology B. in one of wliich one language may be taken by Honours. is classical only mentioned in two cases.A.A.. conforming to the regulations Cape University) Matriculation /. who have B. . in . Class to the candidate. C.. Latin and Greek in Conjunction Both Latin and Greek must be Classical offered for B. History. and Philosophy. except those taking technical degrees. (6) Laws LL.A. Latin and Greek required for those taking Honours in Classics. for (pure Literature).A. Honours.A. Australia /. and in the other the option B. is left all Students. all of the B. Latin compulsory for after itself. III..A. . Degree Courses 'Latin and Greek required B.A. " mixed B " (2 literary and 2 science subjects). and M. No classical language required for B.. classical language compulsory on Latin and Greek for Arts and Laws all . " mixed Arts (a) (4 literary and 1 scientific A " subject)..A. Latin or Greek required for B. only open to those who have B.. South Africa (5 Colleges..A. 1 1 Latin or Greek for Arts and Laws and Latin for Medicine (c) 1 Li one case.

Greek and Latin in Conjunction — Greek Non-existent is not taken. But it is compulsory for all but those who take Technological degrees in the South African Colleges. most cases compulsory. generally Greek or Latin. And for particular Faculties in most cases (Arts. III.A. and no Greek studied. sometimes . III. The following points appear clearly in the replies nowhere compulsory upon (1) Greek (2) At Matriculation. is in for degrees in Arts. E. and iu one case the taking of the two languages in conjunction aged by the award D. only compulsory for is all at Bishop's College. where Latin is in required for one year for Laws. required for Medicine and Laws. B. Lennoxville. of prizes (a) Latin is Latin is is encour- scholarships. Latin is all : students. except in one case. Law. Theology). Degree Courses No language classical compulsory in any degree course is these Universities. India A classical University) (1 language in no case compulsory. (6) and (1 University) Matriculation alternative to Science for all candidates. language. Latin and Greek in conjunction B.REPORT 101 II. //. Medi- cine. In courses (3) A classical Latin. Classical Honours degrees are given in two cases. Degree Courses {a) and (6) Latin is required for Arts and Laws. New Zealand I.

on the three (6) and in B. considerable option that it is is . but in conjunction with the Historical and other studies with which and generally Thus. but Latin may be taken in other combinations. Honours are generally given only for the combination of Greek and Latin. so often possible for students taking Honours in such subjects as Philosophy to dispense with of Classical study. but those in Arts. offered in nearly all the Universities. impossible at present in the conditions under which the is done to require the compulsory study maintain Latin as a compulsory study difficult to of for Greek and any students . though they are most naturally and fruitfully associated as an integral portion of all Pass Degrees in Arts. no compulsion in one Canadian University. History and Philosophy. (2) On the other hand. liowever. without Greek. practical deductions arise naturally it work which seem to the Committee to facts are That the Universities (1) find from these : of the Empire. The Committee is inclined to think that much might be and strengthen the development of classical done of the Empire if in those Universities Universities the studies in (3) to encourage in which at present little has been done to emphasise the natural connection of Latin and Greek with subjects such as History. and in India. classical basis for attempted in five University. and one Canadian Classical (5) University. Medicine. (see South Africa. they find less or no difficulty in maintaining the study of Latin (and often of Greek) not merely as a course leading to a specialised Degree in Classical Honours. some cases for a Pass B.THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 102 Sometimes There A (4) is it is compulsory for particular courses. . is Matriculation for Honours in Classics. Courses) and . and Theology.A. speaking broadly. in New Zealand. Greek one case in at in one case required for Philosophy.A. Honours degrees other than Classical Canadian Universities and the South African of the three Australian two in is. it is a common all but a practice to require minimum some acces- sory study iu Classics as a condition to special courses in historical and literary subjects. The C. Greek and Latin are sometimes required for Theology. Law.

That the letter addressed to the Professors of Classics Dominions should be prefixed to the present report by way of preface and that a footnote should be added to the words " recent inquiry " in the first paragraph of the letter in the . and may this means be kept in its proper place in the centre of humane education. and Modem 103 Literature. That complete 3. Conway {Chairman). account should not include any attempt at a this statistical account. B. for placing the particular University in this respect on a level with those in which By this important correlation has been already secured. CONNAL. Taylor {Hon. E. . A. S. 1912.REPORT Philosophy. stating that this inquiry by means was conducted by the Hellenic Society of a circular addressed to Classical Professors in the Universities of the British Isles. classical study may be saved from the being regarded merely as the private pursuit of specialists. M. Slater. Sec). The Committee fuether Recommends 1. R. 2. and that a summary of its report was published in The Times Educational Supplement of Jan. J. whenever regulations are revised. Ernest A. D. opportunities were taken. and that this account should also be published in the Proceedings. Gardner. or created. That the Council of the Classical Association should send some account Teachers of the results of its inquiry to who have supplied it those Classical with information. M.

.... Livingstone Addbess by Me. . Stbong 72 Br..... 68 Votes of Thanks : To the Pbesident To the Authobities of Bedfoed College 104 70 .4... ....— COMMUNICATIONS AND REPORT The Pkesident's Addbess Lectttee by Mb.. .. Andebson ... Addbess by Pbofessob Bbowne Addbess by Mb..A INDEX TO THE PROCEEDINGS k....ACT Altebation in Rules B..... .. 31 29 . ...41 Addbess by Miss Stawell 78 Lectube by Mes. .. 35 35 Election of Officebs and Council 35 Place and Date of next Genebal Meeting 38 Pboposed Classical Matebials Boaed Repobt of Council .. Paine Addbess by Pbofessob Ridgeway Repobt on Position of Classics in PAQW 48 21 24 5 38 75 Bbitish Ovebseas 95 Univeesities Discussion of Obal Methods of Teaching Classics .... ......LANCE Sheet Appboved ..

Canon 45 Stbudwick. L. 37 ' WOODWABD. 41. a. Prof. M. Miss . . Mackail. J. Miss 16. B. Miss 35. Prof. J. E. . N. Taebant. . 47 . 78. Miss F. 38 PuEDiE. R. Paine. 0. 21. H. W. V. 47. 42. Miss A . 35. . 70. F. J. 44 Sloman. Gabdinee. 42 . Conway. Seaton. H. 17. Rev. Sir F. L. 47 C. 44. A. 42 Slateb. F. 38. G . Ramsay. W. Canon T. A. R.INDEX 105 C—NAMES OF THOSE WHO TOOK PART IN THE PROCEEDINGS PAGE Case. Dr. Dtjke. White. Kenyon. . B. S. E. Canon k. E. Saundebs. I Pantin. R. 31. 46. W. Skeel. 37. W. . . 47 Papillok. J. Cbtjickshaxk. Hendy. 29. 19. C. 74. 37. Prof. 41. Caspabi. H. Miss 37. C. 31. Rev. 94 Thompson. 43 Tbayes. F.42 DoBSON. Wabeen. E. M.

.r' Co. Receipts. .. Stock £100 on Deposit at Chartered Bank £289 18«. 2 9 18 £. Libraries Odd Sums . Waltkr. .THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION 106 STATEMENT OF ACCOUNTS. 4i% Deb. (Signed) 11. d. New 14 Interest on Investments— Ne\y Zealand 3|% Stock 3i% Stock £133 G..328 10 3 9 2 9 15 Donation 375 16 9 10 10 3 10 South Wales C. B.W. 9 11 M.A. £ Life Members «. 1911 (6) 1912 (43) 1913 (1168) 1914 (58) 1915 (23) 1916 (16)— (1314) „ . Victoria C..5 2 3 15 4 28 4 80 18 Balance from 1912 £499 Audited and found correct. 21 10 Entrance Fees (86) 21 (6) Subscriptions.300 India . d.A. 8 7 .-.

107 . 1912.STATEMENT OF ACCOUNTS DECEMBER 16th. to DECEMBER Expenditure. 1913. Ioth.

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APPENDIX 109 .

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Sir W. Cosmo Gordon Lang..L.B.R.. LL..C. Disuey Professor of Archaeology. Gardner Hale.C.D.S.R. K..B. 8c.D.. LL.. Litt.B. LL.D. The Right Hon. M. The Rev. Director Sir Frederic G. F.S.L..C. G.C. Litt. O..S.D. Litt. F.. LL. The Right Hon. Cambridge. Lord Archbishop of York.M. Chicago..C.D. D.D... D. LL. LL. F.I.L. Manchester.D. Professor F.P.. D.D..D..A.S.. D. The Right Rev. S.... The Hon. Lord Bishop of Lincoln.B.A. VICE-PRESIDENTS The Right Hon. H. M. F.D...D. D. Professor R.A.. D.C. G.Litt.. B.G. The Right Hon..A.... LL. H.A.B.B.C. D. Edward Lee Hicks. D..R. Cullen.C. D. Henry Montagu Butler. K.. of Museum.A.D.R.Litt. D. F.C.S.. F. LL.. Kenyon.D..A..C. and Most Rev. Ridgeway. Professor Henry Jackson. Earl Curzon of Kedleston... P.M.S... The Right Hon. D. D. LL.C. Charles Gore. Cambridge. LL..I. Chief Justice South Wales. M. J.L... LL.D. The Right Hon.D.E. the British Ill .D.. Lord Bishop of Oxford..H.L. Cambridge. F. K. D. Asquith.C.D. of New G.C.C. M. Professor W.. OFFICERS Oi illE ASSOCIATION FOR 1911 i'KE^IDENT Professor W.. Oxford.D. O. Haverfield. Sir Archibald Geikie.B. K.C. F. Conway. The University.D. K.. Sir R. Lord Justice Kennedy.A. the Earl of Cromer. Ph.D.M. The Right Hon.C.I. the Earl of Halsbury.L. Master of Trinity College. The Right Rev. G.L. Finlay. F.

D. Birmingham. M. Sir E.C. Maunde Thompson.. M. Bristol.C.. LL.A. D.B.C. Earl Loreburn. M. Professor D. M...D.. London. Tunbridge J.C. D.L. S.. R.D. M.Litt.L. M.A. Mel- The Right Hon. Litt. University College.. O..G.. Esq... G. Litt. Wight Duff. Westfield College.A. The University. Oxford.D.A.A. Leeper. The University. King Edward VI. Bart..M. LL.A.. Sir Edward J. Litt.... COUNCIL Miss M. A. The Right Hon. Oxford. D. Professor J.. F. Litt. Esq. P. F.D. The University. Esq.C. M. D.A.B. Livei-pool. Darnley Naylor. Esq. Mackail. Warden of Trinity bourne University. M. Postgate.D.C.A. F. Professor T.B..D.C.B. Leeds. Connal.A.A. Esq... Macan. College.C. Dobson. D. M. G. Sonnenschein. Wells. Miss H.S. F. President of the Royal Academy. Alford... Mr.D. . Birmingham. W. Gardiner. The Hon. A. M. President of Magdalen College. M.. Newcastle-upon-Tyne. D. D.. LL.. Miss M. London. High School for Girls. M. Professor B.APPENDIX 112 Alex.A. Master of University College.. Justice Phillimore.. E. LL.. Miss A. L. Professor J.L. Cambridge. M.A...D. Epsom College..D. .. Lorimer..L.L. Oxford.D. Cardifi. Slater. F.Litt. D.. Professor J.. N.. E.A. P. N.A. Professor E. Viscount Morley of Blackburn. D. J. Principal of Isleworth Training College. M. High School for Girls. R. Brock. Adelaide. Sanders.. Bedford College.. Oxford. LL. Robertson.C.L. Armstrong College. D. Somerviile College.A.Litt. J. W. F.W. Hendy.. Professor Gilbert Murray. Herbert Warren. Esq. Bart.. Esq. LL... D. Poynter.Litt. MacGregor. Professor H.M. Trinity College. F.R.

.A.. Reigate. Esq. M. R.C. Liverpool. Sleeman.A. Esq.. Stawell.. Duke. Sheffield... Litt. Representing the Classical Association of Victoria : Miss F.OFFICERS J. TREASURER R. Caspari. Crosby. Jesus College. B. C. W. University College. Esq. Representing the Classical Association of New South Wales : E. H. H. Cbadock-Watsox. The University... B. Garnsey. Esq. M. M.A. M. : Postgate.A. Esq. London. Cambridge. Merchant Taylors' School. Esq. SECRETARIES M.A. M.D... HON. Seaton. Woodburn.. P. 0. .A. W. 113 H. HON. M. Representing the Classical Association of South Australia Professor J..

1906. October lOth. To encourage investigation and call attention practice of classical discussion of its scope to new intercourse and discoveries (d) To create opportunities co-operation among for friendly all lovers of classical learning in this country. "The Classical be Association. Ja7iuary 9th. two Secretaries." The objects of the Association are to promote the development and maintain the well-being of classical studies. first January at the General Meetings of January Uth. The Association shall consist of a President. tion shall be membei-s 3. 1912. the Council. G. The name of 1910. shall have control any special of the funds of the Association. a Council of fifteen members besides The officers of the Associathe Officers. a7id the Association shall May 2Uh. UULES Adopted at the Amended 1908. and ordinary Members. 1904 . January I3th. subject to direction of a General Meeting. a Treasurei'. The Council shall be entrusted with the general administra- tion of the affairs of the Association. . 5. 1. 5th. and.— . 4. particular (rt) : To impress upon studies to opinion the public such claim of an eminent place in the national scheme of education teaching by free {h) To improve the (c) and methods. and at every meeting of the Council five shall form a quorum. Vice-Presidents. 1914. It shall be within the competence 114 of the Council to make . and in 2. be ex-officio members of and shall thereof. General Meeting of the Association. The Council shall meet as often as it may deem necessary upon due notice issued by the Secretaries to each member.

but shall be eligible for re-election. notwithstanding. 14. all business which Any member who may it considers urgent. Rule Notice of resolutions sent in under this shall be circulated to Members together with the names of the respective proposers. For the purpose and for re-election until after the of establishing a rotation the Council shall. provide that one-thu'd of its original members shall retire in the year 1905 and one-third in 1906.RULES rules for its own 115 procedure. on retirement shall not be eligible lapse of one year. of the Council shall be elected for three years. or at any place within the limits of the British Empire which has been recommended by a special resolution of the Council . Members one year. and Council shall be elected at the General Meeting. and shall not be eligible for re-election until after the lapse of five years. It shall also have power to bring before the General Meeting without previous notice 13a. sub- . The Council shall make all necessary arrangements for the conduct of the General Meeting. 16. The President. provided always that questions before the Council shall be determined by a majority of votes. There shall be an entrance fee of 5s. Treasurer. but vacancies occurring in the course of the year may be filled up temporarily by the Council. and the Secretaries shall be elected for 11. desire to propose a resolution or to read a paper at the General Meeting shall give notice accord- ingly to one of the Secretaries at least six weeks before the date of the Meeting. The President shall be elected for one year. Ordinary members shall be elected by the Council. 10. Vice-Presidents. 9. 13. The General Meeting of the Association shall be held annually in some city or town of England or Wales which is the seat of a University. The annual of either sex 15. The Vice-Presidents. 12. the The Election Meeting shall Chaii-man to have a casting vote. Secretaries. the Chaii-man to have a casting vote. and in particular shall prepare the list of agenda and determine what papers shall be read. the place to be selected at the previous General Meeting. 8. of the Ofiicers and Council at the General be by a majority of the votes of those present. Membership of the Association shall be open to all persons who are in sympathy with its objects. 7. the Treasurer.

Members who have paid the entrance fee of 5s. fee. upon notice given by a Secretary to each member at least a foi-tnight before the date of such meeting. 19. The President of any body so associated shall during his term of oilice be a Vice-President of the Classical But the members not be deemed to be members Association. 10. The provisions of Rules 8. Alterations in the Rules of the Association shall be made 17. and 16 shall not apply to the Vice-Presidents created under this rule. The Council shall have power to remove by vote any member's name from the list of the Association. . subscriptions of last of Libraries 16a. of any body so associated is If the President unable to attend the meetings of Council. by vote at a General Meeting. The Council shall in each case determine the contribution payable by any such body and the privileges to be enjoyed by its members. 18. 12. nor shall they have any of the rights or privileges of members beyond such as they shall enjoy through the operation of this rule. may compound for all future subscriptions by the payment in a single sum of fifteen annual subscriptions.APPENDIX 116 scription shall be 5s. of the associated of the Classical body shall Association. without entrance any year may members elected during the shall count for the ensuing year. the Council shall have power to invite that body to nominate a representative to serve for a limited period (not member of Council beyond exceeding one year) as an additional the number 15 mentioned in Rule 3. The Classical Association shall relations with have power to enter into its own.. subscribe by an annual payment of 55. The three months payable and due on the 1st of January in each year. other bodies having like objects with upon their application to the Council and by vote of the same. 20.

Maida Vale. 180. T. 21. Jesus College. p.. Alington.A. *Alder. S. M.. E. Gloucester Gardens.. Albans.S. M. Seatox. N. R.. School House. W. Egerton Hall. Barnstaple. Esq.. Surrey. W. ivUh a view to corrections in the next puhlished list. Lisconnan. Miss G. Woodburn. Dervock. Ainslie. Miss M.. Xavier's College. Adams. Abel.. S. A..A. Inglis Road.A. M.. Antrim. M.A. Agar. T. Adcock. Allen. M.. Radegund's. C. M.. Co. B.. G. Abrahams.. S. Bishopshall West. B. Ealing Common..A.. 'The Members to whose names an asterisk is prefixed are Life Members. Adam. CHfford.. Oxford. L. Abbott.. M. Maochester.B.. Bombay. M. E. Manchester. Shrewsbury. and Members are reqiiested to be so kind as to send immediate notice of any PEEiiAXEXT Change in tlieir addresses to R.A. Rev.. 84. R.R. V. AiLiNGER. Allen. Mrs. St. Merton College. C. W..A.J..C.A. St. L. Bishop's Road. C. Miss. Oxford. Prof... Cambridge. 65. T..NAMES AND ADDRESSES OE MEMBERS *^* Tlds lid is compiled from information furnished hy Members of the Association. A.D. Manchester. M. S. High School. M.. Clyde Road.. Miss E. 13. *Alford. St. N. Edgbaston.. Otago University. Reigate. St. Cambridge. Aldersgate Street. Portsdown Road. Archdeacon W. F.. Francis Road. F.A. Allbutt.A... S. M. Miss H. *Allen.. Sherborne..C. Rev. Abbott.D. Cambridge. M. Cambridge. 117 . W...A. LL. Affleck. Abernethy. Sir T... Ven. Adams.A. Queen's College. 2Iis8 A. M. Greenhill. M. West Didsbury. H. K.. Barton Boad.A. A. D. Andrews.. Victoria Park. Dunedin. Miss E. Allen. 51. Birmingham. M. B. Grammar School.A. Dorset.. King's College. The Grammar School. 11.Z. E. M.B. Ager.B.

Mortimer.A. Angus.. J. W. AsHBEE. K.. *Anson.A.. Bombay. L. Public Library. Heycroft. G. Belgaum... Anderton. Hon.P.C.. Allison.. Bucks. Miss E. Berks.. Trinity College. M. Miss D. Cranley Gardens...... Archibald. Althaus.A. Armitage...W. 57. AsQuiTH.D. W. K. *Anderson. Oxford. Hollywood Road. Carlisle.APPENDIX 118 Alleyne. M.. M.A... Brackley.T... M. N... British School.. L. G. I.A. M. Bombay Presidency.S. H.. Rome. Rt. M. K. Surrey. The University.G. Miss E. Y.. Trinity Hall. Strathray Gardens. Allison.. Burghfield Common.. Junr. Christ Church. 20. B. Anderson. M. T. Armstead. J. N.D. C. Sir R.. F.A. *AsHT0N. M. Perse School. Cecil Court. Esplanade. Hertslets.P. R. M.. G. M. . Antrobus. Newcastle-on-Tyne. High Wycombe. Warden of All Souls College. N. Edinburgh House School.. M... H. AsnwiN. Wright.A. Ladbroke Squai-e. 37. S. Surrey.. H. Oxford. Bart. Lee-on-the- Solent. F. Prof. 62.C. Seiriol. Mrs.W. C.. Dublin.C. Birmingham... T. I. *Anwyl.. M. F. Sutton-on-Hull. 16. Prof. C. F. B. Cambridge. Huyton. Y. Neville. Vice-Principal. Argles. E. Royal Grammar School.A.. S. *Arnold. 19.W. 2. Manchester.C.. Sir E. M. Oxford. W..A.W. Claygate.A.. W. Cavendish Square. Bryn Sheffield. D. Hampstead.C. S.. B. B. F. A. H. B. AsHTON. M. F. 18. The Univei-sity.A. Marlborough College. A. G. ] Apperson. M. North Wales. M. W... Aberystwyth. a. M.. New Street.A.A.. N. Anderson. B. Prof. Hants.. Cranleigh School. Pupil Teachei-s' Centre. Hermit's Hill. Clifton Hill. 4. M. *Atkey.A. Miss E. Alton. R.. Liverpool College. M. E.A. Antrobus. Yorks.A.C. J.. Miss M.S... The College.L. Scale by Hall.A. Arnold. Almond. J. Miss S. Miss H. Rev. *AsnBY. Cambridge. Bangor. Sir E.. B.M. Arnison. C.. Appleton. West Didsbury. Scarborough. E..C. Elpliinstone College. Marine Terrace. King Edward's High School for Girls.. F. Liverpool. Anderson. Lady Margaret Hall. Litt. Wilts. Lancashire.. Sir W. 9. R. LL. Magdalen College School...B. Manchester... Allwood. Anderson.A.

A. Downham Market. M.. Kent. Norfolk. Barber. M.G. A..W. Piercefield Place. Miss E.A.D. Atkinson. Principal.. Baldwin. E.. Barker. M. Roseburn Cliflf. E. D. Gerald. B. Bakewell. 40. Cambridge. J. J. Baker. M.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 119 *Atkinson. C. W. B. B. M. University College. S. D. Prof. Miss M. Petersfield. ll.. Park Avenue. Baillie. Liverpool. P. G. . London. 3Iiss D.. Oxford. Badlet. 3Iiss I. 9. B.. Norland Square. C. Stirling Road.A.. Cyril. L. York. Edinburgh. S. B.. Eton College.. Nottingham. John's College.. Bailey. M. White House. C. Miss K. B. Hon. Edgbaston. B.Sc. The University.A. Miss L.A. M.A. Olton.C. Barker. Ball. JRev. F.A.Chantrey House. Staffs. M.A. Montcalm. Birkenhead. Austen-Leigh. J... Hill. MA. Atkinson.A.A.W. Astley Hall. G.. Bagge.A. M. Birmingham. B. M. M.... Balliol College. M. Hounslow. Baker-Penoyre. Bloomsbury Square. P. V/. 34.. Reading. S. Bernard's Road. Hants. Ball. M. Upper Canada College. Miss A.. J.. Barke. Grammar School. A. Master of Clare College. L. G. Miss G. 52.. E. Oxford. H. Mapperley Road. E.A. Gloucester. Bailey. High School for Girls. Barker. W. W.. Charing. F. M.. Cardiff. Baines. Stradsett Hall... Barker.. Birmingham. Ross. Ilklej'. J. ff... 5.... A. H. Hardwicke Court. Exeter College. B. S.P. M. Queen's Gate Gardens.A. 19.. B. M.A.. Newcastle-under-Lyme.W. Leeds.. St.. S. Lloyd. Camp Birmingham. M. Barber. Prof... Toronto.. a. Liverpool Collegiate School.A. Eccleston Street. Hanworth Rx)ad. Oxford. M. Ross. Merchant Taylors' School. Balfour. Miss E. Rt. 5.. C. Ballinger. Hellenic Society.. Stourport. Thornhurst. H. St. Roath. The Mount School.. M.. Bampfylde.A. Atkinson.. AuDEN.A.A. Head Master. Shaw Street. W. Grammar School.. M. M. Guyscliffe. King Edward VI..A. Bedales School. E.A.A. Athenaeum Club. Barker. Ball. E. E. Barkby.... Canada. Windsor.

Miss H. C.. Rev. M...A. W. H. Lincolnshire. F. N. E. Bombay..A.. C. B.. C. Baxter.C. M.. Birmingham. a. T.W. Hazeldene. Behrens. D. St. Rev.. Prof. Northwood. *Barnes.C. *Beare. Beeching. Alexandra Drive.P. Miss H. Malvern P.. T.. Hon.A. Beaumont. 54.. A..C. Mrs. Leamington. M. T. S. Eccles Old Road. Middlesex. 164.. Behrens. M.. H. D. D. Bate.A. Bu'mingham. Edgar House. Justice. Barton. H....A. M. S. Pendleton... M. H...O. Dudley Road. Wori)le Road.A.. H.A. Ecclesbourne School. K... Eccles Old Road.. Barnard. M.A. S.. M.S. Sir J.. G. Worcester. Rev. Rev. Baklee. Wakefield.A. 25a. p. 10. E. M. M. Mr.A.. Bradford. Sind. Greyfriars. Manchester. N. N. 16. M. I.A...D. Barrett. P.W. M. B.W.. Beggs. New Street.. Barlow. Barnby.. Larkana.A. Kent.A.. M.A.. Cambindge..A. I. Imperial Service College. (No address). Peter's School. E.A.. Barrows. W. Bredcroft. Thornfield. R. H.. *Barran. Ripon.. John's Vicarage. King's College. Baynes. E. Parliament Street.A.'s High School for Girls. Beaven.. York.L. Milverton. . Stamford.. Canon P. I.D.W. LL. Beasley. Battiscombe. B. B. *Barlow. Miss E. Tunbridge Wells. Beasley. M... High Court. S. Queen's Gate. Weston-super-Mare. Liverpool.W. Wimbledon. J. Trinity College. Beck.. M. M. Barry. S. 22. M. S.. The Deanery. a. Yorks.C. F. M. M. E. 42. Rev. *Barnard. Edgbaston. Lensfield Road.. E.S. Manchester. Board of Education. M.. B. Sawley Hall. Rev. R. Bean. St. 164-. Wavertree. Bromley. *Batchelor. Barnett. Canon E. Liverpool. B. Bart. King's Road. Scroope Terrace. Very Rev. Grindlay & Co. Baskerville.. Rev.A.S...A. Pendleton. B. W.A.APPENDIX 120 Barker. Baugh.. Sefton Park. Miss J. E. Cambridge.A. B. Wheatsheaf Road. Oriel College. King Edward VI.. Jamaica. Miss M. Hampton School. Eastwood. M.. 16. J... *Beckwith.. Fitz Walters.. 4. London. 4.. Norwich. c/o Messrs.. Miss F. M.. Wimbledon.D.. ProJ. D. Windsor. School House. Whitehall. Oxford. W. Dublin. S. H. I. B.A. J. Prince Alfred Road.

Blomfield..A. Canon E. F. Harper House.A. M. 108. A. E. B.O. Lancaster Road. B. Worthing.. 23. Miss F. A. Dover Street. F. Manchester. 42. Bennett. M.. M. MA. Dorset. Durham. Benton. Cambridge. Miss E. BiLLSON. Hayes. P. B. The College. H. Aberystwyth. R. D.. J. Edgbaston High School. Colet Court.. The University. 7. W. The Knoll. Blunt... Prof. E. Oxford..A. Sherborne. Benger. Bii-mingham.. M.. B. *Blagden.W. Cambridge. Brighton..A. Royal School.A. BiNNEY. Godfrey R. Bell. C. S. Rev. H..W. Miss W. B. J. Hammersmith. E.. San Gervasio. Eaton Square. Nottingham. 16 ... ChrLst Church. Powis Square. Bland. E. von B. Principal. *Benson. Nalder Hill House. W. XXth Century Club. Blakiston. Park Road.A. Oxford. *Bennett. M..D. E.. Bevan. Rev. Newcastle-on-Tyne. 16. Merchiston Castle School.. The University College... W.. M. Rev. C. C. Eton College. Rev.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 121 Belcher. G. M. H.A.. S. Miss L..A. Yanburgh Park..E. H. Beckenham. Magdalene College. Place. Ireland. J.. T. *Bexecke. Edward.. Blackheath. The School.. Y. Priory Road. Eton College.. 54. M.. M. Berridge. Boddington. p. A. M. Staverton Road. 3...A. Hayes.A. St. Swansea. Portugal Street. W.. E. Blackett. B.A. B. B. M. Magdalen College.A. Cranmer Road. Windsor.. A. Miss E..A. Waldeck Road. Newbury. E. S.. J.. M..A. nr.. Notting Hill. Bensly. Bayswater.. Belcher. Rawdon College. M. Belcher.. Florence. J.. Bramley Rectory.. Hagley Road.A.. M. M. Rev. The Priory.. M.A. A. Bell.. J. Rev. Blundell. a.A. Miss A. BiBBY... Bernard. Berks. E.A. Steyne School. W. M. Paul's Preparatory School. Martyrworthy.D. B. Murray. York House.A. 21. W.. 99. B. Winchester. Armagh. *Bensly.. H. Benson. M. The High School. 53.A. *BiNGHAM. Bethune-Baker. Mrs.. Miss E. County High School for Girls. Edinburgh. Wimborne. S. Bell. C.A. near Leeds. Carlisle. Rev. Basingstoke. II Ciliegio.A. Miss S. Benn. Kew. Wimbledon Common. Aberystwyth. J. C. Biggs. *Bevan.. B. 0.. M. Rev.. Bewsher. Windsor. Lismore *Bernats. B. Oxford. W.A.. High School.... M. W.. B. W. High Hall.A.

Eton College. Edmund's School. BowRiNG.. LL. Salisbury Co.A.?..A. Longridge Road. Rev. 9. Leeds.A. Stonehouse. H.. I. Bradley. L. J. LL. A. Rev.. *BowEN. 24. *BosANQUET. E.... Bishop of.. v. Oxford.. Brayne. Liverpool. M.. H. M.W. J. W. Brighouse.. the BousFiELD. Bramley. M. Birmingham. F.. Aberystwyth.. M. Bolus.. Taly-coed.D.A. Rev. Dalton Hall. M.. Brinton. Prof. Bramston. C.. 13. Winchester.. Eaton Place.. Godhra. M. M. The University.. G. *Braunholtz.. C. F... M. a.A... C. Leeds. J. W. F. Brisbane. Edwardes Square. M. S. Monmouth. Bramley-Moore. M. Eton College. Panch Mahals. St. BoTWOOD. St. C. E. Bow.C.. Ebberston Terrace.A. church. 84.. J.C. Liverpool. Magdalen College. Perham Road. Rev. Prof. D.E.. S. M... W. 22. M. C. BoTTiNG.S. Christ- New Zealand.A. Lord Bishop of. Braham. Queensland. Brightman. Francis Xavier. Kildwick Hall. Bombay... York. Poona. Canterbury.B. Moortown. Manchester.A. Enford Vicarage. Cumballa Hill.. M. Keighley. Grammar School.M. M.. 3.. Liverpool. Boole. The Collector'ts Office. T.. Broadbent.. Sussex. Rt. J.. University College. A.C.. Bombay. 6...W. BoNSER.A. Admiral Sir C.A. B. D. Miss. nr. Lancing College.. K.W..S. T. May Bank.. Bramwell. S. c/o Messrs.A. Manchester. C. 51. H. India. N. I. Miss L. S.. Liverpool.A. G. R. G. Wheeley's Road. Aigburth. M. Bowlby. Gloucester. Nicholas. M. Devonshire Road. H.. Windsor. 0. E. T. Woodhead & 44..S.. Blundell Sands.Litt. BowEN. Hopelauds. Bridge. M. Branfoot.A. Micklegate. S. H.. A. Headingley.A. See Kkaresborough. W. Rev.J. H.. S. Street.. I. Rev. J. India.A.A. B.. *Brock. C....A. West Kensington. Rt.B. A. Victoria Park. Rt. L.APPENDIX 122 Boas. Edgbaston. Brigg. Bombay Presidency. Wilt.A.. M. K. The Grammar School. Poona.S. Kensington. Windsor. Durham. . Bradney.. C. F. Rev.. Charing Cross. J..A. Rossett Road. 9. Pewsey. Hon. Earl's Court. Upper Riccarton.C. Miss M. F. I.. H. St.A.A. H. Boycott. Sir J. Broad. Bridge. Middleton Grange.A. Bottomley-Smith. H. Blackwood. Broadbent. M.. W. Bradford.

. Liverpool. Stone Buildings. Rev. D. Hayling Island.C.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS Brockman. Ernst. Heaton. Mrs. Andrew's.. M. Miss M. Bradford. Brown. C. Browne.. St.. Devon. Miss M. Bronwydd.A. Andrew's School. L. K.A.. Bruce. Burke.W. M. L. Oscar. Richmond. Amy.W. H. H. Nr. G. 61. H..A. Huddersfield. N. M. Rt. The Vicarage.A. Prof F. Prof. S.. L. New College.. G. Southborough. O. Burge. Judge W. E. Buckley.. Lincoln's Inn.. Campden Hill Square. S. Rankine. Burn. Litt.W. 63. Liver- pool. *Bryce. Dorset Road. A. D.C.W. 25. Rt. A.. Herts. B..A. M.A. Charterhouse. Tunbridge Wells.. Brooke.. Buller. St. Arundel House. F. Michael's Hamlet. Hampstead Garden Suburb.. D. A. Brown.. c/o Miss MacRae. W. Eastbourne. Rev. 15. Bristol.A... D. B. 8. Hon.. Westroad Corner.. Bexhill-on-Sea.M. *Browne. Pentyrch. Rev. F.. Lynton House. J. M.A. E. B. Victoria Ui)iversity College. Leylands Crescent..C. Prof. Rev.. Theodore. E.A. E.. Fenay Hall. 34..A. Oakford. Miss M. 123 John's Vicarage.. M. Wellington.. BucKLAND. Brown. Brooke.. E. C. Larkana. Brown. Bull. Cardiflf.B. M. C. BuRKiTT. New Zealand. Liverpool Institute. 31... Sind. c/o Miss Bryce. a. Rev. University College. Bryant. St. 0.. M.A. Hants. Overlands. Halifax.. Broom. Brownjohn.. Brooks. James's Street.L. Great Crosby. *Bryans. B. Bunce. Kensington.W. I. Clifton. Oxford. B.. Cornwall Gardens. M. Rev. Brodribb. Liverpool. G. The Nunnery. Coldharbour Lane.D. Rev. C. Cranley Gardens..D.A. A. S. Brooks. India. 5. Browning. Tue Brook. Cambridge.. W.A. Rev. Dublin. B. King's Road.A. R.. M... Erskine Hill. R.S. B. Bampton. See Southwark. Godalming.D. Prebendary. S. D. Merchant Taylors' School. W.. Hon. S.A. 14. Lanes. J.. Browning.A. N. F. Bishop of.. . Royal Societies Club. M. Bushey. Prof.A. 0. B. M.. A. Paragon. W. C. St. Viscount. St. E. T.

A.. A. Mrs. Capps. Andrews.. M.. The University. Milton Mount College. Carmicuael. Hampstead. Princeton University. Montagu. Sussex. E. T. Hove.W. Municipal Secondary School. Elvaston Place. D.. Manchester. R.D. Carruthers.. School of Art. St. Lou vain. Trinity Lodge. Canney. Mrs. Caldecott. Butcher.A. Prof. Carlisle. LL.) Campbell. MA.. *BuRTON.C.. H. D. Chesterton Road. H.A.. Manchester. Clifton. Byrne. Prof. 32..C.... BuRSTALL. W. M. Prof.D.. . INL a. P. Prof. The University. Queen's Road. W. Burroughs. Princeton. 29.. Miss C. Rev.... G.A. Miss S. Carson. M.. Belgrave Place.. Queen's Terrace. D.. N. Lawrence College..W. W. 84. Ph. Northaci-e. Miss E. Campion.A..A.A..D. Manchester. Butler. Campagnac. Bury. J. Campbell.. J.. Cambridge. Burnley. B. Col. Rt. Burrows. U.. S.D. (No address. Belgium. Cardwell. York.. L.A. J. M.D. Rev. M..A. G. University College. School House.. Upper Drive.. R.. Litt. Cambridge. New Jersey.D. M. Cambridge. Prof W. Manchester.... H. A. L. Montagu.. Cambridge. E. G. Fitz John's Avenue. King's College..O. H. M. See Truro.A. Strand. Miss A. M. Burns. J. Hertford College. F. W.. Gower Street.D. BuENLEY. Butler..A. Hon. Calder.L. R... M.. Rev. S. Trinity College.. Rev. J. Vicarage. W. Prof J.E. A. E. M. BusHE.. 59. Bishop of. L. 5. St. E. Corbeck-Loo. 0. A. Manchester High School for Girls. LL.C. T.S. Campbell. Argyle Road. M. Butler. 0. Ph.. Principal of King's College.. M. Secretariat.A. Trumpington. Bristol.A. Edmund's School. Wolverhampton..Litt. M.A.. S. The University. Belvedere School.. West Ealing.. Calthrop. S. Prof. C. Byrde. Mrs. K... Campbell. G. Mr. Rev.APPENDIX 124 Burnet.A. D. Miss A. W. Sinnington. A.. Carnoy. Christ's College.. M. St.P. Ramsgate. Rev. Godalming. M. BuRNSiDB. Bombay. 17.. Burrows. M. Woolwich. Bombay. Bury. Cecil. E. Liverpool. the Lord Bishop of. D. Gravesend. A.. W. Rev. Reedley Lodge. Canterbury.D.. 19. The Lodge. Oxford. Cambridge. A. M. G. M.. Newcastle-on-Tyne. Rt. Prof. M. Cambridge. Rushgrove House. M.

London. B. Denstone College.. Tonbridge.. S... B. Manchester. University Hall. R.. F. Rev. N. Cartwright. E. Malton.. H. S.A. 82.A. L. Highgate. M. Digby W. Liverpool.A. M. City of London School. B.. Windsor. Whitehall.A. Churchill. N. Repton..C. T. W.. Chantry Mount School.. See Salford.A. B. Clark.. M.. Ashfield Road.W. Fremington. N. F. H. Churchyard. 76. E. Rev. C. Miss G... Miss Esther. Trinity College. E. C. York.C. Chitty. Windsor.. Gray's Inn Square. Case. Hampstead. O. Oxford. H. Indore. M. Hornsey.P. Chilton. R. M. . E.. M. M. Casartelli.L.. L. Charlesworth.D. M. Miss J. M. Clapham. A.. M. M. Perth.. J. Eton College. Church.A. M. B. Grammar School..A. Victoria Embankment. M.. Leeds. F.. South Case. Mrs. Holly Lee.A.A... Chandavarkar. Lynch Rectory. Eton College..A.C.A. Canon W.. Windsor. Caspari. M. Rev. Bishop of. Queen's College. H. Burton-on-Trent. Livingstone Drive. Kitson. P. Chatfield. E.. Hon.. M. Hereford. Municipal High School for Girls.. Clarke. Eton College. Oxford. India. *Caspari. K. Kent. 0..A. L. Polstead Road.. S. Clark. Huddersfield. 5. Bombay. Sir Narayanrao G. B..A. N. F.. Rt. Bishop of. Rev... M. M..D. A. M.. A. G. W. T. E. Windsor. E.. London. John Street. M. Chase. a. Cholmeley.. Rev. Abertillery. School House. Chambers.. F.D.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 125 Carter. 7. Northampton.. Fairfield. Chavassb. Cayley.A. Hovingham Hall. D. G.W. Miss D. Rev.I). M.. near Midhurst. Liverpool. G. Rev.. Worcester. E. King's School.. Staffs. Miss M. Meanwoodside. Cattlet.. Doncaster.S.A. Ellerslie Preparatory School.A.. Talbot Road. Chapman.A. Glenalmond. Claxton. 18. R.. Chettle. Rev. Channon.C... Eton College. J. High Court. Windmill Hill. M. M. Rt. LL. Ridge Road. Chapman. Board of Education. Cattley. B. 3. M. 5. W. See Ely... G. M.. Masetti. Bishop's Stortford. Chapman.. S..A.A.A.. N. University College. P.R. D. Chappel..B. Devon.. B. Church Avenue. Rev. H.A.. Rev. St.A. R. M..A... A. Sussex.. 1.. The Grammar School. Oaton.A. Clark.A.A.

. Northampton. M. Troy House. 22. CoLViN. M. Princes' Park.M. A. Sir S. D. Eev... Cooke.. Blackman Lane. Miss A. A.. Linnet Lane. *CoBHAM. A... Miss F. Gainsborough Avenue.. Prof.A.. . Kingston. D. 83.. V. CoLSON.G. Mrs. Rugby. Sandhurst Rectory. a.. C. Surrey. Litt.. CoNNAL. Clendon. 3Iiss H. M. Oxford. Newcastle-on-Tyne.. P. Miss P.A. M. 23.. Grange Terrace.. Billing Road. H.. Ashburton. George Town.A. Cook. Liverpool. Hampstead Garden S. Darlington. Hyde Park. Milton Mount College. Prof. St. Miss A. Staffs... M. The Grammar School. Collison-Morley.A... 19. CoBBE.. Armsti-ong College. 5. *Clbmenti. W.. N. Rev.. St. Cooper.A. Manchester. Cambridge. Porchester TeiTace. Leeds. Olough. CoMPTON. Oxford. P. H. Herts..A. Warkworth Street. Allington Castle. Adelaide. CoGHiLL. The University..A.A. America.. Devon. Liverpool. B. M. C.. Didsbury Manchester.A. M. M. W. F. Hawkhurst. CoLviLE. Conway. 2.. Cooper. E.. 79. M. 3. Vane Terrace South. P. Haileybury College. M.. M.C. J.. B. S. Peter's.A. Elm Court.A. H. Cranmer Road. C.A.A.. 3. C. Australia. Canada. Pi-of. 10. Oxford. Collie. W. CoNNELL. i/rs. C. Prof A... 3. Merchant Taylors' School. L.. 2. Magdalen College. C.A. Gravesend. Conder.A. Keble College. E. H.. Cooke. F.. Leeds. Hurst Close. Margaret M. 35. Cohen. Government Secretary's Office. Rev.. Collins. Claremont Road. School House. M. Conway. N...A. W. T. M. M. Cole. Suburb. S. M. E. John Street. B.. 2. Collins.. Golands.. A. B. C. R. Handsworth. S. M. S. Cambridge. Lingfield. Coleridge. Waverley. L. The University. CoDD. Sunnyside.APPENDIX 126 Clegg. Kensington.. B. ^fiss A. M.. Winfield Mount. The University. H. E. Collins. E. B.A. Cooke. Cambridge. B. Bristol. Winchester Street. E.A. Maidstone. B.A. C.. Draethen.C. Kensington.D.A. R.. 3. 22. W.A.. Prof. Newbury. D. Temple. M. *CoNWAY. Mudie. Palace Gardens Terrace.. M. 14. Scarsdale Villas. Conway. British Guiana. CoGHiLL.W... M. Coles.. Miss E. E. Kent. K. P. Queen's University..A. B. 3Iiss C. J. M.. Cookson. M.A. Oldham. M.. Donnington Square. Liverpool.

A. Gloucester. W.. Trinity College.A.. F.. Cambridge.A.. Crawford.. Carlton House Terrace... W. Blenheim Road. High Court..D. J. Penybryn Villas. L..A. West Norwood.A. M. M. E. Bradfield College. Grindlay & Parliament Street. Arcachon.. CowPERTHWAiTE. G... (No address. M.A.. Crossley. Crosland. Merchant Taylors' School. G. Rt.S. B. *CROSBY.W. Eton College. F. E. Durham.. Secondary Council Hon. 36.) Cowley. Madras. 1.R. M. Oxford. R. Prof.C.. St. Bradford. M.C. Anson Road. J. F. H. 24. Sheffield.. Roan Earl of.E. B. M. Essex.. School.. M. Eton College. CouRTAULD. Miss E. Crowther.. D. M.C. Milesdown.A..Hammersmith Bridge. Miss A. G. Miss Uxbridge.M. M. H. Tufnell Park. 7.L.. Cumberland. E. Canoyi A. Crypt Grammar School. Torfels. M. R.A. *CoRNFORD. I.. London. Rt. S. The Greenway. 28. Junr.A. M.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 127 CoRLEY.A. M.M.Litt.. Thomas d'Aquin.. Nungambakkam....S.LE. Crosby. A. 26. N.. M. Greenwich.. M. H...C.S.. Street.. Rutland Park. S.. R. Crace. . M. Liverpool.. B.W. Earl the of. Miss M.. Costley-White.E. Rt..G. 2. Hon.. The Waver Farm. Glamorgan. Wethersfield. Windsor.A.A. Crawford. Oxford.I.A. 54.. M. CoxE. Cornish...A.. near Halifax.il/iss A. E. R. Curtis.A.S. Cradock. Dryden. CuRZON of Kedleston. Creed.C. G. N. Justice H. H. Windsor. CovERNTON. Dean House. Clarendon Road.. CLE. D. M. M. 13.Digby Mansions.. Berks.A.. Merthyr.. Gironde. S. Cran.W. Hon. Audley Square. H. M. S. Cruickshank. O. Rev. Rev. S. R. The College.I. D. Trinity College.A. B. CouzENs. *Crees. Wigton.A.... Co. 3. c/o Messrs.. W. Miss F. Berkhamsted. *CouPLAND. Leeds. Braintree. Miss E. L. CoTTERELL. Chaucer Road. Crofts. S.C. Cromer... G. Mr. F. T. The Cloisters. Triangle. York Road. K. F. B. M. Cowl. P. Friends' School.. Penydarren. the Wimpole Cronin.A. F. Rev.S. H. Cambridge....W. Willowbrook. 56.. Croft. B.. Crerar. Calcutta. School... A.. E.. Magdalen College. Earl. North Road. G. Miss K.B.. France. Miss M. J.A. F.Watson.C..A. J. M.A. Rev. W. Winchester.

The College. The University.A. Dawson. Dawes. W. B.A. Davies. Hyde Park. Grey Street. Rugby.A. Elstow School. D... Rev.. Dawkins.. M. C. Trinity College. G..W. T. B. Cavendish Road. Chester. M. Day.. Glasgow. 18. Sussex.APPENDIX 128 OuvELiER. B. Dallas.A. *"Darlington. M. Miss C. F.. H. Eastbourne. Cromer Terrace. Davies. A.. Fallowfield. The Univei'sity. Fallowfleld House. M. R. S. Miss M. M..A. Bournemouth. Miss E. A. Prof. Barbados. Grove Ptoad. Abercromby Square.. B. Brighton. Bognor. Board of Education. 1. Maurice.A.. S.W. Boyd. A. S. Rowton. M. Boyd. M. S. Grammar School. F. Dawkins.. L. H.. Montpelier Road.... B.W. Canada. Great Smith Street. *Daniel. S.. Miss K. A.A.A. B.. W. Dakyns. A. Davies. Bidston Road. W. Daubeny. 7. Leeds. M. Aberdeen. Dalton. Rev. M. Montreal. 4. Vicarage Road.A. Surrey. Davis. 14.A.A. M.W. Miss C.. King's College. Dakers. Dale. F. T. J. Davies. Regents Park. Llewellyn. Brighton. David. ... Perth. G. 24.. Weybridge.S. Grammar School.A. Brighton and Hove High School. M. P.. W. Bombay. Davies. Binder.A.D. Dale... Rev. Miss M. W. Glenclower Mansions. Beacon House. Liverpool. Grove Road. Davies. Sir A. M. J.A. Surbiton. Morpeth. The School. Davis. Glendower Place...D.. S. M. Davidson. Surbiton. Wycombe Abbey School. D. D. Whitehall. S. I. The Hill. Harrison College. D. S. Clyde Road. W.... E. M. Cheshire... Birkenhead.. J. West Didsbury. *Dawes. Prof. Uttoxeter. Oonsulat de Belgique. W..A.Sc.. H. D. B. Heathlands. De Gruchy. Y. De Glanville. Miss E. .A.A.. J.. 507.. 71.. C.. A. D. StafiFs. Leicestershire.. N. Miss K M. Chapelville.A.A. Manchester... D.Litt. R. Bucks. Man- chester. Lowther Road. H. Miss M. Crowborough. *Davidson... Glenalmond.. G. M. Rev.W. Miss A. Dale. Danson. Dale. C. M.. Dawes.. M.. St. Chapelville. G.. Lutterworth. 89. Westbourne Terrace.A. A. Manchester.R. F. A.W.A. Michael's School. 74. R. Daniel.. Bedford.A. M. H.

M.A. De Winton. Salisbury.. Rev. H. R N. Hay. J. P. S. P. B. M. W. B. E.. 23.. Oxford.. West View. R. Harrow.. R. Cambridge..A. 11. Surrey. Miss M. Derriman. a.. Duckworth. M. a. Draper.W. King's Lea. The High School. *DuNDAS. H.... Settle. De Zouche. M...A. President. Surrey. T... M. B. 1. James's Court. Donaldson. F.. M. 17 . 82. Caterham Valley. D.. Cleveland Gardens. Mill Hill Road. Bristol.C. Colquhoun. 5. Cambridge. Leeds. M. Clayesmore School... Miss M. DoBSON. Dunham...Litt. Mrs.A.A. Prof.A. F. Dublin. M.. Worcestershire. Fowler's Road. Rev. Hyde Park. W. A. J. E. Toronto. Windsor.A... Rev.A.A. Yorks. L. LL. Manchester. 15.D. Dennis. Lustleigb. Buckingham Gate.A. W. Redland. Miss B. M. C. G. Adel Rectory. Eton College.. Prof.. Devon. Tewkesbury. Tlie Lodge.. F. R. Staffs.. H. J. Wight. Giggleswick School. DoNKiN.A. Prof. Sir E. Wadham College. Dix. Roedean School. C. DoDD. Oak Mount. W. N. The University. Rev.A. near Northfield.A.A. G.A. S. Armstrong College. Norwich. Kemerton. Earlham Eoad. S. J. J. W. Dudley.. F. H. B. Christ Church. Denman. Holt Secondary School. Worthing. Sheffield... De Witt...A. M. No.. Dill. *Donner.A...NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 129 Deeks.. Miss M.. B. J. DuRNFORu. J.W. Hereford. Raglan. B.. Domaille. 15.. DoWNiE. Boutflower Road.. Oxford. *Drysdale. a.. Prof. Douglas.. E. Dblant. S. W. S. Englefield. New Square. University (College. Lincoln's Inn. Holmwood. Dover. Ashton-under-Lyne.. B... Oxford Road. C. DoDD. Arosfon. DuNLOP. B. D.. R.. Miss A. Liverpool.A. M. Miss M. 1. Magdalene College. DoBSON. K. Cambridge.A. Oakamoor. G. Waterloo Park. 3 House.. B. Englefield Green. Alex... Longbridge Place.. Pangbourne. B. Carter Knowle Road. M. Pucklechurch. 64.A. M. Droop. Windsor. Miss D. Bristol. Miss M. Leeds. Fallowfield. R. Jesus College. Coldharbour Road. Victoria College..A. Trinity College. Duff. W... Miss C. G. Dingwall. W.. Liverpool. C. St.D. The University. A. Du Pontet. C. Battersea Rise. Newcastleupon-Tyne.. M. *DurF.J. E. Stoke-on-Trent. Brighton. Duke. Eton College. *Drewitt. Canada. Devine. Farley. Berks..A. J. B..

Cheshire. Edwards. Evans. Sidney Sussex College. LL. J. Westerfield Road. Edmonds.A. Bishop of. Bath. C. 57.. A. N. Southampton..D. M. E.A. 161. Cheltenham... Doncaster.. M. c/o Congdon & Co. W.. W. B.. C. G. 137. Banister Court. Bromham Road. Berkhamsted.. See Wakefield. Cornell University. Ealand. Rishworth. Bolton. J. J. Glasslyn Road. M. Carlton Manor. Egypt..S.. Sheffield.A. Kingsley Road. Edwards.C. King's College. G. the Lord Bishop of. Dean Close School.I.. England.A.. ExoN. Ely. Cheltenham. M. Liverpool. 89.. Mrs.C.D.. *Eden. Elliott. W. Cairo. F. I. H. Queen's College. H. R.C.A. Cambridge. The Ridge.. Mrs.E.. Halifax. C.A. B.APPENDIX 130 DuRNFORD. W. Peterhouse. Rt. C. High Court.. A. Miss E. Edghill. High Wray. The Palace. M. Michael's Street. Enthoven.. Mrs.. Evans. James's Park.. Manchester. Heath Grammar School.. Edwards. Halifax Road. India. High School for Gii"ls.A. Bedford. K. W.... HaUfax. East. I. M. C. M. G.. H. M..S.A.B. J. W. M. Miss E. M. *Dymond. St. H. 23. Cambi-idge.W. Ecclesall. S. Broome House. M. Hillmarton.A.. B. Rishworth Grammar School. 24. N... M. M. G. K. Elliott.. M.. Rev. M. British Museum.. Prof..S.. Edwards. Sharia Kasr en Nil.A. Prof. Ewart..... J. B.A.. Miss O. Ambleside.. Weetwood. E. M. E.A.A. Ellam.. Galway. R.. Ithaca.. St. ExTON. Simla. F.. Elmer. 26. EsDAiLE. Cheadle. Manchester. 37. EvELYN-WniTE. Yeadon. Miss E. R. T. Rev.... Rt. Elliott. J. H. E. Easterling. Rev. Herts. C. Berks.A..A. . Wilts.A. Ellaby.O.. D. Ipswich.. Leigh de la Mere. Withington. Lady. G. S. Bombay. J. R. H. U. near Chippenham.. Grammar School. B.A. Cambridge. W.I. B.A. Crouch End.. B. Ely. Eckhard. M.A. Rippingham Road. Evans.S. Elliston. Oxford. M. EcKERSLEY.A. N.Y. R. Litt. Ellis. The College. Finchley Road. c/o Union of London and Smith's Bank. Massie Street. Aliss E. Reading School..... Cambridge.A.A. R. Eppstein. M... Earnshaw. H. Didsbury. Leeds. E. M.

W. B. Warde. M. Miss J..R.. S. Co. Rev. Bradford.. Elm Bank Mansions. Dundrum.. M. . C. Wimbledon.D.. The Queen's School. K. B.. Croydon.. J.. F. Bournemouth. B. 3.. 17. Barnes.. S. Va.A. W. K. H. M... E. L. L..A. U. Chatham Street. R. Field. J. Elphins. Wood Green. LL... S. Barnes. Darley Dale. F. Grove House.M. C. Surrey. Lincoln College. M. W. N. PhiUimore Gardens. Sir R. S.W. G. Felkin. St. E. H. T. 6. St. B.A.W... Ford. Falding. 31. Ferard. Cheltenham.A. Ladies' College. K.. J.A. 135.. Finlay. M.W. E. 20. Fletcher.. Miss A.A. Head Mastei-. Fotheringham.Litt. Dublin. Ferrall. M..A.D. W.W. 15.A. Forbes. Southwell Gardens.. M. Miss M...A.... S. Farside.. Matlock..... M. Hertford. Liverpool. S. Finch. Rockville. Fowler. H. Lionel G. D.. H. Girls' Grammar School. Oxford. W.C. Godalming. Miss M.A. N.. Flood.A. Charterhouse.A. Reading. M.A. Mary's Vicarage.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 131 Faithfull. Fleming.A. R.. L. J. Blackball Road. S. FoRSTER. Balholm.. Ford. FiNLAYSON. Farwell. County School.. Leeds.W.. The Studios.A. 39. Magdalen College. Newton Road. M. Miss L. Fletcher. Edinburgh. Edwardes Square. L. C. University College School. Oxford. S.A. The School. T. Branksome Park. Fallowfield. Bruce.A. M. R. Miss E. 100. Frognal.. M. Lord Jitstice. Sloane Gardens. D.. Nottingham.. Ferguson. Rector of Exeter College. Ladybarn Lane. B. Miss A. FooTNER... Christ's Hospital.A. J.A.. Yorks. Miss C. Chester. T. Rev. Rt.. J. Oxford. Hon. S. G. M. The Academy. M. Flather. Beverley Road. Forrest. Head Master. B. University of Virginia.. The University.. FitzGerald. Merton Hall Road. Field.. Ferguson. Harrow.A....S. M.A..A.A. Lawden Cottage. Leighton Park. Forbes.. D. 19. Kensington. Manchester. *Fitzhugh. B. Prof. S. W. Form AN.. Charlottesville. Sheffield.Litt.. Oxford. Farnell. 3.A.. Beech House Road. B. M. N. Cambridge. H.. Brighouse Gu-ls' Secondary School. M. Ardnave.

S. D. 23. Sir Archibald. Gavin.. FuRNESS. Furneaux. Beaufort. E. M. H. Unao. The University. H. Surrey.A. S.. H. W. All Souls College. C. F. S.A. Allerton... Cambridge.. Epsom.. C. Bromsgrove. Shepherd's Down. Litt.. John Street. Prof.A. *Geldart. H.. Douglas Road.. Mary's Hall. 12. University College. B.. L. Gerrans. D.. M. Frisch. M. Oxford. M. W.. Very Rev.. Garnsey. London.A.. Fleetwood.. W.C. Genner. Fry.D. Merton College.. Liverpool. p. G. S.. Kemp Town. Merton College. Jesus College. Martin.. Miss E. St. United Provinces. Miss E..D. .. T. C. Egypt.A. St. Gibson-Smith. Gibson.C. Oxford. L. Kidderminster Eoad. B. 2. Gardiner.L. High School for Girls. Fleetwood. Gedge. E. Miss A.. c/o Agent-General New South Wales. Cambridge.A. M. A. Heathfield Lodge.A. Grosvenor Gardens. Fremantle.. Oxford. H. Surrey. M.W.P... E. M. E. Oxford. Rev.. Southa mpton..A. Magdalene College... S. Liverpool. Cambridge. Norfolk House.A. N. M.C.. Geden. Castlebrae.. H. The Grammar School.A. FuRNESS. Manchester. Ilkley.. M. Prof. GiiEY. P. M. A.. Miss G. B.A. Garrod. The Rectory. 70. Hamilton. E.S. Dudley. M.D. SholiJeld. Brighton. Cambridge. Prof.A. M. The Vicarage. Miss Garbdtt. W.. Gibson.. B. The Deanery. J.. Oxford. F.A. D.D. Wimbledon. 125.A. M. Worcestershire. L. Gardner.. Haslemere. A.S. Dulwich. E. M.. M. C.A. E....G. M. St.A.A.A.... Fyfe. Gibbons. Romsey. M.. India. E.APPENDIX 182 Fraser.A. Gravesend. T. M. Miss E.. The College.A.. Freeman. Richmond. E.E. S. Winchester Hiil.R. Oxford. Fry. Miss F. Thurlow Park Road. Canterbury Road.. Alwyne Mansions. W.. 20..D. Gardner..L. M. Frazer. Mrs.. Khedivieh School. M. M. R. I.A.... Rossall. Geikie. M. Gaselee.. B. B. GiDDEN. LL. Hants.C.. Keyne's.A. Newnham College. Cairo.. Shirley Road. J. Princes' Park. Gardner.W. LL. D.. Elmsleigh. M. *Genner. Miss A..A. Wesleyan College. Lincoln. Rossall School.. Rev. H. Canon. Crescent House. D. B. FuRNESS. Cannon Street. Belgrave Mansions.

U. W. Moss Side. 19. 99. 35. M. G. Leeds.A... The Grammar School. Manningham. Rev. Glazebrook.. Catholic College. J.. The College. Ely. S.. Grammar School. School House.. New Haven.A. Green. Bradford. C. Upper Bridge Road. Miss U. M. Eton... Lincroft Street. St.'s School. Rev.A. Redhill.. GiLSON. GoDLEY. Northallerton. M. Prof. Martin's... Leeds.A. G. P. Iffley Road.. near Liverpool.A. A. Newark-on-Trent. C. H. The Kings B.. Ph.D. GiLSON. W. J.A.A. Rev... J. Goodwin.. Bloomfield Poad.A. Highgate. Preston.D. D. M. S. See Oxford. Rev. S. E... Miss F. S. Manchestei*. Prof.. M. GooDHART. W.. 27. The University..D. J.A.. Miss M. Gore.. Gillespie. T. Westminster.. Gould. D. 45. D.. R. British Museum. Rev. Cambridge. M.. BisJwp of. Poyal Naval College. Glover. 39.. Gow. M. Grange Road.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS Giles. Woolton Vale. Notts.. Paul's Girls' School. Rev.A.A. H. Windsor.. A. Cambridge. M. M. School. M. M..D. Canon M. Litt.. Bac. Grafton. D.. Osborne. EdgehiU Road. Mus. S. M. GooDE.A. W. Geeen.A. Ph. St. P. GouGH. Retford. M. Marine Lines. Canterbury.. Dean Terrace. High Street. N. Hammersmith. Charles.A. The University..A. 21. St. M. Prof A.C. F. Gordon. Leeds. P. G. Rev. Grammar School. R.. Queens' College.Sc. University College. 5. M. Rt. Avenue Road. M. Brook Green. M. C. Litt. A.. Gray. N. F.. Newport.. Magnus Goss. The University.. A.A. W.S.. Dean's Yard. M. *Gray. B. Edinburgh. Highfield Place.. A. T. Norham Poad. P. 1.A. Buckland... Salop. W. Conn. P. Goodrich. 39. C.. Birmingham. M. Godfrey..A. T. Gow. Goodyear. B. M.. W.A. 13.. M...D. Graves. Granger. M. Master of Emmanuel College. Sandcroft. Cambridge. King Edward VI. W. Oxford.. Oxford. L. M.. T. J. C. Rev. Bombay. Hillside. Lancashire. 133 Cam- bridge. . Kensington Crescent. Litt. Gordon. M... M. Mrs. Grant.A. R.. GouGH.W. John's College... M.. Eton College.. Gray. GoRSE..D. Prof.A. G. A.J. Nottingham. GooDELL.D. Tonbridge. Miss D. GouGH. Gladstone.

. M. Sidney Sussex College. W. Miss M. Leonards-on-Sea. M. Cambridge. F. M. W. W. Glossop Road. 3... E.. (No address.S. *Grundy.. W. West Yorks.. B. T. H.. H.. Fi-anz Josef Strasse 12. St.S. Bottoms. S. GuTHKELCH. Guy.. C..A.. Strand. S. Burton Crescent. 84. Herts. St.A.. . Chicago.C. Oxford. TO. All Souls College.Litt. E. Miss A. Gunter.. Newcastle-on-Tyue. Rev. M. M... L. 11.. Diss. II. King's College. Oxford. *Haigh. Rev.C. H. Ceylon.. 5. GuRNEY. D. S. Corpus Christi. Thackeray Cottage. B. *Hadow. St. A. Armstrong College.A. Ennismore Gardens. Rev. St.. Greene. 5. G.. M. R. John's College. Holmfirth.A. B. Haig. Liverpool. 7. Buckingham Palace Gardens. 389. M. IIaig-Brown. C.A.. King & Co..A.A. W..A..A. Miss L. Gurney.W Grundy. Walthamstow. 4. The Grammar School. J.. Rev.. A. S. B. Kelross Road. Manchester. Guest.A. Green.A. Anfield Road.. H. 69. Lincoln's Inn. Hales.. A. Ennismore Gardens. Miss A. Paul's Road.A.. Victoina Park. H.A. Cambridge. Griffith. Ph. B. A. M.s. Hale.. N. A. 67. M. Hall. M. Deansgate. Miss A. U. a. A. Prof. Green.. New College Street. *Haigh.. C. King's College... Highbury.W.. Mrs.. 0. M. G.A. p.A. Miss E. H. M... Miss C. University of Wales.D. W. A.W. The University. M.A. Satara. GuYOMAR.. B. M. Gudeman. Greenualgh. Gregory. Strand.) GupPY. M. Greenwood. Greene. Prof. Headingley. c/o INIessr.. J. W. Miss A. Sheffield.. Sedlescombe Road South. Lancashire. Prof W. Grensted. I. W. J. Rev. Forest School. Stone Buildings. Great Yarmouth..O. The High School.. GwATKiN. G. Leeds. *GwATKiN.. H. Oxford. King Kensington Square.A. M. Hepworth Rectory.. Patrick's College... Cambridge.A.. W.. Bombay Presidency. Manchester.C.A. Grigg. R. Emmanuel College. B.. M. W. R. Berkhamsted. Haokporth. Jaffna. Munich. Oxford. John Rylands Library. Street. Mrs. Aberystwyth. Ashton-in- Makerfield. Bombay. L. 69. Egerton Hall. R. School House.. King. *Greene. Grenfell... W. H. R.A. W. W.APPENDIX 134 Green. M. W. A.. J. Rev.

p. Harley..D. 4. D. Cambridge.. Handyside.. H. V. M. Eaton. Hartley. G.. Diocesan College. M. Harrison. M.A..Mus. *Haynes. Rt. Hammans. Holywell Cottage.D. T...E.A. Trinity College... B. B. Albans.. *Halsbury. Haslam. G. A. Staffs. R. M. Rev. M. S. G.A. The Moor House.. Haydon. M.Litt. S. Great Crosby. Oxted. *Hall. Chet^vynd House. Leicester. Aske's Haberdashers' School. St. J.A. Acton. W. South Lawn.... Camberwell Grove. Hawkins. Haskins. Baldock. Broadhurst Gardens. J. B. J... Harrow-on-the-Hill. Westmorland. Hardie. C. W. 19... S. Oxford. S.. D. Leeds... . Harrower. Cambridge. LL.. Miss M. Whorlton Hall.. Winshields.A.. Rendel. B. G. M. W\ Hayes. Datchelor Training College. G. Grosvenor Terrace. York House School. Rev. 38. Chalmers Orescent.D. M. Creffield Road. the Earl of.. Trinity College. Joseph. Harries.A. The Hulme Grammar School. The University.A. Haslam.P.O.. H. T. D... B... Westmorland. Hardcastle.. C. *Harrison. Queen Anne Terrace. Hallam. J.W. Surrey.. Hardy. Miss K. London.D. Birch Grove.. B. P. Aberdeen. C. S. Rev. Barnard Castle. Cambridge. J. Ennismore Gardens. LL.C. E. *Harrison. Hampstead. N. Bardwell Road. Miss J. 3Iiss M. Newnham College..C. Harper.A. J. Headlam.A. LL. J. Birmingham.A.A.. Prof F.. Sedbergh.A.A. Andover. C. H. 4. Harris.L. D.. The Brewery. Liverpool.A..A.. John's Wood Park. W. E.. R.D. N.. M.. Grasmere. Rev. 41. 98. Ortygia. E. Round Hill.. Yorks. 1. M. Selly Oak. Hamlet.S. 5. Hon.A.. M. L. Prof.D. L.A.Litt. E. M..NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 135 Hall. Hannam.A. Cambridge. Herts. J. Newcastle -under -Lyme. M. St.. Mecklenburg Street. Hamilton. D. 4. A. E.. M.W.. Milnthorpe. R. Oxford. M. Acton.Litt. Manchester... H.A. Prof. M.. B. Litt. H. Hartley. London...A. B. LL. Heversham School. F.W.. Edinburgh. The Greek Manse. E... Haverfield. East Parade... York. W.

lIiCKS. Victoria Park. *Heath. Hett. Justice. Brighton. G. Herford. Rev. D. Edinburgh.. Henderson. Heath. M. Whitehall. S.A. Parkfield Road. Miss M.D.W. E.A.P. Mr. Hon. N. Hagley Road. Didsbury. Mortimer House. East Putney High School. Manchester. Herford. School House.. Miss M..A. Approach Road.W. Helbert. Lincoln.R.. B. 5. York. West Downs. M. A. Ph. Henry. H. M. Fettes College. Prof..A. Oxford.A.... Palace Grove. Birmingham. Rev. A. See Lincoln. W. Hon.J. Tonbridge. Manchester. G. W. Reedley Lodge.. M.. M. Lansdowne Crescent.W. a. L. C. E. M.W. 3. W. Heath. Rev. B. Montpelier Square. Edgbaston. Hewart. Lanes. Henn.. The University. Mrs. N. Hampstead. R. 16. E. Henderson. South Manchester School. M. D. Hetherington. Bromley. Putney...D. L.A. Heaton. N..L.A. R.. See Burnley...B....A. Henn. Miss A. B.. Carlton Road. Chingford Lodge. Headlam. Withington. B. Isleworth. Bombay. W... Hicks. L.A. K.S.D. Hendy. S. J. Whitehall. The Cathedral School. Burnley.. a. M.. M. Miss R. L. The Training College. H. M. The Lodge. Oxford. Henry. High Court. 33. J. Hereford. L. K.... Heathcote.. Kent. Bristol.. Miss C. M. D..A. Kent..C. New College. New Walk Terrace.. Brasenose College.A.. G. B. Rt. R.. Bishop Hicks. of.. W. Old Palace. A. M. Heathcote. Henson. M.A. Board of Education. J. M. LL......A. B. B..A. L. E.. Oxford. Kensington W.S. L. Sir T.. M. Heard. 15. Exeter College. Downside Crescent. F.^ 224. W.APPENDIX 136 Headlam.E. Manchester. Winchester. W. Rt.. Bishop of.C. I. Park.D. Herman.. Brighton College. C. G. Eton College. Belfast.W.. S. Cross Hill. J. F. N.A.. H. 26. Windsor Avenue. S. Board of Education.. Parmiter's School. S. B. Mrs. Central Road. 18.C.A.. Clifton.. Principal.A. Heppel. M.. Hewetson. Heath.C.. Kensington Park Gardens. M. *Heberden. Windsor. H. Heward. Rev. J. ..

. Holme. H. M.. Cainbiidge. Cheshire. James' Mansions. 11. D. Bombay. Holmes. HiLLARD. Heatherley. Temple. Saffron Walden. Ca?i07^W. M. *HoDGE.A. Chesterfield... Holland. Barton-under-Needwood. Edmund's Road.... Abbotsford Yilla. R. Gloucester. Holland. Hodge. North London Collegiate School. Hollidge.A. Newcastle-on- Tyne. The Red House. E. Staffs. M. Hodges.. Yorks.. Lichfield.. West Kirby. A. Holder.A. A.. 18 .I. Heptonstall. Galston.Sc. V. E. Prescote. 14.. G. Columbia University. T. I... Stratford-on-Avon. Hone. Sax- mundham. New York City. B.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 137 Hicks. Southsea..S. \Y.M. 20. Mr. W.A. Clopton.G.. Miss G. W. Suffolk.E. Rice. v. Street. H.C.^ev.D.A. S. Miss E. Kensington. A.. N. Hev. Miss D. Barnard College. Miss J. R. c/o Secretariat. St. C. M... Chelsea Embankment. D..D. HoDD.. Wheelwright Grammar School. M. D. Hollowell.. A. College Green. Unley Australia. *HoDGE. Dewsbury. HoERNLE.C. I. Douro Place. M. ^Yithington Girls' School. HiGGs. High School for Girls.B.. Afiss M. M. M. U.. F. Holding. Armstrong College. Manchester. Manningham. Holland. West Kensington. Bev. H. M. 54. D. A. S. M...A. Hodgson. Eev. U.A. K.. Hogarth. C. Calday Grange School.. B.A.A. Hill. Miss M...A. Chislehurst Road. R. Hebden Bridge. H. W. Tonbridge.. Htldesheimer. Miss M... Eev. P. C. HoBHOUSE.. 2Iiss M. A.A. A.. Mount Pellon Yicarage. MA. M. Hogarth. St. New York.. Thornbee Park.. Hodgson. Gladstone Road.. Oxford. Slater Ing. [ford. J. L. London. I. The ^Yadleigh High School. Litt. Hon. Twickenham. High Street. *HiRST. E. Hill. a. Paul's School.. BradHooper. P.. St. F. E. Miss M. 5. Eldon Place. Hooker.A. Giles'. Mount Pleasant. W. Lansdowne House..A. M. B.. G. British Museum. G. S.A.A.. Piccadilly. i¥iss S. E.W. W. Temple Gardens. Halifax. M..W.. 1. Fallowfield. 2Iiss G. 5. Kyre College.. Hirst. S... Fossedene.S. M. R. High Master of St. H. 8. M. Sidcup.M. E.S.A.A.. R. Westleton.

Dulwich College. Vice-Chancellor of the University of Manchester.. M. 20. *HoTSON. Sir J. K. A. Manchester. Doi'set. HuLBERT. Halifax. Durham. HuLTON. Arundel Road. Miss C. Manchester. C.. C.. S. I. Manchester. 21. Milton Street.A..A. B. L.. T. Herts. D. Wingfield House. Drayton Gardens. Bradford. Manchester. North Bailey. Bart. Baron F.. Girls' Grammar School. M.A. Huddersfield. Westcote. Hugh-Jones. Berkhamsted. Oxford. B. Horner. B. Vicarage Gate. 107. Eev. M. Hiss K. The College. Oxford. Belgrave Villas. M. Hutchinson. Clieltenham.D. Eev. BA. Ashley Lane. Ilkley. Eaton Terrace. Hughes. F. W... Brixworth. Miss E..A.. H. H. How. 2. Woolston Vicarage. 144. K.. House.D.A. Hulme Hall. W. T. M.. Great Malvern.. Cumberland..A. Lightcliffe Vicarage.Litt. The Training College. *HoRSFALL. J. Moston... Hurst. Australia.A. S. Southampton.. F.... B. HuGEL. Mirfield.A. E. HuBBERSTY.. W. W.A.. The Cottage.. Miss S. Hunter. India. A.. M. H. M. Derwent Avenue. East Hayes. ... M. HoYLE. G. New College. M. Sir A.. P. Eev. Harrow. Northampton. Hughes. H. Kensington. South Kensington. W.A. M.S. Harrow..W. West Didsbury.. Hiss A. L. E.. HoRSMAN. HoPKiNSON. W. Hopkins. H. A. M. Saltburn. J.. M.. Moss Side... Oxford. The School. G.. Hose... HoRNSBY. 10. S.A. S. B.A. Claremont.. Miss A. L. Oxford. The School. HoRT.A.APPENDIX 138 Hopkins.E. C. Larkana. J. College of the Resurrection. 10. HuBBACK. JRev. High School for Girls.A. Orley Faim School... Miss C.. Houston. 49.. Tunbridge Wells. J.. King Street. Miss G. M. M. A. Miss J. Cockermouth. J. T. 13. LL. Sir A. von. P. G.A.. Nottingham. H. B. V. H. M. Gorphwysfa.. Innes. W..C. W.. Queen's College. HoPKiNSON.A... Lorton Hall.... Jesus College. How. Hunt. Sherborne. M.W. HoRSFALL...A. HuLBERT. Eev. M. H. M. Bold Street.A. F. Sind.A. Hughes.C.. M. HowARTH. Miss M. HuTTON.

A. Eton College.. Croydon. Irvine.O. 139 M. M.... Feltham.P. Croydon. Very Rev. Prof. L. Malvern... R. 10. Miss C.. (No address. D. Miss E. Stony hurst College. James. Jenkyns.. L. Hampstead..D. 31iss H. Litt. Altrincham. *Johnson. 11.A. Miss E... Jackson. Johns. R. Oakbank. Victoria Park Road. Monmouth. King's College School. B. H. M.. Sheffield... Jones. M. Jex-Blake. James. The College. 0. 97. Windsor.. M.. C.. M. D. *Jasonidy. R.A... H. Johnston. Impey. Miss B. Woodleigh. Leeds.. Coventry. M. Hillside Cottage. Limpsfield. * Jelp.A. Jewson. W. Tunbridge Wells. Rev. Principal.. Broomhall Place. *Jex-Blake. Manor Road. Miss L.. Miss. F.. F. p.C. *Jackson. M.. IrbmongeR. M. Rev. Strand.A. Principal. O. Cambridge.B.A. R. Johnson. A. Kay.A. W.. N. Park Lane. B.A.M. S. The Grammar School. Redland.A...) *JoHN60N. Willoughby Road. C..NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS *HuTTON..A. A. T. Waltham Abbey. 3.A. Durham. C. H. J. *James. G. Rev.. Street.. Cheshire. Cambridge... C.. B. Queenwood. E. *Jenkinson. B. Lyddon Hall. Impey. B. Eastbourne. Bristol. The Writers' Club.. *j£VONS. Miss D. Park Lane.A.A.A. * Johnson. A. B. Jamieson..D. Rev. Trinity College. R. King's School.. S.. Norwich. Cambridge.. Ballard's Shaw. M. H.A. Bishop Hatfield's Hall. 13. M. Jex-Blake..D. JoBSON.. Prof. Bracondale. M. Canterbury. Lady Margaret Hall. Hyslop.A. Berks. F.. Tower House.. CM. B.A. M.W... J. Chester. 97. 10. Stoke Rectory. Ennismore Gardens. I. Bradfield College.. Cyprus. 16. Woodlands. Rev. Lloyd.W... Grove Road. Johnson. Blackburn. Johnson. F. Oxford. Levitt. James. M. R.. F..A. Miss K. Limassol. Kenley. Wyss Wood. Whores.Litt. .A. Chaucer Road. Litt..J. 9. Girton College. Redhill.. M. W. Irwin. Essex.A. J.3. Feltham. Cardiff.. L.. C. F. Higher Kinnerton. Cambridge.. S. * Johnston. Surrey. E. Norfolk S. Mrs. Rev. Hurstleigh. G. H. Miss L. Alvecliurcb. J.

M. Lord Justice. Keay. Bristol.. H. Miss H. Catharine's College. Hulme Grammar School. (No address. E.. Birmingham.. Phillimore Gardens. Bombay. Rt. W.A. W. LL. Manchester.. E. M. A.. Joseph.. Bolton.B. Kingdom. Grammar School for Girls..C.. BA. King.S.. Satai-a. W. Vicarage Gardens. L. 58..W. 826. A. Queen's Drive. W.A. E. Gloucester Terrace. a. Prof. Bertrand Road. Keen. W. Edgbaston.C..C..A. M... B. St... Bradford. 128. Kempthorne. W. Jones. Camp Hill. I. KiuK.B. India.. Charterhouse. T. Bombay Presidency. Michigan. Ely. F. I. Mikleton. Very Rev. Secretariat.. R. (University of Michigan).C. Kensington.D. Kensington. S. Kennedy. E. KiNCAiD.E. A. C. 5. Calcraft. F..) Kelsey. Herts. Dublin. S. Streatham. B.. New College.J. Grammar School.. King.. S.. llightield Road. Aston. Rev.. Kipling. M. Cambridge. M. Birmingham. W.. . Jukes. INI. R. Rev. H. J. C. Keatinge.. Windsor.. C. Mrs. Keen.. M. Cheltenham. Kendall. S. Mrs. S.Litt. Godalming. J. Greenwich Road. M.A.. W. West Downs. H. D.S. Miss J. B. 145. "W. Keane.V. H. F. KiRKPATRicK. Cambridge... Haileybury College. Jones. Valley Road.. Bishoj^ of. K.. Dean Close School. W. Shenstone. Kidd.. Tappan Street.. Oxford. G. *Kelsey. F. Nantwich.O.APPENDIX 140 Jones. The Hyde Park..S.A... Kennedy.. I. Ahmedabad..S. 40..C.A. Somerville College. Abbeylands.A. Margaret's Road.. Hon. Ann Arbor. King Edward's Jones.A. W. Winchester. Rev. Clifton College. Cambridge. W. M. Kindersley. M. W. C.. Liverpool. F. H. Rt. P. Keeling. G. 19. Sir F. Kelaart. Oxford. R.... A. F.. 13. JuDSON. M.A. Miss E. Miss E.. King Edward VI. C.. J. 23. Kennedy. Miss K. B. Kennedy. C. King. Girton College. St.A..A. Miss E. U. Wilson. Dublin. The Hon.A. B. C. Milltown Park. M. Alexandra Colloge. D. Miss Kenyon. Oxford.A. Birmingham.. KiRBY. H. W. E. Kensington.. S. C. Rev.. British Museum. The Deanery. School.A.A. Mr. E. Willaston School. M.D. Eton College. M. Ker. Sherborne.A. See Lichfield.

R. Liverpool College. Westmorland.I. Merrion Square. Ashdell Road. Litt... J. New Zealand.S.. R. Lawson. Rev.C. E.A. B. Miss E..S. The Grammar School.. M. M.. J. M. 92. Canon J. M. S. Miss C... Layng. Goldington Avenue. New J.. C. K.A. Grove Park. Malabar Hill. Leahy. Eipon. Reigate Hill. Kew. Archbishop of.. Miss. Rev. Prince Alfred College.. Kyrke-Penson.W.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS KiRTLAND.A. 6.D.A. Canada.. Langley. Farnham Common. Steyning School. Miss E.A.. Miss A. 44.S.W. a. Liverpool. Royal Academical Institution.. Cambridge. E. Rt. I.. Leader. Australia.A.A.A. 3. Whitehall House.D. Wrexham. Worcester Avenue. Mrs. N. Pall Mall. The Phillips Exeter 141 Academy... Vassar College. Latter. K. B. Leach. Langridge... B. Elmshurst. Prof. a. G... M.E.A.A. Prof A. Leach. Pembroke College. W. Whitehall. U. C..A.S. M. See Manchester. N..W. The Old Residence.. Belfast. B. M. South Shields. Bombay. N. Lang. 3. Clifton.. Sir Richard. M. Kirkby Lonsdale. Sheffield. East Finchley. D.A.A.C. High School for Girls. N. J. "Wycombe Abbey School. L.. C.A. M. Miss H. La Touche.. M. Temple.A. M. Cambridge Terrace. The Most Revereiul C... Knaresborough.I... *Knight. Rev. Kent Town. N.. Hampshii-e. Layman. Poughkeepsie. Lea. the Lord Bishop of. E. Victoria College..Y. Temple Gardens. Mrs. G.. *Leaf.. Leary. Miss A. 9. Oxford and Cambridge Club. Bishop of Krause. Wanganui College. La Motte. Reigate.A.A.A. T.D. M. D. Sussex Place... W. M. M. Thornfield. Prof. U.. 5.. Dublin. Headmaster. See York. Exeter. G. D. Rt.. S. Digby. N. Knox. Albemarle Street.A. S. W.. Langdon-Davies. Hampstead.W. Lang. B. M. M. Slough. 50a. Abby. Comberton Hall. E. C. Kidderminster. Lancelot. Bucks. . M. Rev. Lattimer. Laurie. Prof. Leckenby. J. B. Langford.G. M. Nassington Road.. *Lamb. The CliflP. T. 40. Sussex. E.. Lamb. Bromley.. Latham. R. E. Bedford... Bristol. KiRWAN. Toronto. Rev.. H. H. A. London..

King's College. London. L. Miss B. Old Palace.. Lewis.. The University.. Putney. Lewis...D.... E.. Liverpool. Ealing Common. F. C. M. Lincoln. Miss J. B.. LiNZELL. LL... D. Lidderdale. Rev. 324. Miss M.K. Birmingham. W.. Rawlinson Road. Lee. M. Clarendon Road. E. Lewis.. Cambridge. Birmingham. Linton-Smith. Ireland. Lewis.C. Ambleside. J. Herbert Road. B. Legg. Lee.W. N. 84. The Grammar School. R. Esholt.. Lichfield. Stanley C. 5. B. Lewis.D. S. Blundellsands. M.. 108a.A. S... Miss M. Queen's College. LiNNELL. Hampstead. M. D.A. 85. Harley Street. Rt. Cambridge. Lexham Gardens. London. W. E. Pudsey.D. G.. Cape Colony.. Sir Sidney. Miss D. Birchfield Road. W. A. Harborne. M. M. Legard. 3fi$s M. Leman. LL. LL.C. B. Wallasey High School... 2.. M.. Old Burhngton Street. Galway.. Lindsay. Prof. W... a. Brow Hill. the Lord Bishop of. Lewis.A. Rev. Batheaston. Rev. Monument Road.. Alex. ]NL. near Shipley. S. the Lord Bishop of.M.. M. G.. Warden. Nottingham. Rev. Miss. LiBBEY. Training College for Women.. Bognor. A.. Abercromby Square. M. Lewis.. Lewis. Africa. S. G.. London. Newnham College. Miss E. E.. H. Oxford Road. W.. Bath. Mrs. W. M.. Cheshire. Wimbledon.. LiLLEY. 58. W. Leeds. Melbourne. H. L. Kensington.D. Lincoln. The Grammar School. ISt. A.. E. B.A.. H. Leeds. Rev.A. Miss E. Rev. Liberty. 'M.A.. Miss A. W. *Leeper. 0. The Gale. French Hoek. M. E. M. Sherwood Else. 2.A.D. Litt. Ph. Castlebrae. 43 & 45.D. Oxford.. The Palace. M. Balliol College.. Queen's Square. 29.. Rev. Lindsell.D. Lichfield.. Yorks. Bolton. F. Prior's Field. Lipscomb.W. Lewis. LL. B.A.W.A. Miss C. 2.. The Vicarage. M. Warwick Eoad.A. Limebeer. Miss D.A. Liverpool. Jackson.. Fulneck School. W. E..A. Warden of Trinity College.A.. W. B. Headingley College. R. Moseley. Lewis.D. Perry Barr.APPENDIX 142 Ledgard. 26. Fitzjohn's Avenue. Godalming.. M. Hillside. A.. Birmingham. 13. Birmingham.. J. Lewer. P. Lightley. Oraigellachie. Oxford. A.. near Birmingham. .A. Rt. Lee-Strathy..A. Lehmann-Haupt.. W. Rev. 204.

A. Wandsworth Common. N. Pendlebury High School. G.. Oxfoi-d.A. G.A. E.... Lyttelton. E. Ruthin School. the Hon. Colfe Grammar School. M. M. High School... R. *Macan.A. M. Tonbridge..W. Head Master. Loly.A.. G.. S.. LoEWB.A. . D.. F. M. Surrey. Eccles Old Road... West Heath School. W.. Ruthin. Lucas. Pendlebury... Eton College. The Old Christopher. LuPTON. Leeds.. Kent. AUerton House. W. Windsor. Liverpool. Rev.. Miss E. Miss M. Catharine's College. S. E.E. D..A. W. C. Master of University College.C. H. W. Llewelyn. W.. M. Wolverhampton. M. D... E. Queenmore School. A.A.. Eton College. C.Litt. Oxford. 50.. Rev.A. Windsor. M. Brighton.... St. Miss M. Hon. Tettenhall Road. J. Miss S.. D. LuNN.A. Lloyd.. Somerville College. M. Wexford Road.A. R.. *LuBB0CK. Glamorgan. A. Macfarlane. B.. Paternoster Row. P. a. J. W... Loreburn. Charterhouse. S.. LoANE. Miss G.A.A. N.A. Eton College. Impington Park. Lovegrove.. Lodge. Hon. LoNGWORTH. Macfarlane-Grieve. Lock. W. M. Manchester. Lewisham. Cambridge. S. LowRY. Montpelier Road. Lyndhurst.. B. Beaconsfield Street... Lloyd. B. Roundhay. G.A. B.A.E. Wales. Miss H. Lyon. Ham Common. J. London.W. J. Worcester College. Grammar School. Blackheath. Miss A.. Oxford. W. near Richmond. Longman. T. B. Brighton and Hove High School. W.. Corpus Christi College.W..P. M. Windsor. B. M. N.. B. LuMB. J. 35. Knockaverry. W. M. L.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 148 Livingstone..A. Luce. Ilkley.. S. LuPTON. Linnell Close. LoRiNG. LoRiMER. Ealing. Eaton Square. Oxford. Warden of Keble College. Sandringham Gardens.. W. Rev.A. B. F. Oxford. Cambridge. Springwood. Red Gables. Llewellyn.. Hendon. G. 39. Earl^ 8.A. *Lyttelton.. F... Godalming. Regent's Park. Wadham College. J. Princes Avenue. Rev.D. C. Canon W. Junr. Bedford College. G.W. Bromley. Pontypridd.. MacGregor. School House.. 15. Oxford... Lys. Rt. Bradford.

Sydenham Road. Ph. a. D... W. Herts. Miss A. Poughkoepsie.... MacVay. Baron's Court.S. Oxford. Madan.. H. Jacob Circle. the Lord Bishop of. Marshall. Newcastle-underLyme.. i/tssE. R. Maceesy..D.M. Bradfoi^d. Ltd... Bangkwang. M. Mainwaring.J.APPENDIX 144 MacInnes. Luton.D. M.A. Mrs. Vassar College. Magrath. S.. LL. W. D. IL. Lincoln College.A. Macnaghten. St. D. H. T. Aberystwyth. Ovingdean Hall. F. H.A. 3. J. Luckley... N. Miss G. *Mackenzib. Whiteaway Buildings.A. Bombay. Girls' Grammar School.. . Provost of Queen's College. J. D.A. C. A. Marillier. M. Windsor. H.. Newcastle- on-Tyne. Rev.A. Bedford. Marrs. A. near Bangkok. S. M. Miss A.A. M. John's Wood Park. D.. The Crescent.Litt..A. M.. *Macnaghten. Rt.. Marshall. C. H.. R. Rev. Wokingham. Martin. W. Haileybury College. Far Cross. Manchester.A. Brighton. The Crossways.A.B. Blundellsands..A. Malim. M.A. Rev.W. 37.. L. Uppingham School. J. Eshe Road. Hampstead.A. A. Malden. H. Bombay Co.. E. Keusingtou.A. M. Rev. L. Hornby Road. M.. Oxford.D. 11. Rev. H.. P.B.. M. Muswell Hill... St.Y. 12. M.. Head Master. Macleod. Pi'of. D. St... Macurdy. Ovingdean Hall. Chaucer Street.... W. W.W.. D. B. Stalls.. Eton College. Macmillan. Rev. B.. p.A. J... U. Muswell Avenue. Macnaughton. Miss A. Hillborough Road. R. U. 27. Mansfield. B. King's College. Pembroke Gardens. M. A. Calcutta.A.... Croydon. 23.. N. M. 26. N. M. Martin..A. M.. B.. W. M.A.. University College of Wales. Ignatius. Marshall. Bombay. Rutland. W. Rev. Cuthbert's Grammar School.A. New York City. M. 44. Leeds. B. H. Wadleigh High School. Bishop's Court. Brighton. Queen's Gate Gardens. Miss C.. T. G. Bombay. Edith Road. Elphinstone College. A.. Manchester. Mann. Beds... Hyde Terrace. D.. Pearce. Martin. Liverpool. C. *Mackail. LL.S.. Siam. Marchant. Woore. Rev.A.. G. C. Marshall. E. K. *Malim.A.Litt. Leicester. Marsh.

.. Clifton. S. Miss G.B.. J..A. McDouGALL. N.. 19 B. Middlesex.W.S. Queensgate House. Canterbury.A. H. Miss M. Martin... K. Eversley Crescent. B. Mayall.. Lady Margaret Hall.J. Hulme Grammar School. D. Rev. J. Matthews.).A.A. B.. S. Mayo. Massey. Michael's Vicarage.. W. Malton. G. Fallowfield. J.A. Wilbraham Road. G. R..A. Whitehall.. K. H. Galway. Whitehall. A. Wakefield. Canynge Square. Gt. J. Girls' High School. Joseph's College. F. McCldre. Mattingly.W. H.W.. E. G.. Oxford. S. Z. McCrea.. Masham.A. Kingston Hill.. G. St. 1.A. Demesne Road. G. May.. Miss E. B. The War Office... Halki. Colombo. L. M.A. D. A. Savile Road.A.. Constantinople. Miss K.C. 43.G. Crieff.. Rev.D. W. E. Queen's Gate Gardens.W. McMuRTRiE. Mavrogordato. Sir J. M. McElderry. J.Mus.Glenearn. M. Rev.A.. B.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 145 Martin. Maufe. Rev. W. Canon A.A. M. Mason. B. McAnally. Belsize Park Gardens. N. M. St. H. 70. N. Rev. Mathews.. Warlbeck. York. 52... Gordon House. N. . S. Miss B. Peter's School.. *Matthaei. Bromsgrove. B. Adelaide. Mrs.. Bede's School. South Hampstead.. Matheson. 3. Martindale. M. M. *McCuTCHE0N. Oxford. Rev. The Imperial Ottoman Naval School.. A..British Museum. T.. B. Mayor. St. W. 25.... McLean..C. Ebury Square.W. Hampstead. College. M. (Scot. Miss M. Auckland. Eastbourne. S. p.. S. B. Prof.I. Westfield College. B. F.. McKay.D.D. F. Matthew. Rev.. Manchester.. Prof. Miss L. 40. Rev.W. J.. Mill Hill School.A. McCoRMiCK. Stafford. 0.. Russell Mansions.. S.. Mason. Newnham College. St. S. M. M. The Precincts... J. Miss G. High School for Girls. W. M.A.E. W. Ilkley. N. B. Ph. Girls' Grammar McMillan. B. B... *Mayor.A. E. West Kensington.W. McCroben. R.A..A. Ampleforth College.. Stonyhurst College. Isleworth. Miss M. Perth Road. 2. Devon Place. lies des Princes. J. H. Merchant Taylors' School. A.. C.... H. E. Australia. Blackburn. Bromsgrove School. J.A. C.A.. St. Bristol. •Mayor. Cambridge.. P. W. M. Paul's School. Board of Education. LL. Surrey. N. B.. Manchester... B.A.A..

S..S. W. Merrill.A. E. Menzies. Haileybury College. 14.. Rev. I. M. Miss E.APPENDIX 146 Measures.. St. Moore.. Prof. LL. S.C. G. MiLFORD. J.A. Montague.W. B. Brooks's Club. A. Michael. W.. S. Oak Drive. Fallowlield. Viscount. C. S.. Merry.C..L. Merton College. Prof.C.. Miller. M. Kensing- S. St.B. U. Grammar School.B. James's Street.. Board of Education. G. W. West Horsham. Birmingham.. M. Head Master. W.. Mrs.. J.W. Worcester. E. Miss M. M. G. F.. E. A. British Museum. Mitchell. Surbiton. Rt. Miss E. E. M. Milverton. K.. 1...W. H.. Beverley Road. Miss E. V.S. M. M. Cambridge. The Lawn.. N. Miller.A. M. Rev. P. M. Sale. Barnes. King Edward VI. MiALL. Peak Hill. MoNTEATH.. Liverpool.W. Milner. F. Greenbank Cottage. Moore.. Miles. A. Miss M. Clifton Hill. M. Meyer.. L. E. G. J.C. W.A. Oak Drive.. G. 47. S. Farbwerke. Germany. C.C. The Boltons. Manchester. Compton Road..A. Moor.A. Whitehall. Merrick.P. Winchester. M. MiCHELL.. Sun-ey. Hon.. F. Miss B. 97. E... M. *MiTcnESON. Mills.B. Goldliill.R. W. Kendal. E.. per Adr. M.A. East London College. E. A. 0. Mills. *MiLLiNGTON.M. Somerset. Moore. Minturn. Rector of Lincoln College.. S.C. McL.. Rev. 46. T.. D.G. Shrewsbury House. Mercer. Rev.D.. Farnham....A. Mill Lane.A. K. Morgan. S. Doncaster. L. (No address. D. M. R.. W..A... 14. County High School.W. Miss D. Lucius and Briining...W..A. S. D.C. Rugby. Montague. The Boltons. M. G.. J. D. E. S. Milborne Grove. S. Clifton Hill. A. C. 27.A.A. W.. V.A.A.W.. George's Square. E...A. Vorm Meister. Christ's Hospital. *MiLLARD. Fallowlield. 1. Morison. .. M. G. Mrs. B... Moor. M.. J.. T. Miss M.. Belgrave Road. London.Phil. S.. B.A.A. 1. 14. Ladbroke Square. Hoechster. Bankside. II. M. Norton Way N. Oxford.) Milne..D. Mrs. Chelsea Embankment.. Oxford. Menzies.. L. Moor. Canonbury. S.A. School. Thorne Road. G. M.. 105. M. Mile End Road.. 110. S. Winchester... 14. Milborne Grove. E. Melhuish. A.. Meiklbjohn. Holland Road. 33. IG.L. Hertford. T. Cheshire.. MoRiARTY..A. India... Ahmednagar. Letchworth.A. P. Hoechst-am-Main.E. Monk. University of Chicago. Rev. Sheffield. C. ton. Lis Esgol.W.. Miss B. Sydenham.Sc.. Manchester. E. G. C. Ranmoor Crescent.

B.A... W. Redland. Didsbury. Oxford. M. Prof H..D.A. Sheffield.A.E.A.D. M.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS MoKLEY. Brackenside.A. J. M. M. Kilburn Priory. Derbyshire. L... Otago High School. Naylor. Dalhousie College.. Greville Road. Rev.. LL.... M.M. Hereford.A. Miss M. Morton. Nairne. The Vista. C.D. Prof.. Neild... MussoN. Seaforth Hall. B. D. H. K. Prof. C. Stratford Street..C. Howard. Highfield Park. L. S. of Blackburn. Rutland Park. Miss C..A. The Grammar School. Newcomb. M. *MoxoN. Miss E. 1. MoRRELL. J. *MuRRAY.. The University. W. L. H. M.. Oxford.. Merchant Taylors' School. Grosvenor Road. A. J. Oxford. L. M. Cintra Lodge. N. Lancaster Road. Litt.. Reading. Wimbledon Park. Australia..W. Viscount.. Miss E..W. 50a. LL. Needham. Jerningham Road.W. T. Myers. Newman. Morris. E. Morton. Golder's Green. Bristol. St. Cambridge. Newman..A. The High School. Rev. Rt. Bristol. G. G. S.Litt. Hampton Park. Prof J. Miss A.A. K. Morris.. Muir-Mackenzie. S. G.. M. 1... Halifax.D. Ernest. T. Murray. 4.. A.. R. 15. *Newton. 147 Hon. Manchester. Prebendary H. W. S. E. Adelaide. *Myres.. Christ Church. Didsbury College.A.. Broadwater Down. Miss H. Rev.. Zealand.. MusPRATT. O. Liverpool. 7.. D. MuscHAMP.. Worcester. MouLTON. W.. *Newbold.A.P.. Dunedin. Prof. M.. New F...A. Rev. M. J. Leominster.. LL. John. Aske's Haberdashers' School for Girls. D.A. Newton. Nairn. S. 101.A. Chislehurst. Canada. Litt. K. Miss M.C... Witney. M.. Leeds. *MuMM. Alfreton Vicarage. C. Corring Way.. Pittville Lawn. A. Ivy Dene.. M.C.. A. LL.A...S. Oxford. B.A. T. Hyde Park Street.W.L.A.. 39. Darnley. Newton. M. M. B. H. A.. M.. Tunbridge Wells. W. Banbury Road. 57.D. J. G. 19..G. near Oxford. G. H. Albemarle Street. Sir K. Jesus College. 4.D. Westbury Road. Moss. M. Rev.. W. St. Cheltenham...D.R. J. Flowermead. 4. Manchester. Lincoln College.A.. New Cross. .. George's Square. A. MuNRO. W. Helena Road. N. 27. W. Murray.D.

G. M.. Liverpool. K.D... F.W. D. Odgers. Grant.D. 3fiss J. S. W. 34.A. 1010.A. J. Bristol. Nightingale. De Paul University. G.. F. E. Barton Street. U. Liverpool College.A. Talgarth Road. Hon. Sidney House..J. Nolan.. Miss M.A. H. V. NicoL. Maidenhead. Francis Xavier's. Dublin. B..A. The University... St. Rev. O'Connor. Prof. R. Oxford..S. J. W. Osborne. M. W. *NoRFOLK.A.A.A. Oxl'ord.. E. M. A. Cambridge. Marston Ferry Road.. B. Norfolk House. Rossall. M. Sussex. Pennsylvania..A. Nicholson..A.C.. D. Portsmouth. N.. Webster Avenue. Monsignor E. Christ Church. Chicago. Marley Cottage.A.A. Ninian Road. Norwood. Bernard. F. Miss M. Surrey. Nolan. Rev. Old Square. Owen... Rt. NoRRis.. NiCKLiN. M... Lincoln's Inn.. M. Regent's Park. Miss.A. King Edward's School for Girls.. W. C. Hove... Bruton. M. Fernley. J. W.P. P. Lanes. Haslemere. Kidderminster.A.. R.APPENDIX 148 Nicholson. Chesterfield. Nixon. Marylebone Road. B. Ormerod. Eastry. U. Bedford College. Upper Gardiner Street. M. His Grace St..... the Duke of.. Kent. Wheatley..C. B.. Birmingham..A. Handsworth. A. King's School. 205.D.A. Ph. N. Ver?/ Rev. Rydal Mount School.A.A.A.. Betteshanger. Norton. the [Oxon. Liverpool.A. S. S. M. B. E. T..A.R. Oliphant. Northants.. B. Worcester College. Somerset. West Kensington. NiMMO.A. Grove City. 65. Oakeley. Orange. Owen. E. Miss H. Denmark Villas. Oxford.. M. E.. G.M. Square.M. . O'Malley. M. O'Brien. Lord Bishop of Cuddesdon. Rev.. M. Prof.. G. A. The High School.. F.. J. The Grammar School.. Keble College.. E. M. a. S. Rt.S. King's College. Oundle. NowERS. OsBORN.. King's College. Rev. M.. 2G. U. West Kensington. M. Lord.A. LL. P.A.. *Oke. Berks. C. S. Fleetwood. 32. James's Square.G.. Colwyn Bay. D.. Grove City College.. Kensington W.M. M. Oxford. 11. Cardiflf. K. Norwood. M. Clarence Road. T. J/iss B.. Nicholson. D.. Oldershaw. a. L. A.. 9. Grammar School. Britisli Museum. B.C. W. M. B. Oxford.. 15. Rev. Owen. NoRTHBouRNE.W.

A. F. M. Paget..A. E.. M. Nateby. M. Parker. C.... County School. S. Manchester. Miss Ida A. Aigburth Drive. Manchester.. C.. 78. Bishop of. E. Sefton Park. Oxford.. Pembroke Dock. *Penrose. 50. Clifton High School. Brandenburgh Road.A.. Miss D.A. Canon T. L. I. Woodcote.S. Cambridge. Whalley Range. p.A. M. L. University Registry. Litt.. Papillon. Miss M. M.A. M. Pereira. 17.. LL.. C. S.. Pember...A.. B. E.. Edgbaston. W. L. H. St..C. M. p. Pantin. a.A. E. a .. Rev.. N. Kent.. Croydon. Pearman.. 16. Cambridge. Pavri. Bristol. H.A. 39.. Liverpool. Pallis. Miss A. Miss C.A. Liverpool. J. Westfield College. Seaford. S. Paton. Canon R. E.A. M. E.. D. Peskett. M. Rev. M. Rev. Stoke House. W. M. Perman.. B.A.. Acrise. Clapham. Birmingham. Prof. Pendlebury.. E.. Pearson.. M. Percival.W. The Oratory School. Old Bailey. E. T. R. Paterson. Hall Place Gardens. Secretariat. Summerfield Road. Warlingham.. W. Dewhurst Road. 153.. Huskisson Street. Tatoi. Miss C. M.A. M..B. W.. M.A.D. Rev.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 149 Page. Principal.D. Prof A. J. Penny.. p... Albans.. W.G. Miss A. Parker. N.. St. Parry. Peacock. Pearman. E. Woodstock Road.. Parry. Parker. Sydenham Road. Clitheroe. King's School House. Cathays Park.D. St. Bombay. Pretoria. Rt. J. B. W. Surrey.. B. Trinity College. Ravensholt. Arlington House. Macaulay Road. Browsholme Hall. Abbey Park South. Clapham High School.W. G.A.. Papamosco. Rochester... Oxford. J. Peake. Grammar School. A.. Small Cause Court. M. Somerville College.. Miss E. 16. Eootscray.. J.. Hampstead. See Bombay. W.. W. G. A. Pearson.A.. R.S. Gunnersbury. Birkby. B. High Master. Miss E. Paul. ^er. M... Pearce.A. M. Godalming.D.B.. Magdalene College. O'H. Queen's Gardens. E. Col. Bombay. B.. C. W. Merton Court Preparatory School. Paine.. E. Kensington. 60. M.A. W. Wolverhampton.A. Wellington Road. Palmer.A. J. *Pearson. A. Cardiff. 26. R.A.A.. a... Andrews.A.. Transvaal University College. Huddersfield.

Scotter.L. Miss M. J. B. M.D. O. N. Regent's Park.L.C.A. *Peterson..C. Telegraph Chambers..A. G. L. Plunkett.. Yorks.. Postgate. 80. Litt.C. Hampstead. F. W. Bart. Phillips.M. W. H. S.. 60. 15.D.M. Rev. M. D.C.. M.. Rainhill.G. M. Powell.. Stony hurst.. M. Banbury Road. Powell. Phillips. Pope. Oxford. Oxford. P.. 24. *Phelps. Michael's Hostel. Dublin. Girls' School.. Cambridge. Bart. Pilkington.A. A. The Museum House. Poole. Oxford. Platt..S.. Montreal... *PiCKARD.Litt.. English Street. R.A.. B... 5. L.. C. N. Walm Lane.) Briar's Hey. PiCKARD.E. Mary's Hall. D. Linnet Lane. Leeds. Orme Wellington Place. Ushaw College... Prof. Bradford. Prof. 1. Miss H.A. Nevvcastle-under-Lyme. M. The Athenaeum. K. W. Bart. Lanes. M.. L.. A... Miss D. Overdale School. Lowestoft. Addison Road.A.APPENDIX 150 Peskett..W. Market Street. PoYNTER. Oxford. PoYNTER. Downpatrick.. P.... Pall Mall.. Plaskitt. S.L. Oriel College. Rev.E. M. Canada. G.. Prof. 26. . Mrs.A. Litt.C. M. Powell. W. Lee. 60.. W. D. Campden Hill. L. M. St. J... 3fiss M. F.. Miss M. W.. U..A. M. J. Harley Street.. Barnabas Road. Pope. Oxford. St..A. M. Cambridge.A. Queens' College. The University. Rev.A.A.. E. Settle. Cam House. Durham.... H.. Stalls. Rev.. T. Principal W.J. N. Mrs. McGill University. Sir E. W. M.A.A. W. 21... A.A. Pollard. LL.. Chester Terrace.. Kensington. G. Plater. U. Pickering. Pooler. Philpotts. Sir W. Oxford. Liverpool. Miss S. M. J..L. Plaistowe. a. Pickard-Cambridge. Count. G. A. Phipps. The Schools. 70. Miss E. 38. Grendon. Phillimore. D. W. J. Pollock.. E...W. Upper Fitzwilliam Street. Tunbridge Wells. Banbury Road. LL.W. Bradford Commercial Institute. The Ousels.A. B. M... Miss K. Cricklewood. *Powell. G. Sir F. Grove Park.. Hyde Park Place.. F. Hon. B. South Lodge. M.. S..A. Lancaster Gate. PippET. LL. T.A. B. Huntingdon Road. St.D.B.D.L.. Well Walk. D. Mary's College.. St. Shrewsbury. R. Rev.. S.. R. Balliol College. M.W. Pooley. Blackburn. Cambridge..

Oxon. at Rodney House. B. Highgate.. T. Liverpool.O... 318. Rawnsley.. C.. A. M.A. R. Royal HoUoway College. Wallace Street. W... J.. Miss K. F.D.T.A. Tiinity College. Litt.. Anfield.. B.. Wood Lane. Birstall. Rackham.. Cambridge. M. Windsor.S. 14.. Cheltenham. L.. F. A. The Queen Mary High School.S. N.D.. India. A.A. Sydenham. Sussex. Stroud. M. Prof. Ifiss J. *Raleiqh. W. Miss E..D. Reeve.Sc. Summer Lane. Reade. Guildford. Cambridge. Herts. Ph..A. Liverpool.. LC. West Road. Galway. *Radcliffe.B.. Blairgowrie..A. Radcliffe. Ramsay. Purser. Price.. c/o Messrs. W.D.. Dublin..A.. M. J.. Pye. W..R. Ceylon. M.. Christ's College. Ramsay. H.A. ..P. J. H. G. Miss R.A. Hants. Prideaqx.. Prichakd. Litt. Miss K. near Ware..NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 151 Preedy. S. 3fiss A... Uxbridge. PuRTON.. Miss J. 43. Miss. Litt. Shotover.. King's School. Windsor. Stanstead Abbots. M.. H.. H... Ladybarn House School. a. The Grange. M. Drumore.S. Englefield Green.. Liverpool Collegiate School.. B. Park Road. J. M. PwRDiE. 8. The Cathedral School. Proctor. M.. *Rackham.. Surrey. The Hindu College.A. 3fiss F.. M. Eev. Birmingham. G.A. R.. F. Gloucestershii-e. Ragg. Gill & Co. J. Rees.. Rains. Bombay. The Rosery. *Radford. G. Fleet. Moscow Court. County Secondary School. Prof. Mortimer Road. Rapson.. University College. Prof. F. Cambridge.A. Purdie. H.A. Headingley. W. Leeds.E. Eton College. M. B. N. Priory Avenue. Oxford. Canterbury.A. Reid. Fort. M. QuELCH. M.A. near Leeds. 29. A. 36.S. M. M. A. Champaran. *Rainy. Queen's Road. C. Prof E.A. 35.. tRAMSAY. Rawlins. M. S.. Manchester. K.D. Caversham. J. W.A. Prof.. D. Hillside Gardens. R. Eton College.A. Jaffna. M. Prickard. Women's Settlement. Behar and Orissa. B. 8. Ladies' College. G. H. Hereford. C. Shamley Green.B.. a.C. M.R. Fonthill.. J. M.. Rama Pillai. J. Broad Street.. Withington. O. East Grinstead. C.

Oriel College. F. W. Wadham College.A. E. Gordon Road.. Kendall... Rickards. The University. Rev. Westfield College.. Ritchie. Edward's College..A. Richards. Cambindge. . W. M. Oxford. 25. Prof. E.. T. Miss F. Miss M. A. H.APPENDIX 152 E... M. Aberystwyth.. M. Dedham. Rhys.HOADES.A. Bath. Girls' Grammar School. M. B. Richards.. Kelvedon.. O. B. Training College. N.D... The Rectory. Sumner Place. *RiDDiNG. Richards. G7....W. S. Miss M. 30. Bradford.D.. T. Rev. Yorks. Sir W. RiDGEWAY. D. 1. Miss K. Miss Road. Roberts..A.A. Blacktoft Vicarage.. M. Angerweg 34. B. C. M.D.. Germany. M. Stamford. F. Robert.. Sc. Prenton.. L. M.B.A. Hampstead. Manor Road.ENDALL. M. Glasgow. St. Trumpiugton Road.A. Dedham House.. G. N. M... Richmond. F.. H. Gainsborough House. V. W.. Head Master. Sevonoaks. Cambridge.. F.A. F. Halle-an-der-Saale. Brockley. Hammersmith.A. 24. Beech view. E. Riley. C.A. Essex.x\. M.. Everton.. Rhodes. Fen Ditton... Kingswood School. J. Oxford.A. S.. Miss H... M. W. M. F. Cambiidge. Rev.A. Richardson. Miss E. Ealing.. Sheppard Street.. M. Miss A. The College. Prof. King's College. 31. E. Stoke-on-Trent. Borough Road. Oxford. Cambridge. Ridley.W.. M.. Rigby. Richard. Essex. Flendyshe. M. A. Wellesley Mansions... B. W. Baling. A. Richmond.A.W. Kingsthorpe. Liverpool. M...C. G. Richards. S. South Luffenham. W... *Rendall.. M. near Birkenhead. E. Rev..D. E. M.A. Corf ton Road.. Rev.. Stockwell Richardson. Richmond. Yorks.A. K. J. S. Miss 0. Richards. RiGBY. R.A. W. J. R.D.. Dr. Litt. Girton College. 14. G. 15. Litt. B.A. Principal of University College. Winchester.. M.W. Rennie.A.A. Richards. S.. Miss M. 3. The Lodgings. Roberts. Miss C.E. Bartholomew Road..A. Howden. Jesus College. LL.B.. West Kensington. Beavor Lodge...

A. Holy Trinity Vicarage. Prof. G. Didsbury. D.A. Falkner Square. Robertson. Miss. M. M.A. C.A. 199.D..C. Beverley. S. Queen Anne's Gardens. Canada. E. Nagpur. Leeds. A.. Prof.S...) Ross. K. N. Newbury. (No address. College Street.P. West Hampstead. Liverpool.. Rev. The High School. D.. Cardiff. S. Packer's Close. Chelsea.A. Burnley. East Khandesh.W\ Robertson. S.. Brighton.. India. Toronto. J. Stoneygate School. A. Rhys.. Aigburth..A.A. Ridge Road. Rogers. A. Bombay. Bedford Park. G. German Place. RuDD. E.A. M. Banbury. *Sadler... 8. 14. M.. Jalgaon.S. Sir G. Souldern Rectory.. 39. L. Robertson. Donnington. M. M. Leeds. E. W. B. 13. 15. RooKE. B. Robertson. . Westmorland. Liverpool.. Reigate. Cambridge. Rossiter. Otto. G. RuDD. Perse School.A. A. Rothpeld. 5. Cheyne Walk. R. *Ryle. I. Robinson. B. St.A.. M.. St. King Street. B. 10. Llancrigg. E. M.A. Victoria College. 20 W. 11.A. Sale.D. L. J. RoBY. Swynford Croft. Leicester. Winchester. Pall Mall. Olave's Grammar School. Prof.C.D. Rev. N. S. *RouSE. Litt.. West View.. D. J.A. W. G. Litt. Coldhurst Terrace. Russell. Reform Club. RoscoE.. S.. W. Trinity College.. M. B... Oxford.. 7. W.. M.. Knighton Rise. Vanbrugh Road. St.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS Roberts. RusHBROOKE. H.. "W. Central Provinces. D. Roberts. K. E.L. Miss M. RouGHTON. B.C.. M. M. Cambridge. N. M. W. H. Museum Road. G. M. Manchester.. Malabar Hill. A. Miss G. Roby.C.. Denbighshire.E.S.. G.L.A. Miss A. Tower Bridge. S. Scott. Vice-Chancellor. J. LL. Leicester. Miss E. Grasmere... Bombay Presidency. Robertson. M. High Bank. J.. Sale. G. W. RuNDALL. Robinson.. Lanes.D... E. W. The University. Ileadingley... W.. RuBiE. I. Robertson.. Michael's Crescent.A. Denham Cottage...W. D. Miss M. Rogers. Sir M. M. 158 Wrexham.W... Andrew's Crescent. Bedford Park.. Holmfield. H.. Rev..

M. Sanderson.. H.. Shannon. Yorks..A. Dale End. Surrey. Selwyn. Eastbourne. The Knoll. The College. Hindhead. W. Scott.D... ScHOMBERQ. Brook House. M.. c/o The Times of Ividia... Walter.A.. Bombay.. Oxford. M. Stonyhui^t. F. E.A.C.A. 36. E. L. C. B. V. Sanders. Hornby Road. Bijapur.A. P. Sanday. H. Cambridge.D. Westminster School.. Oxford. S. Oxford.. Cautley Avenue. Manchester. F. W. M. B. G. 3fiss M. Yorks Sharwood-Smith. Hull.. H. 5. Oxford. T.W. M. W. The School. Keble Road. Cambridge. . Miss B.. Seebohm. F. Oundle. Rt. C. India.. Bombay.A.. Rev.A.. Malvern. G. H. Provost of Oriel College. Newnham College.. R. E. Shepherd. 2. G. S. S. Poena. Saunders.A. C. a. 3fiss E. M.C.D. Rev. Grammar School. 3fiss A. Grange Road. Semple.A.A.. Eton College.. ScoLES. C. Ladies' College. B. E.. Staveley Road. Rev.APPENDIX 154 Salford. Shewan. Shadwell.A. Rev. Fife. Scott. Ironbridge..A. Apollo Street. Ifiss Rev. M. Hebden Bridge. M. M.A.. C. I.D. St.. Oxford.J. B. 1. T. Sanderson. College House. J. C. S. C.A. Sir J. Cheltenham. The Palatine School. M.B. Richmond.. Windsor.. The Friary. Saunders. M. Woodstock Road. Sharp. P.. the Lord Bishop of.. King's College. D. S. Sarson. »Salmon. W. M. Hymei-'s College. Phipson &.A. S.A.. J. Christ Church.. Hartley Road.. E. M. Sheppard.D. Ponders End.A. B. *Sharpley. LL. 16.. C. St... T. T. Sheppard. Mary's Hall. School House. St. Clapham Common. near Hitchin. Yorks..S. B. Sharpley. Sargeaunt.. Sandys.. Scehof. India.. Shropshire.A... Reigate... 6. M. D. I. Bailey.. c/o Messrs. Clarendon Villas. I. Co. Stavelea. M. Blackpool.A. D. Arnold. Litt. A. M. D. 3fiss E. Exmouth. Seaton.A.A. R. *SnEEPsnANKS. John's House. M. Bingley.. Parktown. Newbury. Andi-ews. D. Blackburn. Miss A. Saunders. Sandford. M... High School for Girls. Tunbridge Wells... Sands. J. Cambridge. Bede's College. C.. Woodburn.L.. Girls' Scott...

. M.. Thetford. Horseferry Road. Cairo. W. *Sloman.. The Rookery.. Slater.W. Smith.A. John's College. M. 114..A. 30. Hampstead. H. M.. Cricklewood. Herts.. The School.. E. Sherborne. Smedley. *Smith. M.. Holly Hedge Cottage. *SiLC0X.. D. Liverpool. IffleyRoad.A.A.E. Oakdene Avenue. Oxford. Miss E. M. 4.. M. Sandy. SowBLS. Kennington Park. Slater. 3Iiss A. Simon. Liverpool. 64. M. *Smith. M. Windsor... Smith.A. G.. Bedford Park. Christopher's. SowELS. Sheffield. M..A.. Liverpool. E. Skeel. Westbere Road. St.. Portman Square.S. M. N. Oxford.Litt. J. High School. R. M. St. J... Miss W.W. F. Beds. W. *Slatee.A. M. P... SoNNENSCHEiN. Y. Woodstock Road. Girls' High School. 15. Mossley Hill. Riicker. J. Norfolk. F... Linnet Lane. LC.A. Cambridge. Christopher's. Board of Education. E.A. H. M. C. N. 2. D.. O.A. SoNNENSCHEiN. L. Eton College. *SiMPS0N.A.. Clevedon. Durham.. Manchester.A.A. 12.. Reynolds Road. Smiley. M. Prof. Didsbury. Elm Grove.. . Miss G. Liverpool. C. Rossington Road. Mrs. Hampstead.A. Toronto.P. Westminster Training College. Miss E. Miss 0. Prof. Smyth. Smith. W. M.. Sydney. E. India. Miss E. p. Smith. Rev. Southwold. B. J. Miss N... St. 18. D. N. T. Joyce. M.. A. S. Devonport. A. B. Elgin Avenue. 33. Karachi.. Smith..Litt. Newton Grove.. E. St. J. 130.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 155 Shillington. Linnet Lane. Manchester.. South WARK. Oxford. Miss M. Llanishen. Smith.. L.. Rt.A. Solomon. T.. M. the Lord Bishop of..A.A.A. Oxford. Leigh. Budeaux. F. Frof. N. University College.A. [N.. Gloucester Place.. 19. The Turf Club.W. H. Calthorpe Road... J. 3fiss L. Sing. Grammar School. Bishop's House.W. Sloane. New South Wales.. F. M..A. A.W. Canada. Dover Street. Felix School.. Darlington. p.. Edgbaston. M. Cardiff. M. I. Berkhamsted. 155. Well Road.. Leicester. The Rectory.. S.D.A. D. Snow. Pi'of. M. Rev.A. H. B. Lawnhurst. M. Simmons. Magdalen College. Maresfield Gardens. Sleeman. Smith. Whitehall.. St.. Welford Road. Birmingham. Shipham. M. Fernley. St. J. SiKES. A.A. S. Government House. A. M. W.. Smith.C. SiDGWiCK. M. Beaconsfield... J. A. J. Sloman.. The University.. Headmaster. S. Miss W.. Canon A. Slater. 13.. F.. John's College. E.

A. De Frevillo Avenue. M.. V.. Miss S..D. Christchurch. M.... Stobart. The White House.A. ^Strachan-Davidson... St. Bandra. Eton College.W.D.. Stokoe. Ravenstone. E.Litt.D. Edinburgh. Oxford. Birmingham..A. M. W.. Bombay.. University College. J. J. Warden of New College. Rev. Steen. L. L. Oxford. Middlesex. St. T.D. M. D..A. Prof. Rev. M. Tunbridge Wells. M. D..A. 37. . Stoneman. M. E. *Squirb. H.. W.. *Stone. Ashby de la Zouch. Farnham Common.D. Miss F. J. George's High School for Girls. John's Wood. Master of Balliol College. G. Glossop Road. The Park School. Clyst.. 35. Fidd Place. W. LL. Arthur. Melville Street.. 61.. J. G. M.. Italy.A. L..C.A. D.A. L.G.A.A. H. Clifton Hill.. J. M. J. 48. John's College. Stokes...A. Rev. M. Strong. St. Cambridge.. M.A. A.A. Stephenson. M. B.. Street. E. E. Oxford.E. Corpus Christ! College. George... Albemarle Club. J..H. Kent. R. Stanton. Cambridge. Viale Milton. Oundle School. A.. Preston. Cambridge... Strangeways.. a. Prof. N. *Spilsbury. Trinity College.A. M. Christ Church. Greycoat Hospital. Dover S. Stevenson. Northants.APPENDIX 156 SowERBY.. 5.W.D. 40. S.A.. New Zealand.. Stevenson. S... *Steelb.. M.. Windsor. 33. Essex.D.. C. 340. P. F. Victoria Embankment.A. B. LL. Abingdon. Northwood. M. Oxford. Mecklenburg Square.. H. Mrs. Storr. *Stawell.. 23.. R. Prof. Radley College. 94. Westminster. p. M.. Storr-Best. Stevenson. Rev.A. The Malting House. Ladbroke Square. Idmiston Road..A.A. M.D. Park House. Miss A. Felsted..... M. Stocks... M. H. Stock. Sheffield.A.. Streane. Slough. H. Canterbury Coll. S. The University. Rev. Prof. E.A.. Whitburgli. West Norwood. M. Stroud. Spooner.. Stewart. Nottingham. B. Upper Grosvenor Road. W..D. Rev. City of London School. Tonbridge. LL. W. Mrs. Steavenson.. M.A. B. A. F. C.D.. K. Florence.. Trinity College. Strong. W.. M. J. J. Stewart. Stewart.A. High School. D. Cambridge. Stenhouse. A. Stone. W. E. Oxford. D. E. St... Steele. Stanton. L. Pali Hill. Spalding. Gloucestershire. Hope. B. Miss A... Cambridge. W.. Miss F. The School House. M. H..

Woodlands.. Weston-super-Mare. West Deyne. C.W.. M. M.. B. Bury Manchester. N. Queen's Gate. 46.A.A.. a. Montrose.. Swallow. Westmorland. Shiba Ku.D. Northcourt.A. M. Strudwick. Grove Park.B. Sutton.. M. B. Edith Road. D. U. 2. G. Leeds.W. The Howard de Walden Institute.A. S. C..NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 157 Strong. Symes. B.. K.. D.. 36.. St. G. M. Reading. S. Miss G.. West Kensington. Uppingham..G.. N. Sutherland. Dunmarklyn. Ladywood Cottage.. Japan. Tanner. South Kensington. Park.W.A.. Stuart. T.E.. Taylor.. M. Miss J. Norfolk Sheffield. Stuttaford. 16. 12. Arthur. Taylor.. Miss E. M. J. 15. Clair. M.W.. Talbot.A. Somers Place. Taylor. Tayler. E.E.. 4. Koran ji Gakko. *Stuart. G.W. Summers. S. M. a. Taylor.F.. M. N. Manse. Board of Education.. Rev. Woodlands. Carmelite Street. D.. Brough. Essex.. Miss M.A.. J. S.. M.Sc. Trinity College. Tabor. Baring Road. A. W. M.A. Taylor. Oxford. Wanstead. B.A. M. S. Maidstone.. *Sykes. Rev. E.A.A. Hampstead. Canon R. S. *Tarrant. Sheffield. C. Miss D. Newcastle-onTyne. San Kocho. Syson. Tatham. Cyrus. Miss L. Bedford College. M. Glencoe Road. Surrey. Abingdon.W. C. R. Dean of Christ Church.A. Rev. New Road. Endcliffe Rise Road. Sykes. W. Stanhope Gardens. Miss A. Cambridge. M.Litt. Miss E.A.. Cheam.. Miss E. Sykes. The High School. Very Rev..A. 438. Tatton... The Mall House. Roundhay.. B. . W. Miss N.. B.. Regent's Park.. F. F. St. City of London School. Grove Park S. Warwick Road... Prof. Taylor.A. J. Miss E. E. Talbot. A. Rev.. A. C. Baring Road.. 133. The Manor House. Redington Eoad. T. C. Royal Grammar School. Tokyo. M. J.. B. J. M.A.C. near Kirkby Stephen. Prestwich.

Bucks. Clapton. M. W. Thompson. Rev.. St. Tressler. S.. Stanford. Thornton.E. A. M. Sussex. 2.A. Manchester. Miss B.A.. York. Dublin. Miss E. The College.A. F.. F. M. E. The High School. .. J. Trayes. B. Tyttenhanger Lodge.A.. 0. a.. The Lord Bishop of. M.. S. Thomas. M. S. S.. Mrs. M. R.. Sui-rey. D..A.. King's Gardens. Ft. R. Bi-amshott Rectory. L. H... Medland. Truro.jM. Thomson. Taylor. B. Rokeby Avenue.A. A..A. F. Trevone.A. Thackeray. N. Bombay. Exeter. W.. Cardiff. M.. India Office.A. Thomas Cook & Sons. Miss M. 40. M.. J.. B.. Little Trinity. M. ToYNE. Ashfield. The End House. The Wick. Seaford. Tilley. 19. Tombs.A. Sir E.. New South Wales. L.L. Hove. J. Mutley.C. M.. Thorneley. T. C. E. Malcolm Road. M.. Wimbledon. Royal Holloway College.A. M.C. Towers. Oxford.M. Oriel College. Chester. [Hants. Rusholme.. Godalming. H. Colum Road. Miss B.. Wimbledon. 17. Tildesley.E.. F.A. Miss L.W. Thompson. G. M. M..s. Townsend.. N. M. Thompson. British Museum.A. M. Heme Hill. 11.APPENDIX 158 Taylor. John.. L. Marsham Lane House.. H. W.A. St. Peter's School. Stradella Road. 16. Sydney. Tottenham. i\I. Plymouth... Miss E. Thomas. Thring. Manchester. Trenerry. H. J.W. 16. Rusholme.A.. 3fiss F. Thompson. J. H. E. Gerrards Cross. Thompson. M.A.c/o Messrs. S.. The College.W. Miss M.. Primrose Hill Road. F. The Palace. London. H.. *Tennant.Litt.B.A. Taylor. Truro. Nunclose. C. The Boltons.. Sussex. A.. Liphook. Liverpool... Mayfield. W..A. Joseph. M. Taylor. M.W. J. a. M.. B. North View. Miss E.A.A. Whitehall. ToD. Titherington. Tildesley... Selwyn Gardens. Cheltenham. 39.A. Dee Fords Avenue. M. D.. M. Grassendale.. E. Durham. ToMPSON. Harcourt Street. Cheltenham. Middlesex.. Miss L. Maunde.W. Bristol. G. Redland. Lisson Grove. Englefield Green. Hackney Downs School... *Trollopb.A. Old Elvet. Girls' Grammar School. Taylor. F. Cambridge. H. Charterhouse. a. Thomas. a. Hove..C.. S. Bradford. 14. *TowER. M. Cambridge.. Eev. Northwood. Stanford. N.. Normanhurst.. S. MissM.A... 30. M. The Gable. 11. Terry.A.

Upcott. Birmingham. *Wakefield. H. M. Hyde. Kensington Park. W.D. B. The Lodge.A.. Rev.A. . North Bailey. BA. Wakefield... Selwyn Gardens.. School House. Lincolnshire. S.A. New Maiden. Esplanade Road.D.. Berks.. N. W^ellington College.A. M.. H. Beechcroft. Cambridge.. Miss E.. Lyttelton Road. G. Selwyn Gardens. Ovingdean Hall. W.. King's College.. Haileybury College. R. Miss E.. Virgo. M. Roxborough Park. Nottingham. 5. W.A. M. W.. M. Hertford. Bradfield College. 11.A. M. B. de G.. M. A.. Thetford Road. B. 87. Rev.. Market Street. The Lodge. Eton College. Verrall. B.A. Essex. Upcott. E.. Sherbourne liodge. Durham. C..C. M. 5. M. Leamington. P. Gresham Villa. Braeside..A. Walker. H.A... Vaisey. B..... M. 29.A.R. Miss E. Vaughan. D. W.A. A. V.A. Vernon-Jones. M. Rev.. de G. *Vaughan. Magdalene College.. D. M. 20-21.. The Grammar School. 0. E. E. Prof. J. Surrey. B. Windsor.. Vaughan. M. Dovercourt. Norfolk. Unwin.. B. Valentine.. W. Harrow on the Hill. Essex... Hendre. Lincoln's Inn. B... Berks. University College. Wager. *Verrall. Cambridge. Leeds. J..A.. S.. Miss C. Waldstein. the Lord Bishop of. 43. Edgbaston.A.A. F. M. M. Worcestershire. L. H.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS 159 Turner. West Horsham. Holt. *Varley. Sherwood. F. St.. XJre.. W..A. M. B.A. Miss W.A.. Reading. *ViNCE. ViNCE. H.. W. Scotland.. A. Uddingston. Albans. Bombay.. Mansfield Street.S. W. West Park. Brighton. Walker.. E. Veysey.. 174. The Grammar School.A... A.C. Turner.. Bishopsgarth. W. Stanley Gardens. Christ's Hospital. Wage... * Vaughan. Cambridge. Vakil. Laui-ence Pountney Lane. Chigwell School. Wellington College. Litt... Louth. Walde.A.. R. a. J. A. LL. Walker.. Cannon Street..A. M. New Square. S. Berks.A. Cheshii-e. 44. Rt. M. Cambridge. B.A. LesUe Lodge. Vincent. Tyler. Mrs. G... M.B. 3.. S. 8. Halesowen. M.A. Waddell. Sir C. S.A. Miss H. M.

. E. H. Walker..A. Brook Green. . L. M. Watson. M. Warre-Cgrnish. Walker. *Walters. Miss J. F. Rev.A.. S.A.APPENDIX 160 Walker. M.. School House.. Ward. M. President * Warren. 37. R. Walker. The Grammar School.. South Norwood.. A.. John Street.. Rev. M. Litt. Miss M. 7. Watson. Headingley.A... Regent Lodge. Manchester. Cambridge. 7a. W. of Magdalen College. East Sheen.. Bramshaw. Cheetham Hill. W. Edmund's College. R. H. H. M. South Australia... near Falmouth. Waterfield. (No address. P. S. Cambridge. Waterfield. Queen's College. Watson. M. Prince Alfred College. M.W. Huddersfield. 10. E. King'. M. 28. W. J. Waters. Crich Common. Ware.. Lewes.A. Flamstead..A. M. Miss E. Strand. a.. M. North Walsham.. A.s College. J. Rev. C. Caterham-on-the-Hill. Beaconsfield. M. W. Palmer's Green. E. W. Monsignor B. Miss E. Rev.Litt.A. Oxford.. Rev.A. Clare College. A. N. Oakhill Court... D. Crafts Street. Paul's Girls' School. Cambridge. Knapton Rectory. Miss L.. Magdalen College. J. W. B. Waters. F. Queen Anne Terrace. a. Warner.. Derbyshire. Haileybury College.A.. F. W. St. Halliwell Lane. C.A.A.. M. East Sheen Avenue.... M. M.C. Waits. A.D.A.. A.A.A. W. Ips^vich. Sir A. Weber. Watson. T... Prof. Matlock Bath.. Abercromby Square.. Surrey. Waterlow. St.. Cheltenham College.. Ward.A.. Berks. W^atkins... Oxford. H.W. W. Kent Town..D.. Rev. Warman.. B. Bosloe. Watkins. S. P.. B.A. S. A. Sir G. Putney. The Oaks. Warner. Mass..C. D.. K.. Upper Cheyne Row.L.W. M. Ward. p. British Museum.. Bracknell... E. W. Wardale. Liverpool.. Hertford... Rt.S. Oxford.. Derwent Road. London.) Lewes House. Master of Petei-house. 34. 3. Wallace.A. Oliver Grove. Technical College. T. W^ARD.A. Prof. Warburton. Falcon Villas.A.C. Newtonville.E. D. Miss I.. Walters. Manchester. Old Hall. R.. Warren. Bedford Row. C. The Dene. G. C. W.. Leeds. J//ss D. M. Ward. Watson. M.A. M.A.B. Webb. S.. 28. Principal. M.C. Christ Church.. U. Oxford.A. 141. M. M. G. B.. Sydney.

Belgaum. M. G.A.ol.. S. I. G. Brudenell Grove. Miss A. Yorks..A. W. A. Highwarn Road.. Home Office.. Whitwell. M. Pembroke College. 21 . Weech. R..A. W. Hans Place.. Lisburn Road.. White-Thomson. Wales. B.A. Stanwell T. Bishop. N. J. Manchester.A.A. M. Whitty.A...A. W.. R. D. India.. Warden of Wadham College. I. Miss E. Banbury Road.. S..D. R. M. Hawthorne.W.. King's College.A.. Denbigh.W.. C.A. Miss E. London. Pemberley Crescent..S. Whyte. G. Sind. B. Isle of Man. E. Sedbergh. School House. Halifax.. W. Wedd... Whibley. M. H. Whitehall. a.P.C. 509..A. Rugby.. L. a. White. Greengate Street. Heidelberg.. Canada.C. L. Oxford.. Wild. University of Michigan. Whibley.S. Williams. W. Wavendon Manor. Miss E.A. F.. C. Melbourne. Montreal. Went. Whishaw. E.A. Corran.S.. Howell's School.A.. Cambridge. Miss J.. J. 31. Windsor.. Mrs. Gallambee..A.C..A. J. Southsea. Hyderabad. S. B..The Deanery. Mass. Cambridge. W... B.. M. G. Wales... Oldham. Higher Broughton. 39. N. Fordhook Avtnue... India. E. C. White. M.. White.A. 1.A. H.. Harvard University. Hon.. Wenley. *Whitworth. N. U.. N. M. Westaway.. W. B. H. B.. Road.. *Whitehead. Rev.. Hillbrow.A.. 102. Whiskard. Webster. Merchant Taylors' School. M. J.. M. Whitestone.. Brantwood. Rt. Oxford. Penarth. 161 M.C.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS Webster. B. Whincup. Wells. Welldon. L. Woburn Sands R. Miss G.S. Bt. Castletown Grammar Sch .. F. M. Wedd. *Wells. B. B... I. The Wyggeston School. M. M. H. R. U. Wells. G. T.A..S. Cambridge. B. 70. Eton Colhge. Leeds.A. Wicksey.B. Bedford.. Leicester. J. Oxford. 94.A. Newnham College. Rev.A.A.. Trafalgar Institute.A.. Eton College. White. Bombay.O. Cambridge. H. Miss E. Watford. East Madison Street. Windsor. Ann Arbor. M.. Mus.. N. 23. W. B. Prof.. Wigglesworth. J. Wadham College. B. Albany Road. 6. Beds. c/o Town Custom House. M. H. Ealing. Whitley. A. S.. Wiles. Michigan. Prof.Litt. Whitefield.. Belfast.S.

. H. Remenham Rectory. Luke's. F. T.. Leeds.. Wood.A. Sydenham. Alderley Edge. M. Wilson. B. Malabar Hill.. Williams. B. Petersfield. M. T. W. Wood.A.A. 54. .W. West Horsham... Wood.. Magdalen College. 107. 11. R.A. LL. Putney. Bedford. S. Oxford.. Chelsea. Bradford. Williams.B. M. M. Rev.A. S. Manchester.A. H. Ridgt field Terrace.. Prof. Bangor.A. Wales. Yorks. M. E. WiSHART...A WooDAiiD.. F. B. Northern C4rove. St. Balliol College.. N. I. Gillurd. Wilson. Miss S. John's Park.. L. Bombay. Miss J. R. F. M. Williams. Oxford.. M. M. F. Peak Hill.A. Wood.. Tan-yr-allt. Willis. 56. M. C. J. St. J.. R. Manchester. Williams.A. N. B. G. West Hill.. M. H.. A. H. Oxford. Glynn. W. WiNFiELD. Pembrokeshire. Prof. 12. R S.. Victoria.A..A... Wood. Wales. Cambridge. Wilkinson. Williams.P.. 99.A. Rev. H. E.. B. H. Bedales School. S.. A.. B. B A. M. Bangor.. M. Temple ISTewsam. Williams.. B. The Vicarage.. S.. Henley-onThames. W. Manchester. Wilson. N. The High School. Friars' School. F. M. Melrose Hall. Wood.W. Savile Club. The University. J. Rev. 46. Williams. Oxford. Williams. Hudson. R. W^iLLiAMS. 46. Williams. Castlemaine. Repton.. Williams. Miss M. A. Selwyn College.. Eai>t Cowton Vicarage. (No address.. H.. The Ryleys.A. B.E. M. The College.. S. M. Piccadilly. H. Stanley. Williamson.A. W. Pontefract. . Uon.A. Rev.A. M..) Willis. A.C.. Lawrence College.A. H. Cheshire. Miss M.. Hants. M. Tasmania. M.A. Woods. Cook. Williams. Spenser.. Eastbourne. West Didsbury. W. Plas Tirion. Failsworth. T.. Northallerton..A.A..A. Leeds. Miss M.. L. Talerdigg.E. Prof.. Pendleton. M. Fyfield Road.. King's School. Hertford College. R.A... M.APPENDIX 162 Wilkinson.. Solva. L M. A... J.. Willis. G. Christ's Hospital. London. Williams. N. Cambridge.. G. WiLLEY.A.. Dovedale. Witton. Winter. M. Hobart. Ramsgate. St. Wood. St.. A. Olave's School. S. Grammar School. E. L.. Training College. Cheltenham.A.. A.A. Wilson.P. Park Road. McKianon. . Rev.A. M. Sligo. Oakley Street. Rev. The School. F. 13. Spenser Road. WiNBOLT.

Yate. M. S. N. Surbiton. WoTHERSPOON.. New York City. Jersey. F. Wren.. Hovingham Hall. P.. S. Victoria College.. F. Oakhill Drive. J.-Col.. Wye.A. New Cross. B... Trinity College. H. W. *Wright. Sir W..A. A. M. * Wright. C. N... A. Miss M. B.S. M. R. M. Herts. WoRSLEY. a.A.D. M.A..A. Aldis. Eastbourne. West Kilburn. Bridge Street. Wye.. U. Wordsworth. LIBRARIES Public Library. A.A.. Rev. Ph. Miss E. . WoRLEY. Bishopthorpe. Yorks..S.. Shifnal. Miss Avery. LL. Aske's Haberdashers' School for Girls. Litt. Old Swini'ord.. Leeds. Halford. The Most Rev.. J. Bart. 86. B. Oxford. M. Mecklenburg Road. Lake Forest New College. l^e ds. WooLKYCri. M. Birkenhead High School. Birkenhead. Win wick Street. Wright. Beckbury Hall. Zimmern.. Wynne-Edwards. J. Miss H. Haileybury Colh ge. The College. 11. TJie Archbishop of.W. Miss A..A.. S. D.D. Elphinstone Iliirh School. H.A. 119. D. A. Hurlingham Court.A.A.A.. Lieut. Miss E.. Lake Forest. F.. Yule. Bombay.NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS Woodward. M. Warrington.. F. Wright. M. E.. Bishops Stortford.D.A. S. Austin. WoRTERB. Notting- ham Woodward.L.A The University.S. . L.C. Rydal Plouse. S.L.W.. Banbury Road.. WoRRALL. Young.. U.C.. Rev. Columbia University. A.D.S.W. M. Zachary. Tarradale.A.. E. High School for Girls. A. LL. Grammar Wyse..E. * Yates.A. C. York. Illinois.A.A. School.. Young.A. M. Keslake Road. US.. Moss Hall Lodge. T. 78. York. Stourbridge. Miss K. W. R. Cambridge. H. B. 10. University of Texas.. 13. Lanes. Hertford. M. Texas. M. Leeds. 2. 31..S. Saffrons Road. Oxford.A.. Malton.. B. Fulham.. H. M. Thackley. Ross-shire.. . Miss T. RedclifFe Gardens. C. Miss M. Newcastle-on-Tyne. Wright. Prof.. Bentley Road. Thoresby High School. G. A. North Finchley. Shipston-on-Stour....A.. 163 B. B..

G. U. Campbell. U. Berkeley. Little St. Massachusetts.W. Cambridge. R. U. Trafalgar Square. Prof. James's Square. Mary's Lane. R. Mills. Sotheran ck Co. Willis. B. INIanchester. London Library.A. Stevens & Brown. Washington. H. L. S. Trafalgar Square.A. Miss B. Library of Congress. C W.C. G. Sion College. W^. Mitchell Library. California. c/o Messrs.. GuNTER. 4. c/o Messrs. W. W.C. . Stevens & Brown. c/o Messrs.A.S.S. South Hadley.S. NOTICE The Hon. U. Princeton University. Library of the Museum of Classical Archaeology. B. be glad Members to receive the present : Kelaart. Warre-Cornish.S. Johnson. E..C. 4. St. Miss L. Glasgow.A. Cowl. 3frs.— APPENDIX 164 Public Library. Princeton.S. New Jersey.. P. Boston.A. North Street. A.C. E. University of California. Copley Square. J. F. Treasurer will addresses of the following Bean. U. The John Rylands Library. University of Chicago. Bev. F. E. Massachusetts. W. Deansgate. H. Roscoe. Mount Holyoke College. Victoria Embankment. 140. Strand.

C. Tatham.. Wokingham . B. Bracknell Bradfield . F. Churchill. S. {conti7i'ued) Broadbent. . H. Channon. Brinton. Wliitwortb. . W. S. L. . F. the Hon. L Lang. Miss E. F. C. H. S. . Irvine. Rev. Rawlins. Cobbe. Upcott. H. A. G.Penson. F. Kindersley. Miss M. lAiton . Miss Wellington Coll. Roscoe. Marsh. Rev. G. lyn. W. Headlam. Rev H. W. W. Symes. G. Gow. Vince. Bebkshire Edghill. Ure. W. B. E. J. Sharwood-Smith. L. H. Prof. Miss B. Prof. Slough Learv. Grace. . G. E. M. Prof. . St. Cornish. Finch. Kyrke. Sir C. W. L. G. Miss. W. Anderson. Stone. R. C. W. P. Prof. C. Lyttelton. L.') ENGLAND BvCKli^QHAMSHIRE—COnti?lued JEton College BkdfordshirbBedford . A. Rev. S. Miss C. Alex. C. Wells. J. . Miss A. A. Lubbock. A. Windsor Blakiston. D. F. M. Slater. Westaway. iXames marked • denote the Local Correspondent for the 'place or district. A. T. W. Mackesy. P. Costley. Rev. Waterfield. N. Cattley. . F. K. Eppstein. Wilkinson. E. Impey. M. . L. Canon A. W. J. Cambeidgbshieb- BUCKINGHAMSHIHKBeaconsjield Eton College Camhridge Solomon.White. A. F. G. Sloman. E. H. W. Ridgeway. F. E. Davies. C. Rev. H. Maidenhead Mortimer Aeivbury Chittv. D. Pangbourne Reading . Musson. . W. H. E. J. . Beckwith. Whibley. . L. C. V. E. Coll. Sheepshanks. G. „ Vaughan. E. J. S. R. Rev. H. Durnford. H. G. *Ramsay. M. H. Lyttelton. R. Atkinson. Duckworth. . Devine. G. T. . A. J. Raid. Vaughan. G. Rev. C. A. E. T. W.. F. F. E. J. Warner. E. Sandy Woburn Sands . M. : . A. TOPOGRAPHICAL LIST OP MEMBERS QThii is an index intended for reference only. — A hingdon Stone. M. Bevan. Oldershaw. Gerrard's Cross Thackeray. 166 T. E. Miss E. C. Sir G. High Arnison. Austen-Leigh. R. Daniel. Allbutt. E. Mansfield. J. Robinson. D. A. Bingham. A. W. Rev. Hon. Macnaghten. Cains College . Wycombe Abbey Strong. Llewel- J. Miss H. For full titles the alphabetical list should be co-nsulted. 0. F. Goodhart.

Prof. J. M. Feterhouse . Frazer. H. Verrall. Ridding. Bury. C. Waldstein. H. Rev. G. Rev. D. Hackforth. M. J. F. . . John's Coll. H. B. Rev. Nixon. H. W. E. L. Phipps. P. F. Bury. Vernon-Jones. H. C. Miss A. Rev. F. A. T. Mrs. Whibley. Angus. Sandys. Edwards. A. C. Corpus Christi College .*Jex-Blake. Wedd. M. Ely . H. A. F. J. Sir C. . . H. E. Durnford. J. Walker. N. Giles. J. S. Chase. F. Jones. *Sheppard. Miss E.' Miss S. Morris. T. L. Richmond. Mrs.* Jones. Jackson. V. H. Loewe. Cook. *Gaselee. E. Beck. Haves. . Rev. J. R. E. V. Lindsell. . A. Rev. W. Sir J. W. B. Macfarlane . . Gibson. Colson.APPENDIX 166 — continued Cambkidgeshiee Camhridyp Cambbidgeshiee — continued — roiitinurd Christ's College Comhridge Campbell. Stobart. Mrs. Rouse. HaxTison. J. S. Magdalene Cambridge Benson. E. Jesus College . Haskins. Tavlor. W. H. Canon R. Canon E. Lewis. Girton College . Coll. Donaldson. R.*Ed wards. Cronin. M. Prof. Verrall. . G. F. Miss A. Collins. Atkinson. A. Glover. . Pembroke Coll. E. H. Barnes. C. Rev. H. Peskett. Rev. J. . Gardner. Hicks. Prof. W. . G. E. Gray. A. W. . Parry. E. R. W. Miss H. Miss M. J. M. G. *Rackham. Wright. W. B. M. E. Coll. D. *Waidale. Sikes. C. W. *Lawson. C. E. Rev. Greenwood. Miss C. Duff. J. R. E. E. Sidney Sussex ColUge . F. H. Duke. Prof. J. Coll. G. de G. . Rt. tagu. H. Peskett. Ward. St. M. Stuart. Miss A. Miss J. M. Rev. J. C. Gwatkin. J. W. Miss K. S. Mrs. Robertson. Rev. F. D. S. Streane. D. Newnham Adam. . F. Jenkinson. H. Mrs. T. Prof. C. H. MoriartT. Stewart. P. G. Rapson. A. M. Jeff. deG. J. R. N. H. Miss L. H. H. Corn ford. Kennedy. Plaistowe. E. . Burkitt. J. Sharpley. Tillev. J. Sflwijn College *Williams. Clare College — continued. B. Rev. Edmunds. Prof. Miss J. . S. Rev. H. Rev. Miss M. A. Bethune-Baker. Trinity Hall Training 0. S. (Queens' College Sir A. G.. W. J. Mon- Trinity College Butler. A. G. J. (Bishop of Ely). F. Miss E. Coll. W. Emmanuel . S. Mrs. Graves. N. J. D. Rev. Aldis. BTrnc. Richardson. Harrison. A.*Wood.Grieve. *Matthaei. H. G. Appleton. G. I. Coll.. [W. Prof. Stanton. C. King's College Adcock. Flather. Miss H. Butier.*Abbott. F. P. E. * W. E. E. F. R. J.St. Catharine's St. Steen. Wedd. E. H. W. R. E.

. Eendall. E. T. Bernard. JVantivich Sale . Rev. Kirkpatrick. Miss M. Norwood. Sir. F. Kirwan. (Bishop of Truro). Williams. T. Durham Blackett. King. J. W. F. G. Layng. Eev. W.. E. Ward. Prof. Baines. Dorset — Cheshire— Aldevley Edge 167 — Brooks. G. Slater. L. T. F. . J. P. Newcomb. Walker. VV. E. — . H.O. Croslaud. Miss K. H. Miss S. Eev. Canon E. Saffron Walden Hirst. Junr. T. E. S. . Principal F. Barley Dale Matlock Bath Repton . H. Bevan. Eev. Miss D. Holland. Dovercourt Ffh-ted . S. E. Chesterfield . Eev. R. Chester Hyde . Smith. . Miss E. Miss W. B. Rhoades. G. Iremonger. Trenerry. F. F. Earnshaw. H. Alfreton . F. E. W. Rev. Eev. Eev. J. Dav. Stanley. Prof. A. . it. D. H. Jobson. Wimiorne Bensly. E. . F. Rev. Penny.-continued Ely Glazebrook. . J. F. Rev. G. A. Lu&tleigh . Eev. Heath. Bavijptun Buller. . Very (continved) Eev. Gloucestershire Bristol . H. . Smith. M. W. Collins. B. Courtauld. Miss M. Miss H. AVilson. A. T. H. R. . Moxon. South Shields Essex Allison. Miss E. N. Miss M. H. DevonshibeAshburton Cobham. . M. . N. S. D. . Finlayson. G. E. J. G. C. A. Fremington . A. Sherborne COBNWALLFahnoiith Dennis. Muscbamp. J. Stephenson. Wallasey West Kirby Danson. Valentine. G. King. Jones. . A. A Jevons. S. H. Exmouth . Kelvedon . G. L. F. . T. A. Tombs. Rev. . J. J. Mrs. Miss F. G Abel. C. Limebeer. Kev. E. Trayes. Hollowell. . P. L. Miss E. T. Dobson. . Miss L. Osborne. Eev. A. B. Miss D. Rt. H. Campion.TOPOGRAPHICAL LIST OF MEMBERS Cambbidseshikb— continued Devonshire. Waltham Abbey Johnston. Sir J. Eev. Cruickshank. Plymouth . Hoyle. F. Miss B. Truro Burrows. . . Miss B. S. J. AltrinchaiiL Birke7iliead . Cocker mouth Wigton . Smith. Durham — Barnard Castle Headlam. Eev. Thompson. O. C. G. Turner. Miss E. Miss J. C. Miss G. Yates. . Flood. Miss. Rev. . Rev. Mayor. E. M. Wanstead Swallow. *Tildesley. C. C. H. Braintree Cumberland— J. Canon M. L. Dobson. Church. Eev. J. . R. Richards. Ainslie. Eev. Barnstaple Beronport Exeter Walde. . S. . W. F. Miss E. Hutchinson. Eev. E. Derbyshire — Dedham . J. Watkins. . Miss L. Cattley. H. Chigicell School Carlisle C Bramwell. . B. Barlingto7i Coles. A. B Pippet. Miss K. How. J. . . Walthamstow Guy. Miss F. D. Johnson. Miss. Cheadle . Sandford. Morgan. I. W.

Miss M. Miss J. The College . R. Isle of Wight. . R. H. A. Ross. M. Mrs. Mrs. Newman. Stanton. Miss H. Henson. T. . {co7itinued) Leominster . W. J. F. J. Greene. . . Purton. J. Miss Maiy L. Dean Close SchJndhoyi. . Miss E. . R. Woodard. J. Hereford Berridge. L. Gloucester J. A. C. Ware Ward. A. Rev. W. Rev. Baker. R. Condtr. Coll. Ernest. Miss H. . Chlslehurst Charing S. M. Hertford Letchworfh St. C. Young. T. A. V. Bov/rnemouth Davies. Cheltenham Exton. Myers. L. . T. 0. I^ord. J. Hall. Prof. C. Rev. Rev. H. L. Sowels. M. H. Stroud Proctor. N. Haileybury Kennedy. B. E. M. Kemertoti Wishart. Miss E. W. A. J. . G. J. Lady. Hopkins. Rev. L. Thornton. C. W. . C. Hampshire— Andover . . E. B. H. Bramston. W. J. A. Burnside. F. E. P. Rev. Genner. P. . Covernton. S. . Ladleti' Coll. Miss L. Godfrey. Watford Canon . Miss Esther. E. Case. Albans . F. J.. C. W. Barker. Robertson. . Xirby. Miss M. Footner. . Northbourne. W. Miss J. Neild. C. Horsfall. W. A. P. Burton. . Lavman. Papillon. EUam. L. Petersfield . C. W. Stonehiuise Bramley. A. . Barker. . Miss M. E. Conway. Rev. . Bishop's Stort- ford Bvshey . A. Rendall. N. B. Miss A. Rev. Prickard. M. Towers. H. . H. . Liphook . Malim. Hasingstoke . Harley. Loiy. Osborne Ashbee. . H. H. G. . L. Moor. Bowen. . Miss Gidden. Ellaby. Bam sy ate . Lee-on-Solent Titherington. Rev. H. . . . H. Rev. Faithfull. . M. Rev. Milford. . J. *Purdie. E. E. Abbot. Bastry . T. . Gravesend Hatohhvrst Maidstone Hekefordshiee— M. White. M. Compton. L. Brooke. J. . Evans. M. Waters. R. Canon P. . L. Wright. ]5. A. F. W. M. HertfobdshireBaldock Berhhamsted . Portsmouth . . T. Miss E. Waterfield. A. F. R. Cardwell. Billson. Newton. Hobhouse. Miss G. G. C. Winchester Beckenham Bromley Nicol. Canon B. W. Ragg. Miss G. Jones. Jtomscy . A. F. Hayes Belcher. H. C. L. Crees. Miss A. Wace. S. Miss E. . Miss M. J. Whishaw. Footsrray . . C. F. . L. T. V. C. Drysdale. W. R. C. Saunders. H. Pearce. Williams. Hughes. Heppcl. C. Miss M. Miss. C. T. Sutton^ Miss E. B. S. . APPENDIX 168 Gloucesteeshibe — continued Hbeefoedshike -eontinued Hereford. E. Rev. E. Fleet Hayling Isla7id Bryans. Southampton South-sea Kent — Badley. S. Crawford. Canterbury Helbert. Hammans. Miss E. A. J. L. Cheltenham. Rev. R. . . Rev. P. Rev. H. G. W. Mason. J. Moor. Miall. Chapman. G. A. J. Ferguson. De Winton. . Vaughan. Coleridge. Goss. C. Holder.

Canon. Canney. Mrs. Robertson. Smith. Prof. Rev. . Hvyton . . Rev. Smiley. . Sir A. F. Lipscomb. Rev. K. Lehmann-Haupt. D. A. James. . Richard. Anderson. D. Miss M. T. W. Apperson. G. Churchyard. T. C. . Muspratt. Arnold. M. S. F. G. B. A.Prof. H. 22 W. J. Gibson-Smith. M. *Ormerod. Miss E. Frisch. M. R. Beasley. E. Bosanquet. Bakers. Miss E. Mrs. Sarsou. Conway. Connell. T. *Braunholtz. W. . Miss J. C. Rev. . J. Eev. Bridge. Barlow. Brown. H. Handy side. Campagnac. C. Miss. Downie. H. Ven. (^continued) Hooper. Miss C. M. Prof. Boycott. Miss M. E.Watson. Barlow. Miss A. S. S. P. T. Rev. Miss E. Prof. M. C. Chapman. Hartley. J. S. Miss Hugh-Jones. Collie. R. Miss D. Lloyd. G. . J. C. W. J. Linton. A. Mrs. R. Miss. . A. .Smith. Almond. F. Atter. Broom. M. East. Lancashire 169 Manchester . R. Hon. A. . Henn. Mrs. J. Miss M. R. H. Ashton-in-MakerGreenhalgh. E. field Ashton-undeT' Lyne Dover. Ruble. F. Henn. Lowry. Kenneth. Carruthers. A. G. Newbold. . Prideaux. Forbes. . Burnley . . K. Parker. M. Dr.. Tunhridge Wells Barnard. Rev. Archer. Miss W. G. P. Miss F. Liverpool . E. Pallis.TOPOGRAPHICAL LIST OF MEMBERS Kent —cojitinued Mochester Sevenoaks Sidcup Lancashire— cow^MiMs^Z . Prof. Boyd. Dale. Phillpotts. Rev. J. Gwatkin. J. Burstall. K. Sanders. . Prof. Barker. Miss S. R. Macnaugliton. Gladstone. . . Btokoe. . C. W. Agar. Cradock. Clitheroe . Mrs. Tonbridge Parker. R. F. Rev. L. E. N. Miss A. C. M. O. J. Rev. Boole. I. Rt. G. Dawkins. E. Tborneley. Dymond. J. A. M. . V. Miss S. Calder. Bunce. Miss Kidd. A. Prof. Lancelot. Robert. .A. Moore. Conway. E. S. T. Stenhouse. Alexander. E. Bramley-Moore. Miss E. Miss E. Smith. (Bishop of Burnley). Liverpool VV. Carter. Bull. H. — . J. R. Herman. H. A. W. Miss E. Papamosco. H. K. E. Miss D. Prof. P. Ashton. Hodge. Blackburn Blackpool Bolton . E. L. . Miss E. . T. . L. . Mrs. Watts. J. M. P. Gordon^ W. Caton. D. B. . Coghill. O'Malley. E Kipling. R. W. Theodore. Miss E. Rev. Dodd. R. Postgate. . . A. See STONrHURST. . . Ritchie. B. Sing. F. Rev. . W. Prof. Robinson. Allen. . E. Rackham. Biggs. W. Miss B. L. H. Rigby. S. Beaumont. Great Crosby . E. K. G. A. D. Col. Miss W. 0. Rev. Brockman.

Grensted. . G. Hawkins. Montague. C. F. B. Seh. C. Went. H. Lutterworth Knox. ford). T. C. Donner. C. Warmau. Warburton. . Mrs. H. E. G. Peake. . Patou. Rev. J. Sir A. Herford. Rt. Miss M. Hicks. H. E. G. Bedford M. Miss S. Rees. .. Miss R. Sloane. H. J. E. . T. A. Pilkington. . Miss H. Field. Warrington Ashby-de-la- Zovch . J. CI a /J ham School . . Rt. M. Hampstead York House Sch. Hopkinson. A. Welldon. Spilsbury. W. . C. Rev. H. Greycoat Hospital Steele. E. Rt. . W. Hackney Downs Wigglcsworth. Miss R. H. Wood. — Axke's Schools for Girls Hartley. Miss A. T. G. Willey. Scoles. W. Furness. Lincoln chester). *Norris. (Bishop of Man- LlNCOLNSHIREFry. Miss A. . Kelsey. Casartelli. Eckhard. Wright. Rossall School London Unwin. Rev. ^continued) . A. MacGregor. C. Mason. Simon. . Massey. A. Maclnnes. Rev. W. Leicester Storr-Best. N. Hall. Rev. . Joseph. H. H. J. S. Miss A. Colfe Gr. C. Fry. M. Miss A. A. . Rev. APPENDIX 170 Lancashire — Lancashire. M. Mrs. C. Taylor. Montague. Miss M. Paul. Roby. S. Mrs. . Stoncman. Bewsher. . F. Prof. Plater. F. M. Ho. E. Salford . Jhdwich H. W. Npvion Heath Oldham Louth Stamford S. Miss A. Miss E. Harper. L. L. A. T. Heathcote. J. Miss G. . L. M. . Rev. Hicks. Williamson. M. E. . Miss E. Mrs. Mrs. J. J. E. H. H. Howarth. C. S. . Miss E. . City of London School Chilton. Barnard. S. Rt. C. Horsfall. Ma7ich^steT Boyd. J. I. . P. B. Taylor. A. Miss E. Young. (Bishop of Sal- Grafton. R. Mrs. R. — . . Miss . Stonyhumt . Goodyear. Clegg. Rev. L. C. Miss C. Prof. Thomas. J. Ewart. Leicesteeshirb- B. Rev. Miss M. JJulicich Coll. C. Very Rev. Orange. . Rev. Russell. Taylor. Tarrant. Needham. Guppy. A. Miss C. C. Irwin. .continued contimted Dawkius. l^rcnton . T. H. P. Mi. School . G. Sch. Newton. E. E. A. Coll. L. Rev. H. School Hewetson. Mrs. Miss D. W. . W. L. Miss M. Moulton. A. J. Rev. (Bishop of Lincoln). C. Hurst. Martindale. . Rev. Miss B. Horsfall. Rev. Gibson. Holland. M. Strudwick. Preftt wich Jiainhill . Rev. Furneaux. Colet Court . E. East Putney H. Llewellyn. Rev.'^e. A J. E. Rev. Darlington. Shilliugtou. High . Rudd. . W. . . J. V.Meklin. D.ss E. S. . Miss M. Lucas. . Hopkinson. Herford. W. J. H. J. Sir E. G.

and Training Coll. S. Prof. Miss J. T. S. Kingdom. C. B. Islington S. Miss E. K. . Rev. Miss B. E. Miss E. St. Sch. Richards. Miss F. A. G. A. S. Oakeley. Miss M. A. Owen's School. J. W. H. B. E. Miss M. L. T. M. Miss H. J. Miss M. Bailey. W. R. W. Butler. F. Guthkelch. Beggs. Miss C. Piatt. . Miss S. Barkby. Masham. H. H. J. E. W. . . E. Blundell. A. Stockwell Training Coll. F. E. Ashton. Miss W. Burrows. Rev. Miss C. . P. D.nty Coll. Adams. Ruan Sell. Miss A. Miss H. Loane. . Greenwich Crofts. Wood. A. St. H. . E. G. H. Prof. Miss E. Prof. Coll. M. F. W. Balfour. A. . F. Ecclesiourne School . . Olave's School . Benson. H. F. Reeve. G. Antrobus. . London Parmiter's Sch. *Conway. F. ff. J. D. B. Rogers. Westminster School . Purdie. Miss . Bruce. E. Westfield Coll. Rev. . Hillard. Baker-Penoyre. Rev. A. Abrahams. L. Miss A. Parker. Miss H. Rev. . ikiiss J. Turner. Benton. Miss M. N. Mrs. Nairn. Latymer Upper School . Barlee. Notting High Hill School . Lumb. Rev. Nairne. Walters.: TOPOGRAPHICAL LIST OF MEMBERS London — continued London — continued King's College Bate. J. . . W. A. Felkin. T. Cholmeley. . Miss A. School . E. A. J. Bampfylde. S. I.. C. Betting. Miss H. D. L. A. Hon. E. G. Smedley. Prof. M. E. . . 0. Mill mil Sch. U7iiver. Prof. Affleck. Alford. P. S. . E. C. A. Asquith. M. VV. C. H. A. Althaus. T. Bennett. Miss M. . . . Rushbrooke. Beasley. Miss E. F. Martin. London Collegiate Sch. Miss S. J. Lewisham High School . Mary Batchelor School Mathews. Gr. Bell. Forman. Rt. . G. R. J. County School Forrest. N. Miss K. Lewis. H. Paul's Sch. M. McDougal. Armstead. Witton. G. Barnett. E. Lewer. Tollington H. Hon. Sir R. Legg. D. W. Bland. La Motte.E. Ross. . . W. Slater. E. Miss C. Paul's Girls' . Gerald. Mary's Coll. Paul's So. S. Queen's College Gow. Rev. J. W. . Wells. M. School Wimhledon High AUeyue. Gray. C. Gardner. F. . L. Miss G. Miss F. Edward. J. Miss E. Behrens. J. . Wimbledon Armstead. Sargeaunt. Miss E. G. Streatham High Merchant Taylors' Sch. Prof. Caspari. R. S. Univ. SydenhamS. Richardson. T. . Rt.Soh. *Haslam. R. Gavin. St. . Sir J. F. . D. . St. Holding. E. Rev. Godfrey R. St. Baillie. Hales. P. T. Watson. M. W. Barker. G. {continued) 171 Gedge. School Powell. Miss Heward. . Gould. McClure. B. Skeel. M. N. Spalding. E.*Fov/eU. . K. R. G. N. *Pantin. Wood Green.

Ker. Mackail. J. E. Kennedy. M. Rev. Brodribb. Easterling. Johnson. Walter. Rev. Gurney. CoUison-Morley. Earl. L. B. Loring. Lidderdale. J. Dingwall. Loreburn. H. R. D. C. Davis. Hicks. F. Keay. M. J. B. London S. G. S. Gregory. . J. Miss C. Mattingly. E. B. Halsbury. Miss P. H. F. E. W. J. Lee. N. Sir Sidney. Miss N. Miss E. A. Lord Jus- tice. A. Miss A. (continued) . W. H. Langdon-Davies. Langridge. Miss M. Farwell. McAnally. T. R. A. Ford. J. 11. A. Mrs. Hon. Miss M. Miss E. Heath. R. D. Jex-Blake. R. . (Bishop of South- Heath. . Gurney. Miss M. A. H. Earl of. J. Miss F. E. Lodge. N. C. Macleod. L. B. A. Linnell. . Q. N. S. Miss C. Hodd. Viscount. Sir F. T. A. Crosby. K. G. Hetherington. J. C. C. V. Earl of. Miss A. McCormick. G. A. Lee. Bruce. E. H. Miss A. E. Martin. J. B. C. \V. E. Right Hon. P. Col. Mrs. Bushe. Miss E. Lattimer. F. Burke. Liberty. Sir T. Bonser. Hutton. Sir R. Colvin. P. G. L. Forbes. Freeman. W. Matthews.— APPENDIX 172 LoKDON London London — contimied contiJiucd . J. C. Cohen. F. Crawford. Rev. M. Miss M. J. Prof. J. Bridge. Butcher. Earl of. F. Curzon. H. J. Hiigel. E. Miss A. P. G. W. Cromer. H. Earl. Dunlop. W. Miss A. H." Colquhoun. M. Curtis. W. F. Kensington. M. G. Hildesheimer. W. Caspari. Cooke. W. De Gruchv. Miss C. Fitzgerald. S. Garnsey. Mudie. A. He wart. Hill. Farside. Cotterell. Marillier. Greene. Collins. F. Miss M. wark). JLiongman. Ernst. Miss M. Prof. Baron F. Browning. M. J. G. G. Holmes. Miss K. von. Haydon. W. Sir J. Headlam. K. Knight. W. M. Rt. Bradley. Boas. Haigh. H. W. Haynes. R. W. C. H. Hutton. MissB. Edwards. Campbell. Rev. Chambers. G. Finlay. Buckland. M. Hodge. C. A. G. J. H. Macmillan. Bryce. Leaf. Dale. M. l-ord Justice. Goode. Mayor. M. P. Rice. W. Grigg. D. W. Esdaile. J. G. Miss A. Mavrogordato. Davidson. Miss E. Chettle. Gilson. R. Judge W. Burge. G. N. H. P. (^contimied) . H. Sir 8. Davidson. Kenyon. J. C. Huiton. Droop. Leader. Calthrop. Dill. Miss M. E. Miss M. H. H. W. Admiral Sir C. T. W.

Viscount. W. Miss E. Varley. B. Sir A. J. . S. H. Miss C. Paget. Wye. Inues. C. K. Pendlebury. S. R. Nicholson. A. Steavenson. Ford. Pember. Pollard. Miss L. J. G. W. Mitcheson. W. R. Miss G. . F. B. A. McL. 8. F. A. . Sale. Mgr. Mrs. . M. B. O'Connor. T. K. Miss M. Harrow School . Pander's End Twickenham . H. R. V. Rev. John. Poynter. D. H.Thomson. F. J. Morley. Ridley. S.TOPOGRAPHICAL LIST OF MEMBERS London — continued London — contimuid London {continued) Meiklejohn. 178 Thomas. Miss N. E. Whitestone. M. B. . R. Morton. B. H. E. V. Stevenson. P. Miss M. Muir. G. J. Walker. . Viscount. J. E. F. F. G. R. Storr. Miss J. M. E. R. J. Miller. J. Sands. A. Michael. Miss E. Wotherspoon. Wright. Radford. Richmond. Milner. Townsend. H. Richmond. S. C. Miss J. G. Wood. Pollock. F. A. Shipham. A. G. Weber. Miss E. William. Duke of. B. Rhodes. E. Merrick. Vincent. Thompson. C. . L. Phillimore. Smith. Stuttaford. Pooley. W. L. Middlesex — Scott. B. Vaisey. Poynter. T. A. Sir G. F. C. M. Taylor. G. R. Sir F. Waterlow. Walters. F. Mitchell. Miss M. Rickards. F. *Hort. G. C. L. T. Seebohm. G. Rendall. Baynes. E. H. B. Nolan. Miss L. A. Hodgson. Whiskard. Miss E. Smith. K. Sir W. H. Leigh. G. E. R. Taylor. Sir Plaskitt. F. S. R. Menzies. Strong. B. Prof. J. M. Sir E. Miss. H. A. A. C. A. K. J. Morison. M. Thomas. Williams. F. M. Hallam. Nicholson. E. Winter. of Blackburn. McMurtrie. B. Miss B. Taylor. Willis. Hopkins. G. Isleworth . . Miss E. C. Miss F. P. A. W. Harrow . Mrs. London {conti7in€d) Mumm. J. Simmons. Miller. W. R. Miss M. Norfolk. Miss F. Menzies. B. Williams. Millington. J.Mackenzie. F. R. Miss M. E. White. E. Watson.W. Hendy. Sir L Murray. Thomson. J. Richard. Du Pontet. B. J. F. Miss B. Sykes. F. K. G. A. M. E. Virgo. A. Woolrych. W. H. Waters. Stuart. Eev. N. Rooke. Talbot. Melhuish. Northwood . H. A. R. Eev. G. G. A. M. Miss A. R. H. Robertson. W. A. Stawell. Spenser. Terry. L. Miss K. Sykes. Smith. M. P. Minturn. J. E. Ross. Tennant. S. Tompson. Watson. Wilkinson. G. B. Preedy.

Miss D. . B. I Hulbert. A. Smith. Christ Church . V. M. 6t. . Godley. G. Eetford . Miss L. P. Blagden. Owen. Livingstone. Miss K. Dundas. Rev. Rev. H. Gore. A. Fotheringham. A.) Williams. Beeching. Cooke. A. H. W. W.MissK. Market Yarmnnth W. Gardner. J E. C. . NOBTHUMBEELAND Tvne Davidson. H. Marchant. . H. Uxhridqe Raleigh. Hoernle. F. W. H. C. . R. A. • . C. Prof. H. .' . Miss A. Woodward. B. - A. . Whitwell. G. C. H. Cowley. M. Heberden. W. Jewson. Netvark-071- Trent Barber. Williams. Sir W. Rev. E. Rev. . Cooke. . . E. Argles. Rev. C. Miss E. A. Miss E. A. Lady Margaret W.*Genner. A. J. B. Downham Molt Knaptoti Anson. Rev. Rev. Hertford Coll. J. . Haig. . E. Houston. Farneil. Strangeways. . Exeter College Anderton. L. D. Keatinge. H. Rev. . . Miss A. C. Wight. Caversham Cuddesdon Henley . W. Jesus College Hughes. Bagge. J. R. K. Prof. . Cyril. Brackley Brixworth . . Cookson. McKinnon. H. J. C. . Prof. Anderson. Rev. W. Rev. W. J. Very Rev. Strong. T. Prof. . G. Magdalen Coll. Miss B. Munro. . Talbot.*Burroughs. . W. Coll. Nightingale. Nottingham G. Geldart. NOETHAMPTONSHIBB— Oundle Cambridge. G. W. Prof. Lindsay. T. B. S. C.*Bailey. Prof. College Neivcastlc'-on. Blunt. . Brasenose Haverfield. M. . R. . . Jex-Blake. Grundy. C. J. Rev. D. Strachan Sowels. Hall . A. M. H. . . Cooper. Deeks. Rt. Merry. All Souls Greene. Hadow. S. . R. Gorse. . . . . L. Stewart. *McCutcheon. W. F. A. M. T. H. A. N. . . Northampton Owen. A. . O. Keble College Lock. B. R. . W. . R. Warde. Very Rev. P. P. Gough. . Watson. T. K. S. M. R. Norwich Thetford . Field. G. — . . J. Sanderson. A. . Fletcher. Rains. F. . D. (Bishop of Oxford. J. C. W. continued OxFOEDSiilEE Oxford : MiB-DhKSBX—contiruied Cran. Charlesworth. G. M. Morpeth Warner. Miss L. B. G. D. Wright. W. C. W. OXFOBDSHIREBanbury . Rev. . Dr. Pickard Wood. B. Walker. Corpus Christi Dakyns. G. J. . H. Sanday. L. . Fowler. *Binnev. Rudd. W. Miss H. J. Rev. Prof. Barker. S. A. Benecke. A. . Granger. Brightman. Bvrde. Rev. R. Sidgwick. . . W. E. C. Duff. Miss C. H. Ashwin. W. G. S. Prof. P. . Lincoln College. H. . Tyler. - J. P. Rev. H. Mann. C. Henderson. L. E. R. . Murray. J. Squire. J. Rev. A. Balliol College . Bell. B. H. . Leman. F. W. . S. R. Green. Rev. .— . Rev. C. Nottinghamshire— . APPENDIX 174 Norfolk — Diss . F. Rev. . C. L. E. C. F. . H. . . A.H. E.

F. Mrs. G. Miss C. N. Riley. Prof. Luce. H. W. R. . J. A. F. W. A. . C. . M. Miss H. A. E. R. G.H. Rev. Miss A. Oxford C. Farley. Rev. Benstone Coll. Henderson. . .-Col. J. J. Cooper. Powell. P. C. . Rev. L. - sujfer Mare . W. Miss D. Magrath. Ball. J. J. Shadwell. J. Webster. Miss A. .. Bruton . V Kempthorne. M. {continued) Wilson. . Miss G. R. Phelps. J. Wells. Macan. M. J. R. W. J. G. P.. Poole. Miss D. Rt. A. (continued) T. Spooner. . Rev. W. . Rev. Daniel. Lt. Simpson. T. H. Penrose. Bakewell. Scott. M. Miss H. Syson. J. H. A. A. . Newton. Taylor. under-Lyme R. *Clark. * Pickering. Miss E. T. Milverton Weston T.M. Lys. E. A. F. N. A. T. Worley. R. H. Rutland — . R. . A. . J. Richards. S. W. *Hall. S. Neiccastle- Elliott. Miss G. Rev. A. C. M. Miss M. Rev. C. Wolverhampton Caldecott. W. New College . W. Miss B. J. University Coll. Prof. C. C. Myres. J. J. H. H. T. . Battiscombe. Miss M. T. Hardy. Miss S. Coll. Miss A. H. W. Somerset Bath — Ealand. W. H. Marshall. Rev. Norton. W Shropshire— Stocks. Owen. Lichfield . L. Alington. Miss A. F. A. G. Clark. Hamlet. G. Matheson. . Scott. Rev. M. J. Rev. Miles. Wadham Coll. E. Rhys. Rev. Joseph. A. L. TOPOGRAPHICAL LIST OF MEMBERS Oxfordshire — continued Oxfordshire— continued Magdalen Cull. Queen's College Allen. E. *Stevenson. Witney . Miss D. Luffenham Upjnngham S. Lewis. L. Garrod. G. Richards. H. Hodge. Preb. Worcester 175 Miss Grenfell. Rev. Mills. . J. Wilson. Handsivorth Macfarlane. . Snow. Miss M. *Fyfe. Brown. (^Bishop of Lich- J. R. H. Goodwin. Eev. Tod. H. A. W. M. . . Trinity College *Coupland.W. H. Rev. L. . . Stafford Stoke Uttoxeter . F. Richards. Schomberg. E. H. D. Odgers. P. Ironbridge Neiirjaort Semple. Pope. Oriel College Barry. W. St. Webb. Miss M. U. field). Hunt. . S. John's Coll. Cook. Hogarth. W. Chapman. . . . How. Legard. . L. A. Mrs. M. . Peacock. A. F. . Merton College Allen. I. M. G. Denman. Drewitt. R. A. . Richards. H. Clendon. . *Rogers. T. Powell. . L. E. R. R. C. Warren. Walter. Rev. D. C. Gough. Rev. *Lorimer. Shifnal Shreivsbury Yate. C. Pope. Mackenzie. Joachim. W. . Pearman. G. E. Oxford I. Miss M. L. L. . B. H. B. Prichard. H.O. McCrea. Miss E. P. C. . B. Moss. Gerrans. StaffordshireBarton -underNeedwood Holland. Somerville Coll. C. E. . Mrs. Kirk. Walker. . Miss M. Miss *Hunter.M. . G. W.

N. M. %vay College Ramsay. O. Pearson. G. West Horsham. Moore. G. A. C. Geden. Mainwaring. H. Davies. A. Prof. Barrett. Daubeny. M. Lyon. M. McKay. J. E. . W. Tower. M. Johnson. Surhiton Suffolk— Ipswich . Seaton. Lea. Sir E. Archibald. S. S. N. Miss H. . F. Longworth. Page. Charterhouse School . Miss E. G. Rev. (co7itimied) Watson. . B. Veysey. Hogarth. G. Maunde. Sch. . Miss A. C. Guildford Geikie. Glanville. L. E. W. Cheam School Clay gate W. *Belcher. . SUEBEY Domaille. S. R. Antrobus. L. Miss M. Miss C. W. A. H. A. S. B. C. B. Miss A. Haslemere Nowers. Worthitig Warwickshire— Birmingham . De Zouche. East Grinstead Eastbourne . Elliston. A. F. G. Dawson. H. May field Midhnrst Seaford . A. G. M. H. Tabor. . . . Bexhill-on-Sea Bog nor Brighton . B. D. Rundall. . Marshall. Armitage. W. C. Prof. . Rev. . A. Miss M. . . Rev. D. B. H. H. H. Sussex— Bryant. . K. V. W. A. A. B. Rev. Sir A. Ball. Dawes. A. Mrs. P. Limpsfield Livgjield' . . E. Williams. Lowestoft . Gough. Royal Hollo- . J. . L.REY—co7dinued Millard. R. Miss M. Ball. Godalming Linzell. Miss C. W. Miss E. Hett. Mrs. E. S. Jackson. W. C. Oke. Miss E. Miss L. H. W. Ryle. Redhill Reigate . P. Miss M. Baugh. Marshall. Dawes. C. Miss . Miss D. . R. A. . Miss M. Miss A. M. Rev. St. M. Miss M. G. Rev. C. . D.. H. Dpcott. . P. Hayes. W. . Kingston Hill J. CranlHgh Croydon Paine. Keio Lamb. . E. Miss E. C.. . . Miss L. . M. Cromborough. Caterham Zimmern. E. Ghey. E. Rev. E. H. Gardiner. New Maiden Vaughan. . . . Bennett. Farnham Carlisle. Ferguson. Browne. . P. "Kendall. Worters. Browning. Fletcher. Lunn. Rev. W. D. Bindhead James. Miss E. Richmond Surliton Hove Lancing Lewes . J. Watkins. T. Thring. B. A. Alder. L. . E. Latham. Tressler. J. Miss E. R. T. W. Bowlbv. Prof. C. Rev. G. Kenley Bernays. Epsom Milne. A. Taylor. Miss I. Rawnsley. . Oxted Hardcastle. Rev. . Johnson. Johns. Winbolt. A. M. Miss E. G. Westleton . Miss M. Mayor. Dawes. Dunham. Ballinger. . . . W. Ledgard. G. Miss E. E. Ungle field 6 reen Donkin. Rev. J. H. Mrs. Phillips. E. . Miss M. D. G. Rev. Sovthwold . Parry. S. L. H. Rev. . Selwyn. . Chavasse. Carson. Griffith. . T. Dale. F. A. H. . Warren. E. W. H. W. Silcox. I. Rev. W. . C. TroUope. . W. Miss F.— APPENDIX 176 SXJB. . . L. . A. N. E. H. Thompson. Johnston. E. Miss M. L. Miss A. B. Saunders. Christ's Hosp. Brownjohn. T.St. H. Colvile. . T. Rich- . De K. N. E. . . Warlingham Weybridge mond. R. Leonards Steyning Radcliffe. Rev. E. H. S. F. G. .

K. Miss M. H. Rev. Rev. . Hon. Lewis. Rev. J. . Buckley. A. A. . V. . Lilley. Hoisman. Hodgson. D. Huddersfield L. A. R. Malim. H. Vince. A. Hull im$y C. . M. H. H. C. Evans. Salmon. . . Chappel. . EshoH Halifax A. Burn. . . Hulbert. Milnthorpe Hamilton. A. Miss. . M. W. W. Lewis. . . Rev. C. Kiddermingter 23 Impey. Rev. Miss K.— . Marlborough Baldwin. D. A. Lloyd. Baxter. E. Harris. Kendal Moor. H. Korthfield - . David. E. . E. J. Rev. Pearman. Mayall. Hehden Bridge Holmfirth Howden . M. M. W. Keeling. Miss G. Miss J. H. C. J. Brock. King. Stour Stourbridge Stourport Worcester . Ward. H. Creed. Hyslop. Canon Dewsbury . H. Queluh. Rossiter. Miss M. Rev. Keen. A. Hug by . C. C. H. Lewis. J. J. B. Miss. Atkinson. Reynolds. Bererley Bingley . Lewis. . Rev. F. Derriman. H. on Sonnenschein. A. A. Shijiston Nimmo. o . Whitley. Gilson. B. Miss C. KirkhyLonadnle Leach. R. Robv. M. YORKSHIEE- . Miss M. . A. . Miss K. AUwood. M. H. H. G. TOPOGRAPHICAL LIST OF MEMBERS Warwickshiee WOECESTERSHIBE —continued -contimied jBirmmgham . H. B. Westmoeland . Roberts. Sharp. A. Claxton. F. \V. Miss M.C. Preb. . E. A. Hubberstv J. College Peicsey Salisbury .D. H. C. Miss E. B. White. Garbutt. Dudley Halesowen . M. Ambleside England. Miss E. Hughes. D. Miss C. Crosiley. S. Beaven. (continued) Belcher. W. J. Miss G. James. F. Evans. S. . J. Miss J. Taylor. H. WOECESTEESHIREAlvechurch Bromsgrove S. Miss M. Miss M. W. Goodrich. Rev. L. Kirkby Stephen Tayler. Monk. Atkey. Bradford . T. H. H. Miss E. . Prof. . M. . Rev. J. A. C. W. Scott. Falding. Fraak. Miss A. Turner. . Rt. Rev. Doncaster WlLTSHIBE Chippenham. Wordsworth. George. Branfoot. Rev. C. A. Hfioker. Morris. A. S. Lee-Strathy. P. Miss M. Mi ssE. J. . Stock. R. E. Rev. Rigby. C. A. Pickard. L. Miss J. Strafford Avcm . Miss A. St. L. F. Higgs. Kendal. A. Jones. Michell. Pereira. . C. Mrs. K. Malvern Heath. P. E. S. K. H. J. Behrens. Cole. Miss E. Miss A. W. R. Miss S. . O'H. . Fraser. H. Rev. M. Brooke. E. Rev. R. Rev. A. Lewis. F. Broadbent. Holme. Rev. Measures. B. House. W. Clapham. R. Nicholson. . H. Miss. H. S. R. . Woods. W. Coventry Leainingtun 177 . T. W. Krause. J. E. Rev. . A. Wilson. R. Moore. O. E. Mrs. S. Hone. Miss M. F. Furness. L. E. J. G. Miss D. Rev. Dr. Walker. H. Gr as mere Haslam. H. C. Rev. Dix. W. Wyse. Elliott. Saunders. Green. E. A. Rev. E. Edwarls. K. Rev. L. G.

A. Eckerslev. Rev. E. . Sir W. Gilkspie.. M. W. WALES Cardigan— Aberystwyth . . Williams. Sadler. N. son. . H. J. J. Woodward. .A. Salthvrn .berts. Leahy. M. Connal. Prof. Stokes. W. Cayley. Prof. *Marshall. . W. H. Barton. Wood. Itiehvumd . Sleeman. M. Fleming. J. Prof. J. E. W. Dodd. Bibby. Broad. Ponfefrai't . F. C.. . W.s. . Grant.. H. Rev. Price. E. J. F. W. G. E. Prof. Heathcote. Mathews. T.. F. Conzens.. Miss A.. Anwyl. EUi. L. Prof A. Blomfield. H. Hariies. . W. Newman. Rev. Radcliffe.'-hou. field). Clark. ISLE OF Castli'toicn . J. Sutherland. Green. W. MAN Wicksey. L. Miss E. *Willianis. Dudley. R. . . . Arnold. Lu}. of York). Whiucup. CHANNEL ISLES Jersey . G. E. Douglas. J. R. (Bishop of Wake- (Archbishop Zachary.Rhys. Miss L. W. Malton Prof. Campbell. M. Jack- Waaer. Prof. E. V. Anderson. H. B. Prof. W. Prof. E. Miss G. Miss A.M. Prof. J. H. Y. A. Settle continued .( Bishop of Knaresborough). J. Prof. W. A. Sinni)igto7i Libbej. E. E. . Haunam. Morton. Scarhorflvgli . H. R. Light] ey. G. . J. Escott. W. Barran. Rev. Miss A M. A. N. M. T. Rt. Robert.ARNAEVON Bangor . Prof. C. R. E. A. . B. ten. Walker. Brit. Horner." Miss E. J. Mirfirld Aorthalli'vton . Bottomlev-Smith.. .. J. G. Bensiv. . M Gordon. Kay . H. . N. L C. B. . Miss H. M. A. G. A. H. Wynne-Edwards. . Rev. G. B. Sedbergh Brigg. . Maiden.. Worrall. . S. F. C. J. T.. J. Summers. Bowring. Rev.. Harrison. Mercer. Prof. W. W. K. S. Mi>s A. Miss K. M. Rev. Rev. T. H. S.. Sliarpley. Maufe. Barber. C. J. Hornsby. L. P. G. H. Eev. Eden. Kitson.— APPENDIX 178 YOEKSHIEE YonKSBiRE—coniimied . Winfield. F. R. Hon. I. Hudson. E. W. Johnson. Sir M. T. Guest. . St. W. Iltjjoyi . A. Miss D. Rev. Ilkley {co7itinved) Keighhy . Croft. von B. Dale. Wood. Draper. Mrs. Miss McCroben. Yradon Yorh Wilson. E. Sir J.. E. R. M. Weech. C. Gibbons.. Miss D.'io. A. Prof. E. Rev. Most Rev. Wakfjield . R. A. . . H. Botwood. Miss G. y. . * Prof. Sheffield . R. Lang. W. C. Barker. .. T.... D. Green. Jamieson.. Leeds Lupton. Grundy. Toyne. Pickard. Miss F. Rev. Miss M. S} kes. *Ri. . W. E. C. Arnold. Roberts. . Worsley. . L. C. C. E. L.F. H. N. W. C. A. M. Clough. W. Miss D. Barnby. Forster. Pidllips. J. Rt.

. . Rev. B. L. White. Germany — IRELAND Armagh . TOPOGRAPHICAL LIST OF MEMBERS Wales — continved Denbigh — Colwyn Bay Osborn. Delany. Wrexham narrower. Yule. Principal Whyte. . W. W. . F. Prof. Sligo . A. Glenalmond Montrose St. — Florence Benn. A. Denbigh Ruthin .. K. F. . Crieff . C. E. John. Miss E. Bradney. . Jasonidy. C. L. . . H. M. Lovegrove. Prof. Miss . G. G. Whitefield. Buckland. J. F. Davies. Italy Gudeman. . Geo. Shewan. S. Merthyr Penarth Pentyrch Pontypridd Roath Swansea F. P. May. J. M. E. G. Williams. Rev. Miss M. Prof. Peterson. Rev. Bell. D. Prof. Leckenby. V. NORTH AMERICA Canada— Kingston Montreal . Miss E. Waddell. . A. . Belgium L.. G. Miss J. N. E. Rev. Prof. 'W. Pur>er. G. H. A. Miss A. E. 0. W. E. C. G. Monmouth . A. Bervock Bownpatrick Bublin .— . Miss E. W. W. Browne. Blairgowrie Glamobganshibe— Cardiff 179 Andrews Tarradale Uddi?igston MONMOUTHSHIBE Aiertillery . Carnoy. . Bundrum Halle -an. Norwood. Clarke. Gahcay . Davies. Miss M. . . Miss A. . R. A. N. Miss M. Llewelyn. Rennie. . E. Crowther. W. Rev. G. C. Ramsay. EUROPE — Louvairi Pembeokeshiee — Pembroke Soha Perman. Thompson. F. Plunkett. Nolan. Abernetby. S. Slater. Jenkyns. Henry. . M. . D. Prof. Dr. . E. Miss M. Steele. A. Miss A.' J. Miss C. Miss E. Turkey— Constantinople . Ferard. J. Mayo. Rev. . W. Miss A. Boddington. A. . Keen. . Burnet. . La Touche. Cartwright. W. I. Lewis. . A. S. . McElderrv. J. R. . L. . Prof. Prof. SCOTLAND Aberdeen Davies. C.*Alton. Beare. James. Prof. C. Hardie. R. Dr. Willis. Pooler. R. . J. W. H. . F. Prof. . Barke. Prof. A. . J. I. C.*Exon.. Rev. Belfast . T. Prof. Miss M. E. Prof. Ferrall. J.. . P. A. T. . A. H. Roberts. Heard. Benger. Brooks. E. Laurie. France — Arcachon Cowperthwaite. G. Glasgow . G. Prof. Webster. . Green. A. Atkinson. Miss M. Pearson. J. Thompson. W. J.der Saale Robert. Miss E. Keane. Taylor. Count. Allen. Stevenson. . . A. J. R.. E. . Edinburgh . E. Prof. Hoechst-am-Main Meyer. Prof. . W. Munich .. . Codd. Pearson. Rev. M. T. Rome Ashby. Rev. Miss E. Pye. A. . Prof. . D. . G. Davis. Mediteeeanban— Cyprus . . T. V. Eobertson. A. Miss L.

180 North America — continued APPENDIX .

D. Latter. D. Kincaid. . Prof. R. Ward. M. T. Naylor. J. R. Tildesley. C. . W. M. . Wellington . Dxinedin Stewart. J. M. J. J. W. N. H. Castleviaine . Egypt— Morrell. E. A. Bolus. Pretoria . . N. Furness. C. F. A. Prof. T. W. J. S. G.G. E. K. Williams. J. . SOUTH AFRICA Cape Colony — French Hoek New South Wales— Sydney Hubback. . . Miss M. P. S.. Queensland Brisbane . Miss T. TOPOGRAPHICAL LIST OF MEMBERS Australasia — contlnved Asia — continued Australia — India — contin ued 181 S. Kent Town Hollidge. . NORTH AFRICA Cairo Evelyn-White. Tasmania— Tanner. Wanganui . H. Bowen. Poona Satara Si?nla XInao Japan . Bousfield. R. Australia— Claremont AUSTRALASIA New Zealand— Auckland Christchurch McLean. C. A. Dalton. D. Martin. A. WEST INDIES Barbadoes Jamaica . Sonnenschein. Sloroan. J. . H. — . Victoria Hobart — Toliyo . . — Melbourne SlAM— Bangkok M. Enthoven. A. B. Rev. A. C. E. H. . . Miss E. C. Brayne. F. J. R. Lewis. Prof. H. Barrows. C. J. Langley. H. Whitehead. Miss Leeper. . Adams. G. McMillan. H. Paterson. Adelaide Coghill. P. Miss . G. H. A. S. Prof. W. J. F. Miss M. Fremantle. M. Brown. H. A. E. . Shepherd. Eaigh. Miss L. . Williams. Prof.

.

A. Boyd Professor W. D. Miss G. Canney. B. Esq. . K..A. Manchester 183 . .: THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION MANCHESTER AND DISTRICT BRANCH President Sir Edward Donner. Willoughby Rev.. .A.D. Hopkinson. M. S.. .. Esq. . Ladybarn House School.M. A. . M.A..D. Agar.. Braunholtz. .A.. H. . B.A. Hon. S. S.A. Chairman : Professor R. M. H. Vice-Presidents : The Right Rev. . Professor A.. K. Bishop WellH. Rees. B. Montague. Warman. Professor Esq.. J. L. .Sc. Esq. B. .. Llewellyn. the Bishop of Salford Professor C. Jack. . M. Miss S.A. GuppY. A. The Rev.A. M. Moulton. The Right Rev. Blake Reed. Professor W.R. .. A.D. .A.A. B. Miss Caroline Herford. H.. The LL. M.A. Calder.. Bart.A. D. M. D.Litt.D. . D. B. Committee : Conway. D. . Peake. Parker Mason. Hon.. B. xA-SHton. E.A.S. M. F. . M. C. Litt. M.A. T. the Bishop of Manchester The Right The Ven. Professor A. Miss M. Kelsey.A. E. D. S. Boycott. Esq. Archdeacon of Manchester W. Holland. Esq.. don. . Dawkins. L. W. H. Turner. Anderson. B. The Rev.A.D. Allen.D. Rev J.C. Medland Taylor Miss W. M. . . Bompas Smith. . . LL. Mrs.. M. Miss I. J. E. . .A. E. Dalton Hall. Paton. M.. C. B. H. Esq. Victoria Park. . J. Williamson. Esq. Manchester G. Esq.A. B. Burstall.A. M. Secretaries : Miss R. M.A. E. Professor M.. Sir Alfred Hopkinson. .A.A. Withington. A. . Dean of Manchester M. M. .A.Sc. . Esq. G.

F. Chairman W. Williamson.A.A. M." to the site of the Roman Camp at Brough. Litt. M.APPENDIX 184 Excavation Committee : Professor Professor R. Anderson. C." On March 1st Professor Ernest Gardner. of Strasburg. Calder. : .. J. Esq. lectured to the University and to the members of the Branch on " Ovid in the Metamorphoses. S. M.. Professor W. Vice-Provost After the lecture of Eton College. gave a deeply interesting account of the historical and geographical results of . . G.A. B. .A. M. Professor W. Calder. W. H. Professor James Phelps. Boyd Dawkins. delivered his inaugural lecture on " Nero and Lucan. M. . On February 3rd Professor D. 31st Mr. On November 3rd Prof essor W. the Officers and Committee were elected. Slater." which was largely attended by members of the Branch. having been appointed to the newly constituted Chair of Imperial Latin in the University of Manchester.Sc. Esq. On January Warre Cornisli.. Esq." the Annual Business Meeting was held. Secretary : H. Hewlett. Fry.. M. Sutton. Hon. Ben Mullen.D. J. lectured to the University and to the members of the Branch on " The Value of Modern Greek for Classical Study." On October 27th Professor W. . M. M. . E. B.A.. Esq. by way is housed. M. lectured on " The Odyssey. Esq. Esq. M. F.. Hon J.A.A. . Treasurer : C. Conway. F. On October 13th Professor Albert Thumb. brought from the camp at Brough. M.A. M.A. B.A. Anderson. HoPKiNSON.. Tait.." The Summer Excursion took the form of an eight-mile walk of " Batham Gate. W. A. .A. . from Peak Forest. M... after a visit to the Museum at Buxton where the Ceuturial Stone.A.S. lectured on " The Great Period of Greek Sculpture. and the Treasurer's Balance Sheet approved. M. Esq.R. D.A..

21. The Rev.A. Edgbaston Hon. B. MANCHESTER AND DISTRICT BRANCH his discoveries in Asia Minor. Secretary : New R.A. Canon Ford. Reynolds. Edgbaston Hon. M. Secretary of the Reading Circle : Miss H. R.P. M. (King Edward's School. R. . BIRMINGHAM AND MIDLANDS BRANCH President The Right Honourable Lord Charnwood Vice-Presidents : His Grace the Archbishop of Birmingham The Right Rev. M. . Edgbaston 24 .. W. M. .A. MA. . A. Marshall. Miss G. Miss McCrea J. The Rev.A.. .. and addressed by Principal Hadow.. R. were received on November 29th by Principal J. Major. M. 68. T. W. Stirling Rd. Cary Gilson.A. Treasurer Miss Baugh. 22. THE Lord Bishop of Oxford Watson Caldecott. M. Registrar Street) : Miss D. M. given in the Acts.A. J." There are at present 140 members of the Branch. Barrett. Temple. on District. The scheme for the interchange of lectures in schools continues to be carried on satisfactorily. R. . The Associated Educational Societies of Manchester and which the Branch is one.A. Hon. Middlemore. Wheatsheaf Rd. C.A. James. .: .A. The Rev. . W. HooKHAM. S. Hon. M. of Armstrong College. . . . D. M. The Rev. M.A. Vince. M.Litt. Paul's journeys in Asia Minor. in their bearing 185 on the record of St. Maxwell Garnett and Mrs.. Professor Sonnenschein. of the subject of " Examinations.A. . : Stirling Rd. Waterfield. Garnett.

C.. Cambridge. May 13th. — Joint King Edward's High School Meeting of Educational Societies..30 p. Gilson. Tuesday. . of Magdalene College. performed by boys of K. Thursday. Oxford.— By Mr. A. Thursday. — Thursday.D. M. Gary R. A. Sonnenschein. M. . Scenes from Latin Plays." Thursday.m. E.—" Virgil's Italy.A. Address by Mr. 5.D. H.m. The Rev.m. November 2lst.30 p. B. Litt." Pro- (Professor of Greek in the Univer- sity of Liverpool). Heath. .m. E. Blackman. Presidential Address by the Right Hon. Thursday.A. —Annual General Meeting Accounts and the Election for the passing of of Officers. M. By — " Recent Discoveries in Aylward M. Mackail. A. W. APPENDIX 186 Committee IVIiss Alder . Belcher The Rev. Friday. LL. . M. Miss Loveday The Rev.A. . M. fessor C. of Queen's Egypt. M. — Dramatic Performance.A. February 21st. H.. M. Cattley. .30 p." Wykeham By Professor Professor of Logic.A.A. and the Egyptian Archaeological Survey. M. February 26th.A. . M. October for Girls. E.30 p. B.m. P. George Stock.: . .A. February bth. 5. Grammar and produced by Mr..A.. Miss Baugh Miss M. February of the Branch hth. Frank Jones.30 p. New 1th. Professor A. sometime Professor of Poetry of School.A. M. Lord Charnwood on " Philosophy and Statesmanship in the Republic of Plato.. the University of Oxford. Canon Hobhouse.A. St. Meetings of the Branch. at 5.Litt.m. for the Passing of 1913.A. Miss Nimmo.D. M. Fridaij. — Annual Accounts and Election of Lehmann-Haupt General Officers. D. 8. 7. Benson. October 30th. — at 5 Friday. Meeting February 2\st. J. Arnold Hatfield." College. . 1914. 5.A.30 p. .. A. 5. at Street. — " Tigranocerta.m.m. Oxford. Mr. . Cook Wilson. — Joint . J.A. Measures.30 p. . 1913-1914. C. — " Aristotle. M. Clendon. Aston. Beaven.A. . LL. F.m. B. 5 p. p. May (Date and particulars to be announced later). Miss Brock.

Esq.D. June Uth. LL. The membership of the Branch now stands at about 100. P. . Vice-Presidents The Right Rev. Gadesden. V. C.A.S. W. Head Address by Miss F. Brown. Esq. . Hon. Linton-Smith E. Strong.: :: . Muspratt.B. M. F. Campagnac. The following meetings have been held during the past year :— February 2 Is^— General Meeting.— An expedition was made to Chester to view the full Roman Remains. S. Canon Gibson-Smith Robert Gladstone. .. . Lancelot J. F. M. Esq. . of whom 68 are members of the Association. F. Hon Secretaries Miss F.—'' Some Reflections upon the History of Scholarship. J. LIVERPOOL AND DISTRICT BRANCH President Professor Lehmann-Haupt. Esq.D. . A. Bridge. BIRMINGHAjM and midlands branch Meeting of Educational Societies.. . Beaumont. Myres A. Griffin. G. Caton. Esq. very kindly consented to show and explain the principal remains in situ. The Rev. Professor J." March 12th. Paton. the Lord Bishop of Liverpool ViceChancellor Sir Alfred Dale Miss Baines The Rev. M. . A. Esq. .A.. Litt. E. . Esq. Professor J. : Montgomery. regularly throughout the winter months.. Esq.J. Professor Newstead. There are now 114 members of the Branch. R. Mistress of Blackheath The Keading Circle has met 187 High School. .R. LL. J. Professor E. .D. Legge. Pallis. H. LL. . Weisse. V.. Esq. . The Rev. Postgate. L.D. E. Esq. LL. Esq. C. . Esq.. H. Esq. B. ViPAN." by H. Emeritus Professor H. Ormerod. . K. H. . . . The Rev.D. Treasurer J. S. A. T. Garrod.D. F. and lecture by Miss Janet Case on " The Women in the Plays of Aeschylus.

— " Who were the Romans ? " by Mr. S. Adam Mr. . The number of members is 51. . November 6«^. December ith..—" Phidias and the Parthenon. T. S. p. R. Livy and others. E." by — Professor Postgate. H. Facon . Strangeways the Secretary and the Treasurer. Wild Rev. and Dr. Francis E. C. : Sicily. S. G. H. L. Bowser Mr. E. Barker. . June F. Mr." by Mr. March 11<^." by Dr. M. Houston Mr. ISth. E. R. coins. NOTTINGHAM AND DISTRICT BRANCH President Me. — " Landscape and Architecture in Granger. Miss E. of Committee Granger Committee Mr. Strangeways. Houston Miss C. P. — " Pegasus to Order and Otherwise.:: : APPENDIX 188 and more particularly the newly discovered cemetery of Roman date on the site of the new extension of the Chester General Infirmary together with the remains of pottery. E. etc." by Mr. " Pompey in Lucan. found therein. By an oversight the lecture given on November 8th. E. 1912. or Statius in the Epic . W. Archdeacon H. S. F. . Mr. . Secretary . Clark TuRPiN Rev. L. G. . Leman Mr. H. November lUh. . Barker Chairman Treasurer. . Thomas Field Dr. P. . . P. . T. Wallis Vice-Presidents : Ven. L. on " Tigranocerta " by Professor Lehmann-Haupt was omitted from last year's report. The following papers were read at meetings of the Branch. : Mr. Peet. C. Guy Dicldns. Adam Miss E.

M. Kenyon Headlam Sir J. M. . Gray F. on Gower Street. C. Tn addition to lectures previously mentioned addresses have been given by Dr. . S. E. Burrows Rt. . . Rice Holmes on " Teaching Methods. Meiklejohn C. : Miss G. Mackail on " Vergil's Italy.C. Gow Rev. Teaching the Classics has been introduced . Strudwick Miss M. Gardner TON . C. Committee M." Professor : W. T. Flamstead Professor J. . Platt . W. . Rt. G. 0. Nelson W. Rushbrooke Miss C. Mackail Loreburn J. Pantin W.R. Treasurer Street." Professor R. Paine. Skeel Miss W. Taylor. A. . Caspari R. E. . W.S. Geikie. W. Miss F. by Mr. North London Collegiate School. Earl Cromer Professor E. Asquith .— :: LONDON BRANCH 189 LONDON BRANCH President Very Rev. 145 members. Hon.W. T. A. P. F. Conway on " Horace as Poet Laureate. O. Earl Curzon of Kedles- Rt. G. . and will it is hoped that of its already the largest of those in the There are at present coming year this number be considerably increased.. and a discussion of Methods of on " Catullus at Sirmio " J. .M. N. Although the Branch has only completed one year existence. . M. E. .. Hon. it is believed that it is attached to the Central Association. Holding. Rev. MacGregor. . B. . G. Hon. ." and Sir A.m. J. L. Bedford : Baker College. Professor R. . H. Page. R. . Dean of WESTmNSTER Vice-Presidents : Rt. Camden Town. A. Earl Hon. Professor W. Walters. Meeting was held at University College. J." Professor Gilbert Murray on " The Problem of the Rhesus. S. A. H. Slater Miss E. . E. W. Annual General The February 27th at 8 p. Secretary J.

Esq. Esq. Budworth." by F. Cruickshank. Portway Dobson. D. . B. Doc. and " An Old Grammar School Text.LiTT. D. Professor Brookes. . Canon A. : E. How. Duff. .. The following papers were read at meetings of the Branch " Some Common Characteristics of Vergil and Tennyson. Jevons. Esq. Imlay.A. R. Wight . H. Rev.. . . The University Committee : Mrs. Cruickshank. Professor J.A.. D. B. Dobson. M.. Esq. Rev.Litt. the Lord Bishop of Durham Vice-Presidents : The Right Rev.A. H." by Dr. . H. H. Ford. the Lord Bishop of Bristol " Methods of Studying perience of the Greeks.Litt.A.A. Gee W.Litt. G. J." by " The Need for Classical Associations. . M. Treasurer Canon A. Norwood. King. .D. Miss Penny H. H. F. Skrine " The Religious Exthe Rt.. M. H. : The College.A.. Esq. Secretaries : Miss Tildesley. D. Haverfield. M. Hadow. Redland High School R. King.Litt. Vice-Presidents Professor J. M. . H. the Lord Bishop of Newcastle Dr. ." by Rev. Durham . D. M.A. Miss Iremonger H. D. R.A." by Professor Gilbert Murray. . Mus.:: : . SoLTAU. APPENDIX 190 BRISTOL BRANCH President The Right Rev. F... C. Esq. . M. B. NORTHUMBERLAND AND DURHAM BRANCH President The Right Rev.A. . Hon. Hon. J.A. . A. M. Pitman. D. . . M.A. D. D. . Professor J. H. Mayor.. Earp Homer. M. M.A. Professor F. the Lord Bishop of Bristol. Esq. .

J.A. H. Blackett. . D.A. Knowles. J.A. . B. Armstrong October 2Uh. " Aims and Methods of Modern Archaeology. W. Mann. P. Professor Slater. .A. F. W.Z. Knowles.R. M.C. . Secretary to the Cor- bridge Excavation Fund.D. H. M. At the General Meeting. President of Magdalen . made to Corbridge. M." 2^ih. Oxford Vice-Presidents W.. . Dendy.." — Prmcipal Hadow. Esq. R. E.C. . M. — March 2\st.L. Vergil. Other arrangements included : February 28th." On July 3rd an expedition was guidance of Mr. February 22nd. Bridge. on " The Hypsipyle of bridge Classical Tutors : : — Euripides. M.S. November College. — Mr.A. Rev. Basil Anderton. M.A. M. Members also had the opportunity of attending a public lecture on the new codex of the Greek Testament given by Canon Cruickshank at Durham.. Mr. D. J.S. with the Treasurer and Secretary. M. F.L. M. 1913.Litt. Talbot. Miss Stafford Smith. Herbert Warren. under the F. CARDIFF AND DISTRICT BRANCH President T.A. M. ." The following papers have been read March 15th.Sc. .. College.A.D.C. F. J. Maurice Thompson. S. H. Esq. By Canon Cruickshank. . K. WiDDOWS.A. " Libanius. Newcastle Committee MA.— Oral Latin. R. Hoyle. Ellershaw. Secretary 0. NORTHUMBERLAND AND DURHAM BRANCH Hon. D.Sc. Lewis Robertson. Professor The Rev. Bridge. Lowe.S.A. . J. 191 : Byrde. . R. Professor R. H.A. Father H.. .. M.A. Royal Grammar School. the President (The Bishop of Durham) addressed the Branch on " My Camtheir Qualities and their Influence. J. The membership of the Branch now numbers 9-i. W. W. M. Miss Hiley W. Professor D. . D. Norwood. B.— :: — : . . A. .S. Conway.

: — : : APPENDIX 192 Hon. Hon... E.. Sir John The Rev. R. M. Professor F. . LL.S.A. M. F. .D.A. The Rev. Vice-Presidents M. M. LL. Lupton. J. Pearson. M. E.L. when Warren lectured on " Classical Scholarship and Modern Dr. R. . . Mr.D. M. Mr. A. . V.A.D. on " Horace as a Student of Greek Literature. H. G. M. J. C.A.. . Leeds .P. A. — By : Professor Roberts. Price." March Uh. W.. Mr. W. Mary H.A. F. R. Colonel M. M. Parker. on " Corneille and the Classics. . LL. Barran. with special reference to his private orations.A.. field. Roberts M.A. The Right Hon. B. Mozley.D.A. B.A. M.D. Mr. Litt. Miss G.B. J. D. Birt. M. ." January 28th. W..A.M. M." February llth.A. : Miss E.A. . Secretaries Miss M. C. . A. — By Professor Norwood." March lliA. CoLONEL E. . Rhys Roberts. 1914. H. The inaugural meeting was held on January 23rd.A. on " Education as Char- acter Training in Classical Times. Vice-Chancellor of Leeds University Mr. . B.P.. Edward Wood. M. . B.. . KiTSON Clark. Barke.D.— By Miss G.A. E. D. Papers were subsequently read Poetry. J. Sadler. . Litt. S." The Branch has 65 members...D.A.. Mr. M. Saunders. LEEDS AND DISTRICT BRANCH President The Hon.. Haverfield. C. J.. BlomN. Treasurer Lang.B. Chairman of the Executive Committee Professor W.. Lieut. . Gibson. — By Dr. E. LL.P. Keeling. Whitley.A.A. Brooke. on " Cicero as a Jurist.D. Miss M. McCroben.D. J. : His Grace the Archbishop of York. Bart. The University. Mr. Litt. B.S.

Fleming.C. Dale.S. Mr.A.A. .A. I. L.A.I E.. M. The University. Justice S. Bradford Hon. J. Sir R. and the two Secretaries. C. 44.. A. D. Associate mem- bers. S. E. L. M." sity of R.. . M. Hill. G. J. M.) BOMBAY BRANCH Patron : His Excellency thb Right Hon. . Mr. K. W. M. : Miss G.D. Lamb. I. Leeds Miss C. I. Mr. The inaugural meeting of the Branch was held at the Univer- Leeds on Saturday. Zachary. M.. ..L.A. B. M. A. Secretaries : Mr. Treasurer 193 : Professor B. Walker.. M. p. S. Leeds Executive Committee Mr. W. Holme. F. There are 144 members.. E. B. . .A. B.A..A.S.A. Lord Willingdon. Miss K. Miss A.C. Toyne. (Full members. C. 25 : .A. . : CLE. E. Leeds Hmi. . W. Mr.A. M. when Professor Conway gave an address on " Horace as Poet Laureate. . Thk Hon.A. the Chairman of Committee. M.LE. Headingley..A. Woodward. Secretari/ for Reading Circles and School Lectures Mr.. S. . Dodd. Falding. Mr. March 14th. A.C.A. R.A. Connal. . R. Goodrich. M. Clapham. Miss D. B. Palmer. The Hon. C. Atkinson. F. T. Batchelor. B. The Girls' Grammar School. 100 . the Treasurer. Lord Bishop of Bombay Vice-Presidents The Hon.: : LEEDS AND DISTRICT BRANCH Hon. Mr. W. 1914. C.A. The Grammar School. Claremont Drive. Governor of Bombay President The Right Rev. Edwards. H.C.S. B.S.I. .C. together with the President.S. M. Mr. Mr. M. Dale. A.

M. : Kaeppel. Hon-.. M. S. G. M. . .. M. .C." by Rev. A. " Lucian of Samosata.C. J. : . S. Esq. M. M. Bousfield. . .B. Treasurer : Professor G. . Sir .A.A. Elphinstone Committee Bombay College. K.. J. LL. Pavri.. . M.A.A..A. Professor A.C. Bombaj : Principal A..A.D.. P. S.D. Hon.C. . T. D.M..A. . B. .. M.— ." by C. J. Treasurer Professor W. Hon.M.A. Mackie. Garvin Mrs. W. Little. Radford. X. Rev. D. His Honour Judge Backhouse. " The Case for Latin in Bombay.D. C. Prescott... LL. N. Waddy. St. Purves. .A. S. A.A. M. The number whom members of lias risen to 137.A. about one half of are associate members.A. : Edmund Barton. : Xavier's College. S.." by Rev. Butler.J. . L.A.L..A.A. J. Professor T. L. A. . " The Roman Satirists. . The Rev. . F. M.T. vSoAREZ. M.. B.B. Miss Louisa Macdonald." by Professor R... M. FiDLER. Mrs. A. Esq.A.J. M. Covernton. N.G. The Rev. S. D.. Chief Justice of New South Wales Vice-Presidents The Right Hon. Sheppard. Gaechter. M.. . M. Stiles Miss M. Sir : P.A.A. P.. . B. A. Secretary Eev. S. B. M.A. Marrs.A. Ailinger. THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION OF NEW SOUTH WALES President The W. Esq.. Secretary C.G. Vince. LL. .J. Esq. Harper.. . . P. CullexX. M.D. Miss Badham The Rev. Ailinger. The Rev. Esq. The Rev. R. Anderson. Strachan.A. B. LL.A. Esq. Esq. APPENDIX 194 Hon. The papers contributed during the year were as follows " A Home-grown Specimen of Living Latin.D. M. : Woodhouse. R. a. Hon.

. B.A. Esq. Darnley Naylor Vice-Presidents : Professor Mitchell. C. : Chief Justice of South Australia.A. L. 1912. Lee Pulling. Esq." by Mr. B.A. A. MuLTON.A. R." October 25th.D.. Garnsey. . .A. Esq. G. B." by : — — Miss Louisa Macdonald. G.. cellor of the University of and Chan- Adelaide President Professor H. B. Childe. M... Esq. A. Professor Henderson. " The Evidence for the Existence of a Feminist Movement in Athens in the Fifth Century B.. by Mr. . Esq. J. . THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA Patron Sir Samuel Way. . P. Allen. was reappointed as the representative of the Association upon the Council of the English Classical Association. M. I. The papers during the year 1912-1913 were as follows " Some Aspects of Alexandrian Poetry. J. R. Brennan. Clucas. .. F. A. Reimann. Esq. M. A. B.— : NEW SOUTH WALES Council Childe.—" The Influence of Religion in the Develop- ment of Aryan Poetry. Professor Brown. Canon Girdlestone Committee The Officers : with Miss V. lin. Esq. McMillan Membership. Mr.C..D. Schleicher. Ph. 195 . Ritchie.A. FrankAssistant Professor E. Gr.A. . : Brennan. B.. H. Holme.. B. April 18th.A. J. M.. . Todd. E. R. FitzHerbert. Esq. B. M.A. R. M. Esq. J. Piddington.. A. . 1912.A. Ph. H. C. 40 J. . 1913. November 22th. M. .A. Esq.A. Esq.

Smyth Mrs. H. Kerry Mrs. Sugden . Hardy.M. H. Williams. the inaugural lectures being delivered by the Rev.. Leeper Mrs. Littlejohn Irvine Rentoul The Rkv. Ormond College. R. Sir President . S. . . F. . Reimann. T. Langley. Stawell. Boyce Gibson LieuMr. .N. Merton Hall. Graebner. I'arkville Miss S. HbuU. . ." " Thought Modern .C. A. C. E. Treasurer Mr. G. . The membership : of the Association Printed by now stands at over 200. . M. . Strong The Rev. W. Justice Higgins The Hon.G. W. October 28th. Ld. " The Athenian Constitution " . Walton £ Vinty. Blanch Mr. G. H. South Yarra Hon. Allen. Professor Mr. H. . "The Classics as an Educational Factor" Miss V. THL CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION OF VICTORIA Patrons The Hon. H. Leeper Vice-Presidents : Mr. Sugden and Lieut. G. Secretaries- Mr. . Williams. J. Albert Miller Felix Meyer Professor Wallace Mr. E. . M. E. Professor Tucker : Dr. . England and Wales The new Egyptian Branch was opened on Tuesday. Mr. . W. E. Henry Maudsley Dr. " Satire. . LoTidon and Aylaiwi).: : APPENDIX 196 The following papers were contributed during the year :— Rev. Jethro Brown. E. " Roman Law and Education " Mr. F. The Rev. Council Mrs. a. Dr. Hon. Ingram tenant Hardy. . W. : Ingram Representative on the Council of the Classical Association of Miss F. W. " Greek Education " Miss M. McMillan. " Roman Professor W. . W. . : John Madden. W. Principal Aickin . Mr. J.

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